Landlocked Developing Countries

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					                      Landlocked
                      Developing
                        Countries
                       Facts and Figures

                           2006

UNITED NATIONS
CONFERENCE ON TRADE
AND DEVELOPMENT            UNITED NATIONS
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT




                  Landlocked
                  Developing
                    Countries
                        Facts and Figures

                                     2006

                     NATIONS UNIES


              New York and Geneva, 2006
                                                                             Note


     Landlocked Developing Countries: Facts and Figures was prepared under the
auspices of the Special Programme for Least Developed, Landlocked and Island
Developing Countries in collaboration with the Central Statistics and Information
Retrieval Branch of UNCTAD’s Divivsion on Globalization and Development
Strategies.

    Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined
with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations
document.

General disclaimer


     The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the
Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory,
city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries.

     Where the designation “country or area” appears, it covers countries, territories,
cities and areas. The designations “developed” and “developing” are intended for
statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage
reached by a particular country or area in the development process.

    Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but
acknowledgement is requested, together with a reference to the document number.
A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to the
UNCTD secretariat.

                              UNCTAD/LDC/2006/2




   ii
                                                   Statistical notes


The following data and statistical sources were used:



General Information


    – UNCTAD (2005). UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2005.



Economic & Social Development


    – UNCTAD (2005). UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2005.
    – UNDP (2005). Human Development Report 2005.



External Trade


    – UNCTAD (2005). UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2005.



Investments External Debt & Aid


    – UNCTAD (2005). UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2005.
    – World Bank (2005). World Development Indicators 2005.



Infrastructure


    – World Bank (2005). World Development Indicators 2005.




                                                               iii
                                                             Introduction


    Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) are widely dispersed around the
globe: 15 are located in Africa, 12 in Asia, 2 in Latin America and 2 in Central and
Eastern Europe. Despite their location on four different continents, all 31 LLDCs
share common problems of geographical remoteness and dependence on trade and
transport systems in neighbouring and coastal countries. The location of LLDCs in
the interior of continents requires their export and import goods to travel hundreds,
if not thousands of kilometers to and from the closest maritime ports. However,
transit dependence increases transactions costs and reduces competitiveness in
world market. This discourages investors and diminishes the capacity of LLDCs’ to
reap benefits from the international division of labour.

    Not surprisingly, most landlocked developing countries are very poor. Most of
them are far from reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to
primary education, infant mortality, access to safe water and the primary goal of
poverty eradication. In fact, several landlocked developing countries are even moving
further away from reaching these objectives.

    For landlocked developing countries, promoting efficient transit systems in
order to lower trade transaction and transport costs, in particular, is an important
objective. However, the building of supply capacities for goods and services that
are not sensitive to distance and a stronger regional trade expansion are also major
prerequisites for a more beneficial integration of these countries into the international
trading system.

    The international community has focused on the specific development constraints
of LLDCs for many decades. The United Nations Millennium Declaration urged their
development partners to increase financial and technical assistance to LLDCs to
help them overcome the impediments of geography. This call was echoed at major
United Nations conferences in Brussels, Monterrey, Johannesburg and, particularly
in Almaty, which was solely dedicated to the problems of landlocked and transit
developing countries.

                                                                                    v
    The 2003 Almaty International Ministerial Conference of Landlocked and
Transit Developing Countries and Donor Countries and International Financial
and Development Institutions on Transit Transport Cooperation helped forge a
global partnership to tackle the economic marginalization of LLDCs. UNCTAD is
fully committed to shoulder its obligations for the implementation of the Almaty
Programme of Action, including its mid-term review process.
    This publication presents key economic, social and trade information on all 31
LLDCs. It helps to understand the development challenge faced by these countries
and underlines the need for international assistance to them.




  vi
                                              Table of contents


Statistical notes                                                               iii

Introduction                                                                     v

Facts and figures for individual landlocked
developing countries                                                            1

     Afghanistan                                                                2
     Armenia                                                                    4
     Azerbaijan                                                                 6
     Bhutan                                                                     8
     Bolivia                                                                   10
     Botswana                                                                  12
     Burkina Faso                                                              14
     Burundi                                                                   16
     Central African Republic                                                  18
     Chad                                                                      20
     Ethiopia                                                                  22
     Kazakhstan                                                                24
     Kyrgyzstan                                                                26
     Lao, PDR                                                                  28
     Lesotho                                                                   30
     Macedonia, TFYR of                                                        32
     Malawi                                                                    34
     Mali                                                                      36
     Moldova, Republic of                                                      38
     Mongolia                                                                  40
     Nepal                                                                     42
     Niger                                                                     44
     Paraguay                                                                  46
     Rwanda                                                                    48
     Swaziland                                                                 50
     Tajikistan                                                                52
     Turkmenistan                                                              54
     Uganda                                                                    56
     Uzbekistan                                                                58
     Zambia                                                                    60
     Zimbabwe                                                                  62


Map: Geographical distribution of the 31 landlocked developing countries   64-65


                                                                            1
                                                          AFGHANISTAN
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                       28.6
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                     24.3
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                          652
  Population density (persons per km2):                              44

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                  5,252
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                             184
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                         -4.7
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                               48.1
      Industry                                                      19.1
      Services                                                      30.6
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                                  ..
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                            46
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:              147
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                    ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                         ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                       ..

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:              105
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                             2.0
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:            1,240
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                           23.6

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                          1
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                                0.0
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                            ..
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                                ..
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                        ..
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                            ..
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                         ..

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                  1,960
  Total road network (km):                                        21,000
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                32.2
    Paved roads (% of total):                                       13.3
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                 None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                                ..

  2
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                             Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                             Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                        (million US dollars)
6000
                                                                                        (million US dollars)
6000                                                                             1400
5000                                                                             1400
                                                                                 1200
5000
                                                                                 1200
4000                                                                             1000
4000                                                                             1000
                                                                                  800
3000
                                                                                  800
3000                                                                              600
2000
                                                                                  600
                                                                                  400
2000
1000                                                                              400
                                                                                  200
1000
                                                                                  200
   0                                                                                0
         1995   1996   1997    1998   1999    2000   2001   2002   2003   2004          1995   1996   1997     1998   1999   2000   2001     2002     2003   2004
   0                                                                                0
         1995   1996   1997    1998   1999    2000   2001   2002   2003   2004          1995   1996   1997     1998   1999   2000   2001     2002     2003   2004
          GDP (million US dollars)            GDP per capita (US dollars)                                       Exports             Imports
          GDP (million US dollars)            GDP per capita (US dollars)                                       Exports             Imports



          Main export products (%)                                                               Main import products (%)
          Main export products (%)                                                               Main import products (%)




                                                              Data are not available
                                                              Data are not available




   All food items             Agricultural raw materials           Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                Unallocated



           Main export partners (%)                                                               Main import partners (%)
           Main export partners (%)                                                               Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                                                           Pakistan
                                Others 12,6                                                                                                  27,9
            Russian                                                                                                                        Pakistan
                                                                                                 Others 33,3
         Federation 2,8         Others 12,6                                                                                                  27,9
            Russian
                                                                                                 Others 33,3
         Federation 2,8
                                                       EU 28,4
                                                       EU 28,4




                                                                                                                                                 EU 14,6
       Pakistan 13,6
                                                                                                                                                 EU 14,6
       Pakistan 13,6                                                                           Japan 7,1
                 India 15,2                   USA 27,4                                         Japan 7,1                            Korea 8,5
                 India 15,2                   USA 27,4
                                                                                                             India 8,5              Korea 8,5

                                                                                                             India 8,5



                                                                                                                                                             3
                                                          ARMENIA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                    3.0
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                 64.1
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                       30
  Population density (persons per km2):                         102

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                              3,615
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                       1,195
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                      8.1
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                           21.4
      Industry                                                  35.4
      Services                                                  35.1
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                            83
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                        72
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:           30
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                              1.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                   9.4
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                50.9

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:          705
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                       19.5
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:        1,318
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                       36.5

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                    235
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                             6.5
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                    1,127
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                          368
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                  510
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      167
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                    81

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                693
  Total road network (km):                                     8,431
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                             281
    Paved roads (% of total):                                   96.8
  Railway lines, total route (km):                               711
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                           24

  4
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                (million US dollars)
4000

3500   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                              1400    Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                (million US dollars)
3000                                                                    1200
4000
2500                                                                    1000
3500                                                                    1400

2000                                                                     800
3000                                                                    1200

1500                                                                     600
2500                                                                    1000

1000                                                                     400
2000                                                                     800

 500                                                                     200
1500                                                                     600

   0                                                                       0
1000                                                                     400
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                        1995   1996    1997   1998   1999   2000   2001    2002     2003     2004

500                                                                      200
         GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports             Imports
  0                                                                         0
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                        1995   1996    1997   1998   1999   2000   2001    2002     2003     2004


         Main export products (%) (US dollars)
         GDP (million US dollars) GDP per capita                                         Main          import products (%)
                                                                                                         Exports   Imports


                                   11,4                                                          5,5
                    6,1                                                                                                     21,3
          Main export products (%)
                             1,5                                                         Main import products (%)
                                               2,8
                                   11,4                                                          5,5
                    6,1                                                                                                     21,3          1,0
                                              1,5

                                               2,8
                                                                                                                                          1,0
                                                                                                                                            15,9

                                                                                         55,6
          59,4
                                                18,7
                                                                                                                                   0,7      15,9

                                                                                         55,6
          59,4
                                                18,7
  All food items          Agricultural raw materials       Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals                           0,7
                                                                                                          Manufactured goods               Unallocated
          Main export partners (%)                                                        Main import partners (%)

                                Others 13,9
          Main export partners (%)
          Switzerland                                                                     Main import partners (%)
                                                                                        Others 26,6
                 4,8                                                                                                                 EU 33,1


                                Others 13,9            EU 38,5
   USA 8,3
        Switzerland
                                                                                        Others 26,6                                  EU 33,1
                 4,8

                                                       EU 38,5                      Iran 5,5
   USA 8,3


                                                                                                                                          Russian
                                                                                    Iran 5,5                                             Federation
        Russian
       Federation                                                                                                                           15,9
                                                                                          USA 9,2
          13,8
                               Israel 20,8                                                                    Israel 9,7                  Russian
        Russian                                                                                                                          Federation
       Federation                                                                                                                           15,9
                                                                                          USA 9,2
          13,8
                               Israel 20,8                                                                    Israel 9,7



                                                                                                                                                    5
                                                          AZERBAIJAN 
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                       8.4
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                    49.9
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                          87
  Population density (persons per km2):                             96

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                 8,281
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                            991
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                         9.0
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                              13.1
      Industry                                                     49.9
      Services                                                     30.5
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                              101
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                           67
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:              75
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                 1.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                      1.3
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                   49.0

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:           3,120
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                          37.7
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:           3,516
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                          42.5

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                     4,769
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              57.6
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                       1,680
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                             201
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                     821
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                          98
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                       36

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                   870
  Total road network (km):                                       28,030
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                322
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      92.4
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                2,122
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                              24

  6
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                 (million US dollars)
9000

8000                                                                    4000

7000    GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                             3500     Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
6000
                                                                                 (million US dollars)
                                                                        3000
9000
5000                                                                    2500
8000                                                                    4000
4000                                                                    2000
7000                                                                    3500
3000                                                                    1500
6000                                                                    3000
2000                                                                    1000
5000                                                                    2500
1000                                                                     500
4000                                                                    2000
   0                                                                       0
3000     1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004              1500      1995     1996   1997    1998    1999   2000    2001   2002    2003   2004

2000                                                                    1000
          GDP (million US dollars)        GDP per capita (US dollars)                                         Exports             Imports
1000                                                                     500

   0                                                                         0
             Main export products (%)
         1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                        1995                                  (%)
                                                                                             Main import products2002 2003
                                                                                           19961997 1998 1999 2000 2001                                2004


          GDP (million US dollars)        GDP per capita (US dollars)                                         Exports             Imports
                                                                                                                  0,1           11,7
                          0,5             4,3
               9,1
                                                1,1                                                                                     0,9
       2,8
             Main export products (%)                                                        Main import products (%)
                                                                                                                                              11,5

                                                                                                                  0,1           11,7
                               0,5        4,3
                    9,1
                                                1,1                                                                                     0,9 2,3
       2,8                                                                                                                                    11,5


                                                                                              73,6                                             2,3
                                       82,2



  All food items            Agricultural raw materials      Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals               Manufactured goods              Unallocated
             Main export partners (%)                                                     73,6
                                                                                              Main import partners (%)
                                       82,2

                      Tajikistan 3,0    Others 9,7
                                                                                            Others 25,3
   Russian                                                                                                                               EU 34,0
             Main export partners (%)
Federation 4,5                                                                                Main import partners (%)
  Georgia 4,6
                      Tajikistan 3,0    Others 9,7
                                                                                            Others 25,3
   Russian                                                                                                                               EU 34,0
Federation 4,5


    Turkey 6,0
  Georgia 4,6                                                                            Ukraine 5,4
                                                  EU 72,3                                                                                Russian
                                                                                                                                        Federation
                                                                                                                                           15,5
                                                                                                  China 7,8
                                                                                                                 Turkey 12,0
       Turkey 6,0                                                                        Ukraine 5,4
                                                  EU 72,3                                                                                Russian
                                                                                                                                        Federation
                                                                                                                                           15,5
                                                                                                  China 7,8
                                                                                                                 Turkey 12,0


                                                                                                                                                       
                                                          BHUTAN
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                  2.1
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                9.1
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                     47
  Population density (persons per km2):                        45

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                             778
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                      368
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                   6.7
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                         33.2
      Industry                                                39.5
      Services                                                28.8
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                         134
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                      63
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:         53
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                              ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                   ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:               0.0

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:       175
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                     22.5
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:       275
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                     35.3

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                    1
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                          0,1
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                   422
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                       201
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:               367
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                   175
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                 88

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                             775
  Total road network (km):                                      ..
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                            ..
    Paved roads (% of total):                                   ..
  Railway lines, total route (km):                              ..
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                         ..

  8
      GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                               Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                        (million US dollars)
900

800                                                               300

700
                                                                  250
600
                                                                  200
500

400                                                               150

300
                                                                  100
200
                                                                   50
100

 0                                                                  0
      1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                  1995   1996   1997    1998   1999   2000   2001    2002    2003   2004


       GDP (million US dollars)     GDP per capita (US dollars)                                 Exports             Imports



       Main export products (%)                                                  Main import products (%)

                     0,0          13,3                                                         0,1                   17,9

                                         1,7
                                                                                                                                   1,3

       39,9

                                                                                                                                    10,4


                                                                                                                                   0,8

                                                                                   69,6
                                         41,9
              3,1


  All food items     Agricultural raw materials      Energy & Fuels        Ores & metals          Manufactured goods               Unallocated



       Main export partners (%)                                                   Main import partners (%)




                                                  Data are not available




                                                                                                                                           9
                                                          BOLIVIA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                     9.0
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                 64.4
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                     1,099
  Population density (persons per km2):                             8

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                              8,421
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                         935
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                      2.8
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                           13.0
      Industry                                                  26.2
      Services                                                  51.7
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                           113
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                        64
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:           52
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                             13.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                   5.2
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                62.7

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:        2,129
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                       25.3
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:        1,842
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                       21.9

Investments. External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                    117
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                             1.4
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                    5,684
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                          645
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                1,097
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      125
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                   105

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                414
  Total road network (km):                                    60,282
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                              55
    Paved roads (% of total):                                     6.6
  Railway lines, total route (km):                             3,698
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                             3

 10
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                         Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                         Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                   (million US dollars)
9000
                                                                                   (million US dollars)
9000
8000                                                                     2500

8000
7000                                                                     2500
                                                                         2000
7000
6000
                                                                         2000
6000
5000                                                                     1500

5000
4000                                                                     1500

4000                                                                     1000
3000
                                                                         1000
3000
2000
                                                                          500
2000
1000
                                                                          500
1000
   0                                                                           0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                            1995   1996   1997     1998   1999   2000   2001   2002    2003      2004
  0                                                                            0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)                       1995   1996   1997     1998 1999     2000   2001 2002      2003      2004
        GDP (million US dollars) GDP per 2002 2003 2004                                                      Exports             Imports

        GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                        Exports             Imports


        Main export products (%)                                                             Main import products (%)
        Main export products (%)                                                             Main import products (%)
                           1,6                                                                               0,9           11,5
             13,4          1,6               26,9                                                                                      1,8
                                                                                                             0,9           11,5
             13,4                            26,9                                                                                      1,8
                                                                                                                                             7,2
                                                                                                                                             7,2
                                                                                                                                                   0,7
   18,6                                                                                                                                            0,7
   18,6

                                                 1,8
                                                 1,8
                                                                                                  78,0
                             37,6                                                                 78,0

  All food items             37,6
                       Agricultural raw materials             Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals            Manufactured goods              Unallocated




          Main export partners (%)                                                            Main import partners (%)
          Main export partners (%)                                                            Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                                                  Brazil 25,9
                           Others 18,9
                                                                                           Others 24,0
                                                                                                                                  Brazil 25,9
                           Others 18,9
                                                                                           Others 24,0
        EU 7,8                                      Brazil 35,7

        EU 7,8                                      Brazil 35,7
                                                                                        EU 9,5

                                                                                        EU 9,5
                                                                                                                                          Argentina
                                                                                                                                             17,4
          USA 12,0                           Venezuela                                                                                    Argentina
                                                13,3                                                                                         17,4
          USA 12,0
                 Colombia 12,4               Venezuela                                                                     USA 13,1
                                                                                              Chile 10,1
                                                13,3
                 Colombia 12,4                                                                Chile 10,1                   USA 13,1




                                                                                                                                                    11
                                                          BOTSWANA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                     1.8
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                  52.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                       582
  Population density (persons per km2):                             3

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                               8,441
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                        4,771
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                       5.9
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                             2.4
      Industry                                                   47.0
      Services                                                   46.2
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                            131
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                         35
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:            49
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                 ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                   15.8
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                    ..

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:         2,778
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                        32.9
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:         2,300
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                        27.2

Investments. External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                      47
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              0.6
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                       514
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           288
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                 5,340
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                     2,992
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                     17

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 905
  Total road network (km):                                     10,217
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                               18
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      55
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                888
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                             2

 12
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                          (million US dollars)
9000

8000                                                              3000

7000
                                                                  2500
6000
                                                                  2000
5000

4000                                                              1500

3000
                                                                  1000
2000
                                                                   500
1000

  0                                                                   0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                   1995   1996   1997    1998   1999   2000   2001   2002    2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)    GDP per capita (US dollars)                                    Exports             Imports



        Main export products (%)                                                   Main import products (%)

                       3,1    0,5                                                                   5,2
                                     0,1                                                                              13,9
              0,3

                                           5,5                                                                               0,8
                                                                                                                               6,7

                                                                                                                                    2,0




                                                                                         71,4
                    90,6

  All food items      Agricultural raw materials     Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals           Manufactured goods              Unallocated


        Main export partners (%)                                                    Main import partners (%)




                                                   Data are not available




                                                                                                                                          13
                                                         BURKINA FASO
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                       12.8
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                     18.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                          274
  Population density (persons per km2):                              47

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                  4,467
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                             348
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                          5.3
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                               33.8
      Industry                                                      17.3
      Services                                                      45.7
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                               175
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                            48
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:              120
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                 87.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                         ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                    45.3

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:              445
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                           10.0
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:            1,070
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                           24.0

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                         35
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                                 0.8
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                        1,844
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                              142
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                      435
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           33
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                        37

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                  1,154
  Total road network (km):                                        12,506
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                  46
    Paved roads (% of total):                                         16
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                   622
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                                2

 14
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                (million US dollars)
5000
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
4500                                                                   1200     (million US dollars)
5000
4000
4500                                                                   1000
3500                                                                   1200
4000
3000                                                                    800
                                                                       1000
3500
2500
3000                                                                    600
2000                                                                    800
2500
1500                                                                    400
                                                                        600
2000
1000
                                                                        200
1500                                                                    400
 500
1000
   0                                                                      0
                                                                        200
500    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                         1995     1996      1997   1998   1999   2000   2001    2002    2003     2004

  0     GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)        0                               Exports             Imports
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                         1995     1996      1997   1998   1999   2000   2001    2002    2003     2004


        GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                        Exports             Imports

         Main export products (%)                                                           Main import products (%)

         Main export products (%)
                  0,7                                                                       Main import products (%)
                                                                                                      0,0
               18,3                        19,4                                                                                        21,3
                            0,7                                                                                    0,0
               18,3                        19,4                                                                                        21,3
         0,1
                                                                                                                                                0,7
       0,0
         0,1
                                                                                                                                                0,7
       0,0
                                                                                          60,2

                                                                                                                                                  16,9
                                                                                          60,2

                                                                                                                                  0,9             16,9
                              61,5
                                                                                                                                  0,9
  All food items         Agricultural raw materials
                              61,5                         Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals               Manufactured goods               Unallocated




         Main export partners (%)                                                             Main import partners (%)

         Main export partners (%)                                                             Main import partners (%)
                                            EU 19,4                                        Others 21,8
       Others 41,9                                                                                                                      EU 48,4

                                            EU 19,4                                        Others
                                                                                        India 2,8 21,8
       Others 41,9                                                                                                                      EU 48,4

                                                                                        India 2,8
                                                      Singapore
                                                         13,2

                                                      Singapore
                                                         13,2
                                                                                     Senegal 3,8
                                                      China 12,0

             Ghana 5,4                                                                                                    Côte d'Ivoire
                                                                                     Senegal 3,8
                                                      China 12,0                                      Togo 8,9                14,4
                          Thailand 8,0
             Ghana 5,4                                                                                                    Côte d'Ivoire
                                                                                                      Togo 8,9                14,4
                          Thailand 8,0


                                                                                                                                                      15
                                                          BURUNDI
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                    7.3
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                 10.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                       28
  Population density (persons per km2):                         262

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                               677
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                         93
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                     1.0
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                           49.0
      Industry                                                  19.0
      Services                                                  32.0
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                           169
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                        44
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:          104
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                             41.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                  14.0
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                36.4

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:          47
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                        6.9
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:         176
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                       26.0

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                       3
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                             0.4
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                    1,310
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                          192
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                   67
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                       10
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                    31

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                              1,254
  Total road network (km):                                         ..
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                               ..
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      ..
  Railway lines, total route (km):                             None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                            ..

 16
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                    (million US dollars)
1200
                                                                                    (million US dollars)
1200                                                                          250
1000
                                                                              250
1000                                                                          200
 800
                                                                              200
800
                                                                              150
600
                                                                              150
600
400                                                                           100

400                                                                           100
200                                                                            50

200                                                                            50
  0                                                                             0
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                           1995   1996   1997   1998   1999    2000    2001     2002    2003   2004
  0                                                                             0
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001capita (US dollars)                       1995   1996   1997   1998 1999      2000    2001 2002        2003   2004
         GDP (million US dollars) GDP per 2002 2003 2004                                                  Exports               Imports

        GDP (million US dollars)            GDP per capita (US dollars)                                    Exports              Imports


         Main export products (%)                                                             Main import products (%)
         Main export products (%)                                                             Main import products (%)
                                                                                                                0,0        9,0
                                                                                                                                       1,1
                                             0,6       0,7                                                      0,0        9,0
                                                                                                                                       1,1
         44,1                                0,6       0,7
                                                              0,0                                                                               16,5
         44,1
                                                              0,0                                                                               16,5
                                                              2,5
                                                              2,5                                                                                1,1
                                                       52,2                                                                                      1,1
                                                       52,2                                   72,2
                                                                                              72,2



  All food items         Agricultural raw materials                Energy & Fuels     Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                Unallocated




         Main export partners (%)                                                              Main import partners (%)
         Main export partners (%)                                                              Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                              EU 16,8
                 Others 35,9
                                                     Switzerland                                                               EU 16,8
                 Others 35,9
                                                         32,0
                                                     Switzerland
                                                                                                                                             Kenya 14,4
                                                         32,0
                                                                                                                                             Kenya 14,4




                                                                                                                                         Tanzania
       USA 1,6                                                                                                                              11,7
                                                                                           Others 46,0                                   Tanzania
       USA 1,6                                                                                                                              11,7
                                                   EU 22,8                                 Others 46,0
          Uganda 2,0                                                                                                             Uganda 5,9
                               Rwanda 5,7                                                                  Zambia 5,2
          Uganda 2,0                               EU 22,8                                                                       Uganda 5,9
                               Rwanda 5,7                                                                  Zambia 5,2



                                                                                                                                                       1
                            cENTRAL AFRIcAN REpUBLIc
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                4.0
    Urban population (%), 2004:                             43.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                  623
  Population density (persons per km2):                        6

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                          1,313
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                     330
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                  1.1
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                       59.3
      Industry                                              16.6
      Services                                              24.6
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                       171
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                    39
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:       97
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                         51.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                 ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:               ..

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:     151
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                   11.5
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:     120
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                    9.1

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                 -13
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                        -1.0
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                1,328
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      344
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:              137
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                    35
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                 13

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                          1,518
  Total road network (km):                                23,810
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                          38
    Paved roads (% of total):                                 2.7
  Railway lines, total route (km):                         None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                         ..

 18
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                    Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                              (million US dollars)
1400   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                    Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                              (million US dollars)
                                                                        200
1200
1400
                                                                        180
1000                                                                    200
1200                                                                    160
                                                                        180
                                                                        140
 800
1000                                                                    160
                                                                        120
                                                                        140
600                                                                     100
800
                                                                        120
                                                                         80
400
600                                                                     100
                                                                         60
                                                                         80
                                                                         40
200
400                                                                      60
                                                                         20
                                                                         40
  0
200                                                                       0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                 20   1995   1996     1997     1998   1999   2000    2001     2002   2003   2004

  0                                                                       0
        GDP (million US dollars)          GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports              Imports
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                      1995   1996     1997     1998   1999   2000    2001     2002   2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)          GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports              Imports
         Main export products (%)                                                       Main import products (%)
         Main export products (%)                                                       Main import products (%)
                   0,0              1,5                                                                       0,0
                                            25,2                                                                                   23,4
                   0,0              1,5                                                                       0,0
                                            25,2                                                                                   23,4
       37,1

       37,1                                                                                                                                  5,4

                                                                                     55,9                                                    5,4

                                                    0,1
                                                                                     55,9
                                                                                                                                          11,0
                                                    0,1
                                                                                                                             4,2          11,0
                             36,1
                                                                                                                      4,2
  All food items      Agricultural raw materials
                          36,1                             Energy & Fuels       Ores & metals             Manufactured goods                 Unallocated



         Main export partners (%)                                                        Main import partners (%)
              export
         Main China 1,7 partners (%)                                                     Main import partners (%)
  Turkey 1,7                        Others 9,2

                 China 1,7          Others 9,2
 DR of Congo
  Turkey 1,7                                                                         Others 42,0
                                                                                                                                        EU 37,3
     3,0
 DR of Congo                                                                         Others 42,0
                                                                                                                                        EU 37,3
     3,0




Indonesia 6,7                                                                                                                          Cameroon
                                                                                                                                          9,4
                                                                                            Chad 2,2
Indonesia 6,7                                    EU 77,6                                                                               Cameroon
                                                                                                                            USA 5,4
                                                                                                                                          9,4
                                                                                            Chad 2,2 Congo 3,7
                                                 EU 77,6
                                                                                                                            USA 5,4
                                                                                                        Congo 3,7


                                                                                                                                                   19
                                                          cHAD
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                  9.4
    Urban population (%), 2004:                              25.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                  1,284
  Population density (persons per km2):                          7

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                           4,028
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                      426
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                   6.4
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                        29.9
      Industry                                               25.3
      Services                                               40.6
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                        173
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                     44
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:       115
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                          74.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                  ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:             64.0

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:     1,548
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                    38.4
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:     1,180
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                    29.3

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                 478
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                        11.9
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                 1,499
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                       174
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:               192
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                    22
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                 29

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                           1,669
  Total road network (km):                                 33,400
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                           26
    Paved roads (% of total):                                  0.8
  Railway lines, total route (km):                          None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                          ..

 20
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                  Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                            (million US dollars)
4500
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                  Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
4000                                                                1800    (million US dollars)
4500
3500                                                                1600
4000                                                                1800
                                                                    1400
3000
3500                                                                1600
                                                                    1200
2500
                                                                    1400
                                                                    1000
3000
2000
                                                                    1200
                                                                     800
2500
1500                                                                1000
                                                                     600
2000
1000                                                                 800
                                                                     400
1500
 500                                                                 600
                                                                     200
1000                                                                 400
   0                                                                   0
 500   1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004             200     1995   1996    1997   1998   1999     2000   2001   2002    2003   2004

  0                                                                     0                           Exports               Imports
        GDP (million US dollars)      GDP per capita (US dollars)
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                     1995   1996    1997   1998   1999     2000   2001   2002    2003   2004


        GDP and US dollars)  GDP per 1995 - 2004
       GDP (million GDP per capita,capita (US dollars)                                  Trade,
                                                                            Merchandise Exports                     1995 - 2004
                                                                                                                       Imports
        Main export products (%)                                                      Main import
                                                                            (million US dollars)              products (%)
4500

4000     Main export products (%)                                   1800             Main import products (%)
3500                                                                1600

                                                                    1400
3000
                                                                    1200
2500

2000                                                              available
                                                     Data are not1000
                                                                     800
1500
                                                     Data are not available
                                                                  600
1000                                                                 400

500                                                                  200

  0                                                                     0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                     1995   1996    1997   1998   1999     2000   2001   2002    2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)      GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports               Imports

  All food items        Agricultural raw materials     Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                Unallocated

         Main export products (%)                                                    Main import products (%)
         Main export partners (%)                                                      Main import partners (%)

         Main export partners (%)
                      Others; 11,8                                                     Main import partners (%)
                                                                                             Others; 11,8

           India; 3,0                                                                  Ukraine; 2,2
                               Others; 11,8                                                         Others; 11,8
                                                                                    Saudi
   CAR; 3,3
         India; 3,0                                  Data are not available Ukraine; 2,2
                                                                         Arabia; 3,3
                                                                                                                                        EU; 48,1
                                                                                   Saudi
   CAR; 3,3                                                                      Arabia; 3,3
                                                                                                                                        EU; 48,1
                                                 EU; 52,7

 Morocco; 5,1
                                                 EU; 52,7
                                                                                     Cameroon;
                                                                                       14,3
 Morocco; 5,1
           USA; 24,1
                                                                                     Cameroon;      USA; 20,2
                                                                                       14,3
           USA; 24,1
                                                                                                    USA; 20,2



         Main export partners (%)                                                      Main import partners (%) 21

                               Others; 11,8                                                         Others; 11,8
                                                          ETHIOpIA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                    75.6
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                  16.2
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                      1,104
  Population density (persons per km2):                            68

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                               8,038
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                          106
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                       4.2
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                            43.0
      Industry                                                   11.0
      Services                                                   45.7
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                            170
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                         48
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:            97
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                 ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                      ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                 44.2

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:           593
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                          7.4
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:         3,750
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                        46.7

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                     545
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              6.8
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                     7,151
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           101
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                   956
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                        14
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                     22

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 781
  Total road network (km):                                     33,297
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                               30
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      12
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                681
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                             1

 22
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                       Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                 (million US dollars)
9000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                       Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
8000                                                                   4000      (million US dollars)
9000
7000                                                                   3500
8000                                                                   4000
6000                                                                   3000
7000                                                                   3500
5000                                                                   2500
6000                                                                   3000
4000                                                                   2000
5000                                                                   2500
3000                                                                   1500
4000                                                                   2000
2000                                                                   1000
3000                                                                   1500
1000                                                                    500
2000                                                                   1000
   0                                                                      0
1000    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004               500       1995   1996     1997   1998    1999   2000   2001    2002    2003   2004

  0                                                                          0                              Exports            Imports
         GDP (million US dollars)      GDP per capita (US dollars)
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                         1995   1996     1997   1998    1999   2000   2001    2002    2003   2004


         GDP (million US dollars)      GDP per capita (US dollars)                                          Exports            Imports
          Main export products (%)                                                         Main import products (%)

          Main
         0,7       export products (%)                                                     Main import products (%)
                                                                                                   0,3
                        11,4        0,1
                                                                                                                                      21,5
         0,7            11,4        0,1                                                                         0,3
         0,0                                                                                                                          21,5

         0,0                                                                                                                                  0,7

                                                                                                                                              0,7
                                                                                                                                               12,0
       25,9
                                                                                          64,0
                                                                                                                                           12,0
       25,9                                     62,0                                                                                    1,5
                                                                                          64,0

                                                62,0                                                                                    1,5


  All food items          Agricultural raw materials        Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals             Manufactured goods               Unallocated




          Main export partners (%)                                                           Main import partners (%)

          Main export partners (%)                                                           Main import partners (%)
                                                                                             Others 28,3           Saudi
          Others 35,9                                 EU 32,2                                                                         Arabia 23,4

                                                                                             Others 28,3                                 Saudi
          Others 35,9                                 EU 32,2                                                                         Arabia 23,4




                                                                                                                                         EU 21,4
                                                Djibouti 13,3                            India 3,3

         USA 5,0
                                                                                                                                         EU 21,4
                                                Djibouti 13,3                                  3,3
                                                                                         India China 6,4
                                       Saudi Arabia
         USA 5,0 Japan 6,7                                                                                      USA 17,2
                                           6,9
                                                                                                China 6,4
                   Japan 6,7           Saudi Arabia                                                             USA 17,2
                                           6,9


                                                                                                                                                    23
                                                          KAZAKHSTAN
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                      14.8
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                    55.9
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                        2,725
  Population density (persons per km2):                               5

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                40,743
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                          2,746
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                         6.3
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                               7.9
      Industry                                                     35.1
      Services                                                     51.7
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                               80
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                           63
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:              61
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                   ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                      2.6
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                   34.6

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:          20,093
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                          49.3
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:          12,781
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                          31.4

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                     4,269
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              10.5
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                      22,835
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           1,480
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                   4,962
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                         322
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                       18

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 3,750
  Total road network (km):                                       82,980
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                 31
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      93.9
  Railway lines, total route (km):                               13,597
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                               5

 24
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                   Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                              (million US dollars)
45000
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                   Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
40000                                                                25000    (million US dollars)
45000
35000
40000                                                                20000
                                                                     25000
30000
35000
25000                                                                15000
                                                                     20000
30000
20000
25000                                                                10000
                                                                     15000
15000
20000
10000
                                                                      5000
                                                                     10000
15000
 5000
10000
    0                                                                   0
                                                                     5000
5000    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                     1995     1996    1997    1998     1999   2000   2001   2002    2003   2004


   0     GDP (million US dollars)      GDP per capita (US dollars)        0                               Exports              Imports
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                     1995     1996    1997    1998     1999   2000   2001   2002    2003   2004


         GDP (million US dollars)      GDP per capita (US dollars)                                        Exports              Imports
         Main export products (%)                                                        Main import products (%)

         Main export products (%)                                                        Main import products (%)
                                                                                                0,1    8,0
                         1,1     6,0                                                                                           0,9
           16,4
                                          1,3
                                                                                                          0,1          8,0            11,1
                         1,1     6,0                                                                                           0,9
           16,4
                                          1,3
                                                                                                                                      11,1
                                                                                                                                         1,6


                                                                                                                                            1,6
        14,1


        14,1
                                          61,2                                                 78,3

                                          61,2                                                 78,3
  All food items         Agricultural raw materials      Energy & Fuels        Ores & metals              Manufactured goods                Unallocated




          Main export partners (%)                                                        Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                      Others 17,5
                  export partners (%)
          Main 23,0
           Others               EU 19,0
                                                                                          Main import partners (%)
                                                                                       Ukraine 3,9
                                                                                                      Others 17,5                     Russian
                                                                                                                                     Federation
           Others 23,0                    EU 19,0
                                                                                       Ukraine 3,9                                      39,0
                                                                                                                                      Russian
                                                                                                                                     Federation
                                                                                                                                        39,0
                                                    Bermuda 17,0
                                                                                     USA 5,6

                                                    Bermuda 17,0
    China 12,8                                                                       USA 5,6
                                            Russian                                     China 6,2
                                           Federation
                                              15,2                                                              EU 27,8
    China 12,8 Switzerland
                   13,0                     Russian                                     China 6,2
                                           Federation
                  Switzerland                 15,2                                                              EU 27,8
                      13,0


                                                                                                                                                  25
                                                          KYRGYZSTAN
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                       5.2
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                    33.7
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                         200
  Population density (persons per km2):                             26

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                 2,163
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                            416
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                         4.7
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                              35.2
      Industry                                                     20.9
      Services                                                     34.9
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                              109
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                           67
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:              54
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                 1.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                        ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                   47.6

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:            719
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                          33.2
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:            941
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                          43.5

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                        77
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                                3.6
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                       2,021
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                             393
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                     399
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                          78
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                       39

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 3,600
  Total road network (km):                                       18,500
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                 93
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      91.1
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                  417
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                               2

 26
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                       Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                 (million US dollars)
2500   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                       Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                 (million US dollars)
2500                                                                   1000
2000                                                                    900
                                                                       1000
                                                                        800
2000                                                                    900
1500                                                                    700
                                                                        800
                                                                        600
1500                                                                    700
                                                                        500
1000                                                                    600
                                                                        400
                                                                        500
1000                                                                    300
 500                                                                    400
                                                                        200
                                                                        300
                                                                        100
500                                                                     200
  0                                                                       0
                                                                        100       1995   1996   1997    1998    1999     2000   2001    2002    2003   2004
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
  0                                                                          0
        GDP (million US dollars)
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)
                                 GDP per 2002 2003 2004                           1995   1996   1997      Exports
                                                                                                        1998 1999        2000    Imports
                                                                                                                                2001 2002       2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)       GDP per capita (US dollars)                                       Exports                 Imports

          Main export products (%)                                                         Main import products (%)
          Main export products (%)
                    8,8
                                                                                           Main import products (%)
                                                                                                           12,8
                                      9,6                                                                0,2                                   1,7
                            8,8                                                                                                 12,8
                                      9,6      11,6                                                      0,2                                   1,7
                                               11,6
   45,3

   45,3
                                                                                         57,2                                                  25,3

                                                                                         57,2                                                  25,3


                                               3,1                                                                                     2,9

                        21,6                   3,1                                                                                     2,9


  All food items       21,6
                      Agricultural raw materials            Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                  Unallocated




          Main export partners (%)                                                         Main import partners (%)
          Main export partners (%)                                                         Main import partners (%)
              Others 23,1                                                                       Others 21,2
                                                                                                                                        Russian
                                                                                                                                       Federation
              Others 23,1                       UAE 24,8                                        Others 21,2
                                                                                                                                          24,7
                                                                                                                                        Russian
                                                                                                                                       Federation
                                                UAE 24,8
                                                                                     USA 6,7                                              24,7
   EU 5,4

   EU 5,4                                                                            USA 6,7


                                                      Switzerland
                                                          20,3
                                                                                                                                             Kazakhstan
                                                      Switzerland                                                                               24,0
                                                                                     China 10,2
       Kazakhstan                                         20,3
                                   Russian                                                                                                   Kazakhstan
           9,8
                                  Federation                                         China 10,2                                                 24,0
       Kazakhstan                                                                                              EU 13,1
                                     16,7
                                   Russian
           9,8
                                  Federation
                                     16,7                                                                      EU 13,1


                                                                                                                                                     2
                                                          LAO pDR
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                    5.8
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                 21.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                      237
  Population density (persons per km2):                          24

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                              2,427
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                         419
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                      5.9
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                           48.1
      Industry                                                  25.7
      Services                                                  25.2
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                           133
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                        55
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:           86
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                             31.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                     ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                38.6

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:         455
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                       18.7
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:         617
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                       25.4

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                     17
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                             0.7
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                    2,846
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                          503
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                  257
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                       45
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                    53

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                620
  Total road network (km):                                    21,716
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                              92
    Paved roads (% of total):                                   44.5
  Railway lines, total route (km):                             None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                            ..

 28
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                 Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                           (million US dollars)

       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                 Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
3000

                                                                     800   (million US dollars)
2500
3000
                                                                     700
                                                                     800
2000                                                                 600
2500
                                                                     700
                                                                     500
1500
2000                                                                 600
                                                                     400
                                                                     500
1000                                                                 300
1500
                                                                     400
                                                                     200
500
1000                                                                 300
                                                                     100
                                                                     200
  0                                                                    0
500
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004             100   1995   1996   1997    1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004


  0     GDP (million US dollars)       GDP per capita (US dollars)     0                           Exports            Imports
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                   1995   1996   1997    1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)       GDP per capita (US dollars)                                 Exports            Imports
        Main export products (%)                                                     Main import products (%)

        Main export products (%)                                                     Main import products (%)




                                                      Data are not available

                                                      Data are not available




  All food items         Agricultural raw materials      Energy & Fuels      Ores & metals           Manufactured goods             Unallocated

        Main export partners (%)                                                      Main import partners (%)

        Main export partners (%)                                                      Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                        Others 8,8
                                                                                         Singapore
          Others 32,0                                                                    2,7
                                              EU 27,7                                                   Others 8,8
                                                                                        Singapore
                                                                                   EU 5,6
          Others 32,0                                                                   2,7
                                              EU 27,7
                                                                                   EU 5,6




                                                                                  Viet Nam
  Japan 1,5
                                                                                     10,7

                                                                                  Viet Nam                                   Thailand
  Japan 1,5                                   Thailand 20,8
          China 2,2                                                                  10,7                                      59,5
                       Viet Nam 15,9
                                                                                                China 12,8
                                                                                                                             Thailand
                                              Thailand 20,8
           China 2,2                                                                                                           59,5
                       Viet Nam 15,9
                                                                                                China 12,8


                                                                                                                                        29
                                                          LESOTHO
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                    1.8
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                 18.2
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                       30
  Population density (persons per km2):                          59

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                              1,373
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                         764
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                      2.3
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                           16.1
      Industry                                                  37.1
      Services                                                  40.8
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                           149
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                        35
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:           65
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                             19.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                  39.3
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                   ..

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:          595
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                       43.3
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:        1,280
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                       93.2

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                    52
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                            3.8
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                     706
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                         392
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                 460
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                     255
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                   44

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                575
  Total road network (km):                                     5,940
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                             198
    Paved roads (% of total):                                   18.3
  Railway lines, total route (km):                             None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                            ..

 30
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                 Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                           (million US dollars)
1600

1400                                                              1400


1200                                                              1200

1000                                                              1000

800                                                                800

600                                                                600


400                                                                400

200                                                                200

  0                                                                    0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                    1995   1996   1997    1998   1999   2000   2001   2002    2003    2004


        GDP (million US dollars)    GDP per capita (US dollars)                                    Exports             Imports



        Main export products (%)                                                    Main import products (%)

                           7,1
                 0,3
                                    5,1                                                          5,1                             23,1
                                           0,0


                                             0,1

                                                                                                                                        0,8

                                                                                                                                        7,7


                                                                                                                                     0,8
                                                                                      62,4

               87,4


  All food items       Agricultural raw materials     Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals             Manufactured goods            Unallocated


        Main export partners (%)                                                     Main import partners (%)




                                                    Data are not available




                                                                                                                                           31
                                                  MAcEDONIA, TFYR
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                   2.0
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                59.7
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                      26
  Population density (persons per km2):                         79

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                             5,264
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                      2593
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                     1.8
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                          11.7
      Industry                                                  26
      Services                                                 49.3
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                           59
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                       74
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:          15
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                             4.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                 31.9
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                  ..

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:       1,661
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                      31.6
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:       2,875
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                      54.6

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                   151
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                            2.9
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                   1,837
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                         893
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                 935
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                     455
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                  114

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 ..
  Total road network (km):                                    8,684
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                            334
    Paved roads (% of total):                                  63.8
  Railway lines, total route (km):                              699
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                          27

 32
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                   Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                             (million US dollars)
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                   Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                             (million US dollars)
                                                                   3500
5000
                                                                   3000
                                                                   3500
5000
4000
                                                                   2500
                                                                   3000

4000                                                               2000
3000                                                               2500

                                                                   1500
                                                                   2000
3000
2000
                                                                   1000
                                                                   1500
2000
1000
                                                                    500
                                                                   1000

1000                                                                  0
   0                                                                500
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                     1995   1996    1997   1998      1999   2000   2001   2002    2003    2004

  0                                                                      0
         GDP (million US dollars)
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)
                                  GDP per 2002 2003 2004                      1995   1996    1997     Exports
                                                                                                    1998 1999        2000    Imports
                                                                                                                            2001 2002      2003    2004


         GDP (million US dollars)    GDP per capita (US dollars)                                      Exports                Imports

          Main export products (%)                                                     Main import products (%)
          Main export products (%)
                       15,3
                                                                                       Main import products (%)
                                                                                         11,7          13,8
                  0,3                 1,0
                                                                                             11,7                           13,8
                  0,3           15,3 1,0                                                                                               1,4
                                             4,7
                                                                                                                                       1,4
                                             4,7
                                                                                                                                          13,1

                                                                                                                                           13,1

                                                                                                                                             2,3

                                               2,2                                                                                           2,3
                                                                                            57,7
                                               2,2
             76,6                                                                           57,7

             76,6
  All food items        Agricultural raw materials      Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                 Unallocated



          Main export partners (%)                                                      Main import partners (%)
          Main export partners (%)
                       Others 9,6
                                                                                        Main import partners (%)
                 Turkey 2,1                                                                                            Others 10,9
                                                                                                Croatia 3,6
                 Turkey 2,1     Others 9,6
       USA 4,9                                                                                                         Others 10,9
                                                                                              Croatia 3,6
                                                                                     Turkey 6,3
       USA 4,9
                                                                                     Turkey 6,3

                                                                                                                                             EU 61,2
                                                   EU 46,9
   Croatia 5,6
                                                                                                                                             EU 61,2
                                                                                 Bulgaria 7,8
                                                   EU 46,9
   Croatia 5,6
                                                                                 Bulgaria 7,8
                  Serbia &
                 Montenegro
                    30,8
                  Serbia &
                 Montenegro
                    30,8


                                                                                                                                               33
                                                          MALAWI
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                  12.6
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                17.2
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                     118
  Population density (persons per km2):                        106

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                             2,078
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                        165
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                     2.6
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                          33.0
      Industry                                                 19.8
      Services                                                 46.6
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                          165
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                       40
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:         108
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                            36.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                    ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:               65.3

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:        452
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                      21.8
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:        792
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                      38.1

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                    16
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                            0.8
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                   3,134
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                         259
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                 132
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      11
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                   45

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                               803
  Total road network (km):                                   28,400
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                            241
    Paved roads (% of total):                                  18.5
  Railway lines, total route (km):                              797
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                           7

 34
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                    (million US dollars)
2500                                                                                (million US dollars)
2500
                                                                              900
2000                                                                          900
                                                                              800
2000                                                                          800
                                                                              700
1500                                                                          700
                                                                              600
1500                                                                          600
                                                                              500

1000                                                                          500
                                                                              400
1000                                                                          400
                                                                              300
                                                                              300
 500                                                                          200
 500                                                                          200
                                                                              100
                                                                              100
   0                                                                            0
   0     1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                      0   1995   1996   1997   1998     1999   2000   2001   2002    2003    2004
         1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                          1995   1996   1997   1998     1999   2000   2001   2002    2003    2004
          GDP (million US dollars)              GDP per capita (US dollars)                                Exports                Imports
          GDP (million US dollars)              GDP per capita (US dollars)                                Exports                Imports

          Main export products (%)                                                            Main import products (%)
          Main export products (%)                                                            Main import products (%)
                                                                                                                0,0
                    16,4            0,1                                                                                    12,7
                                                                                                                0,0                    1,2
                    16,4            0,1                                                                                    12,7
         0,3                                                                                                                           1,2
                                                                                                                                              2,7
         0,3
                                                                                                                                              2,7
         0,2
         0,2                                                                                                                                     1,2
                                                                                                                                                 1,2
   5,3
   5,3
                                                            77,7
                                                            77,7
                                                                                       82,1
                                                                                       82,1




  All food items              Agricultural raw materials         Energy & Fuels       Ores & metals          Manufactured goods               Unallocated



          Main export partners (%)                                                            Main import partners (%)
          Main export partners (%)                                                            Main import partners (%)
                                  Others 21,6
                                  Others 21,6
                                                                                                    Others 26,0
                                                                                                    Others 26,0
                                                                                                                                            South Africa
  Japan 5,3
                                                                                                                                               45,2
                                                                                                                                            South Africa
  Japan 5,3                                                  EU 40,5
                                                                                                                                                45,2
                                                             EU 40,5
                                                                                       Zambia 4,1
                                                                                       Zambia 4,1




       Egypt 6,6
                                                                                           Tanzania
       Egypt 6,6
                                                                                              4,6
                                                                                           Tanzania
                                                                                              4,6        India 7,3                EU 12,8
                   South Africa
                      10,4                  USA 15,7                                                     India 7,3                EU 12,8
                   South Africa
                       10,4                 USA 15,7



                                                                                                                                                    35
                                                          MALI
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                13.1
    Urban population (%), 2004:                              33.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                  1,240
  Population density (persons per km2):                        11

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                           4,945
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                      377
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                   5.0
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                        36.3
      Industry                                               27.0
      Services                                               36.7
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                        174
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                     48
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:       131
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                          81.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                  ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:             63.8

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:     1,123
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                    22.7
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:     1,300
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                    26.3

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                 180
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                          3.6
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                 3,129
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                       241
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:               909
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                    70
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                 45

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                           1,225
  Total road network (km):                                 15,100
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                           12
    Paved roads (% of total):                                12.1
  Railway lines, total route (km):                            733
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                         1

 36
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                    (million US dollars)
2500   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                    (million US dollars)
2500                                                                          900
2000                                                                          800
                                                                              900
2000                                                                          700
                                                                              800
1500                                                                          600
                                                                              700

1500                                                                          500
                                                                              600
1000                                                                          400
                                                                              500
                                                                              300
1000                                                                          400
 500                                                                          200
                                                                              300
                                                                              100
 500                                                                          200
   0                                                                            0
                                                                              100
         1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                          1995   1996   1997   1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003    2004
   0                                                                            0
          GDP (million US dollars)
         1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)
                                   GDP per 2002 2003 2004                           1995   1996   1997     Exports
                                                                                                         1998 1999      2000    Imports
                                                                                                                               2001 2002      2003    2004

          GDP (million US dollars)              GDP per capita (US dollars)                                  Exports             Imports
          Main export products (%)                                                           Main import products (%)
          Main export products (%)                                                           Main import products (%)
                                                                                                     0,0
                    16,4            0,1                                                                                   12,7
                                                                                                                                      1,2
                                                                                                                0,0
         0,3        16,4            0,1                                                                                   12,7
                                                                                                                                      1,2 2,7
         0,3
         0,2
                                                                                                                                             2,7
                                                                                                                                                1,2
          0,2
                                                                                                                                                1,2
   5,3

   5,3



                                                                                                      82,1
                                                   77,7
                                                                                                      82,1
                                                   77,7
  All food items            Agricultural raw materials           Energy & Fuels       Ores & metals           Manufactured goods             Unallocated


          Main export partners (%)                                                            Main import partners (%)
          Main export partners (%)
                   Others 21,6
                                                                                              Main import partners (%)

                                  Others 21,6                                                     Others 26,0

                                                                                                                                           South Africa
  Japan 5,3                                                                                       Others 26,0
                                                                                                                                              45,2
                                                             EU 40,5
                                                                                                                                           South Africa
  Japan 5,3
                                                                                        Zambia 4,1                                            45,2
                                                             EU 40,5

                                                                                        Zambia 4,1




       Egypt 6,6
                                                                                           Tanzania
                                                                                              4,6
       Egypt 6,6
                                                                                           Tanzania      India 7,3               EU 12,8
                   South Africa
                                                                                              4,6
                      10,4                  USA 15,7
                                                                                                         India 7,3               EU 12,8
                   South Africa
                      10,4                  USA 15,7


                                                                                                                                                  3
                                 MOLDOVA, REpUBLIc OF
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                4.2
    Urban population (%), 2004:                             46.3
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                   34
  Population density (persons per km2):                     125

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                          2,595
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                     615
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                  1.6
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                       18.3
      Industry                                              20.5
      Services                                              48.6
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                       115
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                    68
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:       25
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                          4.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                               6.8
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:            23.3

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:      986
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                   38.0
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:    1,774
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                   68.4

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                151
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                         5.8
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                1,901
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      446
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:              302
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                   71
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                28

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                            170
  Total road network (km):                                12,719
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                         374
    Paved roads (% of total):                               86.3
  Railway lines, total route (km):                         1,120
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                       33

 38
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                    (million US dollars)
3000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                    (million US dollars)
                                                                             2000
3000
2500
                                                                             1800
                                                                             2000
                                                                             1600
2500
2000
                                                                             1800
                                                                             1400
                                                                             1600
                                                                             1200
2000
1500
                                                                             1400
                                                                             1000
                                                                             1200
                                                                              800
1500
1000
                                                                             1000
                                                                              600

1000                                                                         800
                                                                             400
 500
                                                                             600
                                                                             200
 500                                                                         400
                                                                               0
   0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                     200    1995   1996   1997     1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003   2004

   0                                                                           0
        GDP (million US dollars)               GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports              Imports
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                            1995   1996   1997     1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003   2004

        GDP (million US dollars)               GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports              Imports
        Main export products (%)                                                             Main import products (%)
        Main export products (%)   0,0
                                                                                             Main import products (%)
                                                                                                     0,0      11,7

       35,9                        0,0                                                                            0,0            11,7     5,5

       35,9                                                                                                                               5,5



                                                                                                                                                20,9


                                                                                           60,9                                                 20,9
         2,3
                  1,6                                  52,9                                60,9
         2,3                                                                                                                             1,0
                  1,6                                  52,9
                                                                                                                                         1,0
                             7,4

  All food items            Agricultural raw materials          Energy & Fuels        Ores & metals           Manufactured goods               Unallocated
                             7,4


        Main export partners (%)                                                              Main import partners (%)
        Main export partners (%)
                     Others 10,5                                                                   import
                                                                                              Main Others 18,3 partners (%)
              Belarus 5,2
                                         Others 10,5                                                                                     EU 36,0
                                                                                                         Others 18,3
              Belarus 5,2                                                               Belarus 3,6
Ukraine 7,1                                                                                                                              EU 36,0
                                                          Russian
                                                         Federation                     Belarus 3,6
Ukraine 7,1                                                 39,0
                                                          Russian
                                                         Federation
                                                            39,0                           Romania
                                                                                             7,0
Romania 11,4
                                                                                           Romania
                                                                                             7,0                                   Ukraine
Romania 11,4                                                                                           Russian                      22,0
                                                                                                      Federation
                                   EU 26,7                                                               13,0                      Ukraine
                                                                                                       Russian                      22,0
                                                                                                      Federation
                                   EU 26,7                                                               13,0


                                                                                                                                                   39
                                                          MONGOLIA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                      2.6
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                  57.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                      1,567
  Population density (persons per km2):                              2

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                               1,271
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                          486
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                       3.1
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                            20.0
      Industry                                                   21.5
      Services                                                   58.5
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                            114
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                         64
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:            56
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                               2.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                    3.4
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                 35.6

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:           770
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                        60.6
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:         1,002
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                        78.8

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                     147
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                            11.6
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                     1,472
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           567
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                   243
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                        94
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                    100

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                               1,693
  Total road network (km):                                     49,250
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                               31
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      3.5
  Railway lines, total route (km):                              1,810
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                              1

 40
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                       Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                 (million US dollars)
1400
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                       Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                       1200
1200                                                                             (million US dollars)
1400
                                                                       1000
1000
                                                                       1200
1200
800                                                                     800
                                                                       1000
1000
600                                                                     600

800                                                                     800

400                                                                     400

600                                                                     600

200                                                                     200
400                                                                     400
  0                                                                          0
200    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                200       1995     1996   1997   1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003    2004


        GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                      Exports              Imports
  0                                                                          0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                          1995     1996   1997   1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003    2004


        GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                      Exports              Imports
        Main export products (%)                                                            Main import products (%)

                        2,4                                                                         0,0
        Main export products (%)
                        9,8                                                                 Main import products (%)
                                                                                                            14,4
          23,0                                2,3
                        2,4                                                                                     0,0                          0,6
                                     9,8                                                                                       14,4
          23,0                                2,3
                                                                                                                                             0,6
                                                                                                                                               19,9



                                                                                            64,5                                               19,9

        29,3                                                                                                                          0,5
                                              33,3
                                                                                            64,5
        29,3                                                                                                                          0,5
                                              33,3
  All food items       Agricultural raw materials           Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals            Manufactured goods               Unallocated



        Main export partners (%)                                                             Main import partners (%)

                            Others 11,0
        Main export partners (%)
         Singapore 5,7
                                                                                             Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                Others 15,8
                                                                                                                   Russian
                                                                                                                                      Federation
   Russian                                                                                                                               33,1
            Singapore 5,7   Others 11,0                                               Japan 7,9
Federation 6,7                                                                                       Others 15,8
                                                                                                                                       Russian
                                                                                                                                      Federation
   Russian                                          China 46,2                                                                           33,1
                                                                                      Japan 7,9
Federation 6,7

                                                    China 46,2
                                                                                         Korea 8,4
         EU 7,3
                                                                                                                                  China 21,5
                              USA 23,2
                                                                                         Korea 8,4
         EU 7,3                                                                                      EU 13,3
                                                                                                                                  China 21,5
                              USA 23,2

                                                                                                     EU 13,3

                                                                                                                                                   41
                                                          NEpAL
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                 26.6
    Urban population (%), 2004:                               15.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                    147
  Population density (persons per km2):                       181

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                            6,506
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                       245
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                    3.8
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                         38.0
      Industry                                                19.9
      Services                                                38.1
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                         136
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                      62
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:         61
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                           51.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                 1.1
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:              42.0

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:        756
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                     11.6
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:      1,870
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                     28.7

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                   10
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                           0.2
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                  3,253
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                        129
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:              1,286
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                     51
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                  19

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                            1,160
  Total road network (km):                                  15,308
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                           104
    Paved roads (% of total):                                 30.8
  Railway lines, total route (km):                              59
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                         0.4

 42
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                (million US dollars)
7000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                (million US dollars)
7000                                                                  2000
6000
                                                                      1800
                                                                      2000
6000
5000                                                                  1600
                                                                      1800
                                                                      1400
5000
4000                                                                  1600
                                                                      1200
                                                                      1400
4000
3000                                                                  1000
                                                                      1200
                                                                       800
3000                                                                  1000
2000                                                                   600
                                                                       800
                                                                       400
2000
1000                                                                   600
                                                                       200
                                                                       400
1000
   0                                                                     0
                                                                       200       1995    1996   1997    1998   1999     2000   2001    2002     2003   2004
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
  0                                                                         0
        GDP (million US dollars)
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)
                                 GDP per 2002 2003 2004                          1995    1996   1997      Exports
                                                                                                        1998 1999       2000    Imports
                                                                                                                               2001 2002        2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)       GDP per capita (US dollars)                                        Exports              Imports

        Main export products (%)                                                          Main import products (%)
        Main export products (%)                                                          Main import products (%)
                                                                                                    0,1
                                    20,6                                                                                       17,3
                     0,0                        1,1
                                    20,6
                                                                                                                  0,1
                     0,0                                                                                                       17,3
                                                1,1
                                                                                                                                          4,6
                                                 0,0
                                                                                                                                          4,6
                                                 0,0


                                                                                        58,5                                                   15,6
                                                                                        58,5                                                   15,6
                                                 4,3
        74,0
                                                                                                                                  3,9
                                                 4,3
        74,0
                                                                                                                                  3,9

  All food items       Agricultural raw materials          Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals            Manufactured goods                 Unallocated



          Main export partners (%)                                                          Main import partners (%)
                export Others 7,6
          Main Japan 1,1 partners (%)                                                            import
                                                                                            Main Others 24,6 partners (%)
  Canada 1,2
                 Japan 1,1         Others 7,6                                                          Others 24,6
  Canada 1,2
                                                                                        Singapore
                                                                                        5,1                                                   India 45,1
                                                       India 43,7
EU 16,6                                                                                 Singapore
                                                                                        5,1                                                   India 45,1
                                                       India 43,7
EU 16,6




                                                                                         EU 7,1

          USA 29,6
                                                                                         EU 7,1                            China 9,6
                                                                                                        UAE 8,6
          USA 29,6
                                                                                                        UAE 8,6            China 9,6



                                                                                                                                                    43
                                                          NIGER
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                 13.5
    Urban population (%), 2004:                               23.3
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                   1,267
  Population density (persons per km2):                         11

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                            2,685
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                       199
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                    3.3
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                         38.4
      Industry                                                12.2
      Services                                                42.9
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                         177
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                      45
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:        150
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                           86.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                   ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:              63.0

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:       371
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                     13.8
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:       525
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                     19.6

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                   20
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                           0.7
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                  2,116
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                        177
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                114
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                     10
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                  39

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                            1,057
  Total road network (km):                                  10,100
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                              8
    Paved roads (% of total):                                   7.9
  Railway lines, total route (km):                           None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                           ..

 44
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                          (million US dollars)
3000
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                         600
                                                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
2500                                                                      (million US dollars)
3000
                                                                   500
2000
                                                                   600
2500                                                               400

1500                                                               500
2000                                                               300

1000                                                               400
                                                                   200
1500
                                                                   300
500                                                                100
1000
                                                                   200
  0                                                                  0
500    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                  1995   1996    1997   1998    1999     2000   2001   2002   2003    2004
                                                                   100

        GDP (million US dollars)     GDP per capita (US dollars)                                 Exports                Imports
  0                                                                  0
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                  1995   1996    1997   1998    1999     2000   2001   2002   2003    2004


        Main export products (%) (US dollars)
        GDP (million US dollars) GDP per capita                                     Main import products (%)
                                                                                                 Exports                Imports



                              1,5
              export products (%)
        Main 7,9                                                                    Main import products (%)
                                                                                              0,0

                                         30,4
                              1,5                                                                                                 33,5
                                                                                                           0,0
                  7,9
                                         30,4                                     44,0
                                                                                                                                  33,5

                                                                                  44,0

                                              3,6
        54,9                                                                                                                       4,3
                                        1,6
                                              3,6                                                 1,2               16,9
        54,9                                                                                                                       4,3
                                        1,6
                                                                                           1,2        16,9
  All food items        Agricultural raw materials       Energy & Fuels      Ores & metals    Manufactured goods                         Unallocated

        Main export partners (%)                                                     Main import partners (%)

                   Côte d'Ivoire
        Main export partners (%)
                1,4
                         Others 3,5
                                                                                                          (%)
                                                                                     Main import partners25,9
                                                                                                       EU
  Ghana 2,1
                                                                                 Others 36,6
                   Côte d'Ivoire
                                     Others 3,5
                       1,4
                                                                                                                           EU 25,9
  Ghana 2,1                                          EU 47,0
                                                                                 Others 36,6
Japan 17,2                                                                                                                               Côte d'Ivoire
                                                                                                                                             13,9
                                                     EU 47,0

Japan 17,2                                                                                                                               Côte d'Ivoire
                                                                                   USA 5,5                                                   13,9
                                                                                                                               China 10,5
   Nigeria 28,7


                                                                                   USA 5,5       Nigeria 7,7
                                                                                                                               China 10,5
   Nigeria 28,7

                                                                                                 Nigeria 7,7


                                                                                                                                              45
                                                          pARAGUAY
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                     6.0
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                  58.5
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                       407
  Population density (persons per km2):                           15

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                               7,029
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                        1,168
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                       0.7
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                            27.2
      Industry                                                   24.2
      Services                                                   48.5
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                             88
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                         71
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:            36
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                               8.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                    6.8
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                 21.8

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:         1,657
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                        23.6
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:         2,600
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                        37.0

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                     119
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              1.7
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                     3,210
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           546
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                   983
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                       167
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                       9

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                               1,022
  Total road network (km):                                     29,500
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                               73
    Paved roads (% of total):                                    50.8
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                441
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                             1

 46
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                 (million US dollars)
12000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                      Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                       4000      (million US dollars)
10000
12000
                                                                       3500
                                                                       4000
 8000
10000                                                                  3000
                                                                       3500
                                                                       2500
 6000
 8000                                                                  3000
                                                                       2000
                                                                       2500
 4000
 6000                                                                  1500
                                                                       2000
                                                                       1000
 2000
 4000                                                                  1500
                                                                        500
                                                                       1000
    0
 2000                                                                     0
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004               500      1995   1996    1997   1998    1999   2000   2001    2002    2003   2004

    0                                                                        0                          Exports              Imports
        GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                        1995   1996    1997   1998    1999   2000   2001    2002    2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                    Exports              Imports
         Main export products (%)                                                          Main import products (%)

              export 0,0
         Main 12,7   products (%)                                                          Main import products (%)
                                                                                                    0,0  8,7
        0,8                                                                                                                     1,1
                    12,7         0,0                                                                           0,0     8,7
        0,0
        0,8                                                                                                                     1,1
                                                                                                                                            15,6
     11,8
       0,0
                                                                                                                                            15,6
     11,8
                                                                                                                                              0,8

                                                                                                                                              0,8


                                             74,7
                                                                                               73,9


                                             74,7
                                                                                               73,9

   All food items          Agricultural raw materials       Energy & Fuels        Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                Unallocated


          Main export partners (%)                                                           Main import partners (%)

                 Others partners (%)
          Main export26,1                                                                    Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                Others 21,2
                          Others 26,1                                                                                               Brazil 32,4
                                                    Brazil 34,2
                                                                                              Others 21,2
                                                                                        USA 3,8
Argentina 5,3                                                                                                                       Brazil 32,4
                                                    Brazil 34,2
                                                                                        USA 3,8
Argentina 5,3




   EU 6,9                                                                           EU 8,2
                                                                                                                                        Argentina
   EU 6,9                                                                           EU 8,2                                                 21,6
            Switzerland                  Uruguay 19,6
                                                                                                                                        Argentina
                7,8                                                                               China 12,7
                                                                                                                                           21,6
            Switzerland                  Uruguay 19,6
                7,8                                                                               China 12,7


                                                                                                                                                  4
                                                          RWANDA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                   8.9
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                20.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                      26
  Population density (persons per km2):                        337

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                             1,823
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                        205
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                     7.6
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                          41.3
      Industry                                                 21.3
      Services                                                 37.4
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                          159
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                       44
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:         115
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                            36.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                  0.6
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:               60.3

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:         98
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                       5.4
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:        284
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                      15.6

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                    11
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                            0.6
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                   1,540
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                         184
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                 215
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      26
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                   39

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                             1,867
  Total road network (km):                                   12,000
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                            462
    Paved roads (% of total):                                    8.3
  Railway lines, total route (km):                            None
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                            ..

 48
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                     Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                     Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                               (million US dollars)
2500
                                                                               (million US dollars)
2500                                                                     350
2000                                                                     350
                                                                         300
2000
                                                                         300
                                                                         250
1500
                                                                         250
1500                                                                     200

1000                                                                     200
                                                                         150

1000                                                                     150
                                                                         100
500
                                                                         100
                                                                          50
500
                                                                          50
  0                                                                        0
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                      1995    1996    1997   1998    1999   2000   2001    2002   2003     2004
  0                                                                        0
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)                 1995    1996    1997   1998 1999      2000    2001 2002     2003     2004
         GDP (million US dollars) GDP per 2002 2003 2004                                              Exports               Imports

         GDP (million US dollars)          GDP per capita (US dollars)                                Exports               Imports


         Main export products (%)                                                         Main import products (%)
         Main export products (%)                                                         Main import products (%)
                               0,0                                                                            0,0      11,7
                    10,3
                               0,0                                                                            0,0      11,7        4,0
                    10,3
                                                                                                                                   4,0


       23,3
                                                                                                                                         15,6
       23,3
                                                                                                                                         15,6


                                                                                              66,7                                       2,0
              6,8                               52,3                                                                                     2,0
                                                                                              66,7
              6,8      7,3                      52,3

                       7,3

  All food items           Agricultural raw materials       Energy & Fuels       Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                Unallocated




         Main export partners (%)                                                          Main import partners (%)
         Main export partners (%)                                                          Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                                              EU 24,6

                                                                                                                              EU 24,6
        Others 40,0                                Indonesia 39,7                     Others 39,6

        Others 40,0                                Indonesia 39,7                     Others 39,6




                                                                                                                                               Kenya 23,8

       USA 1,7                                                                                                                                 Kenya 23,8
                                                                                       DR of
       USA 1,7Hong                                                                     Congo 2,5
        China,                                   EU 11,7                               DR of
       Kong SAR 2,5                                                                    Congo 2,5
                                                                                               South Africa
        China, Hong            China 4,3         EU 11,7                                                                     Uganda 6,2
                                                                                                   3,3
       Kong SAR 2,5                                                                            South Africa
                               China 4,3                                                                                     Uganda 6,2
                                                                                                   3,3



                                                                                                                                                  49
                                                          SWAZILAND
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                      1.0
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                   23.9
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                         17
  Population density (persons per km2):                            60

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                2,307
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                         2,231
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                        2.8
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                              8.2
      Industry                                                    34.9
      Services                                                    29.8
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                             147
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                          31
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:             71
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                               21.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                       ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                  40.0

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:          1,140
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                         49.4
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:          1,100
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                         47.7

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                      69
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              3.0
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                       400
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           371
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                   278
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                       258
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                     24

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                  193
  Total road network (km):                                       3,107
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                               183
    Paved roads (% of total):                                        ..
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                 301
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                             18

 50
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                          (million US dollars)
2500

                                                                 1200
2000
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                       1000
                                                                          Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                          (million US dollars)
1500                                                              800
2500

                                                                 1200
                                                                  600
1000
2000
                                                                 1000
                                                                  400

 500
1500                                                              800
                                                                  200


   0                                                              600
                                                                    0
1000                                                                       1995   1996   1997    1998   1999   2000   2001    2002    2003   2004
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
                                                                  400
        GDP (million US dollars)   GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports              Imports
500
                                                                  200


  0     Main export products (%)                                      0
                                                                           1995
                                                                                   Main import products2002 2003
                                                                                  1996
                                                                                     1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
                                                                                                              (%)                            2004
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

        GDP (million US dollars)   GDP per capita (US dollars)                                   Exports              Imports
                      0,2                                                                               1,6
                                   14,6                                                                                18,2

                                          7,9
        Main export products (%)                                                   Main import products (%)
                                                                                                                                 2,2
                                            0,7
                      0,2                                                                               1,6
                                   14,6                                                                                18,2
                                                                                                                                     12,7
                                          7,9

                                           0,2                                                                                   2,2
                                            0,7                                    64,4                                         1,0
          76,4

                                                                                                                                     12,7

  All food items      Agricultural raw materials
                                           0,2       Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals           Manufactured goods             Unallocated
                                                                                  64,4                                          1,0

        Main export partners (%)
          76,4
                                                                                    Main import partners (%)




        Main export partners (%)                                                    Main import partners (%)
                                                   Data are not available




                                                   Data are not available




                                                                                                                                            51
                                                          TAJIKISTAN
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                       6.4
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                    24.2
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                         143
  Population density (persons per km2):                             45

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                 1,911
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                            297
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                         6.0
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                              26.1
      Industry                                                     26.2
      Services                                                     39.6
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                              122
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                           64
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:              88
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                 1.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                      2.7
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                      ..

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:             915
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                          47.9
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:           1,375
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                          72.0

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                       272
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              14.2
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                       1,166
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                             187
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                     118
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                          19
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                       23

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 3,100
  Total road network (km):                                       27,767
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                194
    Paved roads (% of total):                                         ..
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                  617
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                               4

 52
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                     Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                               (million US dollars)
2500   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                     Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                               (million US dollars)
2500                                                                   1600
2000
                                                                       1400
                                                                       1600
2000                                                                   1200
                                                                       1400
1500
                                                                       1000
                                                                       1200
1500
                                                                        800
1000                                                                   1000
                                                                        600
                                                                        800
1000
                                                                        400
 500                                                                    600
                                                                        200
                                                                        400
 500
   0                                                                      0
                                                                        200
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                        1995    1996   1997   1998   1999    2000    2001   2002    2003    2004
   0                                                                       0
        GDP (million US dollars)
       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)
                                 GDP per 2002 2003 2004                         1995    1996   1997   Exports
                                                                                                      1998 1999      2000    Imports
                                                                                                                              2001 2002     2003    2004


        GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                  Exports                Imports

        Main export products (%)                                                          Main import products (%)
        Main export products (%)                                                          Main import products (%)




                                                      Data are not available
                                                      Data are not available




   All food items        Agricultural raw materials       Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals           Manufactured goods                Unallocated



        Main export partners (%)                                                           Main import partners (%)
        Main export partners (%)
                     Others 10,7
                                                                                           Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                            Russian
           Russian                                                                                                           Federation
        Federation 6,6                                                                                                          20,2
                                                                                                                              Russian
                                  Others 10,7                                          Others 37,6                           Federation
           Russian
        Federation 6,6                                                                                                          20,2
                                                    EU 40,0                            Others 37,6
Uzbekistan 8,5                                                                                                                             Uzbekistan
                                                    EU 40,0                                                                                   15,1
Uzbekistan 8,5                                                                                                                             Uzbekistan
                                                                                                                                              15,1




   Switzerland                                                                                                                         Kazakhstan
       9,7                                                                             Ukraine 7,1                                        10,9

   Switzerland                                                                                                                         Kazakhstan
       9,7          Turkey 24,4                                                        Ukraine 7,1                                        10,9
                                                                                                                    EU 9,1

                    Turkey 24,4
                                                                                                                    EU 9,1



                                                                                                                                               53
                                                         TURKMENISTAN
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                        4.8
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                     45.8
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                          488
  Population density (persons per km2):                              10

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                 12,374
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                           2,596
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                          4.4
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                               23.5
      Industry                                                      42.3
      Services                                                      33.4
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                                97
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                            63
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:               78
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                  1.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                         ..
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                       ..

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:            3,870
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                           31.3
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:            3,320
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                           26.8

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                        150
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                                 1.2
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                             ..
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                                 ..
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                         ..
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                             ..
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                          6

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                  1,700
  Total road network (km):                                        24,000
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                  49
    Paved roads (% of total):                                       81.2
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                 2,523
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                                5

 54
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                  Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                             (million US dollars)
14000
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                  Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
12000                                                                 4500   (million US dollars)
14000
                                                                      4000
10000                                                                 4500
12000                                                                 3500

                                                                      4000
                                                                      3000
 8000
10000
                                                                      3500
                                                                      2500
6000
8000                                                                  3000
                                                                      2000

4000                                                                  2500
                                                                      1500
6000
                                                                      2000
                                                                      1000
2000
4000                                                                  1500
                                                                       500

   0                                                                  1000
                                                                         0
2000                                                                         1995    1996   1997    1998   1999    2000   2001    2002     2003   2004
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004              500

   0    GDP (million US dollars)        GDP per capita (US dollars)      0                          Exports               Imports
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                    1995    1996   1997    1998   1999    2000   2001    2002     2003   2004


        GDP (million US dollars)        GDP per capita (US dollars)                                 Exports               Imports
         Main export products (%)                                                       Main import products (%)

         Main export products (%)
                1,5   0,3                                                                           products
                                                                                        Main import 11,7 0,4 (%)
                                                                                              5,9
               6,9
                                            9,9
                                                                                                                                  1,2
                     1,5          0,3                                                                             11,7
         0,4 6,9                                                                                    5,9                     0,4      1,0
                                            9,9
                                                                                                                                  1,2
         0,4                                                                                                                        1,0




                                                                                                   79,8
                           81,0

                                                                                                   79,8
  All food items       81,0
                     Agricultural raw materials         Energy & Fuels        Ores & metals            Manufactured goods                Unallocated


         Main export partners (%)                                                        Main import partners (%)

         Main export partners (%)
                 Others 16,8                                                             Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                          Russian
                                                                                                                           Federation
          UAE 2,8
                                                                                                                              21,5
                       Others 16,8                                                  Others 34,2                             Russian
                                                   Ukraine 39,2                                                            Federation
          UAE 2,8
                                                                                                                              21,5
                                                                                    Others 34,2                                             Ukraine
Turkey 6,5
                                                   Ukraine 39,2                                                                              15,2

                                                                                                                                            Ukraine
Turkey 6,5
                                                                                                                                             15,2


                                                                                     UAE 7,6
                                                                                                                                 EU 12,1
   Iran 14,7                      EU 20,0                                            UAE 7,6
                                                                                                     Turkey 9,4                  EU 12,1
   Iran 14,7                      EU 20,0
                                                                                                     Turkey 9,4


                                                                                                                                              55
                                                          UGANDA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                  27.8
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                12.4
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                     241
  Population density (persons per km2):                        115

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                             7,791
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                        280
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                     6.2
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                          30.9
      Industry                                                 19.0
      Services                                                 41.9
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                          144
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                       48
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:          80
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                               ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                  7.4
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:               44.0

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:         639
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                        8.2
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:       1,657
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                      21.3

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                   237
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                            3.0
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                   4,553
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                         176
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:               1,080
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      42
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                   38

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                             1,187
  Total road network (km):                                   27,000
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                            112
    Paved roads (% of total):                                    6.7
  Railway lines, total route (km):                              259
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                            1

 56
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                        Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                  (million US dollars)
6000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                        Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
8000                                                                    1800
                                                                                  (million US dollars)
6000
7000                                                                    1600
8000                                                                    1800
6000                                                                    1400
7000                                                                    1600
                                                                        1200
5000
6000                                                                    1400
                                                                        1000
4000
                                                                        1200
5000                                                                     800
3000
                                                                        1000
4000                                                                     600
2000                                                                     800
                                                                         400
3000
1000                                                                     600
                                                                         200
2000
   0                                                                     400
                                                                           0
1000    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                200       1995     1996    1997   1998     1999   2000   2001   2002     2003   2004

  0      GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)         0                            Exports                Imports
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                          1995     1996    1997   1998     1999   2000   2001   2002     2003   2004

         GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                      Exports                Imports
          Main export products (%)                                                            Main import products (%)

          Main export products (%)
                9,6
                                                                                              Main import products (%)
                                                                                                      0,3     16,8

         13,8           9,6
                                                                                                                  0,3             16,8      1,9

         13,8
       0,3                                                                                                                                  1,9
                                                                                                                                              10,0
        4,2
       0,3
                                                                                                                                                10,0
                                                                                                                                                1,5
       4,2
                                                                                                   69,5
                14,0                            58,1                                                                                            1,5

                                                                                                   69,5
                14,0                            58,1



  All food items             Agricultural raw materials      Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals             Manufactured goods                Unallocated



          Main export partners (%)                                                             Main import partners (%)

          Main export partners (%)27,5
                                EU
                                                                                               Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                                 Kenya 26,1
          Others 34,6


                                                   EU 27,5                                Others 33,9                                Kenya 26,1
          Others 34,6

                                                                                          Others 33,9



                                                                                                                                                  EU 18,8
 Rwanda 3,9
                                                    Kenya 14,7                         Japan 6,6                                                  EU 18,8
 Rwanda 3,9
        South Africa
                                          SwitzerlandKenya 14,7                        Japan 6,6 South Africa               India 7,4
            5,6                                                                                      7,2
                                              13,7
              South Africa                                                                           South Africa
                                          Switzerland                                                                       India 7,4
                  5,6                                                                                    7,2
                                              13,7


                                                                                                                                                       5
                                                          UZBEKISTAN
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                      26.2
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                    36.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                         447
  Population density (persons per km2):                             59

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                                11,788
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                            450
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                         4.3
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                              28.8
      Industry                                                     19.7
      Services                                                     37.0
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                              111
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                           67
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:              57
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                   ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                      0.4
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                   27.5

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:           3,620
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                          30.7
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:           3,440
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                          29.2

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                       140
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                                1.2
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                       5,006
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                             192
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                        ..
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                            ..
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                         8

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 2,950
  Total road network (km):                                       81,600
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                                183
    Paved roads (% of total):                                      87.3
  Railway lines, total route (km):                                4,126
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                               9

 58
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                   Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                              (million US dollars)
16000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                           5000    Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                      4500    (million US dollars)
14000
16000                                                                 5000
                                                                      4000
12000                                                                 4500
14000                                                                 3500
10000                                                                 4000
12000                                                                 3000
                                                                      3500
 8000                                                                 2500
10000                                                                 3000
                                                                      2000
6000
8000                                                                  2500
                                                                      1500
4000                                                                  2000
6000                                                                  1000
2000                                                                  1500
                                                                       500
4000
                                                                      1000
   0                                                                     0
2000                                                                   500    1995    1996   1997   1998    1999   2000   2001   2002    2003   2004
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
   0                                                                      0
        GDP (million US dollars)        GDP per capita (US dollars)           1995    1996   1997   Exports
                                                                                                    1998 1999      2000   Imports
                                                                                                                           2001 2002     2003   2004
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

        GDP (million US dollars)        GDP per capita (US dollars)                                 Exports               Imports



         Main export products (%)                                                        Main import products (%)
         Main export products (%)                                                        Main import products (%)




                                                       Data are not available
                                                       Data are not available




  All food items          Agricultural raw materials     Energy & Fuels        Ores & metals              Manufactured goods            Unallocated




         Main export partners (%)                                                         Main import partners (%)
         Main export partners (%)                Russian
                                                Federation
                                                                                          Main import partners (%)
                                                                                                          EU 22,4
          Others 37,1                              22,0
                                                 Russian                              Others 26,6
                                                                                                                           EU 22,4
                                                Federation
          Others 37,1                              22,0                               Others 26,6




                                                                                                                                      Russian
                                                                                                                                     Federation
                                                  EU 18,3                                                                               22,2
                                                                                                                                      Russian
                                                                                     China 6,5                                       Federation
   Tajikistan 6,1                                 EU 18,3                                                                               22,2
                                                                                     China 6,5
                                             China 9,2                                                              USA 11,4
   Tajikistan 6,1 Ukraine 7,4                                                                Korea 10,9

                                             China 9,2                                                              USA 11,4
                    Ukraine 7,4                                                              Korea 10,9


                                                                                                                                            59
                                                          ZAMBIA
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                  11.5
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                36.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                     753
  Population density (persons per km2):                         15

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                             5,315
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                        463
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                     3.0
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                          20.8
      Industry                                                 24.0
      Services                                                 51.0
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                          166
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                       38
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:          93
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                            32.0
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                 15.0
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:               72.9

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:       1,180
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                      22.2
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:       1,780
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                      33.5

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                   334
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                            6.3
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                   6,425
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                         594
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                 248
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                      23
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                   54

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                             1,975
  Total road network (km):                                   91,440
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                            121
    Paved roads (% of total):                                    22
  Railway lines, total route (km):                            1,273
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                           2

 60
       GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                            Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                      (million US dollars)
6000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                            Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                                      (million US dollars)
6000                                                                        2000
5000
                                                                            1800
                                                                            2000
5000                                                                        1600
4000                                                                        1800
                                                                            1400
                                                                            1600
4000                                                                        1200
3000                                                                        1400
                                                                            1000
                                                                            1200
3000                                                                         800
2000                                                                        1000
                                                                             600
                                                                             800
2000                                                                         400
1000
                                                                             600
                                                                             200
1000                                                                         400
   0                                                                           0
                                                                             200       1995    1996     1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002     2003   2004
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
  0                                                                               0
         GDP (million US dollars)
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 capita (US dollars)
                                  GDP per 2002 2003 2004                               1995    1996     1997   Exports
                                                                                                               1998 1999     2000   Imports
                                                                                                                                     2001 2002      2003   2004


         GDP (million US dollars)         GDP per capita (US dollars)                                          Exports              Imports

          Main export products (%)                                                               Main import products (%)
          Main export products (%)                                                               Main import products (%)
                     3,1          9,2
                                                                                                                  0,7           13,9
                                              2,8
          19,2       3,1          9,2
                                                                                                                  0,7           13,9
                                              2,8 2,1
                                                                                                                                           1,6
          19,2
                                                    2,1                                                                                      7,1
                                                                                                                                           1,6
                                                                                                                                              7,1
                                                                                                                                                1,6

                                                                                                                                                 1,6



                                                                                                      75,0
                                   63,6
                                                                                                      75,0
                                   63,6
  All food items           Agricultural raw materials            Energy & Fuels         Ores & metals             Manufactured goods               Unallocated



          Main export partners (%)                                                                Main import partners (%)
          Main export partners (%)                                                                Main import partners (%)
                               Others 17,2                                                                               Others 17,6

       DR of Congo             Others 17,2                                                                               Others 17,6
                                                                                                 China 2,7
           3,9                                              EU 35,3
       DR of Congo                                                                               China 2,7
                                                            EU 35,3                                                                               South Africa
           3,9
                                                                                                                                                     48,3
                                                                                              UAE 4,3
                                                                                                                                                  South Africa
                                                                                                                                                     48,3
                                                                                              UAE 4,3
  Switzerland
      8,1
  Switzerland
      8,1                                                                                      Zimbabwe
         Tanzania 13,9                                                                            12,8
                                             South Africa
                                                21,6                                           Zimbabwe                   EU 14,3
         Tanzania 13,9                                                                            12,8
                                             South Africa
                                                21,6                                                                      EU 14,3


                                                                                                                                                        61
                                                          ZIMBABWE
General Information
  Population (million), 2004:                                    12.9
    Urban population (%), 2004:                                  35.0
  Surface area (‘000 km2):                                       391
  Population density (persons per km2):                           33

Economic & Social Development
  GDP (million US dollars), 2004:                               4,546
      GDP per capita (US dollars), 2004:                          351
      GDP growth rate (annual %), 1995-2004:                      -3.3
  Structure of GDP (%), 2003:
      Agriculture, forestry & fishing                            14.6
      Industry                                                   13.4
      Services                                                   65.0
  UNDP HDI rank, 2005                                            145
  Life expectancy at birth (years), 2004:                         37
  Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births), 2004:            62
  Illiteracy rate, adult (%), 2003:                                 ..
  Unemployment rate (%), 2003:                                    6.0
  National poverty rate (% of population), 2004:                 34.9

External Trade
  Total merchandise exports (million US dollars), 2004:         2,800
    Merchandise exports (% of GDP), 2004:                        61.6
  Total merchandise imports (million US dollars), 2004:         3,220
    Merchandise imports (% of GDP), 2004:                        70.8

Investments, External Debt & Aid
  FDI net inflows (million US dollars), 2004:                      60
    FDI net inflows (% of GDP), 2004:                              1.3
  External debt (million US dollars), 2003:                     4,445
    Debt per capita (US dollars), 2003:                           345
  External reserves (million US dollars), 2003:                   132
    Reserves per capita (US dollars), 2003:                        10
  Aid per capita (US dollars):                                     14

Infrastructure
  Closest distance from sea (km):                                 464
  Total road network (km):                                     18,338
    Road density (km per 1,000 km2):                               47
    Paved roads (% of total):                                    47.4
  Railway lines, total route (km):                              3,077
    Railway density (km per 1,000 km2):                             8

 62
        GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                  Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
                                                                             (million US dollars)
10000   GDP and GDP per capita, 1995 - 2004                                  Merchandise Trade, 1995 - 2004
 9000                                                                        (million US dollars)
                                                                      3500
10000
 8000
 9000                                                                 3000
                                                                      3500
 7000
 8000                                                                 2500
 6000                                                                 3000
 7000
 5000                                                                 2000
                                                                      2500
 6000
 4000                                                                 1500
 5000                                                                 2000
 3000
 4000                                                                 1000
                                                                      1500
 2000
 3000                                                                  500
 1000                                                                 1000
 2000
    0                                                                    0
                                                                       500
 1000   1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004                    1995   1996    1997   1998    1999   2000   2001    2002    2003    2004

   0                                                                     0
        GDP (million US dollars)     GDP per capita (US dollars)             1995   1996    1997
                                                                                                    Exports
                                                                                                   1998  1999     2000
                                                                                                                         Imports
                                                                                                                          2001 2002      2003    2004
        1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

        GDP (million US dollars)     GDP per capita (US dollars)                                    Exports              Imports

         Main export products (%)                                                     Main import products (%)
         Main export products (%)                                                     Main import products (%)
                      1,5                                                                                 1,7
                                                                                                                          18,7
                      1,5                 30,4
                                                                                                          1,7
        28,2                                                                                                              18,7
                                          30,4                                                                                     1,8
        28,2
                                                                                                                                   1,8


                                                                                                                                        13,8

                                                                                    56,6                                                13,8

               22,7                      15,5                                       56,6                                        7,4
                               1,7
               22,7                      15,5                                                                                   7,4
                               1,7
  All food items      Agricultural raw materials           Energy & Fuels     Ores & metals            Manufactured goods               Unallocated




         Main export partners (%)                                                      Main import partners (%)
         Main export partners (%)
                          EU 16,8
                                                                                       Main import partners (%)
                                                                                           Others; 30,0
                                      EU 16,8
                                                                                                                                   South Africa;
                                                                                        Others; 30,0                                  47,5
                                                 South Africa;
                                                                                 Botswana;
                                                    11,2                                                                           South Africa;
                                                                                 2,3
                                                 South Africa;                                                                        47,5
                                                                                 Botswana;
                                                    11,2
                                                    Zambia; 5,9                  2,3


                                                     Zambia; 5,9

   Others; 57,0                                                                     Mozambique;
                                                     China; 5,0
                                                                                        2,8
   Others; 57,0                                                                                   DR of
                                   Japan; 4,2        China; 5,0                     Mozambique;                     EU; 10,7
                                                                                        2,8     Congo; 6,7

                                   Japan; 4,2                                                        DR of          EU; 10,7
                                                                                                   Congo; 6,7


                                                                                                                                                63
     Geographical distribution
     of the 31 landlocked
     developing countries




64
65
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           GE.06-5101–August 2006–500

                  UNCTAD/LDC/2006/2
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Special Programme for Least Developed, Landlocked
          and Island Developing Countries


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