The Eighteenth Century

Document Sample
The Eighteenth Century Powered By Docstoc
					                                   The Eighteenth Century:
                          European States, International Wars and Social Change

   The European States
       o The ideas of the Enlightenment ___________ began to have some effect on the political
           development of the European states.
       o The belief in ____________ – such as equality before the law, freedom of religion and freedom
           of speech and press, right to hold property became common.
       o The question remained how best to achieve and maintain these basic rights.
       o A common abuse singled out by the Philosophes as impeding the development of enlightened
           political rule was the ___________________by rulers and arbitrary enforcement of laws.
       o Most believed in the need for an “___________” ruler.
       o Enlightened Absolutism
       o During the eighteenth century, the idea of ____________ was gradually replaced by the idea of
           "enlightened absolutism" justified by utilitarian arguments
       o The rulers most closely associated with this term were: Frederick the Great, of Prussia; Joseph II
           of Austria; and Catherine II of Russia.
   A Survey of the European States
       o Politically, the period from 1715 to 1789 witnessed the continuing process of ______________
           in the development of nation-state for efficient taxation and building armies.
   France in the Eighteenth Century
       o Louis XIV left France bankrupt and in the hands of his five year old great-grandson Louis XV.
       o The country was then controlled by the drunken and morally depraved Duke d’Orleans.
       o When Louis reached his majority the country was well led by his chief minister
       o Upon Fleury’s death in 1743, Louis decided to rule on his own.
       o During Louis XV’s reign France lost an empire while acquiring a huge ___________, leaving
           even Louis with the realization that the future was looking dark.
   Louis XVI
       o The next King of France and his wife Marie Antoinette will oversee the destruction of the
           monarchy in France during the French Revolution.
   Great Britain and Parliament
       o The official title of The United Kingdom of Great Britain was created by law in 1707 with the
       o The Glorious Revolution prevented absolutism in Great Britain but did not truly bring about
           constitutional monarchy.
       o The government was a system of _____________ between Parliament and Crown – with
           Parliament gradually gaining the upper hand.
       o Parliament was dominated by the __________________ in both the House of Lords and the
           House of Commons.
       o The election of ministers to Commons was hardly democratic with few people having the right to
       o Many Boroughs were completely controlled by single individuals – “_______________.”
       o Great Britain in the Eighteenth-century also witnessed the increasing influence of the king's
   The Hanoverian Dynasty
       o In 1714, the last Stuart Ruler, Queen Anne, died without leaving an heir.
       o In accordance with the Act of __________ of 1701 – the crown was offered to the Protestant
           George of Hanover, a German.
       o George remained thoroughly German in tastes and habits, he never learned the English language,
           and he remained unpopular in Britain, due in part to his private life.
       o He divorced his wife in 1694 and kept her imprisoned in Hanover.
       o When he came to England, he brought with him two mistresses who both became unpopular
           because of their greed.
   The Old Pretender
       o Supporters of the house of Stuart, known as the Jacobites, plotted to replace him with James II's
           son, James Edward Stuart, known as the Old Pretender - they were defeated in battle.
   Robert Walpole
       o Both George I and George II relied heavily upon their Prime Minister Robert Walpole.
       o As prime minister of Great Britain, Robert Walpole pursued a peaceful foreign policy to avoid
           new __________.
   William Pitt the Elder
       o Advocates of Empire and ____________ found a leader in the new Prime Minister William Pitt.
       o Pitt advocated an aggressive foreign policy and was successful in acquiring Canada and India in
           the Seven Years War.
   George III
       o George III replaced Pitt the Elder with Lord Bute and sought to rule with more authority.
       o Public outcry for reform of the _________ system, inflamed by the troubles of John Wilkes, and
           added to by the rebellion in the Americas, led to the appointment of William Pitt the Younger in
   William Pitt the Younger
       o Pitt, aided by George III’s increasing insanity, the loss of America and the turmoil of the French
           Revolution, stayed in power avoiding any ___________ for another generation.
   The Dutch Republic
       o Struggles between the local oligarchs and the Stadtholders of the House of Orange led to the
           further decline of Dutch power.
       o The Dutch burghers, calling themselves ________, sought democratic reforms, but were crushed
           by the _________ who were aided by the Prussian army.
                                 Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
   Prussia – an Army with a State to Support it.
   Frederick William I (1688-1740)
       o King of Prussia (1713-1740), who during his reign made his kingdom into a major European
       o Frederick William's greatest accomplishment was in the ____________________ of Prussia.
       o He instituted a system of rigid and efficient economy at court and transferred public financial
           administration from local governments to the central royal authority and the
       o The continuing trend under his rule was the social and military dominance of the ______
       o He built up industry by forbidding the importation of finished goods and the exportation of raw
           materials, and directed the colonization of non-populous areas, especially in East Prussia.
       o He also instituted compulsory elementary education in Prussia.
       o The development of the ____ was his fondest achievement; he was particularly proud of the
           Potsdam Guard, composed of exceptionally tall men hired, and sometimes kidnapped, from all
           parts of Europe.
       o Under his supervision the number of soldiers in the army was increased from about 45,000 to
           some 83,000 and Prussia became the third ranking military power in Europe.
       o Frederick William died at Potsdam on May 31, 1740, and was succeeded by his son, Frederick II,
           the Great.
   Frederick the Great
       o King of Prussia (1740-86); during his reign, he was considered among the most notable of
           ___________ despots in 18th century Europe.
        o As crown prince he was trained, under his father's supervision, to become a soldier and a thrifty
        o Frederick, however, encouraged by his mother, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, and his tutors,
            showed a preference for courtly life, music, and ______ literature.
        o Frederick William, failing to understand the tastes of his son, developed an open dislike for him.
        o At the age of 18, Frederick decided to escape to England; his proposed plan was discovered, and
            he was arrested, imprisoned, temporarily deprived of his status as crown prince, and forced to
            witness the execution of one of his two confederates.
        o After he had subsequently applied himself diligently to fiscal and military affairs he was
            reinstated to his position as crown prince.
        o On the death of his father in 1740 Frederick became king and embarked almost immediately on a
            policy of Prussian aggrandizement and __________________ – increasing the size of the army
            to 200,000 men.
        o He ________ the laws but ultimately did little to institute the reforms called for by his
            Enlightenment idols.
        o He was at heart a ___________________ and allowed serfdom to continue and strengthened the
            hereditary hierarchy of the landed aristocracy.
   The Austrian Hapsburgs
   Vienna: the Paris of the East
        o Vienna was a great city of Baroque architecture and the _____________ of Europe.
        o It was the capital of the Hapsburg Empire.
   Maria Theresa (1717-1780),
        o Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740-1780), she strengthened and
            unified the Austrian monarchy in the 18th century.
        o Born in Vienna on May 13, 1717, she was the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
        o In 1736 she married Francis Stephen of Lorraine (later Holy Roman Emperor Francis I).
        o The couple eventually had 16 children, including two future emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II,
            and Marie-Antoinette, later queen of France.
        o Charles VI's efforts to guarantee Maria-Theresa's succession as ruler of the Habsburg dominions
            with the __________________ led to the War of the Austrian Succession.
        o In the years after the war Maria-Theresa accomplished sweeping internal reforms that
            strengthened her central administration and revitalized the army.
   The Diplomatic Revolution
        o She also drastically reordered Austria's foreign policy, abandoning the traditional alignment with
            the United Kingdom in favor of collaboration with ______ and Russia against Prussia.
   Seven Years' War
        o After trying without success to reconquer _______ in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), she
            turned to a more peaceful foreign policy.
   Partition of Poland
        o On the advice of her son Joseph, however, she participated in the first partition of Poland (1772),
            thereby acquiring _______.
   The Coregency
        o After Francis's death in 1765 Maria-Theresa recognized Joseph as coregent but retained ultimate
            authority for herself.
        o She largely resisted her son's desires for further internal reforms, although she did abolish
            _______ on crown lands.
        o Often pondering abdication, she always demurred because she considered Joseph ________,
            particularly in his religious policies.
        o She died on November 29, 1780, in Vienna.
   Joseph II of Austria
        o Joseph embarked on a thorough ______ of church and state in accordance with the rational
            principles of the 18th-century Enlightenment.
        o He granted ____________________ to Protestants, ended discriminatory laws against Jews, and
            drastically reorganized the predominant Roman Catholic church.
        o Joseph eliminated most forms of censorship, separated the executive from the judiciary, and
            promulgated a new law code.
        o To unify the administration of the various Habsburg realms, he abolished numerous organs of
            local government and tried to impose the ______ language on his Hungarian and Slavic subjects.
        o He abolished _______ and tried to give the peasants hereditary rights to their lands.
        o He followed the ideals of the Physiocrats by abolishing internal trade barriers and ending
        o In a sincere effort to reform his domains in the style typical of enlightened rulers, he issued over
            6,000 decrees and 11,000 new laws, most antagonistic to the majority of his subjects.
        o The reign of Joseph II witnessed the __________________ of the people due to his drastic
        o His reforms met with resistance in many quarters, and before his death in Vienna on February
            20, 1790, he was forced to rescind many of them.
   Russia under Catherine the Great
        o Following the death of Peter the Great, Russia had six rulers in succession that were all
            overthrown by the Palace Guard.
   Peter III
        o Grand Duke Peter of Holstein, a grandson of Peter the Great and heir to the Russian throne,
            married _________, the daughter of a minor German prince in 1745.
        o Peter became Emperor Peter III of Russia in 1762, but lasted only a few months.
        o Unstable and impossible in personal relations, he immediately antagonized the court, the
            Orthodox Church, and the leading elements in the army.
        o He also indicated plans to rid himself of Catherine.
        o In July 1762, Catherine and the imperial guard led by her lover Count Grigory Orlov overthrew
            Peter in a palace ____, and Catherine was declared empress as Catherine II.
        o Orlov's brother Alexey killed Peter days later, perhaps inadvertently during a drunken argument.
        o Catherine proceeded to rule Russia for __ eventful years.
   Catherine the Great
        o Catherine II made her considerable mark in history by her extremely successful and _________
            foreign policy, as well as, by her energetic and fruitful continuation of the process of
            Westernization in the footsteps of Peter the Great.
   The Extension of Russian Territory
        o Two major victorious wars against the _______ Empire (1768-1774, 1787-1792) extended
            Russia to the shores of the Black Sea.
   The Partition of Poland
        o Agreements with Prussia and Austria led to three __________ of ______, in 1772, 1793, and
            1795, after which that major country disappeared from the map and Russia's territory extended
            well into central Europe.
        o The dismemberment of Poland showed the necessity of a ______, ___________ monarchy to
            defend a state in this period.
   Catherine as Reformer
        o Catherine developed into an accomplished intellectual of the Age of Enlightenment, indeed in
            her own opinion its best model.
        o The Spirit of Laws (1748), by French political theorist Montesquieu, became her avowed prayer
        o Catherine convened the ___________ Commission in 1767 to codify the laws of the realm, and
            in the process rationalize and modernize Russian law and life.
       o The commission received Catherine's Nakaz, or ___________, a liberal document that presented
           the ideal government, from the form of its laws to its education and social structure.
       o The enlightened legal reforms expressed by Catherine the Great in her Instruction accomplished
           nothing due to ________________ and were soon forgotten.
   The Pugachev Rebellion
       o _____ antagonism stemming from the arguments over Catherine’s Instructions covered much of
           central and southeastern European Russia with blood in the great Pugachev rebellion (1773-
       o An illiterate Don Cossack, Yemelyan ________, took advantage of grievances among Cossacks
           of the Ural Mountains to raise the banner of revolt.
       o Pugachev proclaimed himself Emperor Peter III.
       o The local uprising soon became a ______________, as crowds of serfs, workers in the Ural
           mines and factories, Old Believers and other minority peoples joined.
       o Defeated, the rebellion dissolved as quickly as it had arisen.
       o Pugachev himself was handed over by his own men, taken to Moscow, tried, and executed.
       o After the rebellion, Catherine's alliance with the gentry became stronger and she further
           ___________________ referring to herself as the "first landlord of the realm."
   The Scandinavian States
   Sweden
       o Gustavus III of Sweden was labeled as "one of the most successful enlightened monarchs of his
           age" and among the most __________ in wresting power away from the nobility.
       o By decree, he established freedom of religion, speech and press; he eliminated torture in the
           justice system.
       o He established the economic policies of _____________ by reducing tariffs and encouraging
           trade and agriculture.
       o He apparently went too far as he was eventually assassinated by a group of nobles.
   Enlightened Despotism Revisited
       o In the final analysis, Enlightened absolutism in the eighteenth century could _____ really
           ________ the political and social realities of the time.

                          Wars and Diplomacy in the Eighteenth Century

       o ___________ denounced war as a waste of life and resources.
       o European diplomacy during the eighteenth century was predicated on the idea that in a balance
          of power, one state should not achieve dominance over another.
       o Yet, Frederick the Great said “the fundamental rule of government is the principle of extending
          their territories.”
   The Enlightened Monarchs
       o The extension of dynastic holdings and provision for dependents began to give way to reason
          and looking out for the long-term interests of their _______.
   The War of the Austrian Succession
       o The conflict arose on the death in 1740 of __________, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of
       o Before his death, many of the great powers of Europe, including Britain, France, Prussia, Russia,
          and the Netherlands, had guaranteed, by the _________ ________, that Charles's daughter Maria
          Theresa would succeed him.
       o Various European powers with claims to the Hapsburgs by marriage or blood changed their
          minds, believing Maria Theresa to be ____.
       o In addition, King Frederick II of Prussia took the opportunity to lay claim to _______, then part
          of the Grand Duchy of Austria.
       o He precipitated the war by invading and occupying Silesia in 1740.
       o The war was fought by an alliance of Bavaria, ______, Spain, Sardinia, Prussia, and Saxony
           against Austria, the Netherlands, and _______, with the three claimants fighting against Maria
       o The War of the Austrian Succession was ended in 1748 by the Treaty of _______________,
           which provided that all conquests made during the war revert to their original possessors, with
           some exceptions.
       o Maria Theresa kept most of her lands except Silesia, which was granted to _______.
   The Seven Years War
       o Austria's resolve to repossess the rich province of Silesia, which had been lost to Prussia in 1748,
           was the major conflict leading to the Seven Years' War.
   The Diplomatic Revolution
       o The __________ Revolution resulted when Maria Theresa of Austria, with the aid of her foreign
           minister Wenzel von Kaunitz, won a French alliance.
       o She also acquired the support of ______, Sweden, Saxony, and Spain with the specific aim of
           waging war against Prussia and its ally, _____________.
   The Major Areas of Conflict
   European Phase
       o Through the first half of the war, the Prussians continued victorious.
       o They defeated the French at Rossbach and the Austrians at Leuthen in 1757 and the Russians at
           Zorndorf in 1758.
       o At this point, however, with ______ entering the war and virtually all Europe opposing
           Frederick, the tide seemed to turn.
       o By 1759 eastern Prussia was in the hands of the Russians, and ______ had been captured.
       o The Prussian situation was desperate.
   Turning the tide for Prussia
       o The British and Hanoverians; both, until this point ineffective combatants, now fought
           successfully against the French.
       o In 1762 ,Russia and Sweden withdrew from the war.
       o This occurred as a result of the death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia; her successor, Peter III, an
           admirer of Frederick, quickly signed a peace treaty with the Prussian leader.
   The American Conflict
       o In North America, the war began in ____.
       o Colonial rivalry had gradually developed between France and Great Britain over lucrative ___-
           trading posts and land west of the Appalachian Mountains and over fishing rights off the coast of
       o The French, by a strategy of encirclement, hoped to contain British settlement, particularly in the
           ____ Valley, where Virginia planters had established fur-trading posts in 1749.
       o By resisting British expansion westward, France was in hopes of uniting, through a chain of
           forts, its Canadian empire with possessions as far south as New Orleans.
       o During the first two years of the war, ______ and _______________ forces were largely
           victorious, winning an important and surprising victory in defending Fort Duquesne.
       o In 1757, the British statesman ____________, was given complete charge of British foreign
           policy and appointed the British general James Wolfe to command the troops in the New World.
       o Pitt's bold strategy ultimately resulted in defeat for the French.
       o By 1760 the British had conquered all of _____________.
   The Indian Theater
       o Conflict spilled over into _____ in 1756 in a continuation of 18th-century conflicts between the
           French and the British for supremacy in the area.
       o In 1757 British soldier Robert _____ defeated the native government of Bengal at the Battle of
           _______ and installed a puppet government in the region controlled by the British.
       o The most decisive battles of the war were fought in the south.
       o ___________, the capital of French India, fell in 1761 and Britain succeeded completely in
           demolishing French plans for control of the country.
   Defeat of the French Navy
       o The final blow to the French came in a series of losses in major naval battles in 1759.
       o With the defeat of the French navy and the Treaty of Paris (1763), Britain became the world's
           greatest colonial power.
   Treaty of _____
       o The Seven Years' War officially ended in 1763.
       o On February 10 of that year the Treaty of Paris was signed to settle differences between France,
           Spain, and Great Britain.
   The Terms
       o Among the terms was the acquisition of almost the entire French Empire in _____________ by
           Great Britain.
       o The British also acquired Florida from Spain, and the French gave up their possessions in India.
   The continent of Europe remained free from territorial changes.
   Treaty of Hubertusburg
       o On February 15, the Treaty of Hubertusburg was signed in Saxony.
       o This agreement confirmed Prussia's possession of _______, and established it as a leading power
           in Europe.
   European Armies and Warfare
       o The ____________ standing army became the standard in Europe by the 18th century.
       o All of the continental great powers had standing armies in excess of 200,000 soldiers.
   Class Structure in the Army
       o The hierarchy of the army reflected the ________________ of the times.
       o The officer corps were made up of hereditary ________.
       o Promotion from the ranks was rare and not really desirable.
   The Rank and File
       o The foot soldiers were recruited or drafted from the _____ classes.
       o Conditions in the ranks were __________ and discipline was tough.
       o Many countries realized that conscription from the working classes was counterproductive to
           economic development.
       o So many armies were made up of foreign ___________.
       o Of the great European powers, _____________ was the only one not to possess a standing army
           and to rely heavily on mercenaries.
   The Royal Navies
       o Maritime powers, such as Britain and the _____, regarded navies as more important than armies.
       o Conditions in the British navy were ________, where scurvy and yellow fever and the scourge of
           the “cat-o-nine-tails” prevailed.
   The New Warfare
       o Modern standing armies were expensive, as well as destructive; so many monarchs were
           reluctant to commit them to _______________.
       o Because of this European warfare in the eighteenth century was characterized by _______
           objectives and elaborate maneuvers.
   Economic Expansion and Social Change
       o Economic depression of the 17th century began to end in the 18th century.
       o The 18th century was characterized by rapid __________ ______, expansion in banking and
           trade, agricultural and industrial revolution and world trade.
   Growth of European Population
       o European population began to grow by ____ and the growth rate doubled in the second half of
           the century.
       o One reason for this growth was the decline in ______ mortality rates.
       o Death rates were still high, but increases in ____ supplies and the end of periodic epidemics of
           the bubonic ______ began to lower the death rate.
   Family, Marriage and Birthrate Patterns
       o The family was still the foundation of the social order.
       o Upper class families were still considered a “_____.”
       o Marriages were arranged.
   Child Rearing
       o Lower class women breastfeed their own children and would often act as __________ for the
           upper classes.
   Upper Class
       o Children began to be treated as ________ instead of little adults.
       o Childhood was seen as important phase in human development and children were given toys and
           “__________” book.
       o Primogeniture decreased and mothers began to breastfeed their own children
   Lower classes.
       o For the lower classes many children were still seen as one more _____________.
       o ___________ became a real problem and many parents were forced to place their unwanted
           children in foundling homes.
       o Conditions in orphanages were ________ with some institutions having mortality rates as high as
   Marriage Patterns
       o The _______ family became the standard, especially in northwestern Europe.
       o Common people typically married _____ than nobles.
       o This tended to act as a natural form of _____________ – except that there was also an increase in
           the number of illegitimate births.
       o Women typically had their first child within one year of marriage and continued to have a child
           every two to three years throughout their child-bearing years.
       o Birth control began to be used more commonly among the aristocrats – especially in ______.
   Women in Society
       o Women began to take a more important role in the “family _______.”
       o Women began to work in the _______ industries of the textile trade.
   An Agricultural Revolution?
       o _______ led the way in developing new agricultural techniques.
       o New crops increased soil fertility and food crops from the New World – such as maize and
           ________ increased the food supply.
       o New Scientific breeding led to new breeds of cattle – increasing the meat supply.
       o ___________ experimented with seed planting machines.
   The Enclosure Acts
       o The need for more land for more extensive farming led to the end of the ______ lands.
       o Resistance to the enclosure of the commons led to Parliaments passing a series of _________
           laws to legally close the common lands.
       o Farming estates increased in size and many farmers were forced to seek work in the ______.
       o Many found work in the new _______ factories being built in Manchester and Leeds.
   The Textile Industry
       o ______ cloth made up 75% of British exports in the 18th century.
       o By the 18th century the ________ System of “putting out” work to country “cottage” workers
           was replacing the urban artisans.
   Cotton and Factories
       o The increase of imported ______ from India and the Americas led to a demand for faster means
           of production to keep up with demand.
       o Richard _________ invented a “water frame” to power the spinning of yarn.
        o Mechanical _____ will follow – leading many rural workers to call for the destruction of the new
   New Methods of Finance Industry
        o The lack of gold and silver coins led to an increased reliance on _____ banks notes.
        o The creation of private and public _____ led to an expansion of credit.
   The Bank of England
        o The Bank of _______ was established in 1694.
        o The Bank began making loans and issued _____ notes backed by its credit.
        o These notes became negotiable and a __________ for gold and silver.
        o The issuance of government _____ led to the establishment of the “national debt.”
        o Government credit allowed for the borrowing of money to finance government projects and ever
           larger armies and navies.
        o Britain gained a definite advantage over their rivals the ______.
   The Mississippi Bubble
        o John ___, a Scottish monetary reformer, came up with a scheme for generating money to invest
           in overseas colonies.
        o The creation of a bank led to the development of the ___________ Valley.
        o Over ___________ led to the bursting of the bubble.
        o Law went bankrupt and people became afraid to create a ______ National Bank.
   Toward a Global Economy: Mercantile Empires and Worldwide Trade
        o Despite the rise of banking and industrialization, _____ was still the dominant economic practice
           of the 18th century.
        o The 18th century saw a major increase in overseas trade, giving rise to a ______ economy.
        o The _______ and ______ became the dominant colonial powers of the 18th century.
   Colonial Empires
        o The British and French held vast territories in the New World and India.
        o The French empire in North America was based on the ___ trade and was thinly populated.
        o The British created 13 colonies all of which became thickly populated and dominated by
        o __________ policies limited trade between the various foreign colonies.
   The Slave Trade
        o The need for labor on sugar, tobacco and cotton plantations led to an increase in the _______
           slave trade.
        o Despite the feeling that Africans were racially inferior, some Europeans began to call for the end
           of the ___________ by the end of the century.
   The Social Order of the Eighteenth Century
        o The social organization of the Middle Ages continued into the 18th century.
        o European society was divided into _______ based on birth and position.
        o Enlightenment ideas began to have some effect on the old social order.
   The Peasants
        o The ________ were _______ social group in Europe making up 85% of the population.
        o Most of Western Europe was made up of free peasants, many of whom owned little or no land.
        o Many free peasants were _____ off than serfs in Russia.
        o Many still owed crushing _____, church tithes and ________ to the local lords.
   Serfs
        o Eastern Europe was dominated by large estates controlled by ___________.
        o _____ were bound to the land and were legally controlled by the local lord.
   Village Life
        o Local villages and the village church were ______ of peasant life.
   The Peasant Diet
        o The diet of the peasant, based on _____ _____, vegetables and legumes, was the __________
           diet in Europe.
       o New food staples such as corn and potatoes added to the peasant diet.
       o Bad harvests could still lead to ______.
   The Nobility
       o 2-3% of the population – they dominated European society.
       o Nobles had special __________ – they were exempt from _____, were judge only by their peers
           and were immune from severe punishment.
       o _____ was supposed to be beneath their station but many involved themselves in the new
           mercantile endeavors.
       o Many invested in industry as well
   The Aristocractic Diet
       o Aristocrats got to eat ____ and have ______ on their food.
   The Aristocratic Way of Life: The Country House
       o Life on the _______ _______ of the landed gentry dominated aristocratic society.
       o In England, the aristocrats of the Hanoverian kings spent lavishly to build up their estates.
   Georgian Architecture
       o Many were rebuilt in the ________ style of architecture – modeled after the great Venetian
           architect Andrea ________.
   The Grand Tour
       o No proper aristocratic education was complete without taking a _____ ____ of the great cities of
   The Inhabitants of Towns and Cities
       o The largest European city by the 18th century was ______.
       o Cities were still ______ and lacked proper sanitation
       o The ___________ of the cities gained more power and influence.
   The Problem of Poverty
       o The urban poor were often forced to rely on _______.
       o ____________ and drunkenness were common.
       o _______ came to be seen as an encouragement to the poor to remain idle.
       o Idleness and ________ became a crime and few governments did anything to aid the poor.

Shared By: