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					Factors in Exploration and Colonization – Europe on the
Eve of Conquest –
          1. Breakdown of Feudalism -
          Feudalism – social structure – key – personal
          relationships
          Manoralism – economic structure – peasants
          work on the manors for the landlords
          Structure -
          King
          Lords
Knights
          Serfs
          ________all take oaths of fealty to one another
          Due to the Black/Bubonic Plague – kills off 1/3 or
          more of Europeans

          2. Rise of the Urban Middle Class – lawyers,
          merchants, bankers, etc.
          Society becomes more complex, so you need a
          class of people who will manage goods and
          services

          3. Centralization of Power –
     Under the King – giving him power to tax
        4. Mercantilism - economic theory followed by
        govt at the time, economic warfare, export more
        than you import, accumulate specie (gold) and
        need for colonies, colonies exist to benefit the
        mother country
        5. Technological Innovations – such as the
        compass and the caravel – ship, moveable sail
        and a large cargo base
        Cartography (mapmaking)
        Prince Henry the Navigator – sets up a school for
        exploration, navigation and shipbuilding in
        Portugal/father of exploration
Columbus – believed he could reach the Indies/or a route
to the Orient
1492 – sets out to sea/ goes to King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella
San Salvador – they call them Indians
Debtor’s prisons – died penniless in debtor’s prison, still
thinking he found a rout e to the orient
Amerigo Vespucci – cartographer – examined maps of
Columbus and other voyagers – they found a new world
– thus America
Spain and Portugal are gaining wealth; English will join in
exploratory ventures
1st – Sir Walter Raleigh – go to Queen Elizabeth, we want
exclusive profit making ventures in the New World, we
need to borrow a little, but largely we will fund the
venture on our on and share the profits with you.
Set sail and land in present day North Carolina, naming
their settlement Roanoke
England in a war with Spain called the Spanish Armada
England becomes the naval and commercial power in the
world
Relief ship returns they find no one – thus it is called
“The Lost Colony”
1607 – The Virginia Company is formed –acts as a
modern corporation – chartered corporation
Chesapeake Bay Colonies – settlement – motivated by
profit


John Smith - governor
– Virginia – Jamestown –
3 work groups –
       1. Build encampment and fortify it
       2. Grow crops
       3. Seek trade
Primogeniture – eldest son inherits the land
colony full of wealthy young men, they have no skills
Smith – captured by the Powhatan Indians, falls in love
with Pocahontas- ultimately he returns to Jamestown
“those who do not work, do not eat” – sets up militaristic
rule in JT
Tobacco – key to the New World economy/cash crop
Responsible for the first labor system in the New World
Labor intensive – labor shortage in the colonies
John Rolfe – comes to VA via the West Indies where
tobacco was grown – so he brings some plants with him
Settlers growing tobacco – profitable!
Joint stock corporation - invest $ in the VA company, or
you can invest yourself – indentured servant
Opens up an opportunity for the poor under classes of
England
Passage is paid to NW, then you 5-7 years, you get land
and tools to have a farm
Social Mobility! Great opportunity!
Even with the success of tobacco, VA company still on
the brink of failure
Edwin Sandys- treasurer of the company
Proposed a representative govt/assembly in VA –
Virginia House of Burgesses
Governor, reps from the plantations, treasurer, and court
1st set of initiatives, 1619:
       1. Regulate trade with the Indians
       2. Everyone grows food crops
       3. Regulate/fix the price of tobacco and institute
       quality control
       4. Everyone had to attend church
       5. Punished drunkenness and swearing
       6. Institute a more fair system of land distribution
    The Va Company loses its charter, and Virginia
    becomes a ROYAL colony – it will be lead officials
    sent by the King – royal governor, the member of the
    rep assembly will be wealthy connected friends of
    the King


       1. Political structure – rep assembly
       2. Economic structure – agricultural based on slave
       labor
       3. Motivation – profit – economic incentives
       4. Social structure – Marriage and Family life –
       75% of men in Southern Maryland died unmarried
       Most were indentured servants
       Huge disparities in class and age in marriages
       Lack of women
       Women retain more power over their estates
       Children – very uncertain of their futures
       Parents would register a head of cattle
       Some children will live extended family settings
       All of these factors, it makes it difficult to import
       the traditions of Old England to the New World
5.. Traditions – self-reliance/individualism is key to CBC
       Southern Hospitality


CBC – Virginia – motivated by profit
Maryland – Lord Baltimore / George Calvert – motivated
by religion – 1634 – freedom for Catholics
Semi-feudal structure – taxes the landowners
Son takes over- Cecil Calvert
NC= spillover colony
Georgia – Penal Colony -
Massachusetts Bay Colonies/New England colonies –
Henry VIII - Breaks away from Catholic Church – forms
Church of England – Anglicans
COE-
Factions – Separatists/ Pilgrims
Puritans –
Separatists – leave England and go to Holland
3 factors why they leave Holland and go to the New
World –
       1. Cultural – they don’t want to be assimilated into
       Dutch culture
       2. Economics- they don’t have connections and they
       hear about the success of Jamestown
       3. Military factor – fear of an invasion – Spain
       threatening Holland and England


Mayflower – 1620 – travel to the new world – ride out
the winter on the ship – ½ will die that first winter –
many from scurvy
Go onto the land and build their settlement – they call it
Plymouth –
John Carver – 1st leader – when he dies
Lead by William Bradford
Meet a Wampanoag Indian named Squanto –
Slash and burn technique of agriculture –
Taught them how to catch and cook shellfish – clam
bakes, extract and make maple syrup
1621 - Thanksgiving
Govt – Mayflower Compact - blueprint for their govt
they drafted on the trip over
Governor, General Assembly, General Court
Only Pilgrim Saints could vote!
Interesting note – only ¼ of the ppl who voyaged over on
the mayflower were Separatists, the rest were
employees of man Thomas Weston
Economy – farmed and fisherman, later they will become
merchants


Insert Puritan PowerPoint


Native Americans –
Algonquians
Iroquois
Sioux
Nomadic natives – follow, for example, the buffalo
Sedentary – form villages
Consequence of the contact b/t natives and settlers –
Columbian Exchange –
Disease – smallpox, but other childhood diseases
Others – tobacco, maize (corn) and potatoes all
originally found in the New World
Corn and potatoes will play a enormous role in the
population explosion in Europe
Guns – traded for land and fur
Alcohol as well
To the detriment of the natives – dependent on alcohol,
guns
but also other products such pots and pans

**TEST – cultural implications of contact
Colonizing euro’s see the natives as barbarians and
heathen unbelievers
Chart –
European View              Native Americans
Land – man’s use           natural world sacred
Ownership – pp             communal land ownership
social order –individual      group over individual
Gender- Patriarchal society         matrilineal
Religion – structured          spirits dwell in nature/no
                                    churches
Puritans and Indians – convert or destroy
Winthrop arms his entire population to protect
   themselves
Indians prohibited from entering Puritan towns
William Penn’s policy – disassociated with the entire
     history of colonization in the new world
Indian Wars –
  1. Powhatan War – takes place in Virginia – begins
     around 1621-22 – Opechancanough leader of the
     Powhatan
  2. Massacre at Mystic River- Connecticut
     April 1637, Pequot Indians thus the Pequot War
     Settlers attacked, partially successful, then the
     settlers will enlist the help of the Narragansett
  Indians, settlers and Indians then set fire to the
  entire village
3. King Philip’s War/ Metacomet’s Rebellion – settlers
  called him King Philip (Plymouth, Massachusetts)
  Confederacy of Indians Wampanoag, Pequot,
  Narragansett’s as well
  Bloodiest and costliest war in early American history
  Causes: 1. Colonists hunger for land
  2. William Bradford dies in 1657
  3. cultural conflicts
  4. increased competition for resources
  1675 hostilities break out, Swansea, but the war will
  spread as far north as New Hampshire and
  southwest to Connecticut
  War ends in 1676 when King Philip is captured and
  beheaded
  Consequences:
  1. Bloodiest and costliest war in early American
     history – 1 in 10 soldiers on both sides died
  Destroys towns and farms
  2. Devastating to the natives – traditional way of life
     is gone
     Entire culture is devastated
     Those who remained alive were sold off as slaves
     to the West Indies, were enslaved as indentures
by the colonists, faced diseases and the
expropriation of their land

				
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posted:10/16/2011
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