Calgary Regional Transit Plan

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					Calgary Regional Partnership
Calgary Regional Transit
Plan




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Project Number:
G691-001-01



Date:
November 20, 2009
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Acknowledgements
Development of the Calgary Regional Partnership (CRP) Transit Plan was a challenging and co-operative
undertaking. The development of the plan would have not been possible without the commitment, hard work
and dedication of a number of people. Colleen Shepherd, Jennifer Hambly and Rick Butler of the CRP, Dave
Colquhoun and Bob Miller from the City of Calgary, and Don Heron and Richard Hum from Canadian Pacific
provided management, guidance and key input for this project. Strong leadership, guidance and commitment
also came from Truper McBride, Mayor of Cochrane and Chair of the Regional Transit Committee, and Linda
Bruce, Mayor of Airdrie and Chair of the CRP Executive. Other elected officials and staff from municipalities
in the region and private sector bus operators showed dedication to this effort by making themselves readily
available to attend meetings and participate in workshops. It is not possible to recognize everyone who
contributed to this plan, but those who deserve special mention are listed below:

CRP Regional Transit Committee

Mayor/Chair Truper McBride, Town of Cochrane
John Hubbell, City of Calgary
Councillor Tom Bragg, Town of High River
Mayor Patricia Matthews, Town of Chestermere
Councillor, Larry Spilak, MD of Foothills
Mayor Linda Bruce, City of Airdrie
Reeve Lois Habberfield, MD of Rocky View
Councillor Beth Kish, Town of Okotoks
Councillor Dona Fluter, Turner Valley
Councillor Jim Rhebottom, MD of Rockyview
Councillor Gary Pollock, Turner Valley
Mayor John Stutz, Town of Banff
Councillor Bob Sobol, Town of Strathmore

CRP Regional Transit Technical Committee

Colleen Shepherd, Calgary Regional Partnership - Chair
Dave Colquhoun, City of Calgary
Barb Imler, City of Airdrie
Alex Waters, Alberta Transportation
Angie Lucas, Town High River
Bob Miller, City of Calgary,
Chris Jordan, City of Calgary
Dawn Hefferman, Town of Okotoks
Deanne McNeil, Calgary Regional Transportation Services Society
Don Heron, Canadian Pacific
Frank Wesseling, Town of Cochrane




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Jeannette Vu, MD of Rockyview
Marianne Wade, Town of Okotoks
Richard Hum, Canadian Pacific
Rod Thompson, Alberta Transportation
Ron Deans, Town of Canmore
Ryan Payne, Town of High River
Peter Wallis, Van Horne Institute, Calgary Airport

Consultant Team
The consultant team consisted of Bill Lambert as project manager and Cordelia Crockett, Iona To, Brendyn
Seymour, Bruce Belmore, Peter Truce, Sam Whitehouse, Alf Guebert, Charles Billings, Jeff Hignett, Dez
Liggett, and Brian Marcotte.




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Executive Summary
Context

The proposed growth management strategy and policies contained in the Calgary Metropolitan Plan (CMP)
of the Calgary Regional Partnership (CRP) have focused on the need to plan for a metropolitan region that is
expected to grow to a size of approximately 2.8 million people by 2070 (from a base of approximately
1.2 million residents today) and accommodate an additional 800,000 jobs over the same period. Plans for
                                                                       s
efficient and cost-effective infrastructure are integrated into the CMP’ proposed regional settlement pattern,
which promotes intensification of existing development and directs new development to areas that can be
supported by the efficient delivery of water, wastewater and transit systems. There are a number of specific
CMP policies supporting the regional transit system and its strong integration with land use, which are
outlined in the report.

Plan It Calgary has concurrently produced a Municipal Development Plan and Transportation Plan for the
City of Calgary. Major aims of these City of Calgary and CRP planning efforts are to reduce the
environmental footprint of the anticipated regional growth and minimize the new acreage required to
accommodate forecasted growth. They also both recognize that in future years, the population of the region
may be less concentrated in the City of Calgary, meaning that more trips will be regional in nature than they
are now.

The Provincial Land Use Framework provides provincial directions to both the Calgary Metropolitan and
Plan It Plans.

Central to successfully managing growth and enhancing mobility, the CRP has developed a Regional Transit
Plan. It is structured such that the individual transit investments are phased as communities are ready and
financing is available and the appropriate local planning or other work is completed. These investments are
also integrated to land use changes in density, mix and form occurring in the regional communities and
reflecting the overall growth management plan which focuses growth to where it can be sustained by
servicing and transit investments. The Regional Transit Plan has been developed in the context of existing
and planned Calgary Transit services, existing and planned transit services in the regional communities,
current and forecasted travel patterns, existing and future enhanced specialized transportation services, and
other transit-related initiatives in the region, such as the planned creation of the Bow Valley Regional Transit
Services Commission.

Short-Term CRP Transit Plan (2010 to 2014)

The objectives of the short-term Regional Transit Plan are to build the transit market and transit use culture
in the regional communities of the CRP by developing customer-focused and integrated express bus
linkages, local transit services, transit hubs/centres, and transit-supportive land use initiatives in the vicinity
of these hubs and in the overall regional communities.

The key components of the proposed regional short-range transit plan are intended to be implemented in
stages as funding becomes available over the next 5 to 6 years from federal and provincial grants, transit



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fares, local property taxes, parking revenues and other local sources. Staging of these individual
components in the short-term transit plan in different regional communities will be based upon the following
factors:

      •     Approval of the Calgary Metropolitan Plan and its land use policies;
      •     Individual community readiness to commit the required local capital and operating funding required
            for these components;
      •     The level of support for higher density and mixed-use land development;
      •     The dedication and resourcing of the required staff and/or consulting resources;
      •     The approval of the required local municipal development plan and transportation plan policies and
            amendments required to support the transit investments; and
      •     Other factors such as the existing and projected growth, the geographical layout of the municipality
            and the mobility needs of the municipality.

The following key, short-term components Regional Transit Plan over the next 5 to 6 years are briefly
described below.

Two-way Express Bus Services between Calgary and Regional Communities

There is a proposed initiation of two-way express type bus service between downtown Calgary and/or
terminal LRT stations and the regional communities of Chestermere, Strathmore, Airdrie, Balzac, Cochrane,
Okotoks and High River using high-quality and accessible articulated buses and/or highway coaches of the
contracted suppliers and that will eventually be purchased by the CRP. In the early years of the plan, these
vehicles could be purchased by the contracted operator of the proposed service - either the City of Calgary
or the private sector operators, and the operator would be reimbursed on an hourly charge basis. The CRP
may also have to provide permanent storage and maintenance space for these buses, and would likely have
to build a dedicated maintenance facility should this need not be facilitated by the contracted operator. The
regional bus fares would be integrated with Calgary transit fares and schedules, and Smart Card technology
could be used in the future for fare payment for increased convenient to passengers. (See the figure below
for a map of the proposed express bus service.)

The express bus connections are proposed to be initiated with a limited number of initial two-way trips
between the regional communities and the City of Calgary, in order to provide an integrated regional transit
network that will increase two-way transit mobility between CRP communities and provide a cost-efficient
use of capital and operating resources. These express bus connections will build the regional transit culture
and ridership in an efficient manner. As demand increases, and more funding is available, the frequency of
these trips will be increased. Initial proposed routings for these regional services are provided in Appendix D.
Service frequency will also depend upon available local resources, and provincial funding. It is expected that
private sector operators will bid on the delivery of these new regional express bus services, and provide the
majority of the services.




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                                      Proposed Regional Express Bus Routes (2010 to 2014)




Enhancement and/or Start of Local Transit Systems

To enhance mobility in the regional communities, further build a transit culture and create the appropriate
local transit connections and interfaces with the new regional express services, local transit systems should
be introduced and enhanced (i.e., Airdrie) throughout the region. It is suggested that the first two
communities where local transit service should be examined and developed (outside of proposed
enhancements to transit service in Airdrie) are Cochrane and Okotoks due to the following factors:

      •     their importance as strong regional transit hubs along future potential regional commuter rail lines;
      •     existing and projected population levels;
      •     need for improved mobility, especially in terms of seniors and the youth; and
      •     the readiness of these communities to commit the staff and financial resources to starting local
            transit and carrying out complementary land use, transportation demand management and other
            policies that improve the effectiveness and efficiency of local transit systems.




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The City of Calgary Transit Planning staff has been working under a contract with the City of Airdrie to assist
in planning its inter-regional transit service connection to the City of Calgary, and has started to assist the
Town of Cochrane in examining the feasibility of a local transit service. To keep the planning process under
the control of the CRP, and not partially financed by the tax dollars of one of the CRP members, all of the
remaining regional communities in the commutershed of the City of Calgary should engage consultants
within the next two years to assist in conducting local transit service feasibility studies and in the more
detailed planning of inter-regional transit connecting services to the City of Calgary.

Creation of Local Transit Hubs for Buses in Short-Term

To provide a comfortable and convenient location for customers to catch either the local or regional express
bus services and to create part of the focus for future implementation of community transit-oriented
development (TOD) plans, off-street central transit hubs should be planned, designed and built in designated
regional communities. These hubs should be located near the proposed future stations for commuter rail,
LRT or bus services. Transit hubs should be created in Cochrane, Okotoks, High River, Balzac and Airdrie,
and in Strathmore and Chestermere. These hubs should have a sufficient number of bus bays to
accommodate local, express and specialized transportation services and sheltered areas for waiting
customers.

Near the transit hubs, limited park-and-ride facilities and a kiss-and-ride area would be appropriate. The
intent would be to charge for parking, as the provision of land for parking is very expensive (i.e., parking is
never free - if customers do not pay, the provider of the parking pays). The objective is for most people to
access the stations by local buses, walking/cycling or being dropped off by car. Other investments planned
for the central transit hubs to improve their access would include enhanced cycling, excellent walking and
road connections to the central transit hub and cycling facilities at the hubs (through amenities such as bike
locker storage).


Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Plans near Transit Hubs

In the 400 to 800 metre vicinity of the central transit hubs in Okotoks, High River, Chestermere, Airdrie,
Balzac, Strathmore and Cochrane, transit-oriented development (TOD) plans should be developed in the
next 2 to 3 years. Some areas of the TOD centres should also be developed in the next five years. These
TOD plans would provide the appropriate municipal plan and transportation plan policies and designations,
the framework for local land and other infrastructure investments such as road, cycling and sidewalk
connections, and the completion of the pro forma analysis and detailed plans, bylaws and policies to facilitate
the implementation of these TOD plans.

The intent of the TOD plans, which would ideally be developed with very good community consultation and
communications programs, would be to create a plan for implementing high density and mixed-use
development (i.e., residential, retail/commercial, office, community facilities all in close proximity).
Implementation of these TOD plans would generate the following benefits:

      •     Create two-way ridership for transit services;
      •     Support the revitalization and enhancement of the downtown cores of the regional centres; and



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      •     Provide a showcase for the regional communities, demonstrating that high quality and density and
            mixed land use can be successfully implemented in the regional communities.


Identify, Designate and Purchase Keys Lands Required for Future Transit Infrastructure

With the assistance of regional community staff and the consultant, key lands, track areas and corridors
required for future commuter rail connections and facilities (such as train storage and maintenance and park-
and-ride needs at Cochrane, Okotoks/High River and Airdrie) have been identified and appraised. These
areas should be provided with appropriate local municipal development plans and transportation plans and
provincial designations in order to preserve them for future transportation use, and provincial funding
assistance should be requested to protect and buy these areas.

Enhance Specialized Transportation Services

Although specialized transportation is outside of the current scope of this study, it is acknowledged that
specialized services are an important part any regional transit system and should be considered a priority for
provincial government funding.

For consideration in future stages - a detailed analysis of enhanced specialized transportation has begun
under the Calgary Regional Transit Plan and will build on the work that CRP has already incubated through
what is now called the Calgary Regional Transportation Services Society (CARTSS).


Other Transit Improvements in the City of Calgary to Enhance Regional Mobility in First Five Years of
CRP Transit Plan (2010-2014)

The following transit improvements are proposed in the City of Calgary Plan. They will enhance regional
mobility and support the above-noted initiatives. Components of the following transit investments in the City
of Calgary would be part of the CRP Green TRIP Program application to the province:

      •                                                   s
            Completing the design/build plans for Calgary’ West line and then its Southeast line;
      •     Adding capacity to the LRT system with 20 additional LRT vehicles;
      •     Implementing more city BRT services;
      •     Continuing improvements in the frequency and service of the Primary Route Network and other
            Calgary transit services;
      •     Continuing to develop and implement TOD plans around LRT stations in Calgary to support
            increased LRT ridership; and
      •                                           s
            Continuing improvements to Calgary’ specialized transportation services and their close linkages
            with enhanced intra-regional specialized transportation services.

Estimates of the short-term operating and capital costs for the above components of the Regional Transit
Plan are summarized in the charts below. These estimates and the timelines will be refined, based upon
more detailed studies and the financial capacity and readiness of each community to implement the transit
service.




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                Estimated Operating Expenditures for Proposed Local and Regional Bus Services
                                          Years         2010          2011         2012          2013            2014

                                                                        Operating Expenditures
              Service                 Community                           (2009 $ millions)
         Regional Express Bus Services (run by CT or PS)
               4 artics              Airdrie             0.630            0.630        0.630         0.630         0.630 $129 per hour
               4 artics            Cochrane                               0.630        0.630         0.630         0.630
               4 artics           Chestermere                                                        0.420         0.420
           3 hwy coaches           Strathmore                                                                      0.630
               4 artics            High River                             0.630        0.630        0.630          0.630
               4 artics             Okotoks                                            0.630        0.630          0.630
               3 artics              Balzac                                                         0.630          0.630
              27 buses            SUB_TOTAL              0.630           1.890         2.520        3.570          4.200
         Local Transit Services (run by CT or PS) includes spares
          10 small shuttles          Airdrie             3.200            3.200        3.200         3.200         3.200 $66 per hour
          4 small shuttles         Cochrane                               1.100        1.100         1.100         1.100
          3 small shuttles        Chestermere                                                        0.700         0.700
          3 small shuttles         Strathmore                                                                      0.700
          3 small shuttles         High River                             0.700        0.700        0.700          0.700
          4 small shuttles          Okotoks                                                         1.200          1.200
          3 small shuttles           Balzac                                                         0.700          0.700
              30 buses            SUB_TOTAL              3.200           5.000         5.000        7.600          8.300
         Marketing Efforts
                                       All               0.100           0.200         0.200        0.200          0.200

          GRAND TOTAL                                       3.930         7.090        7.720       11.370         12.700


         Calgary Transit operating regional services would cost $129 an hour including capitalization of buses (i.e.,
         $98 for operations and $31 for capital). A private operator charge may be different.

         Calgary Transit operating local services would cost $66 an hour including capilization (i.e., $59 for
         operations and $10 for capital). A private operator may charge a different rate.

         Assume local buses operate 6.00am to 9.00pm on weekdays and 7.00am to 9.00pm on weekends and holidays

         Assume regional express buses operate 6.00am to 9.00am and 3.30pm to 7.00pm on weekdays

         For estimating operating costs for the services, active vehicles numbers have been used. The number of
         active vehicles was assumed to be one less than the fleet size for a given service.

Note: CT = Calgary Transit and PS = Private Sector Include spare vehicles




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           Proposed 2010-2014 CRP Regional Transit Capital Investments including City of Calgary

                                          Years           2010      2011      2012        2013       2014

                                                                      Capital Expenditures
          Investment                  Community                        (2009 $ millions)
 Transit Hubs/Centres
            6 berths                      Airdrie           1.500     1.500                                    includes car and bicycle parking
            5 berths                     Cochrane                     1.250       1.250
            4 berths                   Chestermere                                           0.750     0.750
            4 berths                    Strathmore                                                     1.500
            4 berths                    High River                                0.750      0.750
            5 berths                     Okotoks                                             1.250     1.250
            4 berths                      Balzac                                                       1.500
           32 berths                   SUB_TOTAL            1.500     2.750      2.000       2.750     5.000
 Regional Buses                     (includes spares)
            4 artics                      Airdrie           2.760                                              articulated express bus = $690,000
            4 artics                     Cochrane                     2.760                                    highway coach = $600,000
            4 artics                   Chestermere                                           2.760
        3 hwy coaches                   Strathmore                                                     1.800
            4 artics                    High River                                2.760
            4 artics                     Okotoks                                             2.760
            3 artics                      Balzac                                                       2.070
           27 buses                    SUB_TOTAL            2.760     2.760      2.760       5.520     3.870
 Local Buses                        (includes spares)
       10 small shuttles                  Airdrie           0.800     0.800                                    40 ft bus = $450,000
        4 small shuttles                 Cochrane                     0.320       0.320                        small bus shuttle = $160,000
        3 small shuttles               Chestermere                                           0.480
        3 small shuttles                Strathmore                                                     0.480
        3 small shuttles                High River                    0.240      0.240
        4 small shuttles                 Okotoks                                 0.320       0.320
        3 small shuttles                  Balzac                                 0.240       0.240
           30 buses                    SUB_TOTAL            0.800     1.360      1.120       1.040     0.480
 Commuter Rail Land
   ROW near High River              High River Corridor     1.300
   End-of-Line Outposts                     All                                   1.500      1.500
   Downtown Calgary Station                 All                                                       30.000 May be as high as $40 million
        Commuter Rail                  SUB_TOTAL            1.300     0.000      1.500       1.500    30.000
 Calgary Transit
   SE LRT Design                         Calgary                      6.000
   SE LRT Build                          Calgary                     30.000   1,170.000
   20 LRT Vehicles                       Calgary                     30.000      30.000    20.000              LRT vehicles = $4.0 million
  100 BRT Vehicles                       Calgary                     23.000      23.000    23.000              BRT Vehicle = $690,000
                                       SUB_TOTAL            0.000    89.000   1,223.000    43.000      0.000
 Other Components
     Regional Smart Card                                                         10.000    10.000      5.000
  Bus Maintenance Facilities                                                     15.000    15.000     15.000
                                       SUB_TOTAL            0.000     0.000      25.000    25.000     20.000
          GRAND TOTAL                                       6.360    95.870   1,255.380    78.810     59.350




Longer Term Components of Regional Transit Plan

In the long-term parts of the Regional Transit Plan (i.e., 2020 and later), the following components of the plan
would be developed and implemented, in line with how the Calgary Metropolitan Plan will be implemented
and financial resources become available from local, provincial and federal sources. These components
would include:

      •     Commuter rail linkages from downtown Calgary to Cochrane in the northwest, to DeWinton,
            Aldersyde, Okotoks, Cargill and High River to the south, and to Airdrie and Crossfield in the north;
      •     Establishing new express bus connections between regional communities (i.e., between Airdrie and
            Cochrane);




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      •     In the very long term (i.e., 20 years plus), building a City of Calgary LRT line to the north and
            possibly extending it to Balzac and Airdrie, and building an east LRT along 17th Avenue and
            extending it to the east to Chestermere. Note: An LRT line extension to the north to Balzac and
            Airdrie would be dependent upon the level and pace of intensification and mixed-use development
            along either side of the Highway 2 corridor between Calgary and Airdrie. It would also depend on
            whether commuter rail service to Balzac and Airdrie more appropriately meets the needs of these
            communities and the corridor north of the City of Calgary and is built before a Calgary North LRT
            line. Peak period commuter rail service with service to a few key destinations and higher speeds to
            Airdrie in the medium to long-term may better serve the travel needs of the area than an all-day
            lower speed LRT service with more stops; and
      •     Building strategically located regional park-and-ride facilities.

Commuter rail should become a reality in the Calgary Region in the next 15 to 20 years or when the following
conditions are present:

      •     When population and employment levels and the density and mix of land use have significantly
            increased in the regional communities; and
      •     There are firm and significant federal and provincial commitments for the capital costs of
            implementing commuter rail services and initial operating costs to cover shortfalls until the commuter
            rail systems reach some maturity of ridership.

Commuter rail is an essential component of the overall CRP Transit Plan building upon the transit service
and capital investments made in the first phase of the CRP Transit Plan. Other metropolitan areas such as
Greater Toronto and Metro Vancouver have had provincial governments that recognized the ability of
commuter rail to enhance mobility and thus attract choice riders to transit and shape land development.
Ontario and BC provided significant funding for the initiation of the award-winning GO Transit and West
Coast Express commuter rail systems and advanced the building of these systems before population
thresholds were achieved in order to achieve the benefits above.

The estimated total capital costs (in 2008 dollars) for providing three peak commuter rail branches, one to
Cochrane, one to Airdrie and one to High River/Okotoks, is $1.2 to 1.3 billion, or about $285 to $330 million
per corridor, and approximately $250 million for downtown trackage and station requirements, contingencies
and spare vehicles. Net annual operating costs (total operating costs minus fare revenues) would initially be
about $25 to $30 million, but this would be expected to decrease over time as ridership grew. This will also
largely depend upon the selected operations plan, labour force characteristics and passenger fares. Total
peak period demand estimates for 2076 would be in the 2700 to 3500 passenger trips range for each
corridor. More details and discussion on the CRP commuter rail work can be viewed with a discussion paper
at www.calgaryregion.ca.

The long-term transit plan for the Calgary Region is shown below in the figure listed below.




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                                                  Long-term Transit Plan for Calgary Region




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Other Key Items of CRP Regional Transit Plan

Sustainable Transit Funding

With the emergence of regional public transit being essential to providing for significant enhancement to
mobility in the Calgary Region, and supporting the provincial sustainable land use framework, there is a need
for the provincial government to immediately provide long-term and sustainable source of funding for public
transit capital and operating expenditures. This commitment should be similar to the multi-billion dollar and
wide scoped long-term public transit program commitments in BC and Ontario.

Additional sustainable sources of funding for transit operating and capital investments provided by the
province directly or by enabling legislation for local municipalities to collect additional funds for transit
investments, will enable municipalities in the CRP and other regions of the province to make long-term
investments in public transit systems, and to leverage as well continued federal government transit
programs. This recommendation will also enable municipalities to not continue to significantly raise property
taxes and transit fares for increasing transit operating costs. Property taxes are a source of funding not well
related to the provision of transit services, and continuing to raise transit fares will discourage ridership
growth. A sustainable mix of funding for transit could include gas taxes, automobile license and registration
fees, hotel taxes, road and bridge tolls and other sources, ideally related to transportation. Funding means
for transit are more fully discussed in the Transit Governance Discussion Paper at www.calgaryregion.ca.


Transit Governance

Short-term Governance
To implement the short-term CRP Transit Plan, the CRP needs to establish a formal regional transit
committee or board at the CRP. This committee/board would be responsible for reviewing bus service
contractual arrangements, addressing policy issues which may arise, establishing a regional branding and
marketing strategy, establishing performance measures, overseeing plans and proposals for staging and
implementing future regional transit services, and applying for grant funding. To perform these functions, the
CRP should be assisted by on-going transit consulting assistance and a staff member with transit
experience.

                                                     Short-term Governance Structure
  Community Councils                              Calgary Regional Partnership         City of Calgary Council




    Community Transit                                                                        Calgary Transit
                                                  Private Service Providers
           Providers




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Medium- to Long-term Governance
In the longer term portion of the CRP Transit Plan, as the CRP moves towards the development of a
commuter rail system and the express bus system expansions and LRT extensions are carried out, the
regional governance of transportation and transit should move to a regional transit authority or to the next
level -- a regional multi-modal transportation authority.


The details of functions related to the governance of transit for the CRP are outlined in the plan. More details
and discussion on the CRP transit governance can be viewed with a discussion paper at
www.calgaryregion.ca.

                                                  Medium-term Governance Structure
                                                                        Calgary Regional        City of Calgary
      Community                       Regional Transit Board
                                                                          Partnership               Council
          Councils




   Community                               Regional Transit Agency                              Calgary Transit
   Transit Provider




Urban Transit Expertise


With the release of the Green TRIP Program and the increased need for larger public transit investments in
Alberta in order to achieve international, federal, provincial and local sustainable development targets, the
Province of Alberta needs to establish a new and strong Urban Transit Section in Alberta Transportation.
This section would be assisted in its foundation years by transit consultants with a mandate and
responsibility to:

      •     Develop an overall provincial transit policy framework which will position the province in the future
            national transit policy framework;
      •     Develop and program transit supportive policies, funding programs and initiatives on the provincial
            highway network within the two major urban regions to promote transit priority measures;
      •     Provide knowledgeable personnel to review the merits of the Green TRIP Program and other
            provincial transit programs and applications;
      •     Apply the same greenhouse gas emissions and other climate change conditions to the evaluation of
            the merits of proceeding with provincial highway investments; and
      •     Implement transit priority measures on provincial highways and interchanges in order to enhance the
            reliability of regional transit service investments.




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Future 2nd Ring Road in Calgary Region

With a world-wide movement against the construction of multi-billion dollar roads which create opportunities
for unsustainable growth in conflict with the plans and policies of the CRP and the City of Calgary growth
management plans, the Province of Alberta should do the following to enhance the mobility of vehicles:

      •     Reconsider the location and size of the planned provincial investment in the 2nd Ring Road around
                                                                                         s
            Calgary in alignment with the Calgary Metropolitan Plan and City of Calgary’ Plan It;
      •     Limit access to this road by reducing the number of built intersections and not allowing development
            to occur within or near these intersections; and
      •     Restrict access to the Ring Road except for the movement of goods by trucks paying tolls and transit
            with no tolls.

Key Benefits of CRP Regional Transit Plan

The key benefits of significant investments in improving the transit service in the Calgary Region and
implementing smarter land use patterns with transit service include:

      •     Consolidating regional transit service needs and their integration with regional land use and growth
            policies in one overall regional transit plan supports both the mobility and land use objectives of the
            overall Calgary Metropolitan Plan;
      •     Reducing accidents on the roads within the Calgary Region and the resulting property and liability
            claims;
      •     Supporting economic development in the Calgary Region and within individual communities, by
            enhancing mobility options for employees, and providing mobility for employers and their sale of
            goods and services, and transportation of staff
      •     Lowering the levels of congestion on roads and improved movement of goods, the majority of which
            have to be moved by truck;
      •     Providing regional transit connections to the Calgary International Airport;
      •     Providing strategic multi-modal connections or regional gateways between express bus, LRT and
            high speed rail mode stations (i.e., downtown Calgary and in northeast part of Calgary);
      •     Reducing financial resources spent on maintaining existing roadways and building new major
            arterials and regional roads and highways;
      •     Lowering energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions;
      •     Shaping and creating intensified, mixed private and public development in specific corridors and
            growth nodes which will in turn generate a higher transit mode share and ridership, and protect our
            valuable agricultural and environmental resources from development and infrastructure land needs,
            as defined in the Calgary Metropolitan Plan vision and policies;
      •     Enabling improvements in the overall quality of life and mobility for all residents, but especially for
            those without access to vehicles (e.g. seniors, youth and new immigrants) who are the fastest
            growing segment of the population and those who have special needs and use the region’                s
            specialized transportation services;
      •     Enabling growth that does not occur at great expense to the taxpayer and simultaneously in all
            directions;



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      •     Promoting roadway improvements that are strategic only, addressing congestion points, providing
            transit priority or improving goods movement; and
      •     Facilitating of the two-way movement of labour and enhanced economic activity.

Experience from sustainable regions in North America and world-wide clearly indicates that the current
roadway-dominated strategy used by the Province of Alberta and many communities in Alberta, which is to
invest heavily in roads as a means of enhancing mobility, is a false hope. The recent Alberta government
budget dedicated $5.9 billion in 2009/2010 to roads in the province versus a proposed very low capital
amount of $10 million in the initial rollout of a scaled back Green TRIP Transit Program. The province has
indicated that a scaled back version of the Green TRIP Program will likely be announced and reduced from a
three year $2.0 billion to a six-year $520 million program. (Note: As of September 21, 2009, the province has
not announced any details of when and how the Green TRIP Program will be released.) Nonetheless, as a
regional entity, the CRP is eligible to receive these funds. The region has a wide range of transit needs that
would be eligible for the funds, such as the purchase of new vehicles, the extension of LRT lines, the
construction of transit hubs/exchanges and the planning of transit-oriented developments.

It has been shown that cities with strong economies have a significantly more balanced approach between
road and transit investments. Continuing to have this imbalanced transportation investment strategy, focused
on building and maintaining more multi-million dollar arterial and regional roads, provincial highways and ring
roads in cities, towns, and regions, is a false economy. The provinces of Ontario and BC are good examples
for the Province of Alberta to use in developing programs and policies which provide strong transit capital (in
the base of both Ontario and BC) and operating assistance (only in the case of BC) to regions and
municipalities, which have enabled high quality bus and rail systems to be built and operated which have
realized the benefits noted above of transit investments.




Transit uses much less road space than single-occupant vehicles. At full capacity, a standard 40-foot
bus is about 10 times as space-efficient as a typical car.




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Implications of Doing Nothing


                  doing nothing”and “ invest minimally in creating a viable and enhanced regional transit
The strategies of “                 to
system”are not recommended strategies and will likely have the following consequences:
      •     The proposed regional growth management strategy and plan will not be viable, as the province and
            region will not be able to support intensified development if investing heavily in road infrastructure
            continues;
      •                                   s
            The provincial government’ sustainable Land Use Framework would not be followed;
      •                                      s
            The objectives in the CPR’ growth strategy of reducing the environmental footprints and
            greenhouse gas emissions of development will be significantly harder to meet;
      •     The economic strategy for the CRP will be handicapped in competition with other regions by not
            having a viable regional transit system (see reference below);
      •     The province would continue to add to its estimated annual total of over 150,000 vehicle collisions
            which creates costs of $12 million daily or over $4 billion annually;
      •     As the population becomes older, more people will become isolated from society as a result of not
            having a convenient transit system to access locations within a region;
      •     If commuter rail is not built, one of the alternatives is to build additional road capacity into the City of
            Calgary. To illustrate the costs associated with such a decision, to move everyone traveling between
            Calgary and Cochrane without the added capacity of commuter rail or other robust regional transit
            services, three lanes of roadway would be needed in each direction (assuming 1.1 passengers per
            car). A 40 km six-lane highway would cost $5.0 to $8.25 million per lane-kilometre for land
            acquisition, lane pavement and intersection reconstruction, based on highway construction
            experience in the US (Litman). This would result in $1 to $2 billion in construction-related costs.
            Maintenance would cost about $3 million per year (based on an estimated unit cost of $13,000 per
            lane-kilometre per year), and the presence of the roadway would generate the following costs and
            impacts:
      •     There would be additional costs (~$225 million) associated with building parking for additional
            vehicles;
      •     There would be additional greenhouse gas emissions related to an additional 3600 round trips
            made by car between Calgary and Cochrane per day;
      •     The performance of existing transit services in the region would decline;
      •     Evictions and expensive relocations would have to be paid for to provide a corridor for a new
            roadway; and
      •     There would be negative environmental impacts as a result of road construction.




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                                                  Highway Infrastructure

The March 2009 report by the Canada West Foundation - “         Going for Gold - Efficient Cities - The
Interrelationship between Effective Rapid Transit Systems and the Optimal Utilization of Land Use
Entitlements”summarizes the importance of building strong transit systems inter-related with higher density
and mixed development, in economically competing in the global market and enhancing prosperity and a
high quality of life.

                   To the extent that western Canadians get this [density
                 supported by public transit] right we will be ahead of our
             international competitors; to the extent that we get it wrong, we
              will fall behind in the race to sustain economic prosperity and
                           the quality of life to which it contributes.
                                                            Canada West Foundation, March 10, 2009




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Table of Contents
                                                                                                                                              page

Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................i
1.        Introduction and Context .................................................................................1
          1.1       Introduction and Study Purpose .................................................................................... 1
          1.2       Context – Land Use, Population and Employment Framework for Regional
                    Transit Plan .................................................................................................................. 3
2.        Existing Transit Systems in the Region .........................................................7
          2.1       Calgary Transit ............................................................................................................. 7
          2.2       Airdrie Transit ............................................................................................................... 7
          2.3       Banff Transit ................................................................................................................. 7
          2.4       Existing Regional Bus Service ...................................................................................... 9
          2.5       Existing Specialized Transport System ....................................................................... 11
3.        Public Input on Development of Regional Public Transit Plan ..................11
4.        Transit Vision – Guiding Transit Principles and Objectives and
          Supporting CMP Policies ...............................................................................12
5.        Short Term Transit Plan .................................................................................14
          5.1       Introduction ................................................................................................................. 14
          5.2       Transit-Supportive Governance .................................................................................. 14
                    5.2.1       Governance Structure and Organization ..................................................................... 14
                    5.2.2       Operational, Service, and Capital Planning ................................................................. 15
          5.3       Staging and Delivery of Service .................................................................................. 15
                    5.3.1       Overall Policy and Decision Making ............................................................................ 16
          5.4       Local and Express Bus Transit Systems ..................................................................... 16
                    5.4.1 Demand for Existing Express Bus Service .................................................................. 16
                    5.4.2 Two Way Express Bus Services between Calgary and Regional Communities............ 17
                    5.4.3 Enhancement of Existing and/or Start of New Local Transit Systems .......................... 23
                    5.4.5 Creation of Local Transit Hubs for Buses ........................................................................ 24
                    5.4.6 Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Plans near Transit Hubs ....................................... 25
                    5.4.7 Other Improvements to Promote Public Transit ............................................................... 26
          5.5       Early Preparation Steps for Commuter Rail Transit ..................................................... 27
          5.6       Maintenance and Operations ...................................................................................... 28
          5.7       Marketing and Communications .................................................................................. 28
          5.8       Public Consultation and Outreach ............................................................................... 29
          5.9       Financing .................................................................................................................... 29
                    5.9.1       Potential Sources and Budgeting ................................................................................ 29
                    5.9.2       Fare Strategies and Policies ....................................................................................... 29

6.        Medium- to Long-term Transit Plan ..............................................................30



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          6.1       Rail-based Services .................................................................................................... 30
                    6.1.1       Commuter Rail ........................................................................................................... 30
                    6.1.2       LRT Extensions .......................................................................................................... 34
                    6.1.3       Edmonton – Calgary High-Speed Rail......................................................................... 35
          6.2       Express Bus Connections ........................................................................................... 35
          6.3       Full Regional Transit System Map .............................................................................. 35
7.        Specialized Transportation ...........................................................................37
8.        Funding of Transit (Capital and Operating) and Allocation of Costs ........37
          8.1       Funding Means-Existing and Future ........................................................................... 37
          8.2       Federal and Provincial Funding................................................................................... 37
                    8.2.1       Property Taxes ........................................................................................................... 39
                    8.2.2       Local Gas Taxes ........................................................................................................ 39
                    8.2.3       Parking Revenue ........................................................................................................ 41
          8.3       Allocation of Transit costs-km of service, vehicles, hours and population-related
                    to benefits ................................................................................................................... 43
9.        Regional Governance Functions and Changes ..........................................43
          9.1       Short Term Contractual Arrangements with Private Sector Transit Operators or
                    City of Calgary for Regional Transit Functions ............................................................ 48
          9.2       Medium to Longer Term Regional Transit Commission and Multi-Model
                    Transportation Agency and Broader Functions and Role ............................................ 48
10. Monitoring Regional Transit Performance Management and
    Customer Satisfaction ...................................................................................49
          10.1 Objectives and Performance Indicators....................................................................... 49
          10.2 Monitoring Systems .................................................................................................... 51
11. Other Recommendations ...............................................................................52
          11.1 Regional Community Action ........................................................................................ 52
          11.2 Provincial Action ......................................................................................................... 52
12. Conclusions ....................................................................................................56

List of Appendices
Appendix A – Regional Express Bus Survey Response
Appendix B – Provincial and Federal Funding Programs
Appendix C – Transit-Oriented Development Research
Appendix D – Background Work on Express Transit Services to and in Regional Communities
Appendix E – Public Feedback on Regional Transit Plan
Appendix F – Potential Public Transit Funding Sources




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List o f Fig ures
Figure 1: Calgary Regional Partnership and Its Members .............................................................................3
Figure 2: Calgary Metropolitan Planning Concept Map .................................................................................5
Figure 3: Calgary Metropolitan Planning Concept Map .................................................................................6
Figure 4: Short-term Governance Structure ................................................................................................ 16
Figure 5: Short-Term Regional Express Bus Routes with Potential Extensions ............................................ 18
Figure 6: Examples of Community Shuttle Vehicles for use in Low Density Areas – Metro Vancouver
            and City of Calgary ................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 7: Transit Hubs- Simon Fraser University in Metro Vancouver and McKnight Westwinds LRT
            Station in City of Calgary .......................................................................................................... 25
Figure 8: Illustration of a Transit-Oriented Neighbourhood ........................................................................... 26
Figure 9: Proposed Routes for Regional Commuter Rail Network ................................................................ 33
Figure 10: Long Term Regional Transit Plan................................................................................................ 36



List o f Tab les
Table 1: Projected Growth in the Calgary Region .........................................................................................4
Table 2: Banff ROAM Transit Fares..............................................................................................................8
Table 3: Existing Regional Bus Service by Private Sector ..............................................................................9
Table 4: Existing Fares for Existing Regional Bus Service ............................................................................9
Table 5: Existing Schedules for Transit Service to Downtown ...................................................................... 10
Table 6: Demand Estimates for Express Service to Calgary ........................................................................ 17
Table 7: Current and Proposed Round Trips from Calgary to the Various Communities .............................. 19
Table 8: Estimated Operating Expenditures for Proposed Local and Regional Bus Services ....................... 20
Table 9: Proposed 2010-2014 CRP Regional Transit Capital Investments including City of Calgary ............. 21
Table 10: Potential Investments Eligible for Green Trip Funding (to be written when application
           released by Alberta Transportation) .......................................................................................... 30
Table 11: Breakdown of Capital Costs ......................................................................................................... 30
Table 12: Residential Property Tax Revenues Collected by CRP Members in 2007 ..................................... 39
Table 13: Comparison of Potential Sources of Funding for Regional Transit ................................................ 42
Table 14: Key Functions Recommended for the CRP Regional Transit Organization ................................... 44
Table 15: Summary of Objectives, Indicators, and Targets in Monitoring Program ....................................... 50




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1.             Introduction and Context
1.1            Introduction and Study Purpose
The Calgary Regional Transit Plan was created to be an integral piece of the Calgary land use plan entitled
the Calgary Metropolitan Plan (CMP). The plan supports the cornerstone principle that all members of the
Calgary Region will benefit from regional planning, while also recognizing that the success of this plan
depends on the actions of each individual municipality. The Calgary Regional Transit Plan is being
developed in parallel with a waste management plan, a regional Geographic Information System (GIS)
Business Plan, and a Water and Wastewater Plan that will help the region accommodate future growth in a
sustainable way that ensures continued and enhanced quality of life in the region. The Calgary Regional
Partnership (CRP) is the body that is spearheading this coordinated effort.

The goals of the Regional Transit Plan can be summarized as follows:

      •     Provide a practical, staged and realistic action plan for both short- and long-term regional transit
            services;
      •     Identify the required capital infrastructure and property investment needs at a strategic level, for bus,
            commuter rail, and other transit services and the corridors which should be protected;
      •     Estimate the short- and long-term demands for proposed services;
      •     Develop the opportunities and means to link the Regional Transit Plan to the CMP, transit-oriented
            development design principles and plans for compact urban nodes;
      •     Discuss the means that the regional communities can use to support the regional transit plan, such
            as transportation demand management initiatives;
      •     Establish the means to operate, govern, deliver, market, and finance the Regional Transit Plan, and
      •     Identify provincial and federal government, and perhaps private sector, financing and policy
            opportunities to support the CRP Transit Plan.

Transportation will continue to play a large role in the quality of life and economic development in the region.
The development of transportation facilities, such as arterial roadways and highways, traditionally comes at a
high cost to the environment, but with proper planning and the development of a regional transit system,
these negative impacts can be minimized. The benefits of significant investments in improving the transit
service in the Calgary Region and implementing smarter land use patterns with the components of the
Regional Transit Plan will achieve the following benefits:

      •     Provide new regional transit services for residents and visitors to the region that provide a level of
            convenience and affordability that is competitive with the private automobile and attracts new riders
            who currently commute by car;
      •     Support settlement patterns proposed in the CMP that will preserve valuable agricultural and
            environmental lands by placing 25% of growth in existing developed areas and the rest in lands
            adjacent to existing development;
      •     Proactively address future opportunities from growth, travel mode shifts, and potential economic and
            environmental changes;




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      •     Reduce accidents on the roads within the Calgary Region and the resulting property and liability
            claims;
      •     Reduce congestion on roads and improve movement of goods, the majority of which have to be
            moved by truck;
      •     Reduce the need for financial resources to be spent on maintaining existing roadways and building
            new major arterials, regional roads and highways, such as the proposed multi-billion dollar 18-lane
            Outer Ring Road (which this report recommends be scaled back from the provincial road agenda
            and plans);
      •     Reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions;
      •     Shape and create intensified, mixed-use private and public development in specific corridors and
            growth nodes which will in turn generate a higher transit mode share and ridership and protect
            valuable agricultural and environmental resources from development and infrastructure land needs,
            as defined in the CMP vision and policies;
      •     Improve the overall quality of life and mobility for all residents, but especially for those without access
            to vehicles (e.g. seniors, youth and new immigrants) who are the fastest growing segment of our
            population;
      •     Enable communities and neighbourhoods to be built for easy transit access;
      •     Enable growth that does not occur at great expense to the taxpayer and simultaneously in all
            directions;
      •     Promote roadway improvements that are strategic only, addressing congestion points, providing
            transit priority or improving goods movement; and
      •     Facilitate the two-way movement of labour and enhanced economic activity.

This CRP Transit Plan has been made possible drawing upon the following resources:

      •     CMP vision, strategies and policies;
      •     Information from the detailed discussion papers on future Commuter Rail and Transit Governance
            and Funding in the CRP, available at www.calgaryregion.ca;
      •     Consultation and input from CRP political and staff through committees and individual meetings.
            *Note: These meetings included the CRP Regional Transit Committee, composed of CRP elected
            representatives and Transit Technical Committee, composed of regional and municipal staff. The
            Regional Transit Committee oversees development of the Transit Plan and provides direction to staff
            and consultants and makes recommendations to the CRP Executive. The staff Transit Technical
            Committee provides expertise and makes recommendations to the Regional Transit Committee;
      •     An examination of the suitability of express and local bus connections, regional transit hubs, and
            alternative transit-oriented development activity centres in regional communities;
      •     Information from a survey of the users of existing regional transit services provided by private sector
            companies connecting the City of Calgary with other regional communities;
      •     Input from the CRP regional transit symposium on transit held in February 2009, the CRP transit
            workshops held in February and March 2009, and input on transit services obtained from regional
            open houses and workshops held on the overall CRP land use and growth management plan in the
            April to June 2009 period; CMP and Plan It;
      •     The City of Calgary integrated transportation and land use plan called Plan It. Plan It provides a
            strong transit system to which the regional transit system can be closely linked. As well, Plan It




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            provides strong growth management policies and directions for the central geographical part of the
            Calgary Regional Partnership which integrate and mesh with the land use, transit and servicing
            policies of the CMP;
      •     Research on land use, transit-oriented centres, transportation demand management and other
            related areas and questions.

1.2            Context – Land Use, Population and Employment Framework for
               Regional Transit Plan
The Regional Transit Plan supports and is supported by the CMP in that it proposes transit service to nodes
and in corridors where there is existing or planned dense, mixed-use development. The Regional Transit
Plan will assist the region in accommodating the approximately 1.6 million additional people expected to live
in the Calgary Region in the next 60 to 70 years (see Table 1). This growth in population is expected to be
accompanied by the addition of 800,000 jobs.

The Calgary Regional Partnership is made up of a number of smaller communities in the Calgary Region as
well as the central City of Calgary (see Figure 1 and Table 1) and is undertaking this planning work. By being
a member of this partnership, member communities agree to uphold the principles of CRP and carry out its
plans.
                                     Figure 1: Calgary Regional Partnership and Its Members




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                                                     Table 1: Projected Growth in the Calgary Region

           Areas                    Existing Population              Assumed 2076            Assumed Growth   Assumed Expected
                                           2006                    Horizon Population            by 2076         Increase (%)
Airdrie                                       29,663                      90,288                   60,625          204%
Banff                                             6,894                   10,001                   3,107            45%
Black Diamond                                     1,978                   6,888                    4,910           248%
Calgary                                      988,193                    2,201,447                1,213,254         123%
Canmore                                       12,298                      29,053                   16,755          136%
Chestermere                                       9,748                   53,024                   43,276          444%
Cochrane                                      14,004                      69,721                   55,717          398%
Crossfield                                        2,731                   18,607                   15,876          581%
High River                                    10,944                      41,572                   30,628          280%
Irricana                                          1,104                   8,801                    7,697           697%
Nanton                                            2,115                   6,952                    4,837           229%
Okotoks                                       17,498                      58,338                   40,840          233%
Strathmore                                    10,458                      38,236                   27,778          266%
Turner Valley                                     1,969                   7,308                    5,339           271%
Rural/Other                                   71,354                     190,854                  119,500          167%
CRP TOTAL                                  1,180,951                    2,831,090                1,650,139         140%

The proposed CRP growth management and land use plan from the CMP (Figures 2 and 3) is shown below.




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                                       Figure 2: Calgary Metropolitan Planning Concept Map




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                                       Figure 3: Calgary Metropolitan Planning Concept Map




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2.             Existing Transit Systems in the Region
2.1            Calgary Transit
The largest transit provider by far in the region is Calgary Transit. Calgary Transit serves a population of
1.2 million in the City of Calgary and has 165 fixed routes (2007 CUTA data). In the most recent year for
which data is available, 90.3 million passenger trips, or 88 passenger trips per capita, were provided on
Calgary Transit. As for service levels, Calgary Transit provides 2.17 revenue hours of service per capita.
There are more than 1000 vehicles in the fleet. The cost of a single ride is $2.50, and the cost of a monthly
pass is $83.50.

Calgary Transit is a well regarded service provider, having three LRT branches radiating out of its downtown
area and an extensive network of bus service. Of people who work in downtown Calgary, 45% access their
jobs by transit, a very high transit mode share for North America. Throughout the City, the transit mode share
for trips to work is 17% (2006 Census Canada). In future years, Calgary Transit intends to establish more
BRT routes, extend its existing LRT lines, and build new LRT lines. These plans are built around the goal of
providing a widely distributed Primary Transit Network, which is a collection of transit services operating at
high enough frequencies and for a large enough portion of the day that passengers do not have to consult a
schedule before taking them. It is expected that the Primary Transit Network will support the growth of
                                                                                        s
dense, mixed-use, multimodal nodes and improve the urban environment of Calgary’ inner city. Currently,
only the LRT system provides this level of service, but only 8% of residents and jobs are located within a
10 minute walk of an LRT station (Plan It Calgary). Calgary Transit intends to develop more BRT services so
that more people can have easy access to high-quality transit services. The intention is to eventually turn the
BRT lines into LRT lines once demand and funding are in place.

Calgary Transit currently operates exclusively within the City of Calgary. However, 20% of regional residents
(i.e., those living outside of the City of Calgary) who work in downtown Calgary take transit to work according
to the most recent City of Calgary travel surveys. Many use the 11,000 park-and-ride stalls at CTrain stations
to access Calgary Transit services. The Calgary Transit system has won national awards from the Canadian
Urban Transit Association (CUTA) and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM).


2.2            Airdrie Transit
The City of Airdrie provides a local transit system that serves a population of 28,927 and provides
19,000 passenger trips per year (2007 CUTA data). The system consists of three routes served by five
buses, all of which are accessible. All three routes begin operation at 7am, operate on 40-minute headways,
and end service at 6pm. The cost of a single ride is $2, and an adult monthly pass is $60.



2.3            Banff Transit
The Town of Banff operates four hybrid diesel/electric and accessible buses on its ROAM public transit
system. Bus service runs year round on two routes, with expanded hours and during the summer. The transit
system features use of Smartcards for fare payment and the provision of real-time schedule information at




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ten key stops. ROAM bus stops in all of the town's frequently-visited areas and hotel locations, including
Banff Avenue, Tunnel Mountain Drive all the way to the campground, the Hot Springs/Sulphur Mountain
Gondola/Rimrock Resort Hotel area, and the Fairmont Banff Springs Hotel. The transit system recovers
approximately 70% of its operating costs, some through innovative partnership arrangements with hotels in
Banff which allocate a portion of what they have collected in room taxes to ROAM in exchange for transit
passes for their employees and guests. The ROAM transit system has won national awards from the
Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA) and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM).

Single trip fares are $2 for adults (13 and up) and $1 for seniors (65 and up) and children aged 6 to 12.
Children under 5 ride for free. A Day Pass that allows the holder to make an unlimited number of rides in a
single day is also available for just $5. Frequent riders can save by using one-way tokens. Each token covers
a single trip fare, but they come in money-saving packs of 4 and 10 tokens (See Table 2). You can keep your
tokens on hand for use whenever you need them. Smartcards decorated with colourful wildlife graphics are
available for one-, three- and six-month periods.

                                                  Table 2: Banff ROAM Transit Fares

                                                          Adult             Senior    Child
                        One-way Tokens
                        4 tokens                            $6                $3       $3
                        10 tokens                          $15               $7.50    $7.50
                        Monthly Smart Cards
                       1 month                             $30                $15      $15
                       3 months                            $65              $32.50    $32.50
                       6 months                           $105              $52.50    $52.50
                       Reload Monthly Smart Cards
                       1 month                             $25              $12.50    $12.50
                       3 months                            $60                $30      $30
                       6 months                           $100                $50      $50


Bow Valley Regional Transit Initiatives

Also part of the Calgary Regional Partnership are the municipalities of Banff and Canmore, which are
working with Improvement District No. 9, private sector organizations, and other interested parties to form a
regional transit services commission. These participants are putting together an application to the Ministry of
                                                              s
Municipal Affairs for the fall of 2009 to create Alberta’ first regional transit services commission, the
Bow Valley Regional Transit Services Commission (BVRTSC), which if approved by all the parties, would be
expected to begin operations in late 2010. The purpose of the BVRTSC will be to focus government transit
infrastructure programs (e.g. Green TRIP Program and other provincial and federal programs which can be
applied to transit investments), and local government and private sector resources on achieving service
efficiencies earlier than by individual parties in order to build an excellent regional transit system in the Bow




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Valley Region. This Commission would work to customize and improve existing local (e.g. ROAM bus
system in Banff) and establish new local, regional and seasonal transit services to achieve the following
objectives: improved efficiency; increased mobility for local residents; higher cost recoveries; and improve
the overall experience for visitors to the Bow Valley Region.
The creation of the BVRTSC would assist in undertaking local and regional transit service improvements for
the next one to five years which might include:
      •     introduction of local transit service in Canmore and enhancements to the existing local Banff transit
            service;
      •     improved transit services to the three ski areas;
      •     introduction of a Canmore-Banff-Lake Louise regional transit service; and
      •     a summer transit service to popular camping and hiking destinations in Bow Valley.

2.4            Existing Regional Bus Service
Strathmore, Chestermere, Okotoks, Cochrane and Airdrie each have public transportation linkages to
Calgary provided by private bus operating companies (see Table 3) as summarized below:
                                              Table 3: Existing Regional Bus Service by Private Sector

                 Community                                     Operator                       AM Peak Trips to Calgary
       Strathmore                                 First Bus (Cardinal)                                     One

       Chestermere                                Chestermere Bus                                          One
       Okotoks                                    Southland Transportation                                Three
       Cochrane                                   Southland Transportation                                Three
       Airdrie                                    First Bus (Cardinal)                                     Six
       Langdon                                    D & K Shuttle Services                                  Three


The cash fares to ride the services are in many respects very high with charges up to $16.50 one way or $33
roundtrip (see Table 4). These high cash fees, however, discourage occasional travel and encourage
frequent usage through monthly subscriptions or at least the purchase of a set of tickets. The most
expensive monthly pass, priced at $258 (see Table 4), results in $6.45 for a one way trip (assuming 40 trips
per month), which, considering the distance involved (40 km), is more reasonable.

                                             Table 4: Existing Fares for Existing Regional Bus Service

                                                  One Way Cash           One Way Ticket         Monthly Pass

                Strathmore                             $16.50                  $8.10                     $258
                Chestermere                            $10.00                  $6.00                     $200
                Okotoks                                $15.00                     -                      $240
                Cochrane                               $15.00                     -                      $240
                Airdrie                                $16.50                  $6.60                     $231
                Langdon                                  $10                   $5.75                     $205




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Distance itself can lead to long travel times. For example, it takes over 52 minutes to travel from Strathmore
to Downtown Calgary. However, as shown in Table 5 below, time is added by having long and indirect pick
up routes within the communities. For example, it is 41 minutes between the first and last pick up in the last
trip from Cochrane. Another possible issue with the service is that because there is only one or a few trips
from each community, trip arrivals in downtown Calgary are often just after 7am, not giving customers much
flexibility in when they arrive.

                                            Table 5: Existing Schedules for Transit Service to Downtown

                                                   AM Peak           Leaves             Arrives            Leaves
                                                  Period First     Community           Downtown           Downtown
                                                   Pick Up

                   Strathmore 1                      6:03              6:33               7:25             17:00
                   Chestermere F                       -               6:55               7:25             17:00
                   Chestermere                       6:45              7:10               7:45             16:35
                   Okotoks 1                         6:07              6:29               7:15             16:20
                   Okotoks 2                         6:23              6:42               7:30             16:50
                   Okotoks 3                         6:10              6:26               7:15             16:35
                   Cochrane 1                        5:50              6:08               7:00             16:20
                   Cochrane 2                        5:50              6:12               7:01             16:25
                   Cochrane 3                        6:05              6:46               7:31             16:50
                   Airdrie 1E                        6:08              6:15               7:05             16:15
                   Airdrie 2E                        6:21              6:35               7:10             16:40
                   Airdrie 3E                        6:37              6:54               7:40             17:05
                   Airdrie 1W                        6:19              6:29               7:05             17:05
                   Airdrie 4W                        6:15              6:25               7:05             16:25
                   Airdrie 5W                        6:05              6:24               7:05             16:30
                   Langdon                           6:15              6:15               6:50             16:00
                   Langdon                           6:40              6:40               7:15             16:30
                   Langdon                           7:10              7:10               7:45             17:00


The present regional commuter bus services represent a balance between supply and demand with the most
important “  balance point”being the ability of the private operator to make a profit. Estimates put the average
“fullness”of buses at 66 to 75%. This takes into account both daily variations and seasonal variations in
ridership. Higher frequencies and more options for travel time might indeed attract new riders, but this is
likely to reduce the profitability of the service.

Positive aspects of the existing services include:




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      •     Direct travel (no transfers) from regional communities to the key destination of downtown Calgary;
            and
      •     Provision of comfortable coach type services.

On the contrary, features of the service that restrict ridership are:

      •     High prices (relative to a Calgary Transit ride);
      •     Lack of flexibility in departure and arrival times time as a result of a very limited number of trips;
      •     Buses are not accessible;
      •     Service is not integrated with Calgary Transit schedules, fares, and services;
      •     Indirectness in local service pick up (due to route or community design);
      •     Long walks to service; and
      •     Long travel times, but that is mostly a function of distance.

2.5            Existing Specialized Transport System
Although specialized transportation is outside of the current scope of this study, it is acknowledged that
specialized services are an important part any regional transit system and should be considered a priority for
provincial government funding.

For consideration in future stages - a detailed analysis of enhanced specialized transportation has begun
under the Calgary Regional Transit Plan and will build on the work that CRP has already incubated through
what is now called the Calgary Regional Transportation Services Society (CARTSS).

3.             Public Input on Development of Regional Public
               Transit Plan
Public feedback on the development of the Regional Transit Plan was obtained form a wide variety of
sources include:

      •     Workshops held in different parts of the region;
      •     A one-day regional transit symposium at the end of February 2009; and
      •     Public open houses held throughout the region in the April to June period on the overall CMP and
            components of the plan including the Regional Transit Plan.


This public input is summarized in Appendix E.




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4.             Transit Vision – Guiding Transit Principles and
               Objectives and Supporting CMP Policies
The Calgary Regional Transit Plan has been developed so that the services comply with the guiding
principles established by the CRP as discussed below, and the generally accepted qualities of successful
transit, which are as follows:

      •     Customer-focused;
      •     Reliable, timely, convenient, and comfortable;
      •     Customers feel good about using the service;
      •     The service goes where customers want to go;
      •     Service is integrated with land use and supportive of regional growth management plans; and
      •     Service is integrated with local, regional and provincial roadway investments in such a way that
            transit vehicles are given priority or corridor capacity is protected for future transit use.

The following transit-related policies have been incorporated into the CMP, which was approved by the all
members of the CRP on June 19, 2009 except for the MD of Rockyview, the MD of Foothills and Wheatlands
County.

Calgary Metropolitan Plan Supporting Policies for Regional Transit Investments

The Calgary Metropolitan Plan (CMP) has the following policies which will directly or in a related sense
support the development of efficient and effective transit systems in the CRP which are integrated with land
use and will provide improved mobility for all residents.

Regional Settlement Pattern Overarching Land Use Policies


3.1 Intensification. Member municipalities will strive to accommodate at least 25% of new population
    growth across the region through intensification of existing developed areas.
3.2 Efficient Use of Land. Member municipalities will ensure that new development occurs in ways that
    achieve efficient use of the land and infrastructure.
3.3 Compact Urban Nodes and Corridors. Member municipalities will protect the identified long-term lands
    for development of compact urban nodes and corridors, existing and new, across the region.
3.4 Evaluating Location Proposals for New Compact Urban Nodes. The CMP recognizes that new
    compact urban nodes may be proposed in the future in areas not presently identified in this plan. This
    will require a CMP amendment, as well as incorporating the same local planning and infrastructure
    criteria as all new urban development must follow under this plan.




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Policies for Development inside Compact Urban Nodes


3.7a. Development Form. Member municipalities will ensure that all new development in compact urban
    nodes is compact, mixed-use, and walkable and connected through a range of local and regional mobility
    systems.
3.8 Transit Oriented Mixed-Use Activity Centres. All new and existing compact urban nodes will develop
    and maintain one or more viable mixed-use activity centres, integrated with local and regional transit
    stations and services, to promote local employment opportunities and transit accessibility.
3.9 Transit Oriented Mixed-Use Activity Centres (minimum densities). Member municipalities will ensure
    appropriate land use intensities in all new and existing transit oriented mixed-use activity centres to
    support an enhanced network of local and regional transit services and make transit service available to
    the greatest number of people. A minimum intensity threshold of 100 people or jobs/gross developable
    hectare, within walking distance of regional transit services, should be achieved in new mixed-use
    activity centres.

Policies – Regional Transportation System

4.12 Regional Transportation and Utility Corridors. CRP and member municipalities will identify and
    protect future regional transportation and utility corridors (transit corridors, regional roadways, water and
    wastewater servicing, and energy transmission).
4.13 Rights-of-way Requirements. CRP and member municipalities will identify and protect future rights-of-
    way requirements for regionally connected transit, pedestrian, bicycle and roadway facilities and utility
    corridors.
4.15 Regional Transit. CRP and member municipalities will work together to provide increased regional
    transit service and facilities that stimulate travel by means other than single occupant vehicle (SOV),
    encourage the development of transit oriented urban nodes and provide enhanced mobility options.
4.16 Proactive Transit Planning. CRP and member municipalities should support the proactive
    advancement of regional transit investments in order to stimulate desired land use patterns and transit
    oriented nodal development forms.
4.17 Connecting to Regional Transit. Member municipalities will provide local transit service, cycling and
    walking facilities and systems to connect with regional transit systems within growth corridors.
4.18 Transportation Demand Management. Member municipalities should encourage transportation
    demand management strategies and active transportation programs in order to change travel behaviour
    and provide incentives to use transit.
4.19 Transit System Funding. CRP and member municipalities will endeavour to create ongoing and
    innovative approaches for funding the capital and operating costs of existing and expanded transit
    systems (these approaches may draw on new and/or expanded provincial and federal funding
    commitments, innovative public private partnerships, user pay and local tax based incentives, etc.).




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5.             Short Term Transit Plan
5.1            Introduction
As discussed in the executive summary, it is not feasible to implement a commuter rail system in the Calgary
Region in the short- or medium-term due to the lack of sufficient demand and high capital costs combined
with no operating or capital funding commitments from the provincial or federal governments. However, there
are a number of strategies that should be implemented in the next 1-10 years to help facilitate the future
development and implementation of a regional commuter rail system with up to three corridor services. This
chapter is a compilation of the short-term recommendations that were summarized in the executive
summary. It begins with suggestions on transit governance, which serves as the foundation from which a
well integrated, efficient regional transit system would be built, and proceeds with recommendations
regarding the local and express bus transit systems, the preparation work for future regional LRT lines and/or
commuter rail services, maintenance and operations, marketing and communications, public consultation,
and financing.

It is important to note that these recommendations are made in the context of other plans and policies that
are already in place or being developed by the City of Calgary and the CRP. An example is the Calgary
Metropolitan Plan (CMP), which outlines a vision on how to achieve a sustainable region over the next 60 to
70 years, and its associated policies with regards to working collaboratively with other government agencies,
protecting the regional landscape, guiding the regional settlement patterns, and enhancing regional
infrastructure and services. Areas of focus for the regional landscape policies include wetlands, riparian
buffers, regional wildlife corridors, areas of natural vegetation, and ridges and escarpments, while the
policies on regional settlement patterns address the question of how growth will be guided both inside and
outside urban nodes. The infrastructure and services policies examine regional water, wastewater and
stormwater management, regional waste management, regional transportation and transit, and regional
economic development, all of which are strongly interrelated. Thus, it is recognized that the
recommendations made in this report need to complement the CMP and its associated policies.


5.2            Transit-Supportive Governance
It is recommended that regional transit policies and initiatives be addressed in the short term in accordance
with the extended municipal transit service governance structure. The following recommendations are
actions that should be taken in the short-term for the governance of regional transportation services.

5.2.1          Governance Structure and Organization

      •     The CRP should form a short 2-5 year contractual partnership with consultants and/or a transit staff
            member to plan, schedule, implement, maintain, operate and monitor limited regional transit services
            in conjunction with the vision, goals and policies of the CRP.
      •     The CRP should formally establish a Transit Committee made up of CRP members with policies
            procedures and membership established in order that this Transit Committee can set service and
            performance standards, customer satisfaction measures for the new regional transit services, and



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            approve the short-term and longer-term investment, strategic and transit service procurement and
            branding plans, schedules and fares for the regional transit services.
      •     The CRP should secure an independent transit expert to work directly with the CRP to address
            regional transit service issues and opportunities, represent the regional interests in transit
            discussions, and perform regional transit functions. This person will serve as the primary point of
            contact between the contracted service partners and the CRP, and he or she will implement policies
            and services with approval from the CRP and corresponding municipalities connected by the service.
            The role will also include identifying opportunities, building relationships with municipalities, and
            establishing planning services to assist in meeting the strategic objectives of the CRP.


5.2.2          Operational, Service, and Capital Planning

      •     The CRP Transit Committee, with the aid of consultants, should use this plan to develop a more
            detailed and staged regional transit implementation plan with stakeholders and the general public.
      •     The CRP should ensure the detailed transit plan provides the CRP or future transit agency with the
            authority to undertake key actions to improve the regional transit system, including expropriation of
            property.
      •     The CRP, with the aid of consultants and its regional communities, should develop rolling three-year
            financing and operating plans that outline specific transit goals, objectives, and tactical plans that will
            be used to meet the vision and short-, medium- and long-term, objectives of the regional transit plan.


5.3            Staging and Delivery of Service
      •     The CRP Transit Committee should develop policies regarding minimum levels of service expected
            from a contractor. Policies should address minimum number of trips per day, weekend service and
            off-peak period trips, key TOD sites the agency would like serviced, etc. The contractor should
            develop the exact hours of operation, schedules, and routes. These policies will depend upon the
            financial capacity of the CRP and individual municipalities.
      •     The CRP should approach municipalities with existing transit systems such as the City of Calgary to
            initially contract the delivery of initial regional transit services while CRP strategies and policies are
            finalized for longer-term competitive private sector transit service contracts. If Calgary is not willing or
            able, the CRP should request proposals from Southland Transportation Ltd., FirstGroup Bus,
                        s
            Brewster’ and other private sector transit service contractors to set up and maintain regularly
            scheduled two-way transit service connecting the regional communities and the City of Calgary for
            the first two years.
      •     The CRP should ensure that no one company has more than 50% of the two-way regional transit
            services between Calgary and the regional communities in order to ensure healthy competition in the
            delivery of services.
      •     After a few years, the CRP should request proposals for a 5-7 year service contract.




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5.3.1          Overall Policy and Decision Making

      •     The CRP Transit Committee should develop policies consistent with the Calgary Metropolitan Plan
            and provincial goals.
      •     The CRP Transit Committee should develop and approve policies and standards to address fares
            schemes (further discussed below), ridership goals, maintenance and service performance, cost
            recovery, and human resources and public accountability.


A diagram of the first transit governance structure for the CRP is located below:

                                                  Figure 4: Short-term Governance Structure

   Community Councils                              Calgary Regional Partnership           City of Calgary Council




     Community Transit                                                                          Calgary Transit
                                                    Private Service Providers
            Providers




5.4            Local and Express Bus Transit Systems
The estimated initial and longer-term demands for bus express services between the regional communities
and the City of Calgary are described in this section. These estimates are based upon a Fall 2008 survey of
customers of many of the existing inter-municipal regional transit services operated by the private sector, the
existing and projected population and employment levels in the regional communities and surveys conducted
at park-and-ride lots at the City of Calgary LRT stations to which regional residents drive.

5.4.1          Demand for Existing Express Bus Service

Existing data from within the City of Calgary shows that the transit mode split to key downtown destinations
is in excess of 40%. This is partly due to the transit service being fast, frequent and reliable. Another reason
is that the service is provided at a reasonable cost.

Estimates of the potential demand for an express service to downtown have been generated by the City of
Calgary for each of the surrounding regional communities. The estimates have been made assuming that
40% of the trips are going downtown and 5% are going elsewhere via public transit.

The forecasted trip demands for the new express service are shown in Table 6.




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                                             Table 6: Demand Estimates for Express Service to Calgary

                                      2006 Population         2005 Total AM             2009              Estimated
                                                                 and PM                 Pop              AM Transit
                                                               Transit Trips          Estimate          Trips for Plan
          Strathmore                        10,458                  230               11,500                125
          Chestermere                        9,748                  369               12,000                200
          High River                        10,944                  144               12,000                 75
          Okotoks                           17,498                  448               21,000                275
          Cochrane                          14,004                  519               15,000                275
          Airdrie                           29,663                 1,110              34,500                600


With higher levels of service and transit promotion, these forecasted estimates may eventually be attainable.


5.4.2          Two Way Express Bus Services between Calgary and Regional Communities

Thus, for the short-term, it recommended that the CRP initiate a two-way express type service between
downtown Calgary and/or terminal LRT stations and the regional communities of Chestermere, Strathmore,
Airdrie, Balzac, Cochrane, Okotoks and High River using high quality articulated and/or highway coach
buses which are new and accessible (see Figure 1). Service will likely be priced at a cost of $7.00 to $8.00
per one-way trip with lower costs offered via monthly passes (i.e., $5.00 per one-way trip with a $200
monthly pass). This service will be completely integrated with the Calgary Transit system in terms of fare and
service schedules. The key differences between this proposed inter-regional bus service and the regional
private sector operated bus service today are as follows:


      •     The buses would be accessible, while the current buses used by private sector operators are not
            accessible;
      •     The service would be more frequent than the private sector operations;
      •     Limited service during the weekend and off-peak periods (with headways of at least 30 minutes after
            several years of ridership development) would be provided;
      •     The service would offer two-way trips, unlike the existing service which is only one-way;
      •     The buses used for the new service would be new and not like the older coaches used by private
            operators;
      •     The service would be integrated with Calgary Transit fares and schedules, unlike existing services
            which are not integrated;
      •     The service would be planned with regional communities and the province to create transit priority
            measures in regional communities, on regional roads, and possibly on provincial highways to make
            the services time-competitive with auto travel and reliable. This will also send a message in terms of
            the importance of designating road space to transit;
      •     The service would add the communities of Balzac and High River, which are not served by existing
            regional bus services; and
      •     The service could be designed to link with the Calgary LRT network, downtown destinations and
            additional destinations such as the University of Calgary.




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Figure 5 below shows the initial and future proposed express service for the CRP. Table 7 shows the number
of bus routes that are currently operating as well as being proposed between the City of Calgary and the
various surrounding communities. The private sector owners hold the provincial operating certificates
required for operating these transit services.

                    Figure 5: Short-Term Regional Express Bus Routes with Potential Extensions




The City of Calgary is actively completing work on the upgrading of the 17 Avenue SE corridor to provide the
existing #305 Bus Rapid Transit service with its own dedicated right-of-way (in the median or curb lane) in
the next couple of years. With suitable contractual arrangements among the CRP, Chestermere and the
City of Calgary, this service could easily be extended to serve a transit hub in Chestermere as well as a large
park-and-ride lot on the outskirts of Calgary. This express type service could be introduced to Chestermere
earlier than shown in Table 7.

The proposed new regional community express services between the communities under the CRP Short-
term Transit Plan, as well as the suggested staging, are based upon the above-noted design features and
are shown below in Table 7. The express bus connections are proposed to be initiated with a limited number
of initial two-way trips between the regional communities and the City of Calgary, in order to build up the




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transit culture and ridership in an efficient manner. As demand increases and more funding is available, the
frequency of these trips will be increased to a level more in line with the projected longer term transit
demands and work completed as part of this plan and included in Appendix D. Proposed routings for these
regional express bus services are in the regional communities are shown in Appendix D. Service frequency
will also depend upon available local resources, and provincial funding, and whether there is still a private
sector service operating. Private sector operators will be provided with the opportunity to bid on the delivery
of these new regional express bus services.

To operate these new regional express transit services, the CRP would need to work with the regional
communities in order to obtain an Operating Authority Certificate from Alberta Transportation, which requires
meeting the following three conditions:

      •     There is public support for the services;
      •     The service are complementary to other transit services; and
      •     The services can be delivered and supported from a business perspective.

Approval from the Alberta Public Utilities Board would also be required if the CRP communities decide to
contract out the provision of regional transit services to Calgary Transit or to a private operator.

                          Table 7: Current and Proposed Round Trips from Calgary to the Various Communities

                                                                                                     Proposed Round Trips to
                                Year                                   Current Peak Period One–
     Community                                    Current Operator                                            Calgary
                             Proposed                                    Way Trips to Calgary
                                                                                                     (peak period hours first)
   Airdrie                     2010          First Bus (Cardinal)                Six               Three are initially proposed
                                                                                                   for each of the am and pm
                                                                                                   peak periods in 2009)-may
                                                                                                        increase in future
   Cochrane                    2011                  Southland                  Three                         Three
                                                   Transportation
   Okotoks                     2012                  Southland                  Three                         Three
                                                   Transportation
   High River                  2011                     N/A                     None                          Three
   and Cargill
   Chestermere*                2013               Chestermere Bus               One                           Three

   Strathmore                  2014            First Bus (Cardinal)              One                           Two
   Balzac                      2013                 Southland          Employee shuttle service                 -
                                                 Transportation-        every 90 minutes from
                                                 CrossIron Mills       Airdrie and Calgary-paid
                                                Employee Shuttle        for by shopping centre
                                                     Program
   Langdon                     2015           D & K Shuttle Services            Three                  Three-outside 5 year
                                                                                                            timeframe

The estimated operating and capital costs of the local and regional transit services for the 2010-2014 period
are shown in Tables 8 and 9. These costs do not include estimated revenue from fares, which would
commonly recover 25% to 30% of local transit services costs, and approximately 60% to 75% of regional



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transit services costs in the initial operating period and increase over time as these services got marketed
and better known among residents. The operating deficits for both these local and regional services would be
paid for by the regional communities for which the service is intended. These estimates and the timelines will
be refined, based upon more detailed studies and the financial capacity and readiness of each community to
implement the transit service.

                       Table 8: Estimated Operating Expenditures for Proposed Local and Regional Bus Services

                                           Years           2010         2011         2012          2013            2014

                                                                          Operating Expenditures
                Service                Community                            (2009 $ millions)
           Regional Express Bus Services (run by CT or PS)
                 4 artics              Airdrie             0.630            0.630        0.630         0.630         0.630 $129 per hour
                 4 artics            Cochrane                               0.630        0.630         0.630         0.630
                 4 artics           Chestermere                                                        0.420         0.420
             3 hwy coaches           Strathmore                                                                      0.630
                 4 artics            High River                             0.630        0.630        0.630          0.630
                 4 artics             Okotoks                                            0.630        0.630          0.630
                 3 artics              Balzac                                                         0.630          0.630
                27 buses            SUB_TOTAL              0.630           1.890         2.520        3.570          4.200
           Local Transit Services (run by CT or PS) includes spares
            10 small shuttles          Airdrie             3.200            3.200        3.200         3.200         3.200 $66 per hour
             4 small shuttles        Cochrane                               1.100        1.100         1.100         1.100
             3 small shuttles       Chestermere                                                        0.700         0.700
             3 small shuttles        Strathmore                                                                      0.700
             3 small shuttles        High River                             0.700        0.700        0.700          0.700
             4 small shuttles         Okotoks                                                         1.200          1.200
             3 small shuttles          Balzac                                                         0.700          0.700
                30 buses            SUB_TOTAL              3.200           5.000         5.000        7.600          8.300
           Marketing Efforts
                                         All               0.100           0.200         0.200        0.200          0.200
            GRAND TOTAL                                       3.930         7.090        7.720       11.370         12.700


           Calgary Transit operating regional services would cost $129 an hour including capitalization of buses (i.e.,
           $98 for operations and $31 for capital). A private operator charge may be different.

           Calgary Transit operating local services would cost $66 an hour including capilization (i.e., $59 for
           operations and $10 for capital). A private operator may charge a different rate.

           Assume local buses operate 6.00am to 9.00pm on weekdays and 7.00am to 9.00pm on weekends and holidays

           Assume regional express buses operate 6.00am to 9.00am and 3.30pm to 7.00pm on weekdays

           For estimating operating costs for the services, active vehicles numbers have been used. The number of
           active vehicles was assumed to be one less than the fleet size for a given service.




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                    Table 9: Proposed 2010-2014 CRP Regional Transit Capital Investments including City of Calgary


                                          Years           2010      2011      2012        2013       2014

                                                                      Capital Expenditures
          Investment                  Community                        (2009 $ millions)
 Transit Hubs/Centres
            6 berths                      Airdrie           1.500     1.500                                    includes car and bicycle parking
            5 berths                     Cochrane                     1.250       1.250
            4 berths                   Chestermere                                           0.750     0.750
            4 berths                    Strathmore                                                     1.500
            4 berths                    High River                                0.750      0.750
            5 berths                     Okotoks                                             1.250     1.250
            4 berths                      Balzac                                                       1.500
           32 berths                   SUB_TOTAL            1.500     2.750      2.000       2.750     5.000
 Regional Buses                     (includes spares)
            4 artics                      Airdrie           2.760                                              articulated express bus = $690,000
            4 artics                     Cochrane                     2.760                                    highway coach = $600,000
            4 artics                   Chestermere                                           2.760
        3 hwy coaches                   Strathmore                                                     1.800
            4 artics                    High River                                2.760
            4 artics                     Okotoks                                             2.760
            3 artics                      Balzac                                                       2.070
           27 buses                    SUB_TOTAL            2.760     2.760      2.760       5.520     3.870
 Local Buses                        (includes spares)
       10 small shuttles                  Airdrie           0.800     0.800                                    40 ft bus = $450,000
        4 small shuttles                 Cochrane                     0.320       0.320                        small bus shuttle = $160,000
        3 small shuttles               Chestermere                                           0.480
        3 small shuttles                Strathmore                                                     0.480
        3 small shuttles                High River                    0.240      0.240
        4 small shuttles                 Okotoks                                 0.320       0.320
        3 small shuttles                  Balzac                                 0.240       0.240
           30 buses                    SUB_TOTAL            0.800     1.360      1.120       1.040     0.480
 Commuter Rail Land
   ROW near High River              High River Corridor     1.300
   End-of-Line Outposts                     All                                   1.500      1.500
   Downtown Calgary Station                 All                                                       30.000 May be as high as $40 million
        Commuter Rail                  SUB_TOTAL            1.300     0.000      1.500       1.500    30.000
 Calgary Transit
   SE LRT Design                         Calgary                      6.000
   SE LRT Build                          Calgary                     30.000   1,170.000
   20 LRT Vehicles                       Calgary                     30.000      30.000    20.000              LRT vehicles = $4.0 million
  100 BRT Vehicles                       Calgary                     23.000      23.000    23.000              BRT Vehicle = $690,000
                                       SUB_TOTAL            0.000    89.000   1,223.000    43.000      0.000
 Other Components
     Regional Smart Card                                                         10.000    10.000      5.000
  Bus Maintenance Facilities                                                     15.000    15.000     15.000
                                       SUB_TOTAL            0.000     0.000      25.000    25.000     20.000
          GRAND TOTAL                                       6.360    95.870   1,255.380    78.810     59.350




The key components of the proposed regional short range transit plan are intended to be implemented in
stages as funding becomes available over the next 5 to 6 years from the Alberta Green TRIP Program funds,
and other sources discussed in Chapter 8. This plan will be implemented as quickly as the individual regional
communities are willing to take the initiative in working with the CRP to fund and implement transit projects
using their own resources and federal and provincial transit funds are available. Staging of these individual
components in the short-term transit plan will be based upon the following factors:

      •     Individual community readiness to commit the required local capital and operating funding required
            for these components;
      •     The level of supporting municipal infrastructure or higher density and mixed land investments which
            have been made or committed to;
      •     The dedication and resourcing of the required staff and/ or consulting resources;



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      •     The approval of the required local official community plan and transportation plan policies and
            amendments required to support the transit investments;
      •     Municipalities that have approved and supported the Calgary Metropolitan Plan and its policies; and
      •     Other factors such as the existing and projected growth, the geographical layout of the municipality
            and the mobility needs of the municipality.

5.4.2.1        Future Communities and Express Service

The locations, cities and towns listed in Table 2 are relatively well developed and they are the focus of the
initial regional bus services. However, there are several areas that need to be considered for service in the
future: the CrossIron Mills Mall in Balzac, Langdon, Crossfield, and Nanton.

The CrossIron Mills Mall is being built and expectations are for there to be up to 3,500 employees in the area
and eventually up to 10,000 daily retail trips generated. There will be a need for public transit access to such
a large area but experiences in existing communities indicate low transit mode splits for work or shopping
trips to such location. A more detailed study is required to determine the feasibility of a regional transit
service to this site. Longer-term linkages could include a route from Airdrie via the Mall and terminating at a
station on the NE LRT in Calgary.

Langdon is a community located 28 kilometres east (of MacLeod Trail) on Glenmore Trail. Today it has a
population in the order of 3,000 and has a commuter shuttle that takes passengers to downtown Calgary.
The MD of Rockyview plans for Langdon call for a substantially larger community in the order of 10,000. As it
develops, consideration to allow for more local transit routing should be made.

Crossfield is a community located about 15 km north of Airdrie on Highway No. 2. It is anticipated that in
response to growth in this community, the express bus route that serves Airdrie will be extended north at a
future date.

Nanton is a community located about 20 km south of High River on Highway No. 2. It is anticipated that in
response to growth in this community, the Express bus route that serves High River will be extended south at
a future date.


As these regional communities grow and have higher densities and more mixed land uses, CRP should
support the development of regional express bus service between these communities and within growth
corridors of the CMP.


5.4.2.2         Initial Guidelines for Start-up of Express Bus Service

It is recommended that in the “ start up”phase of the express bus service the concept of “   one bus”and no
transfer be used for most services in the local community from which the service starts. It is recognised that
as each of the communities grow, there will be a need to balance longer pick-up routes with route directness
within the community. This will eventually lead to the necessity of local feeder routes connecting to the
express bus services.




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The above is particularly so for the smaller communities of Strathmore, High River and Chestermere. As will
be shown, Okotoks and Cochrane are close to requiring feeder route options, and of course, Airdrie, with the
largest population, already has a local transit service that can partially (but not completely) fulfill the role of a
feeder system.

In the design of the express service a number of design principles have been used. These include:


      •     No transfer;
      •     Majority of residents with 400 metres of route;
      •     Aim for route directness;
      •     Avoid backtracking;
      •     Use of collector or arterial roadways;
      •     Consider compatibility with long term “node”or TOD concepts;
      •     Minimum two trips from each regional community in peak periods; and
      •     Aim for arrivals in downtown Calgary over the period of 6:45am to 8:15am.

5.4.3          Enhancement of Existing and/or Start of New Local Transit Systems

To enhance mobility in the regional communities and to create appropriate local transit connections and
interface with the new express bus inter-community service, feasibility/planning studies should be conducted
in the next year so that the enhancement and/or start of local transit systems in some of the regional
communities can start operating in the next one to two years. This should include an enhancement of the
local transit service within Airdrie and the creation of new local transit systems in High River, Chestermere,
Strathmore, Okotoks, and Cochrane, with emphasis on the latter two communities due to their geographical
size, potential growth, need for improved mobility, and initial willingness in discussions to consider
implementing a local transit system in the immediate future. These local systems will interface with the
express regional bus connections at central transit hubs established in these communities.

To make local transit services timely, reliable, and attractive, they should operate on streets and
neighbourhoods designed to:

      •     Allow for routes with a direct path of travel from the neighbourhood to the node/station;
      •     Have collector roads linking contiguous communities;
      •     Have collectors that loop and do not “             ;
                                                     dead end” and
      •     Have collectors be of sufficient design standard (width and construction) to accommodate buses.

Minimizing walking distances for users is also critical in maximizing access to local transit services and this is
achieved by having:

      •     Walkways from residential streets to collector or arterial roads; and
      •     Residential streets designed to avoid backtracking to access local transit service.




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Land use decisions can also help maximize the number of people within close proximity of local transit
services, and these include:

      •     Have higher residential density on collector roads close to local bus routes;
      •     Have senior citizen facilities close to local bus routes to avoid long walks; and
      •     Have health care and commercial facilities located on sites close to the road.

                                                       s
Accessibility by all users is the requirement for today’ public transit. Buses can be made accessible with
low-floor design or with lifts, but the community infrastructure must likewise be accessible by having the
following features:

      •     Sidewalks in all residential areas;
      •     Signage that is legible to all;
      •     Curb cuts at all street intersections to assist wheelchair-users with crossing the street;
      •     Waiting pads at bus stops; and
      •     Street furniture designed and placed to avoid blockage of the main paths of travel.

More details of the interface between the regional express bus service and each of the regional communities,
as well as the connections with future local transit services, are proposed in Appendix D. Maps of their
interconnections and the potential location of the transit hub and future commuter rail station are also
included.

Figure 6 provides examples of smaller community shuttle vehicles for local transit service in regional
communities.

 Figure 6: Examples of Community Shuttle Vehicles for use in Low Density Areas – Metro Vancouver
                                            and City of Calgary




5.4.5 Creation of Local Transit Hubs for Buses

To provide a comfortable and convenient location for customers to catch either the local or regional express
bus services and to create what will become part of the community transit-oriented development (TOD)
centres, an off-street central transit hub should be built in designated regional communities, including




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Cochrane, Okotoks, High River, Balzac, Airdrie, Strathmore and Chestermere. These transit hubs should be
located near the proposed future stations for commuter rail or LRT and provide comfortable sheltered areas
for waiting customers.

Near the transit hubs, park-and-ride and kiss-and-ride areas should be provided. The intent would be to
charge for parking, as the provision of land for parking is very expensive, and the objective is for most people
to access the stations by local buses, walking/cycling or being dropped off by car. As such, other
investments planned for the central transit hubs to improve their accessibility would include improving
cycling, walking and road connections (e.g., sidewalks, bridges, and/or bike paths) to the central transit hub,
providing cycling facilities at the hubs (i.e., bike locker storage), and providing seating, lighting, vending
machines, newspapers dispensers, and possibly heating. Figure 7 illustrates some transit hubs in
Metro/Vancouver and Calgary.

  Figure 7: Transit Hubs- Simon Fraser University in Metro Vancouver and McKnight Westwinds LRT
                                           Station in City of Calgary




5.4.6 Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Plans near Transit Hubs

The CRP and its regional communities should, in cooperation with the City of Calgary and the private sector
development industry, pursue TOD initiatives in areas which have been designated as transit hubs in the
regional communities where express buses, local buses and possibility future services can meet. In the 400-
to 800-metre vicinity of the central transit hubs in Okotoks, High River, Chestermere, Airdrie, Balzac,
Strathmore and Cochrane, transit-oriented development (TOD) plans should be developed and some
components should be implemented in the next three years. These plans should provide the municipalities
with a station-area plan, transportation plan and policies and designations that will allow these plans to be
implemented in the future when demand and funding become sufficient to support them. Policies and
designations could include effective tools such as density bonuses for developers, flexible zoning,
restrictions on certain types of land uses, a bicycle parking mandate and lower parking requirements in the
proposed station area. Each municipality could also develop a framework for local infrastructure investments,
especially those related to streetscaping and the placement of community facilities that could support the
TOD plans. The intent of the TOD plans is to incorporate input from extensive community consultation and
communications programs in order to create a plan for implementing high-density and mixed-use



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developments (i.e., developments combining residential, retail, commercial, office, and community facilities).
Implementation of this TOD plan would generate the following benefits:

      •     Create two-way ridership for transit services;
      •     Support the revitalization of the downtown cores of the regional centres; and
      •     Provide a showcase for the regional communities, demonstrating that high quality and density and
            mixed land use can be implemented in other areas of the regional communities.

Further details on the development of TODs in the regional communities are outlined in Appendix C. A
transit-oriented neighbourhood is illustrated in Figure 8.


                                    Figure 8: Illustration of a Transit-Oriented Neighbourhood




5.4.7 Other Improvements to Promote Public Transit

The following actions should be taken by the CRP and other key partners to further promote public transit:

      •     With the support of the CRP and the City of Calgary, Calgary Transit should build extensions to the
            Northeast, Northwest and South LRT lines, build new West, North and Southeast LRT lines, and
            increase capacity on the existing lines with four-car trains and higher frequencies, and enlarged
            shelter areas at LRT stations. Any of the LRT lines could be extended to the regional communities,
            except for those northwest of Calgary, as topography limits LRT operation.
      •     Calgary Transit should upgrade its transit system through the purchase of 100 articulated buses to
            enhance and add to its BRT network, and the purchase of 20 additional LRT cars to increase the




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            capacity of the existing LRT system, and the improvement in the connectivity of regional express
            transit services.
      •     Enable a regional transit service connection to be provided to the Calgary International Airport once
            the 96 Avenue connection to the Harvest Hills Boulevard is complete.
      •     The City of Calgary should develop a Primary Transit Network (PTN) which entails providing an
            extensive network of frequent (every 15 minutes or better) peak period and off-peak period bus and
            LRT service from 6:00am to 1:00am, seven days a week, supported with transit priority measures
            (e.g. exclusive bus lanes, transit priority signals, queue jumpers) to maintain travel speeds and
            reliability.
      •                                                                  s
            The CRP should encourage increased coverage of Calgary’ BRT system to initially provide more
            service in the peak periods and eventually services that arrive at least every 15 minutes and all-
            day/all-week.


5.5            Early Preparation Steps for Commuter Rail Transit
In the interim period in the next three years, the following initiatives should be undertaken by the CRP and
the regional communities to ensure that commuter rail can become a reality:

      •     The CRP should hold meetings with key Canada Pacific (CP) personnel to begin preliminary
            planning and design for commuter rail service to and from the south (including Aldersyde, Okotoks
            and High River), the northwest (Cochrane), and the north (Balzac and Airdrie). Ideas and concepts
                                                                                                 s
            from successful commuter rail systems already established, such as Toronto’ GO Transit and
                          s
            Vancouver’ West Coast Express should be modelled wherever possible.
      •     The municipalities should proceed with the development and implementation of TOD plans with
            mixed and high-density land uses and municipal infrastructure and facility investments in the
            downtown core areas in the vicinity of their proposed future commuter rail stations.
      •     Municipalities and road authorities should plan for rail over/underpasses, new roads and
            intersections to allow access to commuter rail stations and ensure that future road or other
            developments do not inhibit corridor expansion for future all-day commuter rail service. Such a
            requirement needs to be “    hard-wired”into local, regional and federal legislation that will guide and
            bind the road authorities.
      •     The CRP should ask the provincial government to specifically fund the acquisition of the
            discontinued right-of-way that extends from just south of Aldersyde to High River and Nanton.
      •     The CRP working with its members and provincial government should “       take control”of development
            and purchase key lands for future right-of-way, stations, park-and-ride facilities, train storage and
            TOD areas. Examples include: key lands in downtown Calgary to facilitate the storage and
            movement of future commuter rail trains and loading/unloading of passengers; key lands north and
            south of High River to support future transit; key lands in the core areas of Cochrane, Airdrie and
            Okotoks for future commuter rail stations that serve as commuter rail/TOD hubs; and key lands near
            Cochrane for a future commuter rail maintenance facility.
      •     The local governments should support the planning and building of key transit-related infrastructure
            (i.e., transit exchanges, cycling and pedestrian connections, transit shelters and park-and-ride and
            kiss-and-ride facilities) in central transit hubs/stations to which express and local bus and later




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            commuter rail or LRT services might connect. The first communities would include Cochrane, Airdrie,
            Balzac, Okotoks, Chestermere and Strathmore and then would expand to High River, Langdon,
            Black Diamond, Crossfields, Nanton and Turner Valley and other regional communities as the
            regional transit system is further expanded and enhanced.
      •     The CRP Transit Committee should establish proximity standards to minimize the negative impacts
            that more active transportation corridors may have on residents living immediately adjacent to these
            corridors.

Identify, Designate and Purchase Keys Lands Required for Future Transit Infrastructure


With the assistance of regional community staff and the consultant, key lands, track areas and corridors
required for future commuter rail and/or LRT connections and facilities (such as train storage, maintenance
and park-and-ride needs at Cochrane, Okotoks/High River and Airdrie) have been identified and appraised.
These areas should be provided with appropriate recognition in municipal and transportation plans and
provincial designations in order to preserve them for future use. Provincial funding assistance should be
requested from Alberta Transportation and Municipal Affairs to protect and buy these areas.


5.6            Maintenance and Operations
With regards to the maintenance and operations of the express bus services, the following actions should be
taken:

      •     Under the short-term strategy, the private sector bus service contractor should perform all
            maintenance and preventative maintenance. The CRP should maintain open lines of communication
            with the contractor to determine what resources are required to service and maintain assets.
      •     The CRP should identify key lands required for fleet and equipment storage and maintenance. They
            should become familiarized with maintenance schedules used by Calgary Transit and expenses
            incurred which will assist in setting up their own facilities when in-house services are offered.


5.7            Marketing and Communications
To promote public transit throughout the region, the following recommendations should be considered:

      •     The CRP should develop both radio and TV advertisements with the aim of generating public
            awareness and support for proposed transit initiatives the CRP will be implementing;
      •     The CRP should develop a branding scheme to identify transit services throughout the region and an
            image synonymous with reliable and convenient transportation. Uniform colors and slogans should
            be used throughout stations, ads and on fleet vehicles; and
      •     All affected government agencies should be made are aware of all plans, including the Province,
            municipalities and regional organizations.




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5.8            Public Consultation and Outreach
Furthermore, public consultation and outreach should be conducted as follows:

      •     The CRP should communicate with the private sector and municipal and provincial government
            agencies to introduce the services and programs the CRP intends to implement; and
      •     The CRP should conduct public forums, workshops, focus groups or surveys to solicit feedback from
            the general public on key programs or policies.


5.9            Financing
5.9.1          Potential Sources and Budgeting

                          s
In the short-term, the CRP’ transit program will depend primarily on government grants, fare revenue and
municipal taxes, and other sources such as parking taxes for funding services. This includes pursuing
funding through the Green TRIP Program offered by the Government of Alberta and pursuing the following
actions:

      •     The CRP should form contracts with existing public and private transit service providers, including
            but not limited to, Calgary Transit, FirstGroup Bus, Southland, and Pacific Western to greatly reduce
            start-up and maintenance costs.
      •     The CRP and its regional members should maximize obtaining grants and cost sharing from federal
            and provincial government programs available for principally transit capital investments, and
            occasionally for transit operating costs.
      •     The CRP may incur additional administrative costs, and should be flexible in providing private
            entities with leverage in managing risk, such as by granting some authority in determining transit
            fares and service levels.
      •     The CRP should seek opportunities to create partnerships with the private sector and institutions to
            expand the current U-Pass program in Calgary (deep discount transit fare program provided to post-
            secondary students in exchange for all students agreeing to purchase the pass), establish new
            employer sponsored transit passes, and acquire land, money and facilities from private companies
            such as CP.
      •     The CRP Transit Committee should consider value capture strategies early in the planning process
            as future locations for transit expansion are identified. Similarly, property development by the transit
            agency or individual municipalities along rail lines and around TOD nodes should be considered.
      •     The CRP should request that the province cover the costs of specialized transportation services to
            ensure access to its medical facilities and programs for people on fixed incomes or with mobility
            limitations.

5.9.2          Fare Strategies and Policies

In terms of fare strategies and policies, the following recommendations should be considered:




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      •      The CRP should establish a reasonable fare strategy to be implemented for all regional transit routes
             that promotes ridership and addresses transfers. One-way cash fares in the range of $7.00 to $8.00
             should be set for regional Express Bus services, with significant discounts for annual or monthly
             passes.
      •      U-Pass or similar pass program should be promoted by the CRP and implemented at all post-
             secondary institutions. Policies should be developed for mandatory cooperation of all educational
             facilities.

          Table 10: Potential Investments Eligible for Green Trip Funding (to be written when application released by Alberta
                                                            Transportation)




6.             Medium- to Long-term Transit Plan
6.1            Rail-based Services
6.1.1          Commuter Rail

When population, employment and densification levels have significantly increased in the regional
communities in the High River, Okotoks, DeWinton and Aldersyde corridor, the Cochrane corridor and the
Airdrie corridor, and there are federal and provincial commitments for the capital costs of implementing
commuter rail services, commuter rail operating along exclusive tracks in these CP freight corridors should
become a reality in the Calgary Region.


As shown in the table below, the estimated total capital costs for the three recommended peak commuter rail
services to Cochrane, High River/Okotoks, and Airdrie is $1,105 to $1240 million, or about $285 to $330
million per corridor, and approximately $250 million for downtown trackage and station requirements,
contingencies and spare vehicles. Total annual operating costs would be about $28 to $58 million, but this
depends upon the actual operations plan and labour needs, and much of these operating costs will be offset
by fares. Total peak period ridership estimates for 2076 would be in the 2700 to 3500 range for each
corridor. More details on commuter rail in the CRP can be found in a Discussion Paper which is on the CRP
website at www.calgaryregion.ca.

                                                       Table 11: Breakdown of Capital Costs

                                                  Infrastructure                                     Cost

                      Cochrane Corridor                                                       $285 to $330 million
                      High River Corridor                                                     $285 to $330 million
                      Airdrie Corridor                                                        $285 to $330 million
                      Downtown trackage and station requirements,                                 $250 million
                      contingencies, and spare vehicles
                                                                        Total            $1105 to $1240 million




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Benefits of Commuter Rail

      •     Studies show that rail service attracts more riders than bus services, even when the service levels
            are the same.
      •     If commuter rail is not built, one alternative would be to build additional road capacity into the City of
            Calgary. To move everyone by car without the capacity of commuter rail or regional buses, three
            lanes of road would be needed in each direction (assuming 1.1 passengers per car).
      •     A 40 km six-lane highway would cost $5.0 to $8.25 million per lane-kilometre for land acquisition, lane
            pavement and intersection reconstruction, based on information gathered from the US (Litman). The total cost
            would be $1.0 billion to $2.4 billion for construction. Maintenance would be about $3.0 million per
            year (based on a unit cost of $13,000 per lane-kilometre per year), and the presence of the road
            would generate the following costs and impacts:
                 o Building additional parking for the vehicles would cost $225 million.
                 o Greenhouse gas emissions related to an additional 3600 cars per day making round trips in
                    each of the corridors.
                 o Finding a corridor for the road.
                 o Environmental impacts of construction.

The following three corridors have been explored for the commuter rail system, each of which is described in
further detail below:

            1) Cochrane Corridor, and potential future extension to new proposed Horseshoe community and
               to Banff;
            2) Okotoks Corridor: DeWinton, Aldersyde, Okotoks, Cargill and High River; and
            3) Airdrie Corridor: Airdrie, Balzac, and Crossfield.


Cochrane Corridor
As a gateway to the west coast, the Cochrane Corridor will require double track up to the west side of
downtown Calgary. The yard and lead tracks at Keith will need to be extended to eliminate freight operation
interference on the mainline. In the western portion of downtown Calgary, four tracks will need to be
extended to accommodate the freight capacity lost by locating commuter rail platforms on the east side of
downtown Calgary. As a result, the 11th Street SW crossing will need to be grade separated. The 8th Street
SE crossing will also need to be closed and replaced with the City’ planned 4th Street SE underpass.
                                                                  s

This corridor also requires turnaround tracks at the last station, track improvements along the line to facilitate
the scheduled service of a commuter rail system, and extra tracks at two or three intermediate stations and
the terminal station to enable this service to operate with other train movements in the corridor. This is
assuming that the commuter rail trains will use the same corridor as the freight trains.




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Okotoks Corridor
This corridor is unique in that the CTrain in Calgary parallels this corridor for about a third of its length. This
provides the capability for commuter rail services in this corridor to be interconnected to the LRT and benefit
patrons.

The current CP freight line to Okotoks handles less freight (up to 8 trains per day) than the Airdrie Corridor,
so it only requires two or three sidings. The entire line will have to be upgraded to Centralized Train Control
and the track structure will need to be upgraded to accommodate higher speeds. A third track on the east
side of downtown Calgary and a new bridge span over the Elbow River will be required to connect this
corridor to the downtown station commuter rail tracks. An overnight facility may also be required at Okotoks.

This corridor will require a station and turnaround track in the Aldersyde area, stations at four to five other
locations along the corridor, possibly including High River, Okotoks, the local food processing plant (Cargill),
DeWinton and an interchange station with the CTrain at Somerset. This commuter rail service will
supplement the capacity in the parallel LRT line which carries passengers to downtown. While the commuter
rail services are conceptually being considered as one-way only services (supplemented by bus services),
the Cargill plant (1,400 employees) and other suburban employers could create sufficient demand for
reverse-commute trips to warrant two-way train service.

Airdrie Corridor
On the Airdrie corridor, three intermediate stations might be needed initially. One station in the Airdrie area,
one near the Airport, and possibly one at 32nd Avenue would sufficiently serve the corridor.

While the Airdrie corridor has been explored in this CRP Regional Transit Plan to the same extent as the
Cochrane and Okotoks corridors in terms of its potential for commuter rail service, the issue of extending a
Calgary North LRT service to Airdrie was also examined. While LRT has several advantages over commuter
rail in terms of being able to provide higher levels of service and attracting more TOD development to station
areas, commuter rail would provide more competitive travel times to downtown Calgary. If the North Calgary
LRT line is extended to Balzac, a frequent and convenient BRT connection from Airdrie and growth north of
Airdrie along Highway 2 could be provided to the Balzac LRT station. If a commuter rail line is operated,
points north of Calgary would be able to receive direct service to and from Downtown.

Nonetheless, to ensure that commuter rail remains a viable choice to the North of the City of Calgary, and
perhaps to protect the prospects of a future high-speed train between Calgary and Edmonton, the actions
described in the short-term plan are recommended.


Overall Plan
For all three corridors, the selection of stations will be important to service the ridership catchment area.
Since most riders will come to the stations by car or bus, these sites are optimally located where good road
access is available. These sites must provide easy access from the community and quick departure from the
station back into the community and major road network. Stations must support pedestrian and bike access,
as well. Stations will serve the public best as transit hubs with adjacent transit-oriented development to




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integrate trains and regional/local buses. The stations on a line should be spaced to minimize the travel time
between the regional communities and the City yet plentiful enough to attract a large number of riders.


With the implementation of the regional express bus system between Calgary and the regional communities
and local bus systems in regional communities in the short- and medium-term, it is anticipated that public
transit ridership will have increased so as to be able to support the new commuter rail line. However, to
ensure ridership continues to increase, considerable efforts by local governments will also be required to
promote and implement transit-oriented developments around the station areas.


The overall plan for commuter rail lines is shown in the figure below:


                               Figure 9: Proposed Routes for Regional Commuter Rail Network




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In addition, to ensure the viability of these three corridors, there are a number of medium- and long-term
actions that municipal, regional and provincial agencies must undertake. These include the following:

Medium-term
      •     Secure significant capital contributions from the Province and federal government for commuter rail
            projects and initial operating assistance for these commuter rail services until ridership on these
            services has matured;
      •     Strategically align the location of commuter rail platforms on the correct side of the track so as to
            align the flow of commuter and freight train services on a shared corridor and minimize the costs of
            new track and station facilities;
      •     Identify possible locations for pedestrian over/underpasses for accessing platforms as a way to
            maximize safety and improve circulation;
      •     Establish a “  Construction Agreement” and “    Purchase of Service” agreement with partners, as
            needed;
      •     Undertake the required planning and design studies for the establishment of these commuter rail
            services, and the staging of these trains services with supporting bus services and other facilities
            such as park-and-ride lots; and
      •     Perhaps consider establishing a pilot commuter rail service with minimal capital investment in one of
            the corridors.

Medium- to Long-term
      •     Construct commuter rail infrastructure;
      •     Supply subsidies for the operation of a regional commuter rail system until ridership and revenues
            grow; and
      •     Provide capacity for expansion to all-day and weekend commuter rail service in the existing rail
            corridors.

6.1.2          LRT Extensions

Potential LRT extensions out from the City of Calgary to regional communities include the following:

Option 1 – NE LRT line extended and connected to Centre Street hub
Option 2 – Extend a Calgary North LRT on Centre Street to Balzac
Option 3 – Extend SE line to Okotoks to serve new regional hospital


The status of these City of Calgary extensions is unclear at this moment. The choice of modes to Airdrie is
very much dependent upon the type and level of intensity of growth in the corridor to Airdrie, funding
availability from higher level governments, and the timing as to whether and when the regional
implementation of commuter rail will occur in the Airdrie corridor. If the commuter rail were built to serve the
City of Airdrie in advance of the construction of a northern Calgary LRT line, the likelihood of advancing an
LRT service as well to Airdrie would not be strong.




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6.1.3            Edmonton – Calgary High-Speed Rail
A high-speed rail connection between Edmonton and Calgary, with a stop in Red Deer, is being planned to
improve mobility in the Province. This rail service would possibly share rail right-of-way with a northern
commuter rail or LRT route, and it would share a downtown transit hub with commuter rail service. A multi-
modal transit hub/station at 96 Avenue could connect LRT, commuter rail, BRT and regional express
services. As such, consideration for this service will have to be made in the planning and design of this
downtown joint multi-modal station hub and in the commuter rail and high speed services to the north of
Calgary.

6.2            Express Bus Connections
Express bus service connections would be expanded after the initial services had time to mature and the
demand would grow in some of the other regional communities. It is anticipated that the communities to
receive express service to and from Calgary in the medium-term will be Crossfield to the North, Nanton in the
South, and Black Diamond/Turner Valley to the Southwest.

6.3            Full Regional Transit System Map
In the Long Term Regional Transit Plan (i.e., 2020 and later), the following components of the plan would be
developed and implemented, as the Calgary Metropolitan Plan was implemented and financial resources
where available from local, provincial and federal sources. These components would include:

      •     Commuter rail linkages from downtown Calgary northwest to Cochrane, possibly north to Airdrie and
            Crossfield, and south to DeWinton, Aldersyde, Okotoks, Cargill and High River;
      •     Establishing new express bus connections between regional communities (i.e., Airdrie and
            Cochrane), and others;
      •     Building additional City of Calgary LRT lines to the north and possibly to Airdrie, and to the east to
            Chestermere; and
      •     Building strategically located regional park-and-ride facilities.

The long-term proposed regional transit system map is shown in Figure 10.




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                                                  Figure 10: Long Term Regional Transit Plan




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7.             Specialized Transportation
Although specialized transportation is outside of the current scope of this study, it is acknowledged that
specialized services are an important part any regional transit system and should be considered a priority for
provincial government funding.

For consideration in future stages - a detailed analysis of enhanced specialized transportation has begun
under the Calgary Regional Transit Plan and will build on the work that CRP has already incubated through
what is now called the Calgary Regional Transportation Services Society (CARTSS).



8.             Funding of Transit (Capital and Operating) and
               Allocation of Costs
8.1            Funding Means-Existing and Future
This section briefly describes some of the existing funding sources for local and regional transit services, and
potential new sources. Most transit systems throughout North America are hard pressed to find adequate
capital funding from local property taxes and other local sources. Higher level grants and cost-shared funding
tend to not be sufficient because they are not long-term enough to be considered for funding 25-35 year
transit capital investments. As well, these transit systems are really being stretched to find sufficient, diverse
and sustainable funding sources for transit operating expenditures other than the typical sources of transit
fares and property taxes. As a result, local and regional transit systems are strongly appealing to
provincial/state and federal governments to provide them with a range of transit operating funding sources
that they can deploy, and that are guaranteed for extensive periods of time, such as gas and sales taxes,
value capture, and vehicle levies, which are described in more detail in Appendix E.

8.2            Federal and Provincial Funding
Most existing programs are not exclusive to transit, except for one existing federal program, the New Deal for
Public Transit. The details of applicable provincial and federal programs are described in Appendix B.

In addition to these grants, further provincial funding opportunities may be available to assist the CRP in
establishing a transit partnership through specific, one-time grants such as the Exploration Grant and the
Implementation Grant that are available to non-profit organisations:

      •     Exploration Grant – Alberta Municipal Affairs may provide an Exploration Grant to approved
            partnerships for the “  Opportunity” and “  Parameters” phases of partnership development. The
            Opportunity phase is the first stage of the partnership development process, whereby prospective
            partners meet to determine if there is support for the idea of working together. Once prospective
            partners have agreed to develop a partnership around a specific opportunity (in this case, transit
                                                                          s
            delivery), the partners need to begin defining the partnership’ parameters. This includes identifying
            the scope of shared service, the most appropriate governance model (e.g. non-profit organization,




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            regional services commission, etc.), the most appropriate delivery method, and an equitable system
            for sharing costs.1 Partnerships with a total eligible population of over 10,000 are eligible to receive
            an exploration grant of up to $75,000; however, metropolitan areas (including the Greater Calgary
            region) are eligible to receive a larger amount depending on the significance of the activities under
            consideration.2
      •     Implementation Grant – Once partnerships have completed approved Exploration Grant activities,
            further funding may be available via an Implementation Grant for approved “           Groundwork” and
            “Delivery” phases that move the process forward. The “             Groundwork” phase includes the
            establishment of the chosen governance body, voter approval, the development of communication
            strategies and materials, the establishment of appropriate bylaws, and determination of staffing,
            systems, procedures, contracts, and other administrative matters. Finally, the partnership begins
            providing the service at the “ Delivery”stage.     Partnerships with a total eligible population of over
            10,000 are eligible to receive an implementation grant of up to $150,000. As with the Exploration
            Grant, metropolitan areas are eligible to receive a larger amount depending on the significance of the
            projects under consideration. At the implementation stage, municipalities are expected to provide a
            municipal investment of 25 percent of total project costs, which includes verifiable in-kind
            contributions; this municipal contribution cannot be made up of grants obtained from other levels of
            government or provincial government ministries.3

                                                                   s
While these grants have the potential to reduce the transit agency’ service delivery costs, many have limited
timeframes and should not be regarded as sustainable sources of funding over the long term. Moreover, all
except the New Deal for Public Transit grant are non-exclusive to transit initiatives, creating a need to
establish priorities between transit and other municipal services.

The Green Transit Incentives Program (Green TRIP) provides a new source of funding from the Alberta
Provincial Government. Aimed at addressing climate change, this program was originally announced to
allocate $2 billion to carbon capture and storage and another $2 billion to public transit initiatives. However,
the province has indicated that a scaled back version of the Green TRIP Program will likely be announced
and reduced from a three year $2 billion to a six-year $520 million program. Nonetheless, as a regional
entity, the CRP is eligible to receive these funds. The region has a wide range of transit needs that would be
eligible for the funds, such as the purchase of new vehicles, the extension of LRT lines, the construction of
transit exchanges and the planning of transit-oriented developments.

In addition, the recent Canada 2009 Budget has allocated an additional $12 billion for infrastructure in the
next two years. 4 A portion of this may be available to the Calgary Region for renewal of existing transit
infrastructure and the creation of new infrastructure.




2
  Alberta Municipal Affairs (2004). Regional partnerships initiative: guidelines. p. 9. Retrieved January 7, 2009 from the Alberta
    Municipal Affairs website: http://www.municipalaffairs.gov.ab.ca/documents/ms/rpi-guidelinebook.pdf
3
  Alberta Municipal Affairs (2004). Regional partnerships initiative: guidelines. p. 16. Retrieved January 7, 2009 from the Alberta
    Municipal Affairs website: http://www.municipalaffairs.gov.ab.ca/documents/ms/rpi-guidelinebook.pdf
4
          s
  Canada’ Economic Action Plan, Budget 2009 January 27, 2009 Department of Finance, Canada




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8.2.1          Property Taxes

Property taxes are a common source of funding for transit operating costs. Table 12 indicates the potential
amount of funds that this tax source could provide in a year. Of course, many other services depend on
these funds.

                              Table 12: Residential Property Tax Revenues Collected by CRP Members in 2007

                                                                                Residential Taxes
                                             Residential Property Tax                                            Residential Property
           CRP Member                                                              Collected
                                                (2007 Mill Rates)1                                              Tax Share (of CRP total)
                                                                                     (2007)2
City of Airdrie                                      4.7085                         $20,830,970                             2.3%
City of Calgary                                      2.8841                        $733,313,000                            80.7%
M.D. of Bighorn (No. 8)                              2.0322                          $1,521,271                             0.2%
M.D. of Foothills (No. 31)                           2.9316                         $22,002,982                             2.4%
M.D. Rocky View (No. 44)                             2.7333                         $39,944,615                             4.4%
Town of Banff                                        2.3970                          $5,124,372                             0.6%
Town of Black Diamond                                8.2692                          $1,802,303                             0.2%
Town of Canmore                                      2.4051                         $19,544,682                             2.2%
Town of Chestermere                                  5.7032                          $8,526,722                             0.9%
Town of Cochrane                                     4.8300                         $12,822,934                             1.4%
Town of Crossfield                                   7.0300                          $1,904,650                             0.2%
Town of High River                                   5.4725                          $8,737,868                             1.0%
Town of Nanton                                       8.8040                          $1,739,114                             0.2%
Town of Okotoks                                      5.6600                         $15,994,257                             1.8%
Town of Strathmore                                   5.6970                          $8,348,558                             0.9%
Town of Turner Valley                                8.2590                          $1,931,062                             0.2%
Townsite of Redwood
Meadows                                                 -                                  -                                0.0%
Tsuu T'ina Nation                                       -                                  -                                0.0%
Wheatland County                                     4.6830                          $4,142,351                             0.5%
Total                                                                               $908,231,711                            100%
Notes:        [1] Alberta Municipal Affairs (2007). Municipal financial & statistical data: tax rate data (residential or farmland). Retrieved
                  December 19, 2008 from Alberta Municipal Affairs website:
                  http://www.municipalaffairs.gov.ab.ca/municipal_financial_statistical_data.cfm
              [2] Alberta Municipal Affairs (2007). Municipal financial & statistical data: property taxes and grants in place (property taxes).
                  Retrieved December 19, 2008 from Alberta Municipal Affairs website:
                  http://www.municipalaffairs.gov.ab.ca/municipal_financial_statistical_data.cfm


8.2.2          Local Gas Taxes

Extra taxes on gasoline and diesel are currently levied at both the federal and provincial level and in select
municipalities across the country (Montreal, Vancouver and Victoria). Alberta currently has the one of the
lowest gas tax rates in the country at $0.09 per litre, second only to the Yukon, which charges $0.062 per
litre. The national average is $0.145 per litre. The Alberta government returns an equivalent of $0.05 per



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litre to the cities of Calgary and Edmonton based on the volume of gasoline and diesel delivered to the cities
through the City Transportation Fund grant.

There are several benefits to drawing on gas taxes as a revenue source, particularly when the funds are
reinvested back into improving the transportation system:

      •     Gas taxes are clearly perceived by the public to be transportation-related (transparency), and users
            who travel greater distances or have less fuel-efficient vehicles pay more (direct consumption
            charge);
      •     By increasing the cost of driving, commuters are encouraged to use alternative, more sustainable
            forms of transportation such as transit;
      •     Following from the above point, gas taxes are seen as an environmentally-friendly initiative as they
            promote sustainable mode use and encourage automobile producers to manufacture and consumers
            to purchase more fuel-efficient vehicles;
      •     For the most part, the revenues generated from gas taxes have historically been stable, although
            recent instability in global energy prices and initiatives to promote cleaner vehicles (i.e., electric cars)
            may begin to reduce fuel consumption, and therefore gas tax revenues, over the long -term;
      •     Revenues are relatively easy to collect from producers and wholesalers based on the volume of fuel
            sold, minimizing administration costs; and
      •     Gas taxes will be collected by all system users, including visitors to the region and commercial traffic
            passing through the province.

As with other taxes, there is inherent public opposition to gas taxes and gas tax increases; however, as
noted, such resistance is reduced when the funds are reinvested back into alternative modes of
transportation and gas taxes are seen as a form of environmental stewardship. As only the federal or
provincial governments can levy taxes on gasoline, the government must pass new legislation to increase
tax rates and remit revenues back to the municipalities. Like property taxes, gas taxes may be considered a
regressive form of taxation as lower-income consumers pay proportionally more of their earnings; the tax
may also be regarded as unfair by those who have no alternative but to drive, due to work commitments or
lack of alternative modes such as transit service. TransLink, the Metro Vancouver multi-modal transportation
agency, generates approximately $300 million annually from a 14 cent a litre gasoline tax.

Despite these concerns, gas taxes are a transparent and stable funding source with the potential to generate
                                     s
significant revenue for the CRP’ regional transit program. In 2008/2009, the provincial portion of the
gasoline tax (nine cents per litre) is expected to raise $775 million in revenue for the Government of Alberta. 5
Based on population counts from the 2006 Census of Canada, CRP members accounted for approximately
35% of Alberta’ total population.6 Assuming that Calgary Region residents will purchase gasoline at the
                 s
same rate as they do in the rest of the province, a gas tax for transit in CRP municipalities would
generate approximately $30.1 million in funds for each cent per litre levied.



5
     Alberta    Energy (2008). Talk about gasoline.             Retrieved December 19, 2008 from Alberta Energy website:
      http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/Oil/pdfs/FactSheet_Gasoline.pdf
6
    Statistics Canada (2006). 2006 Census: Community Profiles. Retrieved December 19, 2008 from Statistics Canada website:
      http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/profiles/community/Index.cfm?Lang=E




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8.2.3          Parking Revenue

There are two basic approaches to collecting revenue from parking facilities: either by charging developers a
flat rate per on-site parking stall or area dedicated to parking, or by implementing a “ cash-in-lieu”program
where a portion of the costs that would be incurred to provide sufficient on-site parking are remitted to the
                                                    s
municipality. For example, the City of Calgary’ first downtown parking policy (1972) set the parking
requirement to one stall for every 4 – 5 employees (140 m 2 net floor area), with a maximum of 20% parking
to be provided on-site, and 80% to be remitted to the City as cash-in-lieu of parking; the City then builds
public parkades in strategic locations to ensure land is used efficiently.

Charging a levy for parking is potentially a very effective Transportation Demand Management (TDM)
strategy. The City of Calgary reports that in conjunction with successful transit, its parking policy has
encouraged transit use, cycling and walking in the inner city, achieving a modal split of 45% transit use and
reducing the need for major road construction.7

To entice landowners to increase parking density on new or existing developments under a flat rate scheme,
the municipality can charge per unit of parking area. For instance, in 2006, TransLink implemented a parking
site tax on surface parking areas, parkades and underground parking that levies $0.78 per square metre of
parking area, which is included on the municipal property tax notice. The levy was originally proposed as a
$30 annual tax on every parking stall in the region, but when it was realized that many businesses have
parking areas without marked stalls, and that existing paint lines could easily be modified, it was decided to
assess the parking tax based on the size of the parking site. Charging based on parking area encourages a
more efficient use of available space and discourages developers from providing an excessive amount of
parking, which reduces the relative convenience of transit travel. As a new tax, the parking levy was subject
to significant public debate and discussion, and a focused public awareness campaign was required by
TransLink to secure the approval of the new legislation. TransLink had allocated $6 million for the
implementation and administration of the parking site tax; for 2006, estimated annual expenses were $3
million and were expected to drop to under $1 million in subsequent years as the initial reaction faded and
appeal stabilized.8

The parking site tax was the first of its kind in Canada and became effective in January 2006 and met its
projected revenue target of $20 million a year.8 However, as a result of pressure from businesses, this
parking stall tax ended after only two years. Nonetheless, a parking site tax is a potentially significant source
of funding that may be pursued by the CRP in support of the transit program; a public opinion poll
undertaken by TransLink in 2003 revealed broader public support for parking charges than for gas taxes.

There has been little research investigating the impact of parking provision at transit station lots, and opinion
is divided within the transit industry and the population it serves. Some feel that the provision of parking

7
                                 s
    Matthias Tita (2007). Calgary’ downtown parking strategy: an example of successful transportation demand management
     since 1972. Presented at Association for Commuter Transportation of Canada Canadian TDM Summit 2007. Retrieved
     January 19, 2009 from the ACT Canada website:
     http://www.actcanada.com/EN/Conference2007/Presentations/4A3%20Calgarys%20Downtown%20Parking%20Strategy%2
     0%20Matthias%20Tita%20.ppt
8
     Transport Canada (2008). TransLink parking tax. Retrieved January 19, 2009 from the Transport Canada website:
     http://www.tc.gc.ca/Programs/Environment/UTSP/Translinkparkingtaxvancouver.htm




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encourages users to drive to transit stations rather than use feeder services, such as community buses.
Furthermore, the placement of parking around a station can limit the options for residential, commercial or
retail development within close proximity to the station. As well, the costs per parking stall for parking can be
as high as $20,000 per stall. On the other hand, new rail transit stations or lines built without parking
provision in medium density areas have often shown that, even with considerable feeder provision, providing
parking is necessary to build rail ridership. A solution for the Calgary Region may be to allow park-and-ride
facilities near stations in the short term but replace them with dense, mix-use development in the medium-
and long-term as the transit market grows.

The regional transit agency should charge passengers a fee for using regional park-and-ride lots. The City
of Calgary recently approved legislation to charge transit users $3 per day to use the 33 park-and-ride lots
within the city, which will take effect in 2009 and is projected to raise approximately $6 million in funds
annually.9 The outcome of this program should be monitored by the CRP to determine if such a strategy is
appropriate for the broader regional system. Intuitively, any fee to park will discourage use of the park-and-
ride lots, but the effect on ridership will be negligible if the cumulative cost to use the transit service remains
significantly lower than the cost of driving. A 2008 survey indicated that Calgary had the highest parking rate
among major cities in Canada, at $428 per month ($27 per day); Montreal was second, at $290.01 per month
($17 per day), while the national average was $211.94 per day ($15.16 per day). 10 In view of this fact,
commuters in the Calgary region are expected to be willing to pay relatively more for transit when travelling
to congested areas with limited parking availability, such as the downtown core, as corresponding annual
driving costs would exceed $5,000 for parking alone. In this case, charging a parking fee will provide
valuable user-revenue to the CRP transit program to improve and expand the system.

An overall summary evaluation of a range of potential funding sources for public transit is shown in Table 13.

                                  Table 13: Comparison of Potential Sources of Funding for Regional Transit

                                                         Generating           Ease of                         Environmental /
        Revenue Source                Transparency                                             TDM Effects
                                                          Potential       Implementation                      Social Benefits

    Property Taxes


    Federal / Provincial
    Grants


    Gas Taxes


    Sales Taxes


    Advertising



9
  CBC News (2008). Commuters to pay $3 a day for park-and-ride. Retrieved January 7, 2009 from the CBC News website:
    http://www.cbc.ca/canada/calgary/story/2008/11/19/city-budget-wednesday.html
10
   Colliers International (2008). North American parking survey 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2009 from the Colliers
    International website:
    http://www.colliers.com/Corporate/Services/PracticeGroups/AdvTechnology/News/ParKing%20Survey%20NA%202008?la=
    en




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                                                     Generating       Ease of                    Environmental /
       Revenue Source                 Transparency                                 TDM Effects
                                                      Potential   Implementation                 Social Benefits

  Parking Levies


  Public Private
  Partnerships


  Value Capture


  Vehicle Registration Levy


  Payroll Employer Tax


  Tolls


  Cost-sharing /
  Revenue-sharing

      Best Suited to meet Criteria
      Adequately Suited to meet Criteria
      Poorly Suited to meet Criteria




8.3              Allocation of Transit costs-km of service, vehicles, hours and
                 population-related to benefits
All the costs (capital and operating) of future bus services operating in the CRP between regional
communities and the City of Calgary should have their costs apportioned between regional communities
based upon a formula which includes bus hours of service, bus kilometres and the population served in
these communities. Formulas for the cost-sharing of higher order transit services in the Region, such as LRT
and commuter rail, will have to be determined.



9.             Regional Governance Functions and Changes
Below is a summary of the transit-related functions that will need to be handled by a CRP Transit Committee,
CRP staff, and consultants in the short-term and by a regional transit board or authority or a multi-modal
regional transportation authority in the longer-term. These functions are described in order of priority and are
listed in Table 14. This overall ranking of the specific transit roles is based upon the following factors:

      •     The current transit context in the region and issues and opportunities;
      •     A preliminary assessment of the fourteen identified key roles that would be appropriate for the CRP
            to actively play, using several important criteria; and



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      •     Our completed surveys and interviews to date with other regional transit board members in North
            America and experience with transit systems.

                             Table 14: Key Functions Recommended for the CRP Regional Transit Organization

                    Role                                                                 Description
i) Strategic Planning            Develop and approve an overall vision, mission, short- and long-term objectives, high
                                 level strategies and policies, and staging and funding for bus, commuter rail and LRT.
                                 In addition the Transit Committee/Board will prioritize projects and programs, monitor
                                 performance, obtain stakeholder input, and identify strategic challenges and
                                 opportunities.
ii) Ensures Funding through      Develop annual, three year, and multi-year budgets. Outline investment plans,
    Preparation of Budgets and operating and capital expenditures, and delivery of service.
    Investment Plans-Annual,
    Three Year and Multi-Year
iii) Policy and Decision Making Formulate and approve regional transit policies to make the transit system more
                                 reliable, comfortable, convenient, and frequent. Policies should include reference to
                                 fares, performance standards, ITS measures, and paratransit services.
iv) Integrate Transit Planning The Transit Committee /Board should have the power to purchase more land than
    and Sustainable Land Use/ required for the bus, commuter rail and LRT transit line and facilities, especially in the
    Smart Growth Planning        vicinity of station locations, in order to develop TOD and to leverage land holdings with
                                 joint venture private sector developers. In addition the Transit Committee/ Board
                                 should have an increased role in the municipal planning process.
v) Encourages Public Input,      To enable and encourage public participation through public forums, workshops, focus
    Participation, and Education groups, or research surveys. Also to educate and communicate its action plans,
                                 services, and performance. To build and maintain the public image and system value
                                 for its users.
vi) Ensures Integration          Ensure transit initiatives are implemented in an integrated fashion with existing
    between Public Transit       transportation facilities such as pathways, roadways, and rail. Provide policies and
    Initiatives and other        enhance funding to support municipalities to ensure pedestrian and cycling facilities
    Transportation Modes         are linked and integrated with BRT, commuter rail and LRT service.
vii) Build Partnerships          To build partnerships with municipalities and create new services and programs with
                                 them including transit passes, smart card technology integration, etc.
viii) Ensures Integration        Develop and implement Transportation Demand Management (TDM) initiatives.
    between Public Transit       These can be either incentives or disincentives to support achieving the objectives of
    Initiatives with Regional    the investments being made with strategic regional transit service improvements and
    Transportation Demand        capital investments.
    Management Programs
ix) Monitoring,                  To monitor all programs and policies and report the performance and successes to the
    Communicating, and           province, local councils, and media and public bodies to gain support for initiatives,
    Reporting                                                                   s
                                 educate the public, and increase the board’ services and programs.
                                                                Longer Term Functions
Detailed Planning                                 To become involved with details of transit planning and operations by completing
                                                  detailed design of specific services, policies, or strategies. May be required to cover
                                                  certain initiatives if no bidder is willing to accept the task or there is too much
                                                  controversy or conflict between municipalities on it.
Optimizes Use of Capital                          Acts as an agent for all transit service providers in obtaining lower private sector bids
Funding for Transit Capital                       or bulk purchases of fuel, buses, or other transit components.
Purchases and Infrastructure
Receiver and Coordinator of                       Control the investment from federal transit capital funds (i.e., gas tax) and optimizes
Use of Federal Transit Capital                    the use of these funds between all municipalities.
Infrastructure Funding
Enforcement of Plans and                          Ensure compliance of all service providers and municipalities either through powers
Policies                                          given to the board or through enforcement from external sources such as provincial
                                                  ministries.
Direct Delivery of Transit                        Direct delivery of services based upon the strategic transit plan and policies and
Services                                          overall regional transit standards and performance measures.




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i)          Detailed Implementation Planning:


As mentioned earlier, in this important and overarching role, a Regional Transit Committee/Board would
develop and approve a more detailed implementation transit plan with the involvement of key stakeholders
and the general public. This Regional Transit Implementation Plan must be combined and integrated with the
following plans:

       •    The Calgary Metropolitan Plan;
       •    The development of strategic regional TDM strategies and policies; and
       •    The development of a regional program to support TOD Plan preparations at key commuter rail/LRT
            stations.

ii)         Establish and Ensure Funding through Preparation of Budget and Investment Plan for Short
            Annual, Three-Year and Multi-Year Larger and Strategic Inter-Municipal Transit Services and
            Capital Infrastructure Plans

In this important role, the Regional Transit Committee/Board would develop an annual, three year and multi-
year budget and investment plan outlining the operating and capital expenditures required to fund the
development, delivery, implementation and monitoring of the Regional Transit Implementation Plan.

iii)        Policy and Decision Making


In this key role, the Regional Transit Committee/Board would formulate and approve regional transit policies
that provide a seamless regional transit system for all CRP region customers and make the transit system
more frequent, reliable, convenient and comfortable. These policies should relate to the following:

       •    A regional system of fares to pay for different types of transit services and to differentiate between
            loyal and regular customers with passes and cash fares;
       •    A regional system of transit service performance standards, paratransit system standards, etc.;
       •    The development of standards and strategic directions for the development of regional intelligent
            transportation systems and implementation of transit priority measures; and
       •    A seamless regional specialized transportation system for users of this system.


iv)         Integrate Transit Planning and Sustainable Land Use/Smart Growth Land Use Planning


The integration of the regional Strategic Transit Plan with the Growth Management Plan is essential to the
success of the Strategic Transit Plan. It would be important for the Regional Transit Committee/Board to
have an oversight role in the planning processes in order to facilitate a greater role for urban transit.


v)          Encourage Public Input, Participation and Education in Regional Transit Policies and Plans
            and Serves as Champion for Regional Transit




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To be transparent and accountable in its actions, the Regional Transit Committee/Board would have a key
role in enabling and encouraging public input and participation at it meetings, and in its formulation of
strategic and more detailed plans for public transit and related strategies and budgets through public forums,
workshops, focus groups and market research surveys, and in educating and communicating its actions,
plans and their performance.

It will be important for the Regional Transit Committee/Board to ensure that it develops and maintains
healthy relationships among communities, stakeholders and all key constituencies. The board members can
also be seen as advocates for improved transit service and other measures to shift the demand for urban
passenger travel from the single occupant vehicle. Often having access to influential community groups,
board members can command media attention and become advocates in promoting the benefits of public
transportation services and facilities. In this role, they help build the customer base and broader regional
support by getting the message out to key stakeholders and the general public.

In performing this role, the Regional Transit Committee/Board members are stepping outside their role
representing a specific municipality to create the best possible transit service for the overall region. They are
building the public image and system value for everyone and they are advancing the public understanding
and support for the Transit Committee/Board itself and transit system growth and improvements.


vi)         Ensure Integration between Public Transit Initiatives and Other Municipal and Provincial
            Road, Highway and Other Modes - Cycling and Walking Pathways

To ensure the further success of its Strategic Transit Plans, the Regional Transit Committee/Board can play
a key role in ensuring that transit plans are developed and implemented in an integrated fashion with
provincial highways plans, and that these highway plans include designs and features to support transit (i.e.,
exclusive transit lanes in congested locations, transit only ramps to park and ride facilities, etc. As well, the
Regional Board can provide policies and enhanced funding to support municipalities in ensuring that
pedestrian and cycling pathways are integrated with regional BRT, commuter rail and LRT plans to maximize
customer connectivity.

vii)        Build Partnerships


There is a very positive role for the Regional Transit Committee/Board to look for opportunities to create
positive partnerships among municipalities in the region for new services, programs, etc., perhaps by
encouraging these efforts through very positive incentive funding for the concerned municipalities. Examples
include the further development of the U-Pass program to other post-secondary institutions, the development
and implementation of transit priority measures which will benefit several municipalities, and the
development of a regional Transit Smart Fare Card which can be used to create more flexible transit fare
programs, encourage increased ridership, and provide improved fare recovery for operating costs of the
transit service providers

viii)       Ensure Integration between Public Transit Initiatives with Regional Transportation Demand
            Management Programs




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The Board has a role to play in the development and encouragement through its funding programs, policy
directions, and strategic plan the development and implementation of Transportation Demand Management
initiatives. These TDM measures can be both “                           Stick”(disincentives) to help achieve
                                                Carrot”(incentives) and “
the objectives of transit service improvements and capital investments.

ix)         Monitoring, Communicating and Reporting


This role entails the Regional Transit Committee/Board monitoring its programs and policies and its key
actions, and reporting the performance and successes to the province, local councils, the media and the
public in order to gain wide public support for its initiatives, illustrate value for money, and to educate the
                                                   s
public to increasing the use of the Regional Board’ services and programs.

Longer Term Functions


x)          Detailed Planning


This role would have the Regional Transit Committee/Board get more involved in the details of transit
planning and operations by completing the detailed planning for specific services, policies or strategies by its
own staff and/or consultants. As with the direct delivery of services, ideally the Committee/Board may want to
postpone this role until it gets its strategic plan and polices in place. An exception may be if there is no
willingness to tackle an important regional area by the municipalities, or there is too much controversy or
conflict between municipalities to address an important issue.

xi)         Optimizes Use of Capital Funding for Transit Capital Purchases and Infrastructure


The Regional Committee/Board, through its coordination of the regional transit planning, could act as an
agent for all the transit service providers in obtaining lower private sector bids for buses required for all three
transit systems and for bulk purchases of fuel and other transit components.

xii)        Receiver and Coordinator of Use of Federal Transit Capital Infrastructure Funding


The Regional Committee/Board could play an important role in focusing the investment of provincial and
federal transit capital funds (i.e., gas tax revenues) and optimizing the use of these dollars for key
components of the Regional Transit Plan. TransLink in Metro Vancouver plays this role and has all federal
transit capital funding directed to it rather than having it split among 21 municipalities.

xiii)       Enforcement of Plans and Policies


The Regional Committee/Board could play a role in ensuring the member municipalities comply with the
binding decisions made by the Committee/Board, either by powers given to the Committee/Board or by
obtaining enforcement powers from external sources such as provincial ministries.




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xiv)        Direct Delivery of Transit Services


As discussed earlier, in this role the Regional Transit Committee/Board could take responsibility for the
delivery of specific regional transit service or strategy by delivering it directly or by contracting the service to
a municipality or to a private contractor. The Regional Committee/Board may not want to play this role until it
has got its feet wet and developed a strategic transit plan and policies.


9.1              Short Term Contractual Arrangements with Private Sector Transit
                 Operators or City of Calgary for Regional Transit Functions
Because it is important to plan, schedule and implement high-quality regional transit services soon from the
key communities in the City of Calgary commutershed, it is recommended that the operations and
maintenance of initial transit services be provided through contracts with Calgary Transit and/or private
sector transit operators such as Brewsters, FirstGroup Bus, Southlands, and other existing operators. These
contracts will need to be negotiated by a transit consultant and/or CRP transit staff member. These corporate
entities already have an established workforce and facilities and experience for operating and maintaining
public transit services, so it is expected that the required start-up time would be short. Service might be
provided with their vehicles, with CRP vehicles if it receives the provincial funding to purchase them from the
Green TRIP Program, or a mixture. All the vehicles, however, should be accessible and meet required
standards. However, it is recommended that the planning, scheduling, regional co-ordination and branding of
these services be handled by a transit staff member or consultant working for the Calgary Regional
Partnership, in order to place these important functions under the control of the CRP.

These contracts will require the approval of the City of Calgary Council, the CRP Transit Committee/Board
and regional community councils because they will directly affect their constituents, land use plans and
community transit services. Furthermore, individual municipalities will very likely be required to partially fund
the operating, administrative and some of the capital costs of these regional services until the services
mature and ridership increases. The governance of these initial contracted regional transit services could be
carried out by a sub-committee made up of CRP members, most likely those with transit services in their
community.


9.2              Medium to Longer Term Regional Transit Commission and Multi-
                 Model Transportation Agency and Broader Functions and Role
In time, CRP will want to exert more control over regional transit services and possibly achieve cost savings
by providing services in-house. To do this, it would have to provide staff to a regional transit agency to carry
out a range of transit service functions, possibly even operation. At this time, the CRP may want to consider
laying the foundation for major service expansions through the purchase of buses or the construction of
commuter rail facilities and/or new maintenance and storage facilities for buses serving regional routes. To
free itself from having to oversee the tasks of hiring staff, monitoring service and managing construction, the
CRP can establish a regional transit board or commission. This board or commission may be completely




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separate from the CRP or report to the CRP. With either structure, transit strategic plans would still need to
be approved by the CRP to ensure that they comply with the RLUP and reflect the needs of the region.
Service contracts with Calgary Transit and/or private operators might end, although new agreements related
to cost-sharing or revenue-sharing of routes may be established.

As transit mode share increases, transportation projects are likely to become more intermodal in nature.
Efficient funding, planning and operation may require a body that has regional authority over the entire
transportation system, not just a particular mode. The body may have to be able to plan transportation
corridors and communities in a more holistic or comprehensive manner considering all the modal tradeoffs
within a corridor, considering pedestrians, parking, vehicle movement, transit rights-of-way and transit priority
and cycling facilities. This, as well as the need for larger financial resources, may be the trigger for the
development of a regional transportation agency. It will oversee regional conventional and specialized transit
services, the regional road network, transit services in Calgary, transportation demand management
programs (TDM), regional cycling networks and any other transportation services not under the authority of
the province. This entity will be governed by a regional transportation board. Because its mandate will move
beyond transit, it may be necessary to adjust the composition of the board to include individuals with different
skill sets. The City of Calgary may need to be compensated for its loss of full control of Calgary Transit with
high representation on the board. It is difficult to determine what the role of the CRP would be at this stage; it
could continue to be responsible for the final approval of strategic plans to ensure compliance with the
RLUP, but it might also be appropriate to give final approval for strategic plans to the provincial government.

Just as regional transit services will need to evolve over time, so will the structures governing them. In the
short term, the services will be relatively simple – mainly bus-based services using existing roadway
infrastructure. The requirements of the governing structure will be mainly to set standards and carry out
strategic planning. In time, however, the services will become more diverse, with commuter rail and LRT
possibly supplying regional transit services. Also, the funding needs will grow. Funding that used to maintain
and expand the road network may need to be redirected to transit, and additional sources of funding may
need to be found in the land value increases that result from transportation investment, i.e., value capture
from increases in property values near LRT or commuter rail stations. In such an environment, the
responsibilities of the governing structure will have to grow.



10.            Monitoring   Regional    Transit     Performance
               Management and Customer Satisfaction
10.1           Objectives and Performance Indicators
To ensure resources are being used efficiently and that the transit service is effective and equitable, it is
recommended that a monitoring program be implemented to measure the performance of the regional transit
system. It should be designed to evaluate the performance of the regional transit system relative to the
regional principles and objectives in a quantitative manner. In addition, the monitoring program could be
used to as a means to determine when a commuter rail system is warranted.




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The performance monitoring program is based on a system of passenger-focused objectives, indicators and
targets (or guidelines), which are summarized in Table 15. There are a total of nine objectives: reliability and
speed; cost recovery; ridership growth rate; productivity; passenger comfort; access to transit service;
passenger convenience; integration with cycling; and servicing rural residential areas. The actual targets for
the indicators would be determined and approved by the CRP transit committee and eventually the Regional
Board. The guidelines or targets presented in this table are examples only to show how the targets would be
expressed.

                              Table 15: Summary of Objectives, Indicators, and Targets in Monitoring Program

           Objective                               Indicator                               Potential Target
Reliability and speed                    Percentage of on-time            85%
                                         departures/arrivals
                                         Average transit operating        To maintain or improve operating speed
                                         speed
Cost recovery                            Percentage of operating cost     35% to 50%
                                         recovered from fare revenue
Ridership growth rate                    Percentage rate of growth in     Should exceed population and employment
                                         ridership                        growth rate
Productivity                             Average percentage of seats      40-60%
                                         occupied
Passenger comfort                        Percentage of trips with         Depends on service type and area
                                         standees
Access to transit                        Distance of residents or jobs    Varies by service area
service                                  from transit service
                                         Percentage of transit stops      Depends on implementation phase
                                         that are fully accessible
Passenger convenience                    Span of service (time frame)     Varies
                                         Service frequency                Depends on service type and area
Integration with cycling                 Percentage of vehicles with      Depends on implementation phase
                                         bike racks
                                         Percentage of transit stations   Depends on implementation phase
                                         or stops with bike storage
                                         Percentage of transit stations   Depends on implementation phase
                                         or stops connected with
                                         cycling network
Servicing rural                          Percentage of intensified        Depends on implementation phase
residential areas                        rural residential areas
                                         serviced by the system
                                         (according to the
                                         requirements outlined in
                                         Chapter 4)




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These objectives and performance indicators can be used to evaluate transit service over a period of several
years, as well as at a specific moment in time. The performance indicators will provide transit operators and
the CRP transit committee and eventually the Region Board with valuable information, including:

      •     Assessment of the regional transit system performance;
      •     Indication of any additional funding requirements to meet the guidelines and targets;
      •     Indication of whether more transit priority measures are required and how effective they are in
            improving transit performance;
      •     Assessment of regional and local efforts in connecting transit with transit-oriented activity centres
            and active forms of transportation; and
      •     Identification of deficiencies or service gaps which need to be addressed in subsequent years.


10.2           Monitoring Systems
Data for the above indicators should be collected through field surveys of the transit system as well as
through customer satisfaction surveys. Any discrepancies between the two surveys methods may help
identify particular customer service issues and knowledge gaps.




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11.            Other Recommendations
11.1           Regional Community Action
The regional communities in the CRP must invest time and resources in the following complementary
initiatives in order for the Calgary Metropolitan Plan, and its Transit Plan to be effective and efficient:

      •     Guiding local development in their communities through municipal Smart Growth land use policies;
      •     Supporting investments in broader walking and cycling networks and active transportation initiatives
            in order to connect to and support transit plans;
      •     Allocating local funds in addition to received provincial and federal funds, to implement all the
            components of the 5-6 year transit plan: express bus services; local transit services; transit hubs;
            TOD plans and investments in the TOD areas through road, cycling and pedestrian infrastructure
            and community facilities; and purchase of key commuter rail land for stations and outpost areas;
      •     Supporting the regional transit plan and abiding by the policies of the CRP growth management
            plans;
      •     Implementing local municipal and transportation plan policies to support the regional growth
            management plan and regional transit plan; and
      •     Implementing transportation demand management policies (i.e., parking supply and pricing, active
            transportation mode investments) and strategies to support the transit plan through municipal plans
            and budgets.


11.2             Provincial Action

Sustainable Funding
With the emergence of regional public transit being essential to providing for significant enhancement to
mobility in the Calgary Region, there is a need for the provincial government to provide a long-term and
sustainable source of funding for public transit capital and operating expenditures This commitment should
be comparable to the multi-billion dollar and long-term public transit program commitments in BC and Ontario
through the following means:

      •     Finalize the terms and conditions of the Green TRIP Program, establishing this program with a
            minimum 10 year long-term commitment, in addition to continuing to enhance other long-term
            commitments to other provincial government municipal infrastructure capital funding programs, in
            order to provide a dedicated source of funding for regional and municipal public transit capital
            investments;
      •     Ensure that the Green TRIP Program has a significant provincial contribution (80 percent as the
            province is not yet contributing funds to the other major cost component of provincial public transit
            services -operating and maintenance costs); lower provincial contributions than this level will
            significantly restrict participation in the program to the large cities of Edmonton and Calgary;
      •     That in line with the provincial government initiatives in regard to a provincial sustainable land use
            framework, the update of its energy strategy, and social and healthcare programs that the province is



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            developing, that the province should also develop a comprehensive Provincial Transit Policy
            Framework. This framework should support transit investments in the province to contribute to these
                                                                   s
            provincial initiatives and to the federal government’ development of a national transit policy which
            the Canadian Urban Transit Association is urging the federal government to development;
      •     Expand the initial release of the Green TRIP back to its original $2.0 billion, and expand its financial
            scope in time so that it is at least 10% of the total capital funding allocated to roadway expenditures
            in the province on an annual basis (i.e., this would be $600,000 million in 2009/2010);
      •     That the provincial government pass regulations to provide municipalities other than Edmonton and
            Calgary with revenue from a 5 cent a litre gasoline tax implemented across the province, for capital
            or operating investments on active transportation mode expenditures-cycling, walking or transit. This
            action will serve to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and remove vehicles from roads, and this
            funding amount be increased in order to provide more transportation related finding to transit
            investments which will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and increase transit mode share;
      •     That the provincial government pass legislation to permit municipalities to provide local bylaws which
            will enable local transportation related taxes such as parking fees, vehicle levies and hotel room fees
            to be passed by local and/or regional councils to generate funding for capital or operating
            expenditures on active transportation mode expenditures (i.e., cycling, walking or transit) which will
            serve to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and remove vehicles from roads; and
      •     That the CPR and individual municipal members of the Calgary Regional Partnership actively work
            with provincial officials to lobby the federal government politicians and administrative officials to
            continue and enhance provincial and federal programs for transit funding, and to provide
            contributions from federal public transit programs to major regional transit projects.

Additional sustainable sources of funding for transit operating and capital investments provided by the
province directly of by enabling legislation for local municipalities to collect additional funds for transit
investments, will enable municipalities in the CRP and other regions of the province to make long term
investments in public transit systems and to leverage as well continued federal government transit programs.
This recommendation will also enable municipalities to not continue to significantly raise property taxes and
transit fares for increasing transit operating costs. Property taxes are as source of funding not well related to
the provision of transit services and continuing to raise transit fares will discourage growth of ridership from
this mode. A sustainable mix of funding for transit could include gas taxes, automobile license and
registration fees, hotel taxes, road and bridge tolls and other sources-ideally related to transportation.

Urban Transit Expertise
With the release of the Green TRIP Program and the increased need for larger public transit investments in
the province in order to achieve international, federal, provincial and local sustainable development targets,
the Province of Alberta needs to establish a new and strong Urban Transit Section in Alberta Transportation,
assisted in its foundation years by transit consultants, with a mandate and responsibility to:

      •     Develop an overall provincial transit policy framework which will position the province with the
            development of national transit policy framework;
      •     Develop and program transit supportive policies, funding programs and initiatives on the provincial
            highway network within the two major urban regions;




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      •     Provide knowledgeable personnel to review the merits of Green TRIP Program and other provincial
            transit programs;
      •     Apply the same greenhouse gas emissions and other climate change conditions to the evaluation of
            the merits of proceeding with provincial highway investments; and
      •     Implement transit priority measures on provincial highways and interchanges in order to enhance the
            reliability of regional transit service investments.

Future 2nd Ring Road in Calgary Region
With a world-wide movement against the construction of multi-billion dollar roads which create opportunities
                                                                                                   s
for unsustainable growth in conflict with the plans and policies of the CRP and City of Calgary’ growth
management plans, the Province of Alberta should do the following to enhance the mobility of vehicles:

      •     Reconsider the location and size of the planned provincial investment in the proposed 2 nd Ring Road
                                                                                                 s
            around Calgary in alignment with the Calgary Metropolitan Plan and City of Calgary’ Plan It;
      •     Limit access to this road by reducing the number of built intersections and not allowing development
            to occur within or near these intersections; and
      •     Restrict access to the Ring Road except for the movement of goods by trucks paying tolls on the
            Ring Road and transit vehicles (not paying tolls).

Key Benefits of CRP Regional Transit Plan
The key benefits of significant investments in improving the transit service in the Calgary Region and
implementing smarter land use patterns with transit service include:

      •     Provide new regional transit services for residents and visitors to the Region that provide a level of
            service that is competitive with the private automobile and attract new riders who currently commute
            by car;
      •     Support settlement patterns proposed in the Calgary Metropolitan Plan (CMP) that will preserve
            valuable agricultural and environmental lands by placing 25% of growth in existing developed areas
            and the rest in lands adjacent to existing development;
      •     Proactively address future opportunities from growth, travel mode shifts, and potential economic and
            environmental changes;
      •     Reduce accidents on the roads within the Calgary Region and the resulting property and liability
            claims;
      •     Reduce congestion on roads and improve movement of goods, the majority of which have to be
            moved by truck;
      •     Reduce the need for financial resources to be spent on maintaining existing roadways and building
            new major arterials and regional roads and highways, such as the proposed multi-billion dollar 18-
            lane Outer Ring Road (which this report recommends be reduced in scope from the provincial road
            agenda and plans);
      •     Reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions;
      •     Shape and create intensified, mixed-use private and public development in specific corridors and
            growth nodes which will in turn generate a higher transit mode share and ridership and protect




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            valuable agricultural and environmental resources from development and infrastructure land needs,
            as defined in the Calgary Metropolitan Plan (CMP) vision and policies;
      •     Improve the overall quality of life and mobility for all residents, but especially for those without access
            to vehicles (e.g. seniors, youth and new immigrants) who are the fastest growing segment of our
                                                                                         s
            population and those who have special needs and use the region’ specialized transportation
            services;
      •     Enable communities and neighbourhoods to be built for easy transit access;
      •     Enable growth that does not occur at great expense to the taxpayer and simultaneously in all
            directions;
      •     Promote roadway improvements that are strategic only, addressing congestion points, providing
            transit priority or improving goods movement; and
      •     Facilitate the two-way movement of labour and enhanced economic activity.

Experience from sustainable regions in North America and world-wide clearly indicates that the current
roadway-dominated strategy used by the Province of Alberta and many communities in Alberta, which is to
invest heavily in roads as a means of enhancing mobility, is a false hope. The recent Alberta government
budget dedicated $5.9 billion in 2009/2010 to roads in the province versus $10 million in the initial rollout of a
scaled back Green TRIP Transit Program (and before this, they reduced the Green TRIP Program from a
three-year $2.0 billion program to a six-year $520 million program). It has been shown that cities with strong
economies have a significantly more balanced approach between road and transit investments. Continuing
to have this imbalanced transportation investment strategy, focused on building and maintaining more multi-
million dollar arterial and regional roads, provincial highways and ring roads in cities, towns, and regions, is a
false economy. The provinces of Ontario and BC are good examples for the Province of Alberta to use in
developing programs and policies which provide strong transit capital (in the base of both Ontario and BC)
and operating assistance (only in the case of BC) to regions and municipalities, which have enabled high
quality bus and rail systems to be built and operated which have realized the benefits noted above of transit
investments.

Implications of Doing Nothing

                  do             to
The strategies of “ nothing”and “ invest minimally in creating a viable and enhanced regional transit
system”are not recommended strategies and will likely have the following consequences:
      •     The proposed regional growth management strategy and plan will not be viable, as the province and
            region will not be able to support intensified development if investing heavily in road infrastructure
            continues;
      •     The province will have to continue to pay high costs for road construction;
      •                                 s
            The provincial government’ sustainable Land Use Framework would not be followed;
      •                                     s
            The objectives in the CPR’ growth strategy of reducing the environmental footprints and
            greenhouse gas emissions of development will be significantly harder to meet;
      •     The economic strategy for the CRP will be handicapped in competition with other regions by not
            having a viable regional transit system (see reference below);
      •     The province would continue to add to its estimated annual total of over 150,000 vehicle collisions
            which creates costs of $12 million daily or over $4 billion annually; and




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      •     As the population becomes older, more people will become isolated from society as a result of not
            having a convenient transit system to access locations within a region.



12.            Conclusions
It is expected that the population of the Calgary Region will continue to grow in the short- and long-term,
reaching 2.8 million people by 2070. Addressing issues of congestion, mobility, accessibility, greenhouse gas
emissions, local air quality, and changing transportation behaviours require action from local municipalities
and higher levels of government. As such, this report has made a number of recommendations regarding the
provision of a more extensive and coordinated regional transit system and the promotion of transit-oriented
and compact developments so that it becomes viable for people to leave their cars at home.

Although there are private operators currently providing regional transportation services, these services are
not meeting a significant portion of the demand between Calgary and the regional communities, they are
operated only one-way, they do not provide modern and accessible buses, and their fares are not integrated
with Calgary transit fares. The frequency is often too low, the operating hours are too short, and the buses
are not always comfortable. In addition, two-way service during peak periods and mid-day service are
lacking. Thus, in the short-term, a new regional two-way bus express service with more convenient operating
schedules and routes and more comfortable and accessible buses will help connect residents from Okotoks,
High River, Strathmore, Chestermere, Cochrane, and Balzac to the City of Calgary and vice-versa. As
transit-oriented developments get built up in accordance to the Calgary Metropolitan Plan through plans and
policies established by the local municipalities and support from the CRP, public transit ridership will
increase. Over time, this will help build up enough demand to support a commuter rail system that would
again expand over time. Prior to the establishment of the commuter rail system, local municipalities and the
CRP will have also made the appropriate preparations for the commuter rail system, such as acquiring key
properties for the commuter rail right-of-way, transit stations and park-and-ride facilities and ensuring that
new roads and intersections allow access to future commuter rail stations and do not inhibit corridor
expansion for future all-day commuter rail service.

With regards to the governance structure, significant changes will be required. Regional transit services will
be initially provided through a contractual relationship with an existing public or private operator. A formal
committee within the CRP will handle the contractual agreement, address policy issues, and the planning of
future regional transit services. However, as the CRP was not established to be a transit provider, this will
not be in a long-term solution. Thus, these responsibilities and the provision of regional transit service will
eventually be coordinated by a regional transit or transportation authority.


Furthermore, efforts into marketing and communications will be required to build public awareness and
support for the new transit initiatives. This can be done through various media outlets, and through a new
branding scheme to market the new regional services. Public consultation and outreach will be conducted to
ensure the concerns of the private and public sectors are addressed and there is adequate communication
between the public and the regional transit provider. The use of public forums, workshops, focus groups, or
surveys could be considered for these purposes.




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As well, formal monitoring will be needed to measure the progress of the new transit services and to ensure
resources are being spent efficiently. This report has suggested a range of performance indicators and how
they might be measured. To collect the necessary data, field surveys as well as customer satisfaction studies
will be conducted.

Of course, to implement all of these recommendations, more sources of funding will be required. As there
are uncertainties regarding funding sources such as the Green TRIP Program, additional funding sources will
need to be identified. These sources may be local or may come from higher levels of government. Potential
sources include property, fuel, and sales taxes, other provincial and federal grants, public-private
partnerships, and value capture financing mechanisms.

For these recommendations to be effective, however, local municipalities will need to work together in an
integrated manner. All affected government agencies should be made are aware of all plans, including the
Province, municipalities and regional organizations. To ensure the system is operating as efficiently and
smoothly as possible, coordination and connections with the Calgary Transit services and enhancement or
initiation of other existing local transit services will also be of importance. In addition, political will and
leadership from the local and provincial politicians will be required to ensure that all partners remain
committed to the vision of regional transit and that the recommendations included in this plan are carried out.




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Appendix A – Regional Express Bus
Survey Response
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Survey Results

Question 1: Do you travel to the City of Calgary on a regular basis during the weekday morning
commute period (6:00 to 9:00am)?
Of the responses received, 81% of the respondents indicated that they travel to the City of Calgary on a
regular basis during the morning commute period, while the remaining 19% indicated that they do not travel
to the City of Calgary during this time period.


Question 2: Where do you usually begin your trip in the morning?
Table 1 shows the most common morning trip origins reported by survey respondents. It is organized
according to the regional community in which respondents live. The results shown in this table could be used
as a tool to select pick-up locations for the proposed regional express bus service.

The most common trip origins for the Airdrie respondents are 8th St, 1st Ave, Sagewood Blvd, East Lake Blvd,
Big Hill Springs Rd, and Main St. In particular, 1st Ave and 8th St, and Sagewood Blvd and 1st Ave were two
frequently cited intersections.

In Chestermere, respondents noted that Highway 1A is the most common trip origin. In addition, many
respondents from this community regularly begin their trips along 17th Ave, Marina Dr, Merganser Dr, West
Chestermere Dr, and West Lakeview.

In the community of Cochrane, trips often begin along Quigley Dr, Highway 1A, Highway 22, Centre Ave,
Gleneagles Dr, 1st St, and West Edge Rd. At a more detailed level, we see that the most popular
intersections are 1st Ave and Centre St, and Quigley Dr and West Edge Rd.

Within the community of Crossfield, only the Pete Knight Arena was a commonly noted trip origin. Four
residents responded that they begin their morning trips here.

Respondents from High River most often begin their morning trips along Highway 2A, 12th Ave, MacLeod
                      rd                            th
Trail, Riverside Dr, 3 Ave SW/SE, Centre St, and 7 St NW. More specifically, five respondents reported
that they begin their trips at 7th St NW and Highway 2A. Other common intersections include 3rd Ave and
Centre St, Longview Trail and Highway 2A, Riverside Dr and High Park Dr NW, and Spitzee Elementary
School.

                                                                                                       nd
In Okotoks, morning trips frequently begin along Milligan Dr, Southridge Dr, Crystal Shores Dr, and 32 St.
In particular, Southridge Dr and Cimarron Dr, Milligan Dr and Okotoks Dr, and Milligan Dr and 32nd St are the
most common intersections.

Lastly, in Strathmore, trips most commonly originate along Aspen Creek Way, Brent Blvd, Parklane Dr,
Strathhaven Dr, and Hillview Dr.




                                                                                                         -1-
Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                                                        Table 1 Common Morning Trip Origins

                                                                               AIRDRIE
                             Street                                                        Number of Responses
                             8th St                                                                35
                             1st Ave                                                               28
                             Sagewood Blvd                                                         22
                             East Lake Blvd                                                        22
                             Big Hill Springs Rd                                                   19
                             Main St                                                               19
                             Yankee Valley Rd                                                      16
                             Thorburn Dr                                                           12
                             Coopers Crossing                                                      10
                             Luxstone                                                               9
                             24th St                                                                7
                             Common Intersections                                          Number of Responses
                             1st Ave and 8th St                                                    14
                             Sagewood Blvd and 1st Ave                                              8
                                      s
                             Cooper’ Crossing and Big Hill Springs Rd                               6
                             24th St and Fairways                                                   4
                             Luxstone and 8th St                                                    4
                             East Lake Blvd and Big Spring Dr                                       4
                             East Lake Blvd and Meadowbrook Dr                                      4
                             Main St and Hwy 567                                                    4
                             Thorburn Dr and Tanner Dr                                              4
                             East Lake Blvd and Thorburn                                            3
                             Big Hill Springs Rd and 8th St                                         3
                                                                             CHESTERMERE
                             Street                                                        Number of Responses
                             Highway 1A                                                             4
                             17th Ave                                                               3
                             Marina Dr                                                              3
                             Merganser Dr                                                           3
                             West Chestermere Dr                                                    3
                             West Lakeview                                                          3
                             Common Intersections                                          Number of Responses
                             Rainbow Road and Highway 1A                                            3
                                                                              COCHRANE
                             Street                                                        Number of Responses
                             Quigley Dr                                                             9
                             Highway 1A                                                             7
                             Highway 22                                                             6
                             Centre Ave                                                             5
                             Gleneagles Dr                                                          5
                             1st St                                                                 4
                             West Edge Rd                                                           3
                             Common Intersections                                          Number of Responses
                             1st St and Centre Ave                                                  4
                             Quigley Dr and West Edge Rd                                            3
                                                                             CROSSFIELD
                             Location                                                      Number of Responses
                             Pete Knight Arena                                                      4




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                                                                             HIGH RIVER
                             Street                                                       Number of Responses
                             Highway 2A                                                           15
                             12th Ave SE/SW                                                       14
                             Macleod Trail                                                        12
                             Riverside Dr                                                          8
                             3rd Ave SW/SE                                                         8
                             Centre St                                                             7
                             7th St NW                                                             7
                             7th Ave SW/SE                                                         6
                             9th Ave SW/SE                                                         6
                             6th Ave SW/SE                                                         6
                             3rd St SE                                                             5
                             3rd St SW                                                             5
                             High Park Blvd                                                        5
                             Longview Trail                                                        5
                             10th Ave SW/SE                                                        4
                             Highway 2                                                             4
                             18th St SE                                                            4
                             High Country Drive NW                                                 4
                             14th St SE                                                            3
                             High Park Dr NW                                                       3
                             Common Intersections                                         Number of Responses
                             7th St NW and Highway 2A                                              5
                             3rd Ave and Centre St                                                 3
                             Longview Trail and Highway 2A                                         3
                             Riverside Dr and High Park Dr NW                                      3
                             Spitzee Elementary School (3rd St and MacLeod Trail SW)               3
                                                                              OKOTOKS
                             Street                                                       Number of Responses
                             Milligan Dr                                                          13
                             Southridge Dr                                                        11
                             Crystal Shores Dr                                                     5
                             32nd St                                                               5
                             Crystalridge Dr                                                       5
                             Cimarron Dr                                                           3
                             Okotoks Dr                                                            3
                             Woodhaven Dr                                                          3
                             Common Intersections                                         Number of Responses
                             Southridge Drive and Cimarron Drive                                   3
                             Milligan Dr and Okotoks Dr                                            3
                             Milligan Drive and 32nd                                               3
                                                                             STRATHMORE
                             Street                                                       Number of Responses
                             Aspen Creek Way                                                       3
                             Brent Blvd                                                            3
                             Parklane Dr                                                           3
                             Strathhaven Dr                                                        3
                             Hillview Dr                                                           3



Question 3: In which regional community do you live?
Most of the respondents who completed the survey were from the communities of Airdrie, High River,
Okotoks, Cochrane, Chestermere, Strathmore, and Crossfield. The number of responses received from each
of the communities is shown in Table 2.




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                                        Table 2 Most Common Places of Residence of Respondents

                                                            Community        Number of Responses
                                                          Airdrie                    216
                                                          High River                 193
                                                          Okotoks                     67
                                                          Cochrane                    54
                                                          Chestermere                 32
                                                          Strathmore                  21
                                                          Crossfield                  13
                                                          Didsbury                     6
                                                          Dewinton                     4
                                                          Rockyview                    3
                                                          Springbank                   3
                                                          Foothills                    2
                                                          Millarville                  2
                                                          Irricana                     2
                                                          Riverview                    2



Question 4: If you travel to Calgary on a regular basis, where do you usually end your trip?
The most common locations that respondents travel to in Calgary are shown in Table 3. Of the
410 responses included in the table, approximately 65% (or 266 responses) of the destinations are situated
in the downtown core. 67 of these respondents did not specify a downtown location, while 24 respondents
noted that they usually end their trips at Bow Valley Square and 12 respondents stop at the Harry Hays
Building. Fifth Avenue Place (12 responses) and Bow Valley College (11 responses) are also popular
destinations. In addition, 19 respondents stop at the University of Calgary.

The information provided by Table 3 could be used to select the pick-up/drop-off locations within the City of
Calgary for the proposed express regional bus system.

                                          Table 3 Common Trip Destinations within City of Calgary

                                              Location or Intersection                             Number of Responses
                          Downtown (unspecified location)                                                  71
                          Bow Valley Square (1st St and 6th Ave SW), Downtown                              24
                          University of Calgary                                                            19
                          Shell Canada and Gulf Canada Square (4th St and 4th SW)                          16
                          Harry Hays Building (1st St and 4th Ave SE), Downtown                            12
                          Fifth Avenue Place (1st St and 5th Ave SW), Downtown                             12
                          Bow Valley College (3rd St and 6th Ave SW), Downtown                             11
                          City Hall (MacLeod Trail and 7th Ave SE), Downtown                               10
                          Bankers Hall (2nd St and 9th Ave SW), Downtown                                    9
                          Somerset/Bridlewood LRT Station                                                   9
                          1st St and 4th Ave SW, Downtown                                                   8
                          SAIT                                                                              8
                          Deerfoot Meadows Mall                                                             8
                          South Centre Mall                                                                 8
                          Foothills Hospital                                                                8
                          2nd St and 4th Ave SW, Downtown                                                   8
                          Petro Canada Building (Centre St S and 6th Ave SW), Downtown                      7
                          7th St and 6th Ave SW, Downtown                                                   7




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                                                Location or Intersection     Number of Responses
                          Shawnessy Mall                                              7
                          Calgary Tower (Centre St and 9th Ave), Downtown             7
                          6th St and 6th Ave SW, Downtown                             6
                          7th St and 7th Ave SW, Downtown                             6
                          Anderson LRT                                                5
                          Chinook Centre                                              5
                          7th St and 9th Ave SW, Downtown                             5
                          Heritage LRT station                                        5
                          3rd St and 7th Ave SW, Downtown                             5
                          Airport                                                     5
                          6th St and 3rd Ave SW, Downtown                             5
                          Rockyview Hospital                                          5
                          MacLeod Trail and Southland Dr                              5
                          Mount Royal College                                         4
                          3rd St and 4th Ave SW, Downtown                             4
                          3rd St and 5th Ave SW, Downtown                             4
                          8th St and 8th Ave SW, Downtown                             4
                          Foothills Industrial Park                                   4
                          Shawnessy LRT                                               4
                          36th St and 26th Ave NE                                    4
                          Centre St and 4th Ave, Downtown                            4
                          MacLeod Trail and Glenmore Trail                           4
                          Calgary Zoo                                                3
                          2nd St and 3rd Ave SW, Downtown                            3
                          4th St and 17th Ave SW                                     3
                          5th St and 5th Ave SW, Downtown                            3
                          6th St and 9th Ave SW, Downtown                            3
                          7th St and 5th Ave SW, Downtown                            3
                          19th St and 32nd Ave NE                                    3
                          Quarry Park                                                3
                          Blackfoot Trail and 42nd Ave SE                            3
                          Marlborough LRT station                                    3
                          Brentwood LRT station                                      3
                          Dalhousie LRT station                                      3
                          Victoria Park/Stampede LRT station                         3
                          McKnight/Westwinds LRT station                             3
                          5th St and 6th Ave SW, Downtown                            3
                          1st St and 11th Ave SW, Downtown                           3


Table 4 organizes the trip destinations by their community of origin (only the most common destinations are
shown). As this table illustrates, most of the common destinations for Airdrie, Chestermere, and Okotoks
commuters are located downtown, whereas commuters in High River are often travelling to other locations
such as shopping malls, medical facilities, and post-secondary institutions.

This table could be used as a guide when developing transit routes to ensure the system connects the
residents of these communities to their most common destinations.




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                                   Table 4 Most Common Destinations for Each Community of Origin

                                                                              AIRDRIE
                      Location or Intersection                                            Number of Responses
                      Downtown (unspecified location)                                             24
                      Bow Valley Square (1st St and 6th Ave SW), Downtown                         15
                      University of Calgary                                                        8
                      City Hall (MacLeod Trail and 7th Ave SE), Downtown                           7
                      6th St and 6th Ave SW, Downtown                                              7
                      Harry Hays Building (1st St and 4th Ave SE), Downtown                        6
                      Shell Canada and Gulf Canada Square (4th St and 4th SW), Downtown            5
                      6th St and 3rd Ave SW, Downtown                                              5
                      Fifth Avenue Place (1st St and 5th Ave SW), Downtown                         4
                      Bow Valley College (3rd St and 6th Ave SW), Downtown                         4
                      Petro Canada Building (Centre St S and 6th Ave SW), Downtown                 4
                      Airport                                                                      4
                      36th St and 26th Ave NE                                                      3
                      1st St and 4th Ave SW, Downtown                                              3
                      MacLeod Trail and Glenmore Trail                                             3
                      SAIT                                                                         3
                      7th St and 6th Ave SW, Downtown                                              3
                      Victoria Park/Stampede LRT station                                           3
                      Deerfoot Meadows Mall                                                        2
                      Calgary Zoo                                                                  2
                      2nd St and 4th Ave SW, Downtown                                              2
                      3rd St and 5th Ave SW, Downtown                                              2
                      19th St and 32nd Ave NE                                                      2
                      McKnight/Westwinds LRT station                                               2
                      5th St and 11th Ave SW                                                       2
                      6th and 8th Ave SW                                                           2
                      47th St and McKnight SE                                                      2
                      5th St and 5th Ave SW, Downtown                                              2
                                                                        CHESTERMERE
                      Location or Intersection                                            Number of Responses
                      Downtown (unspecified location)                                              4
                      Fifth Avenue Place (1st St and 5th Ave SW), Downtown                         2
                                                                             COCHRANE
                      Location or Intersection                                            Number of Responses
                      Downtown (unspecified location)                                              7
                      Dalhousie LRT station                                                        5
                      University of Calgary                                                        4
                      7th St and 9th Ave SW, Downtown                                              4
                      Bankers Hall (2nd St and 9th Ave SW), Downtown                               3
                      Foothills Hospital                                                           2
                      Brentwood LRT station                                                        2




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                                                                             HIGH RIVER
                      Location or Intersection                                            Number of Responses
                      Downtown (unspecified location)                                             12
                      Shawnessy Mall                                                               7
                      Rockyview Hospital                                                           5
                      South Centre Mall                                                            5
                      SAIT                                                                         4
                      Deerfoot Meadows Mall                                                        4
                      Somerset/Bridlewood LRT Station                                              4
                      Chinook Centre                                                               4
                      Heritage LRT station                                                         4
                      Shell Canada and Gulf Canada Square (4th St and 4th SW)                      3
                      Harry Hays Building (1st St and 4th Ave SE), Downtown                        3
                      Fifth Avenue Place (1st St and 5th Ave SW), Downtown                         3
                      Foothills Hospital                                                           3
                      2nd St and 4th Ave SW, Downtown                                              3
                      Anderson LRT                                                                 3
                      Quarry Park                                                                  3
                      University of Calgary                                                        2
                      MacLeod Trail and Southland Dr                                               2
                      Mount Royal College                                                          2
                      8th St and 8th Ave SW, Downtown                                              2
                      Foothills Industrial Park                                                    2
                      5th St and 5th Ave SW, Downtown                                              2
                      Bankers Hall (2nd St and 9th Ave SW), Downtown                               2
                                                                             OKOTOKS
                      Location or Intersection                                            Number of Responses
                      Downtown (unspecified location)                                             12
                      Somerset/Bridlewood LRT Station                                              4
                      1st St and 11th Ave SW, Downtown                                             2
                      1st St and 4th Ave SW, Downtown                                              2
                      Chinook Centre                                                               2



Question 5: Do you use an existing regional bus service to travel to and from Calgary?
A total of 27% of the respondents indicated that they use an existing regional bus service to travel to and
from Calgary. The remaining 73% do not use a regional bus service.


Question 6: If yes to Question 5, how often do you use this existing regional bus service from your
community to the City of Calgary?
For those who answered yes to question 5, 62% of the respondents reported that they use an existing
regional bus service 5 days a week to travel to the City of Calgary. 21% use it 3-4 days a week to get to the
City, and 5% use it 1-2 days per week to commute to the City. The complete results of this question are
shown in Table 5.




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                Table 5 Frequency of Use of Existing Regional Bus Services to Travel to the City of Calgary

                                   Frequency of Use of Existing Regional     Number of    Percentage of
                                     Bus Services to Travel to Calgary       Responses   Total Responses
                                  5 days a week                                 122            62%
                                  3-4 days a week                                41            21%
                                  1-2 days a week                                 9            5%
                                  Infrequently                                   26            13%
                                  Total                                         198           100%



Question 7: How often would you use a new regional express bus service with the following features:
two-way service between the City of Calgary and the regional communities every 15 to 30 minutes in
the peak periods (6:00am to 9:00am and 3:30pm to 6:30pm), accessible buses, and fares between
$7.00 and $8.00 (with options for discounted monthly passes and free transfers to Calgary Transit)?
After the proposed regional express bus service was described to the respondents, 49% of the respondents
replied that they would use the service 5 days a week, while 18% said they would use it 3-4 days a week,
and 13% indicated they would use the system 1-2 days a week. Table 6 provides the complete results of this
question.

                                Table 6 Frequency of Use of Proposed Regional Express Bus Service

                                        Frequency of Use of Proposed         Number of    Percentage of
                                        Regional Express Bus Service         Responses   Total Responses
                                   5 days a week                                314            49%
                                   3-4 days a week                              118            18%
                                   1-2 days a week                               82            13%
                                   Infrequently                                  94            15%
                                   Never                                         37             6%
                                   Total                                        645           100%


These values indicate that the number of users of a potential regional express bus service could increased
from the current 198 users counted in Question 6, to 607 users in Question 7 (i.e., 409 more respondents
indicated they would use the service 5 days a week, 3-4 days a week, 1-2 days a week, or infrequently),
which is a 207% increase.


Question 8: What major stops in the City of Calgary should this proposed new regional express bus
service make?
When the survey asked what major stops should be a part of the proposed regional express bus service, the
most commonly received responses were: Downtown; C-train stations; shopping centres such as South
Centre and Chinook Mall; and educational facilities such as University of Calgary, SAIT, and Mount Royal
College (see Table 7 for more details). Medical facilities such as Foothills Hospital and the airport were also
mentioned numerous times. The first column of Table 7 lists the general types of locations mentioned, and
the third column lists the specific locations (presented in order of preference) identified within those general
categories.




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




                            Table 7 Suggested Major stops for Proposed Regional Express Bus Service

             General Location              Number of Responses                                     Specific Locations
                                                                              City Hall, 6th Ave SW, Stampede Park, Calgary Tower, Harry
                                                                             Hays Building, Bow Valley Square, Gulf Canada Square, Petro
            Downtown                                    378                            Canada Building, Sun Life Financial Building
                                                                              Somerset, southern stations, Anderson, Shawnessy, Chinook,
                                                                               Crowfoot, Dalhousie, Marlborough, Calgary Zoo, Heritage,
            C-train stations                            285                                              Rundle
                                                                                 Chinook Centre, South Centre, Sunridge Mall, Deerfoot
                                                                             Meadows Mall, Shawnessy Mall, Marlborough Mall, Market Mall,
            Malls                                       139                                        Cross Iron Mills Mall
            Education facilities                        100                         University of Calgary, SAIT, Mount Royal College
            Medical facilities                           27                                         Foothills Hospital
            Airport                                      18
            Industrial areas                             14                                     Foothills Industrial Park
            Limited stops                                13



As illustrated by Table 7, the most popular downtown locations are: City Hall; 6th Ave SW; Stampede Park;
Calgary Tower; the Harry Hays Building; Bow Valley Square; Gulf Canada Square; the Petro Canada
Building; and the Sun Life Financial Building. The most popular C-train stations are: Somerset; the southern
stations; Anderson; Shawnessy; Chinook; Crowfoot; Dalhousie; Marlborough; the Calgary Zoo; Heritage; and
Rundle.

Some respondents also felt that to reduce travel time, a portion of the express buses should go directly
downtown and have limited or no stops at all before reaching downtown. The remaining buses could then go
to other locations such as C-train stations.


Question 9: Do you want this proposed new express bus service to stop at an existing outlying
C-Train station where you would transfer or go to downtown Calgary or both?
The results of this question indicate that most respondents would prefer to have the express bus stop at both
outlying C-train stations and downtown Calgary. 28% felt the buses should only stop downtown, while 15%
felt the bus should stop at an outlying C-train station, where users would then transfer onto other modes. The
survey results of this question are shown in Table 8.

                                         Table 8 Stops for Proposed Regional Express Bus Service

                                                                                              Number of           Percentage of
                          Stops for Proposed Regional Express Bus Service
                                                                                              Responses          Total Responses
                       Outlying LRT station                                                         98                  15%
                       Downtown Calgary                                                            178                  28%
                       Both outlying LRT station and downtown Calgary                              366                  57%
                       Total                                                                       642                 100%



Question 10 (Part 1)
In this question, people were asked to rate how important certain features of the express bus system would
be to them. The features that respondents were asked to consider included:
         •   Parking at the central pick-up/drop-off point in their community;
         •   A place at the pick-up/drop-off point where they could be dropped off;




                                                                                                                                            -9-
Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




            •      Frequency of service (buses would arrive more often than 30 minutes);
            •      Reliability of service (buses would leave on-time more than 97% of the time);
            •      Use of new buses;
            •      Service delivery by a private sector company;
            •      Service delivery by Calgary Transit;
            •      Cost of the service (less than $240 per month);
            •      Comfort of buses (the seats would recline and be soft); and
            •      Initial service hours – 6:00 am to 9:00 am and 3:30 pm to 6:30 pm.

                  Table 9 Importance of Different Features for the Proposed Regional Express Bus System

                       Top number is the count of respondents selecting the
                       option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondents          Low   Medium   High
                                       selecting the option
                  Reliability of service (buses would leave on-time more than 97%     27     85     548
                  of the time)                                                       4%     13%     83%
                                                                                      40     70     535
                  Initial service hours – 6 am to 9 am and 3:30 pm to 6:30 pm
                                                                                     6%     11%     83%
                                                                                      35     89     513
                  Cost of the service (less than $240 per month)
                                                                                     6%     14%     81%
                                                                                     104    182     361
                  Parking at the central pick-up/drop-off point in your community
                                                                                     16%    28%     56%
                  Frequency of service (buses would arrive more often than every      90    205     354
                  30 minutes)                                                        14%    32%     55%
                  A place at the pick-up/drop-off point where you could be dropped   153    208     272
                  off                                                                24%    32%     55%
                                                                                     133    317     200
                  Comfortable buses (the seats would recline and be soft)
                                                                                     20%    49%     31%
                                                                                     131    353     169
                  Use new buses
                                                                                     20%    54%     26%
                                                                                     288    231     125
                  The service would be delivered by Calgary Transit
                                                                                     45%    36%     19%
                                                                                     354    234      63
                  The service would be delivered by a private sector company
                                                                                     54%    36%     10%


As shown in Table 9, most respondents indicated that the reliability of the service, initial service hours, and
cost of service would be the most important attributes of the new system. Parking at the central pick-up/drop-
off points and a place for people to be dropped off at these central points were also viewed as being
important. Less emphasis was placed on the age of the buses, comfort, and which sector would provide the
service.


Question 10 (Part 2)
The second part of this question gave respondents the opportunity to provide additional comments with
regards to the desired features of the proposed regional express bus service. Many respondents requested
that service begin earlier (e.g., 5 or 5:30 am) and end later (e.g., 8 or 9:00 pm). Some also requested lunch
hour service so that employees with half-day schedules or medical appointments could go home. In terms of
the location of the pick-up points, 35 respondents replied that they would prefer to be picked up at a location
closer to their home rather than at a central pick-up location. Some explained that if they had to drive to a
central pick-up point, they would rather just drive all the way to their destination.




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Calgary Regional Partnership
C a l g a r y R e g i on a l E x p r e s s B u s S u r v e y R e s u l t s




Reliability, especially during winter time, was again emphasized to be an important factor in encouraging
people to continue using the service. Weekend service, possibly with lower frequencies of service, was also
suggested.

With regards to cost, many people thought that having a monthly pass that costs less than $240 is important
(some also suggested that it cost less than $150) and that $7 for a one-way trip was too expensive. Many
indicated that they would not be willing to pay more than what current service providers are charging, or the
combined costs of driving to a C-train station and then taking the train. 10 respondents also requested that
the passes/tickets be transferrable to the Calgary Transit system.

Other important features noted by the respondents included having stops at C-train stations, having
adequate parking available at the central pick-up/drop-off points (some indicated that free parking should be
available), and frequency of service. Headways shorter than 30 minutes were favoured.

The availability of heat and air-conditioning was also of importance. Southland currently does not provide
heat in the winter, and many people noted that this lack of important amenity has made their commuting trips
quite uncomfortable. Additionally, on-board toilets were suggested by several respondents for trips longer
than an hour.

In addition, a number of respondents indicated that they were satisfied with the existing service provided by
the private sector and did not feel a new regional bus service was warranted. Some also expressed
dissatisfaction with the Calgary Transit system. They felt the Calgary Transit system was overcrowded,
unsafe, and uncomfortable.

A more complete list of the most common responses is shown in Table 10.

                                              Table 10 Comments about Desired Service Features

                                                      Comments                                   Number of Responses
             More options for pick-up times                                                              90
             Affordability is very important                                                             55
             Multiple pick-up locations is favoured over central pick-up points                          35
             Reliability is very important                                                               24
             There should be weekend service (hourly)                                                    22
             Provide adequate amount of secured parking at pick-up points                                12
             Passes should be transferrable to Calgary Transit                                           10
             Existing service provided by private sector is sufficient                                   10
             Stop at LRT stations                                                                        10
             Provide on-board toilets                                                                    10
             Have service to downtown with limited stops                                                  8
             Bus type (age, coach vs. regular transit buses) does not matter                              8
             Bus type does matter (i.e., should be coach bus, should be new)                              9
             Provide heat on-board buses                                                                  9
             The proposed service is a great idea                                                         8
             Connectivity with Calgary Transit is important                                               7
             Travel time is important                                                                     6
             Provide air conditioning on-board buses                                                      6
             Service frequency is important                                                               6
             Rail would be better than buses                                                              5
             Calgary is not dirty, reliable, overcrowded                                                  4
             Plug-ins/tables for laptops or people to work would be great                                 4
             Buses should go to outlying areas (i.e., areas besides Downtown)                             3




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                                                       Comments                                                Number of Responses
             Comfort is not as important                                                                                3
             Provide a number to call to check next bus arrival and operating conditions                                3
             Do not stop at LRT stations                                                                                3
             Buses should have seatbelts                                                                                3
             Service should be accessible to people with mobility impairments                                           3
             Bus schedules should be posted up                                                                          3
             Space for strollers should be available                                                                    3
             Buses should have low environmental impact                                                                 2
             Private companies should be used                                                                           2
             Cardinal has no competitors, so not compelled to listen to the customers                                   2
             There should be seating for everyone                                                                       2
             Passengers should not be restricted to using the system at the same times each
             day/service should be available without bookings                                                          2
             Provide shelters at bus stops                                                                             2
             Provide electrical outlets at central pick up points                                                      1
             Seniors' needs were not considered in this survey                                                         1
             Set up online purchasing system for passes                                                                1
             Calgary Transit should operate the service to coordinate schedule with other transit
             services                                                                                                  1



Question 11: Please indicate your age group.
Most of the respondents are in the 25-54 year old age groups. A smaller proportion are in the 55-64 year old
age group, and a further 17 respondents are either 16-17 years old or 75-years old and above. The age
profile of the respondents is shown in Table 11.

                                                         Table 11 Age Profile of Respondents

                                                                              Number of      Percentage of
                                               Age Group                     Respondents   Total Respondents
                                               16-17 years old                     1               0%
                                               18-24 years old                    31               5%
                                               25-34 years old                   138              20%
                                               35-44 years old                   160              24%
                                               45-54 years old                   181              27%
                                               55-64 years old                    11              16%
                                               65-74 years old                    37               5%
                                               75+ years old                      16               2%
                                               Total                             675             100%



Question 12
The last question of the survey gave respondents the opportunity to provide additional comments. The most
common response received was that the proposed service would be a welcomed addition to the existing bus
service. Others emphasized the importance of having a service that is affordable, well-connected to the
Calgary Transit system, and offers a variety of options for pick-up times (e.g., 3 people requested that the
service begin at 5 or 5:30am, 6 people requested service throughout the day, and 7 people requested
service throughout the week) and locations.

However, it was again reiterated by some that the existing service provided by the private sector is sufficient
and that Calgary Transit needs to improve their service in order to gain the support of the public. A couple of
respondents were also skeptical about the usefulness of the proposed service, and suggested that perhaps



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the resources should be placed on other priorities. In addition, several respondents felt that the system
should be funded by users and not by all taxpayers.

Additionally, rail service was suggested as an alternative to a regional bus system. Several respondents
recommended using the existing railways for such a service. Reverse commuting trips was also considered
to be important by some, and a few respondents expressed concern over the possibility of transit strikes if
the service is delivered by the public sector.

Other useful ideas that the respondents provided included: operating downtown-only express buses that
alternate with regular buses, which would stop at LRT stations or outlying communities; providing plug-
ins/tables for laptops for people to work; providing service to medical facilities during non-peak hours; and
ensuring the service is accessible to those with mobility impairments. A more comprehensive list of these
comments is shown in Table 12.

                                                              Table 12 Additional Comments

                 Comment                                                                     Number of Responses
                 This is a great idea                                                                68
                 Affordability is important                                                          38
                 More options for pick-up times than currently offered by providers                  30
                 Existing service provided by private sector is sufficient                           17
                 Calgary Transit needs improvement                                                   17
                 I would use the proposed service                                                    17
                 Service needs to include downtown                                                   10
                 Connectivity with Calgary Transit                                                    9
                 Multiple pick-up locations is favoured over central pick-up points                  10
                 Pass should be transferrable to Calgary Transit                                      9
                 Rail service would be better than bus                                                9
                 Reliable buses are important                                                         7
                 Limited stops                                                                        6
                 Extend LRT                                                                           5
                 Travel time should be short                                                          5
                 Seats should be comfortable                                                          5
                 Same service as Southland                                                            5
                 Service should go beyond LRT stations                                                5
                 Transit strikes is a concern when employees are unionized                            4
                 Use low emission buses                                                               4
                 Frequency is important                                                               4
                 Reverse commute should also be considered                                            3
                 Have downtown-only express buses alternating with regular buses that stop
                 at LRT stations or outlying communities                                              3
                 Economic crisis means such a program should be delayed                               3
                 First Canada/Southland service is often at capacity                                  3
                 Parking should be free                                                               3
                 Convenient ticket purchasing strategy needed                                         2
                 City of Calgary is just trying to make more money                                    2
                 Plug-ins/tables for laptops or people to work would be great                         2
                 Service should be accessible to people with mobility impairments                     2
                 Service should be operated by private sector                                         2
                 Users should not be obliged to use it everyday                                       2
                 Central pick-up points are preferred                                                 2
                 Service should go to medical facilities                                              2
                 This service should be funded by users not by all taxpayers                          2
                 Heat is important                                                                    2




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Appendix B – Provincial and Federal
Funding Programs
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                   Provincial and Federal Program Funding Opportunities for CRP Municipalities
                                                                     Cost
              Name                                Eligibility                             Approximate Funding Available
                                                                    Sharing
  Alberta Municipal               Cities, Towns, Villages,    100% Provincial    Total of three billion dollars over first five-year
  Infrastructure                  Summer Villages, Municipal                     period; approximately $180 per capita per year
  Program                         Districts, Specialized                         (based on 2006 population).
                                  Municipalities, Improvement
  (Non-Exclusive to               Districts, Special Areas,                      In 2008, CRP members received over $217
  Transit)                        Métis Settlements                              million through the Alberta Municipal
                                                                                 Infrastructure Program.
  (2005 to 2015)

  Basic Capital Grant             Cities (excluding Calgary     75% Provincial   Each jurisdiction eligible for annual grant
                                  and Edmonton) and Urban 25% Municipal          based on $60 per capita and the previous
  (Non-Exclusive to               Service Areas (Sherwood                        year's official population.
  Transit)                        Park and Wood Buffalo).
                                  One component of the                           In 2008/2009, CRP members received over
  (Fiscal Year                    Alberta Cities Transportation                  $33 million, and will receive over $67 million in
  2008/2009)                      Partnership (ACTP)                             2009/2010
                                  program-
                                  Multi-jurisdictional or
                                  demonstration projects
                                  may be funded at different
                                  cost sharing rates, which
                                  may allow consideration
                                  of an application by the
                                  regional transportation
                                  authority
  New Deal for Public             Municipalities who own and    100% Federal     Total of $130 million (portion of federal tax
  Transit                         operate a provincially                         surplus) allocated based largely on the
                                  recognized public transit                      municipality's share of the total annual public
  (2006 to 2015)                  system.                                        transit ridership as published for the year
                                                                                 2004.
  (The program is
  being reviewed this                                                            In 2008, the City of Calgary received just over
  year. The results of                                                           $28 million, and the City of Airdrie received
  the report may lead                                                            just over $300,000; no other CRP members
  the program to be                                                              currently operate a provincially recognized
  extended,                                                                      public transit system.
  modified, or
  cancelled.)
  City Transportation             Cities of Calgary and   100% Provincial        Grant based on five cents per litre for the
  Fund-could be                   Edmonton. One component (Municipal             volume of road-use gasoline and diesel fuel
  expanded to                     of the ACTP program.    contribution           delivered to service stations and bulk fuel
  Canmore and Banff                                       encouraged)            outlets within the City.
  and ID #9-lower
  gasoline tax level

  (Non-Exclusive to
  Transit)

  (Fiscal Year
  2008/2009)
  New Deal for Cities             Cities, Towns, Villages,    100% Federal       Based on the return to the province of a
  and Communities                 Summer Villages, Municipal                     portion of the federal gasoline tax; funds
                                  Districts, Specialized                         distributed on a per capita basis (2006/2007
  (Non-Exclusive to               Municipalities, Improvement                    census data) to eligible municipalities in
  Transit)                        Districts, Special Areas,                      annual or semi-annual increments over the
                                  Métis Settlements.                             first 5 years of the program up to their
  (2005 to 2015)                                                                 maximum allocation.
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                                                                     Cost
              Name                                Eligibility                             Approximate Funding Available
                                                                    Sharing
                        Municipality must maintain
                        historical normalized annual                              In 2008/09, communities in Alberta were
                        expenditures on capital                                   allocated a total of $95.4 million and in
                        infrastructure, and develop                               2009/10, the allocation is $190.8 million.
                        and implement a
                        sustainability plan.
    Streets Improvement Towns, villages, summer      75% Provincial               $60 per capita for municipalities with
    Program             villages, and eligible       25% Municipal                populations of 300 or more; municipalities with
                        hamlets.                                                  populations of less than 300 receive a “base
    (Non-Exclusive to                                                             grant”of $8,000 plus $33.33 per capita.
    Transit)

    2002 (ongoing)
    Municipal                     Cities, Towns, Villages,   100% Provincial      Amounts are formulated based on municipal
    Sustainability                Summer Villages, Municipal                      populations, education property tax
    Initiative                    Districts, Improvement                          requisitions and kilometres of local roads. In
                                  Districts, Specialized                          2008, municipalities received a total of $500
    (Non-Exclusive to             Municipalities, Métis                           million; this amount will increase to $600
    Transit)                      Settlements.                                    million in 2009, and $1.4 billion annually
                                                                                  beginning in 2010.
    (2007 to 2017)
                                                                              Of the total MSI funding allocated each year,
                                                                              $50 million is provided to municipalities in the
                                                                              form of conditional operating funding, and the
                                                                              remaining funds are to be used towards
                                                                              qualifying capital projects
    Unconditional                 Municipalities, improvement 100% Provincial The formula used to distribute the grants is
    Municipal Grant               districts, special areas, and               based on the allocations made according to
    Program                       Métis settlements.                          the 1994 business plan.

    (Non-Exclusive to             No municipal applications
    Transit)                      are required.

    (Annually Recurring)
    Green Transit        Open to all municipalities             To be             $2.0 billion of five years with very limited
    Incentives Program- regional entities, non- profit          determined-will   funding in first three years program Details to
    Green TRIP           organizations and private              likely be very    be released in September or later fall, 2009.
                         sector groups                          merit based
    Exclusive to transit
    and funding will be
    provided on project
    by project basis

    Regional                      Newly established Regional 25% Municipal        $150,000 provincial contribution towards
    Partnerships Initiative       Services Commission that     75% Provincial     implementation of each regional partnership
    implementation                have completed approved                         initiative with over 10,000 people but this may
    component                     exploration grant activities                    be negotiated on a
                                                                                  case by case basis
    (Not exclusive to
    transit)
    Regional Services             Newly established Regional 100% Provincial $5,000-$20,000 per commission. Each
    Commission                    Services Commission                        commission is assessed individually.
    Assistance Program

1
  Alberta Municipal Affairs (n.d.). Regional partnerships initiative: brochure. Retrieved January 7, 2009 from
the Alberta Municipal Affairs website: http://www.municipalaffairs.gov.ab.ca/documents/ms/rpi-brochure.pdf
    Calgary Regional Partnership
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                                  Comparison of Potential Sources of Funding for Regional Transit
                                                      Generating       Ease of                    Environmental /   Relationship to
   Revenue Source                Transparency                                       TDM Effects                         Transit
                                                       Potential   Implementation                 Social Benefits



Property Taxes

Federal / Provincial
Grants

Gas Taxes


Sales Taxes


Advertising

Accommodation Room
Tax-Hotels/Resorts

Special Benefiting
Business Tax

Municipal Parking
Levies/Taxes

Special Resort Area
Grant

Public Private
Partnerships
Value Capture-
increased value
generated by transit
improvements
Cost-sharing /
Revenue-sharing

Vehicle Registration
Levy

Payroll Employer Tax


Tolls-Bridge and Roads


  Best Suited to meet Criteria
   Adequately Suited to meet Criteria
   Poorly Suited to meet Criteria
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Appendix    C   –    Transit-Oriented
Development Research
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What types of TOD centres are appropriate for smaller urban centres in rural areas adjacent to
commuter rail stations or BRT transit hubs not within a large city near LRT stations?

When developing TOD centres within a rural community, the following issues should be considered.

                                                       s
Role of the Community and Meeting the Needs of the Area’ Residents, Workers, and Visitors

According to Hank Dittmar and Shelley Potisha (2004), communities should ensure the types of uses located
within a TOD match with the function of the place within the larger region and serve the needs and desires of
            s
the area’ residents, workers, and visitors. While achieving mixed-use development and jobs-housing
balance are excellent goals, in reality some stations function mainly as collectors for people traveling to work,
while others function mainly as destinations of employment. As Dittmar and Potisha (Ibid) have pointed out,
“Transit oriented development can help to balance the use of the station somewhat but it is unlikely in and of
                           s
itself to alter the station’ role in the regional network or metropolitan economy.”(p.33). Hence, their findings
have indicated that station areas in commuter town centres can be developed as a “      main street”center, with
neighbourhood retail, professional offices, and some multifamily residential housing within the core area of
the TOD. Retail and service businesses can include restaurants and cafes, food stores, dry cleaners,
medical clinics, bank services, hair salons, and day care, and employment centers can be primarily
comprised of professional services such as attorneys, tax preparers, and accountants. Housing types within
the whole TOD would be varied, with higher density multi-family buildings being located closer to the station.
                                                       s                         s
This latter point is supported by the New Jersey’ Transit Village Initiative’ findings that increasing the
number of housing options offered within walking distance of a transit facility does more to build transit
ridership than any other type of development (Berton, 2008). Lastly, the scale of these developments should
be low (the City of Calgary recommends 4 or 5 storeys) and work-live sites could also be considered for such
areas.

Increasing Accessibility of Places

Attention should be paid to how people can get around by foot, bicycle, public transportation, and the car, in
that order. For example, primary and secondary pedestrian routes could be included in the TOD station area.
The primary routes would be wider, and may include station access bridges, public easements, and regional
pathways. Buildings along these routes would also be oriented towards the street with direct building
entrances near the sidewalk and minimal setbacks. Secondary routes would not lead to the transit station
directly but instead would feed into the primary routes (see FIGURE 1).
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   Primary and secondary pedestrian connections provide access to the Station and throughout the
                                              area
                                                  Source: City of Calgary (2005)


In addition, buildings should be grouped together to allow for easy pedestrian access between buildings and
to help frame pedestrian areas (see FIGURE 2).




                               Development patterns in TOD station areas should be compact.
                                        Source: City of Calgary (2004)
Also included in this analysis would be an examination of the street patterns and parking arrangements.
Measures that could be implemented could include relaxing parking requirements, reducing surface parking,
orienting streets towards the transit station, and including sidewalks on both side streets.
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Integrating Physical and Visual Elements of New Developments with their Surroundings

Buildings should cater to the comfort of pedestrians by applying human-scaled architecture. Buildings higher
than 4 or 5 storeys should step back their higher floors so that the human scale is maintained along the
sidewalk and shadow impacts are minimized along the public street (City of Calgary, 2005).

As mentioned earlier, when building TOD centres, communities should also ensure that new developments
are compatible with existing natural and built landscapes. Clarion Associates (2001) have emphasized this
point, stating that there are a multitude of compatibility issues and concerns that need to be addressed.
These can include the scale and design of buildings that will be adjacent to residential homes, hours of
operation, noise, illumination of uses, and location of loading and service areas. As such, they recommend
              transition’standards and guidelines be implemented to assure new mixed-use developments
that specific ‘
are planned with the existing built and natural environments in mind. Clarion Associates (2001) include the
following examples:

      •     Giving the developer a choice among various tools to ensure smooth transitions between different
            types or intensities of uses.
      •     Limiting certain uses near residential buildings, such as bars, restaurants with late operating hours,
            and similar establishments.
      •     Implementing residential protection standards that allow the city to place conditions on development
            approval that mitigate potential impacts, including the ability to address hours of operation; lighting;
            additional landscaping beyond the minimum requirement; height restrictions; and siting of potentially
            noxious services such as parking, loading, trash collection, and outdoor vending machines.
      •     For new mixed-use infill development or redevelopment in older and established neighborhoods,
            requiring contextual building design and siting requirements.

                                                                                                      s
Attention should also be placed on the type of public spaces that currently exist, as well as the site’ intrinsic
resources such as the landform and ecology. New development should enrich the qualities of existing public
                                  s
spaces and try to utilize the site’ intrinsic resources to their advantage.


Flexibility for Future Changes in Use, Lifestyle, and Demography

TOD's should be designed to increase energy and resource efficiency. They should also be created so that
there is flexibility in the use of property, public spaces, and service infrastructure. As illustrated in FIGURE 2,
placing buildings to one side of a parcel instead of in the centre leaves land that could be developed later.

Examples of TOD in Rural Areas

An example of a rural Canadian community with transit-oriented development is the Village de Gare in
Mont-Sainte-Hilaire, Quebec, a town of 14,000 people. The project began in 2002 after the commuter train
from Montreal was extended to Mont-Saint-Hilaire (CMHC, 2007). Upon completion in 2012, the
development will have 1000 residential units (including single-family detached homes, duplexes, townhouses
and multi-unit buildings), commercial space, green space, bike routes, pedestrian pathways, and possibly a
primary school, all within 750 m from the train station. The residential densities have also been specifically
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designed so that they can support ridership on the commuter train. There will a minimum of 30 units per
hectare for multi-family projects, and single-family housing will be built up to a density of 20 units per hectare.
The multiunit buildings will also closest to the station and the maximum height of the buildings will also
3 storeys. Since the station opened, ridership along the Mont-Sainte-Hilaire has been increasing. In 2004,
the train line served 5,900 riders a day, with 600 passengers who boarded the train in Mont-Saint-Hilaire.
When 30 residents were interviewed, it was found that the proximity to the train station ranked high in their
choice to live in Village de la Gare. In fact, almost half of the respondents indicated that proximity to transit
was their main reason for relocating to the community, and that their main mode of travel to work was public
transit.

Two examples of commuter communities in the United States that have promoted transit-oriented
development are Prairie Crossing and Elburn in Illinois. Prairie Crossing is a community that has been
cognizant of the need to preserve open land and to encourage walking, cycling and the use of public transit.
Two Metra stations are within walking distance of the community, and over 60 percent of the 677-acre site is
protected open land, which includes ten miles of trails that wind through farm fields, pastures, lakes and
ponds, native prairies and wetlands (Prairie Crossing, 2008). The community has a variety of housing
options, including 359 single family homes and 36 condominiums, the latter of which are located in Station
Square, a new area within the Prairie Crossing community and are steps away from retail shops, restaurants,
and the Prairie Crossing Metra station. In addition, the homes at Prairie Crossing have been constructed with
techniques that reduce energy consumption by approximately 50 percent in comparison to new homes in the
area.

The Village of Elburn is a rural community made up of approximately 4700 people. In the 1950s, the train
that crossed Elburn was stopped due to a drop in ridership. However, in 2006, the trains were brought back
and today there are plans to build a mix of residential and commercial developments around Elburn station.
In particular, there will be a mixed-used development with 2,000 new residential units, including single- and
multi-family dwellings, and space for commercial and retail activity. The developer of the properties will be trying to
accommodate pedestrians, cyclists, and transit users.

Another example of a small community with TOD is the Village of La Grange in Chicago. This village is
approximately 2.5 square miles, as of 2004 had 15,600 residents. The village is a predominantly residential
community with a thriving downtown business district. The downtown has evolved into a regional restaurant
destination (with over 30 restaurants in 2004). With little opportunity to expand, La Grange has made a
concerted effort over the last 15 years to make the best use of its existing assets, including the downtown rail
station. Through the development and implementation of their Master Plan, they have managed to redevelop
sites close to the rail line. They facilitated the conversion of these sites to higher uses by establishing a
“transitionary”zoning district where densities can gradually increase and by creating a multifamily zone to
increase downtown densities.



Finally, a last example of a small TOD urban centre is Rahway, New Jersey, a town home to 25,000 people.
They too have reinvigorated the town centre by redeveloping sites within walking distance of their railway
station, which has been recently renovated. Developments are primarily residential (a mix of affordable,
up-market, and luxury-rate), but an arts-restaurant-entertainment district is also being established. More than
Calgary Regional Partnership
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200,000 square feet of new and converted retail space have also emerged, and this may well increase
significantly with a new proposed project (Berton, 2008). These uses complement each other, and help
ensure there is activity within the area throughout the day and week. They have also created enough foot
traffic that can support even more shops, restaurants, and other similar businesses (Berton, 2008). Rahway
has also a set a rare maximum parking limit of 1.2 on-site spaces per unit for residential projects within three
blocks of the train station, and has built a 524-car parking deck next to their transit station with the purpose of
reducing the need for surface parking and increasing the accessibility of the transit station. The City is also
adopting a bikeway plan, concentrated on the rail station, as part of a comprehensive downtown streetscape
redevelopment plan (Berton, 2008). In addition, the Rahway Center Partnership (RCP) has been established
help with the downtown revitalization process and they have been focusing on helping create an improved
physical environment, enhancing the image of Rahway, and supporting historic preservation and safety
related issues (Rahway Center Partnership, 2001).
Calgary Regional Partnership
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References:

Berton, Br. (2008). “                 .
                      Transit Villages” Urban Land. January 2008 Issue.
City of Calgary. (2004). Transit Oriented Development: Best Practices Handbook. Retrieved from the World
         Wide             Web             on          November            14,           2008,          from
         http://www.calgary.ca/DocGallery/BU/planning/pdf/tod/tod_handbook.pdf.
City of Calgary. (2005). Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines. Retrieved from the World Wide
         Web                 on               November               14,             2008,             from
         http://www.calgary.ca/DocGallery/BU/planning/pdf/tod/tod_policy_guidelines.pdf.
Clarion Associates. (2001). Mixed Use Zoning & Streets Standards: Executive Summary of the Diagnosis of
         Existing Codes & Policies, Executive Summary. Colorado Springs, Colorado.
CMHC. (2007). Transit-Oriented Development Case Study: Village de la Gare, Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec.
        Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 14, 2008, from http://www.cmhc-
        schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/su/sucopl/upload/65514EnW.pdf.
Dittmar, H. and Poticha, S. (2004). “    Defining Transit-Oriented Development: The New Regional Building
        Block.”The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Development. Chapter 2. Island
        Press: Washington, DC.
                                                                                                  s
Gorwitz, C. and Ohland, G. (2006). Communicating the Benefits of TOD: The City of Evanston’ Transit-
        Oriented Redevelopment and the Hudson Bergen Light Rail Transit System. Centre for Transit-
        Oriented Development: Pennsylvania, WA.
Holle, G. (n.d.). Transit-Oriented Development: the Chicago Perspective. Retrieved from the World Wide
        Web on November 14, 2008, from
        http://web1.ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/Chicago_Perspective.pdf.
Prairie Crossing. (2008). Prairie Crossing. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 14, 2008, from
        http://www.prairiecrossing.com/pc/site/index.html.
Rahway Center Partnership. (2001). Rahway Center Partnership. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on
        November 14, 2008, from http://www.rcpnj.org/
Calgary Regional Partnership
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Appendix D – Background Work on
Express Transit Services to and in
Regional Communities
In this Appendix are the maps prepared to assist in the development of express bus connections to the
regional communities.
Airdrie
Existing Transit Service

                                                                                                                          1                       route 1
                                                                                                                          2                       route 2
                                                                                                                          3                       route 3


                              Veterans Blvd NW 1                                                       Veterans Blvd NE
                                                                              3




                                                                                                                              East Lake Blvd NE
                                                                   2




           1 Ave NW
                                 8 St SW




                                                                                  2
                                                                                      Big Springs Dr
                                                                          2




                                                                                                           3
                                1
                                           Yankee Valley Blvd SW                      Yankee Valley Blvd SE




                                                                       Calgary,
                                                                       10 km



-500   0         500   1000                 1500 Meters
                                                                                                               2A
Airdrie
Existing First Bus East

                                                                                                                                               E1   east 1
                                                                                                                                               E2   east 2
                                                                                                                                               E3   east 3


                   Veterans Blvd NW                                                               Veterans Blvd NE




                                                                                                                      East Lake Blvd NE
                                                                                                                      East Lake Blvd NE
   1 Ave NW
                        8 St SW
                        8 St SW




                                                                                                  E1

                                                                             2
                                                                                                                     E2
                                                                                 Big Springs Dr




                                                                                                                                          E3


                                  Yankee Valley Blvd SW                          Yankee Valley Blvd SE




                                                                  Calgary,
                                                                  10 km




-500          0   500                  1000               1500 Meters
                                                                                                         2A
Airdrie
Existing First Bus West

                                                                                                                        W1                       west 1
                                                                                                                        W2                       west 2
                                                                                                                        W3                       west 3


                               Veterans Blvd NW                                                          Veterans Blvd NE




                                                                                                                             East Lake Blvd NE
                                                                    W2




            1 Ave NW


       W1




                                                                           W3
                                  8 St SW




                                                                                    2
                                                                                        Big Springs Dr




                                            Yankee Valley Blvd SW                       Yankee Valley Blvd SE
                  W2




                                                                         Calgary,
                                                                         10 km




-500   0          500   1000                 1500 Meters
                                                                                                                2A
Airdrie
Initial BRT Pick Up

                                                                                                                                            BRT - main
                                                                                                                                            BRT - local 1
                                                                                                                                            BRT - local 2
                                                                                                                                            BRT - local 3
                              Veterans Blvd NW                                                       Veterans Blvd NE




                                                                                                                        East Lake Blvd NE
                                                                                                                        East Lake Blvd NE
           1 Ave NW
                                   8 St SW
                                   8 St SW




                                                                                2   Big Springs Dr




                                             Yankee Valley Blvd SW                  Yankee Valley Blvd SE




                                                                     Calgary,
                                                                     10 km



-500   0              500   1000                  1500 Meters
                                                                                                            2A
Airdrie
Rail - T.O.D. - Local

                                                                                                                   transit-oriented
                                                                                                                   development
                                                                                                                   local routes
                               Veterans Blvd NW                             Veterans Blvd NE
                                                                                                                   rail




                                                                                               East Lake Blvd NE
            1 Ave NW

                                  8 St SW




                                                             2



                                                                   Big Springs Dr



                                     Yankee Valley Blvd SW       Yankee Valley Blvd SE




                                                                                    Calgary,
                                                                                    9 km



-500   0    500         1000    1500           2000 Meters
                  817
Cochrane
Existing Southland Routes


                                                                                                                                                              1            route 1
                                                                     22
                                                                                                                                                              2            route 2
                                    1A
                                                                                                                                                              3            route 3

                                                                                                                                                                               Calgary
                                                                                                                                                                               22km

           Terrace                                                                                                                                       1A
       W
                 Rd




                                                                                                                                                     1                             3
                  d




                         1
                                              Qui
                                                 g l e y Dr




                                                                                                                                                                  Gle
                                                                                                                                                                  Ge
                                                                                                                                                                      ne
                                                                                                                                                                       eagl
                                                                                                                                                                         gles D
                                                                                                                                                                                   2
                                                                     Glenpat                          Ra




                                                                                                                                                                              Dr
                                                              22         2                                 ilw




                                                                                                                                                                               r
                                                                           r ic
                                                                           r                                  ay
                                                                               k Dr                              St W                    1 St
                                                                                                                                                E


                                                                                                                                    3
                             Geor
                     3           ge F
                                     ox   Trail                                           Gri n Rd W

                                                                                                                    River Heights Rise
                                                                                                                    River Heights Rise
                                                                                      Riv
                                                                                         er v
                                                                                                iew
                                                                                                      Dr




                                                                                                                                         Bow River
                                                                      22



-500            0             500            1000             1500         2000 Meters
Cochrane
Initial BRT Pickup Routes


                                                                                                                                                       A            route A
                                                              22
                                                                                                                                                       B            route B
                             1A


                                                                                                                                                                        Calgary
                                                                                                                                                                        22km

           Terrace                                                                                                                                1A
       W              A
                 Rd




                                                                                                                                                                            B
                  d




                                       Qui
                                          g l e y Dr




                                                                                                                                                           Ge
                                                                                                                                                           Gle
                                                            TRANSFER




                                                                                                                                                               ne
                                                                                                                                                                eagl
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                                                                                                                                                                       Dr
                                                       22
                                                                                                    ilw




                                                                                                                                                                        r
                                                                    r
                                                                    r ic                               ay
                                                                        k Dr                              St W                    1 St
                                                                                                                                         E

                                                        B
                      Geor
                          ge F
                              ox   Trail                                           Gri n Rd W

                                                                                                             River Heights Rise
                                                                                                             River Heights Rise
                                                                               Riv
                                                                                  er v
                                                                                         iew
                                                                                               Dr




                                                                                                                                  Bow River
                                                               22



-500            0      500            1000             1500         2000 Meters
Cochrane
BRT/Rail - T.O.D.




                                                                                                                                           transit-oriented development

                                                                                                                                           BRT
                                                                                                                                           rail
                                                                                                                                           local routes




                                                           22
                              1A


                                                                                                                                                              Calgary
                                                                                                                                                              22km
           Terrac                                                                                                                                               1A
       W
                 eR
                  R




                                      Quig
                    d




                                             ley Dr




                                                                                                                                                                        Gle
                                                                                                                                                                         le
                                                                                                                                                                          neag
                                                                                                                                                                          n ag
                                                                                                                                                                              les D
                                                      22   Glenpa                         Ra
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                                                                                                      ay
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                                                                                                                                                                                  D
                                                                                                         St W 1 St E




                                                                                                                                                                               r
                                                                                                                                                                               r
                                                                      k Dr
                                                                      k




                        Georg
                             e Fox
                                     Trail                                      Gr i n R d W
                                                                                                          River Heights Rise
                                                                                                          River Heights Rise




                                                                             R iv
                                                                                 erv
                                                                                     i   ew
                                                                                              Dr




                                                                                                                               Bow River
                                                           22




-500         0          500        1000           1500          2000                 2500                   3000 Meters
           1

High River
2
Initial BRT Pick-up Route


                                           Calgary,
                                           37 km
                   Longview Trail NW




                                                                                                                                                   20 St NE
                                                                                                                                                   20 St NE
                                          2A




                                                                                               5 St SE
                                                                                               5 St SE
                                                           Cen
                                                            e t
                                                              t
                                                            re S
                                                             e
                                                                tN
                                                                t




                                                                                                                                                              2
                                                                                 2 Ave SE
                                                                                 3 Ave SE

                                                                  2A
                                                                                 6 Ave SE
                                                Trail SW
                                       McLeod                                                                                           7 Ave SE




                                                                                                              9 St SE
                                                                                                                             9 Ave SE
                                                                       1 St SE
                                                                       1 St SE




                                                                                            5 St SE




                                   12 Ave SW                                                      12 Ave SE                                                       23
                                                                                     2A                                                 23

                                                                                                                        2A



    -250       0   250   500     750    1000 Meters


                                                                                                                        2A
           1

High River
2
BRT-T.O.D.-Local


                                           Calgary,                                                                                           transit-oriented development
                                           37 km                                                                                              intensi ed use
                   Longview Trail NW




                                                                                                                                                   20 St NE
                                                                                                                                                   20 St NE
                                                                                                                                              BRT/Rail
                                          2A
                                                                                                                                              local routes




                                                                                               5 St SE
                                                                                               5 St SE
                                                           Cen
                                                            e t
                                                              t
                                                            re S
                                                             e
                                                                t
                                                                tN




                                                                                                                                                                 2
                                                                                 2 Ave SE
                                                                                 3 Ave SE

                                                                  2A
                                                                                 6 Ave SE
                                                Trail SW
                                       McLeod                                                                                           7 Ave SE




                                                                                                              9 St SE
                                                                                                                             9 Ave SE
                                                                       1 St SE
                                                                       1 St SE




                                                                                            5 St SE




                                   12 Ave SW                                                      12 Ave SE                                                             23
                                                                                     2A                                                 23

                                                                                                                        2A



    -250       0   250   500     750    1000 Meters


                                                                                                                        2A
     Okotoks
       1
     Existing Southland Routes
     2
22

                                    Calgary,
                                    18 km




                                                                                                                        32 St E
                                                                                                                        32 St E
                                                     Dr
                                                ge
                                                                            Milligan Dr


                                           rid
                                     rth
                                    No




                                                                                             Downe
                                                               Centre Ave
                                                               Centre Ave




                                                                                               wn y
                                    2A
                                                                                               Rd

                                         Elizabeth




                                                                                                              Dr
                                                          St
                                                                            NR




                                                                                                         dge
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                                                                                     ay S




                                                                                                        alri
                                                                                         t
                                     Southridge Dr
                                     Southridge Dr




                                                                                                         st
                                                                                                      Cry
          Big Rock Trail                                                                                                          370 Ave E


                                                     2A




                                                                                                  ar
                                                                                               Cim ron Blvd



                    7                                                                 2A                       7

                                                                                                                   2A                              23   23

     0   500        1000   1500   2000                2500 Meters                                                                             2A
     Okotoks
       1
     Initial BRT Pickup Routes
     2
22

                                    Calgary,                                                                                                                1   route 1
                                    18 km                                                                 2
                                                                                                                                                            2   route 2




                                                                                                                            32 St E
                                                                                                                            32 St E
                                                     Dr
                                                ge
                                                          1
                                                                                Milligan Dr


                                           rid
                                     rth
                                    No




                                                                                                 Downe
                                                               Centre Ave
                                                               Centre Ave




                                                                                                   wn y
                                    2A
                                                                                                   Rd

                                         Elizabeth




                                                                                                                  Dr
                                                          St
                                                                                NR




                                                                                                              dge
                                                                                     ailw
                                                                                         ay S




                                                                                                            alri
                                                                                             t
                                     Southridge Dr
                                     Southridge Dr




                                                                                                             st
                                                                                                          Cry
          Big Rock Trail                                                                                                              370 Ave E


                                                     2A
                                                                                                   2




                                                                            1
                                                                                                      ar
                                                                                                   Cim ron Blvd



                    7                                                                     2A                       7

                                                                                                                       2A                              23                 23

     0    500       1000   1500   2000                2500 Meters                                                                                 2A
     Okotoks
       1
     BRT/Rail - T.O.D. - Local
     2
22
                                                                                                                                        transit-oriented development
                                       Calgary,
                                       18 km                                                                                            station




                                                                                                             32 St E
                                                                                                             32 St E
                                                                                                                                        BRT
                                                                                                                                        rail




                                                       Dr
                                                                                                                                        local routes




                                                      ge
                                                     rid
                                                                  Milligan Dr

                                                rth




                                                                                      Downe
                                         No




                                                                                        wn y
                                     2A
                                                                                        Rd

                                               Elizabeth




                                                                                                       Dr
                                                            St




                                                                                                  dge
                                                                     NR
                                                                          ailw




                                                                                                 alri
                                                                              ay S
                                                                                  t
                                     Southridge Dr
                                     Southridge Dr




                                                                                                  st
                                                                                               Cry
           Big Rock Trail                                                                                              370 Ave E




                                                             2A



                                                                                           ar
                                                                                        Cim ron Blvd



                     7                                                         2A                  7

                                                                                                        2A                              23                             23

     0    500        1000   1500   2000                    2500 Meters                                                             2A
     Okotoks
       1
     Internal Transit Routes
     2
22

                                    Calgary,
                                    18 km




                                                                                                                         32 St E
                                                     Dr
                                                ge
                                                                            Milligan Dr


                                           rid
                                     rth
                                    No




                                                                                             Downe
                                                               Centre Ave
                                    2A




                                                                                                   y
                                                                                                Rd

                                         Elizabeth




                                                                                                               Dr
                                                          St
                                                                            NR




                                                                                                          dge
                                                                                 ailw
                                                                                     ay S




                                                                                                         alri
                                                                                         t
                                     Southridge Dr




                                                                                                          st
                                                                                                       Cry
          Big Rock Trail                                                                                                           370 Ave E


                                                     2A




                                                                                                   ar
                                                                                                Cim ron Blvd



                    7                                                                 2A                        7

                                                                                                                    2A                              23   23

     0   500        1000   1500   2000                2500 Meters                                                                              2A
 Chestermere
 Existing Service


                                                                                                                rst bus from Strathmore
                 1                                                                                             Chestermere bus
                                                                                                               pick up at recreation centre




                                                                                                          1A




                                                                                         EC
                                        rmere Dr
                                   Winde




                                                                                           h
                                                                                           he
                                                                                              ste
                                                                                               t
                                       Invermer e
                                       I




                                                                                                r
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                                                                                                ere
                                                         E
                                           rm




                                                                                                 r
                                                       eS




                                                                                                     Dr
                                                     Av




                                                                                                      r
                                                              W Chestermere Dr


                                             Dr
                                                    17




       Calgary                                                                                                                 Strathmore
       4km
                                                                                                                                 1
                     1A



                                                                                 Chestermere
                                     W Lakeview Dr
                                                                                 Lake
                                                                                              Dr
                                                                                          ere
                                                                                         term
                                                                                        hes
                                                                                    EC




-500      0           500   1000    1500             2000 Meters
 Chestermere
 Initial BRT Pick up


                                                                                                               BRT route 1
                 1
                                                                                                               BRT route 2




                                                                                                          1A




                                                                                         EC
                                        rmere Dr
                                   Winde




                                                                                           h
                                                                                           he
                                                                                              ste
                                                                                               t
                                       Invermer e




                                                                                                rm
                                                                                                r
                                         ve mer




                                                                                                ere
                                                         E




                                                                                                 r
                                                       eS




                                                                                                     Dr
                                                     Av




                                                                                                      r
                                                              W Chestermere Dr


                                             Dr
                                                    17




       Calgary                                                                                                 Strathmore
       4km
                                                                                                                 1
                     1A



                                                                                 Chestermere
                                     W Lakeview Dr
                                                                                 Lake
                                                                                              Dr
                                                                                          ere
                                                                                         term
                                                                                        hes
                                                                                    EC




-500      0           500   1000    1500             2000 Meters
 Chestermere
 BRT - T.O.D. - Local

                                                                                                         transit-oriented
                                                                                                         development

                                                                                                         BRT
                   1

                                                                                                         local routes

                                                                                                         proposed
                                                                                                         annexation



                                                                                                1A




                                                                             EC
                                                                             EC
                                       rmere Dr
                                 Winde




                                                                                 he
                                     Invermer




                                                                                  se
                                                                                  ste
                                                     E
                                                   eS


                                                         W Chestermere Dr



                                                                                      rm
                                                                                       m
                                         r


                                                 Av




                                                                                       ere
                                                                                       ee
                                      e
                                                17




                                           Dr




                                                                                           Dr
                                                                                           Dr
   Calgary                                                                                                  Strathmore
   4km                                                                                                      25km
                         1A                                                                          1



                                                                    Chestermere
                                   W Lakeview Dr
                                                                                  Dr




                                                                    Lake
                                                                                 ere
                                                                             term
                                                                            hes
                                                                            EC




-500   0     500   1000 1500 2000 Meters
           1

Strathmore
2
Existing First Bus Route


                                                                                                                                                  North Boundary Rd




                                                                                                                  Strathford Blvd
                                                                            Brent Blvd




                                                                                                                                    Cambridge Glen Dr

                                                                                                                                                        East Boundary Rd
                                                                                               Maplew oo
                                                        817




                                                                                                                                       bridge en
                                                                                                   ew o
                                                                           Tho
                                                                           T o




                                                                                                        dD
                                                         Wheatland Trail
                                                         Wheatland Trail


                                                                               m




                                                                                                          r
                                                                             a D
                                                                             as D
                                                                                                               E Lake Rd




                                                                               r
                                                                               r




                                                                                                   Centre St
                                                                                                                  Park Lane Dr


                                                     r
                                                                                      Lak

                                                    D
                                          Westmount                            ve
                                                                                       a e


                                                                          dA
                                                                       hir
                                                                                       sid
                                                                                       s


                                                                      T           e
                                                                                Av
                                                                                          eB



                                                                            fth
                                                                                           B



                                                                         Fi
                                                                                             lvd
                                                                                             lv



           Calgary,
           40 km                                                                                                                                                           1
                      1




    -500         0    500   1000   1500     2000 Meters


                                                                                                                      2A
           1

Strathmore
2
Initial BRT Pick-up Route


                                                                                                                               North Boundary Rd




                                                                                                             Strathford Blvd
                                                                                                             Strathford Blvd
                                                                              Brent Blvd




                                                                                                                               East Boundary Rd
                                                                                                                               East Boundary Rd
                                                                                                 M
                                                                                                 Maplew oo
                                                        817




                                                                             T o
                                                                             Tho




                                                                                                      dD
                                                                                                      d
                                                        Wheatland Trail
                                                        Wheatland Trail


                                                                                 m




                                                                                                        r
                                                                               as D
                                                                               a D
                                                                                 r
                                                                                 r
                                                                                                                   E Lake Rd




                                                                                                 Centre St
                                                                                      Lak       Park Lane Dr


                                                    Dr
                                          Westmount                                ve
                                                                                       ak



                                                                              dA
                                                                           hir
                                                                                          esi
                                                                                           s



                                                                          T           e
                                                                                          de



                                                                                    Av
                                                                               ifth
                                                                                            Blv
                                                                                            Blv




           Calgary,                                                          F
                                                                                               d




           40 km                                                                                                                                  1
                      1




    -500         0    500   1000   1500     2000 Meters


                                                                                                                        2A
    Strathmore
    BRT-T.O.D.-Local
1

                                                                                                                                                                 transit-oriented
                                                                                                                                                                 development
                                                                                                                                                                 BRT

                                         North Boundary Rd                                                                                                       local routes




                                                                                                      Strathford Blvd
                                                                                                                                                                 annexation limit




                                                                           Brent Blvd




                                                                                                                         Ca
                                                                                                                         Cambridge Glen
                                                                                         Maple w o
                                                                                         Maple w o
                                                              817




                                                                          Tho
                 Wild ower Rd




                                                                           h m
                                                     Wheatland Trail




                                                                                                  od
                                                                                                  od




                                                                                                                                    le
                                                                              m




                                                                                                                                          East Boundary Rd
                                                                             a D
                                                                             as D




                                                                                                      Dr
                                                                                                      Dr



                                                                                                                         Dr
                                                                                                                         Dr
                                                                                                      E Lake Rd
                                                                               r



                                                                                          Centre St
                                                                                          Centre St


                                                                                                               Park Lane Dr


                                                     D            r
                                           Westmount                           Av
                                                                                 e
                                                                          ird
                                                                       Th        Av
                                                                                   e
         Calgary,                                                         F ifth
                                                                                        Lak
                                                                                         a




         40 km
                                                                                         esid
                                                                                         e d




             1                                                                                                                                               1
                                                                                           e Bl
                                                                                             B v
                                                                                               vd




                                                                                                                    2A




-500     0                  500   1000    1500      2000                      2500         3000 Meters
Calgary Regional Partnership
C a lg a r y R e g i on a l T r a n s it P la n




Appendix E – Public Feedback on
Regional Transit Plan
Calgary Regional Partnership
C a lg a r y R e g i on a l T r a n s it P la n




South Workshop

What does success with respect to regional transit look like for your community and sub-region?


      •     There would be two-way transit service to Calgary (as opposed to one-way) so that our community
            does not become a bedroom community.
      •     The transit hubs may need parking infrastructure, and funding for this will have to be identified as
            well as the funding for the transit services.
      •     Transit hubs would shape economic development and be integrated into the fabric of the town. The
            town would drive the creation of this transit hub as opposed to developers.
      •     Transit service would promote a regional employment centre that helps create local / regional jobs.
            Otherwise, members of our communities will have to commute to Calgary for jobs.
      •     The transit systems would reflect the unique identity of each town.
      •     Our communities would avoid the mistakes of Calgary in locating generators for jobs away from
            transit services.
      •     Transit would be reliable and accessible and provide affordable, multi-modal connections. Currently,
            there is a negative attitudes towards transit, and anyone who can afford to drive will, even if it less
            expensive to take transit.
      •     Transit would be affordable and have a reliable source of funding from Provincial tax subsidies or
            carbon credits.
      •     Transit would help improving air quality by reducing the kilometres cars would be driven.
      •     Transit hubs would be accessible by all travel modes, including walking and biking.
      •     Safety and security issues would be properly addressed.
      •     Transit service and infrastructure would contribute to improved safety by creating more activity on
            the streets and negating anti-social behaviour and Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
            (CPTED) concepts. As a result, it would be a huge success from the perspective of the police force.
      •     The transit system would attract tourists.
      •     There would be TOD's inside the towns, complete with services and good connections
      •     The services would be convenient and integrated.
      •     Transit services would be continued into the future.
      •                                                                 s
            The fact that riding transit is much safer than driving one’ car means that increasing transit usage
            could create benefits throughout the region.
      •     There will be a free bike program in the towns. This has hugely successful in other places.
      •     There would be WiFi connections on buses. The buses would also be smaller buses and operate
            more frequently.
      •     Small communities will support transit hub where linkages between modes will be provided.
      •     Service will be provided along a healthy spine, with parking at extremities.
      •     Transit ridership will increase.


What are the opportunities and assets and/or the questions and challenges your community and
sub-region faces in making this happen?
Calgary Regional Partnership
C a lg a r y R e g i on a l T r a n s it P la n




      •     A commitment to whole package of the regional transit plan – the financing, land use, TOD’ local  s,
            and regional transit services – by all parties – federal, provincial and municipal.
      •     Protecting future corridors for commuter rail/LRT services, even when the funding for such
            investments has not yet been identified.
      •     Fundamentally changing development patterns so that they are higher density and multi-use.
      •     Changing from a car and road culture to a transit culture.
      •     Covering operating costs from new sources of revenue or from bridge financing from the province
            until ridership on the transit system is built up.
      •     Doing advance land use / transit / transportation planning to set up a sustainable planning framework
            for private sector development.
      •                                                     s
            Investing in, creating, and developing TOD’ where a “      public realm”is created, complete with parks,
            open space, roads, transit and pedestrian access.
      •     Creating “  social places”in TOD’  s.
      •     Needing to think of High River as part of the southern spine and as part of overall transit network.
      •     Using transit to steer growth.
      •                                    if
            Realizing the promise that “ you build it they will come”   .
      •     Existing town centres were historically built around rail.
      •     The size of some of the communities is a challenge to making transit service a financially viable
            service.
      •     There is an opportunity to acquire corridor, and the corridor is already safe from Cargill North.
      •     Parking the trains (Aldersyde or south).
      •     Creating a regional transit authority.
      •     Developing governance models, either through Calgary or by creating commissions as we have
            done for ambulance services and landfills.
      •     Without provincial backing none of this will happen.
      •     Getting the jobs into the surrounding communities and meeting the land use guidelines.
      •     Overcoming the distances between communities in the Region.
      •     Creating employment that is located in transit-friendly locations and not dispersed throughout the
            region.
      •     Attracting the right types of employment.

What are the top actions we can do to make transit a reality in our sub-region?


      •     Establish a clear transit plan for each municipality, corridor and region as a whole.
      •                                                                              s
            Acquire some key land parcels for leveraging development in TOD’ and to protect future commuter
            rail corridors.
      •     Showcase “   success stories”in specific communities.
      •     Establish some clear directions in overall CRP governance and transit.
      •     Educate public on the value of the transit plan and to change the mindset of commuters and citizens.
      •     Communities should “     walk the talk”and have counsellors and staff using sustainable modes.
      •     Put in place the financial commitments we need – federal, provincial and municipal – for transit
            capital and operating needs.
      •     Prepare a detailed transit implementation plan.
      •     Provide for flexibility in how transit services are delivered – private and public sector.
Calgary Regional Partnership
C a lg a r y R e g i on a l T r a n s it P la n




      •     Secure and protect railway corridors and TOD lands.
      •     Protect right of way for future commuter rail corridors.
      •     Right-of-way protection.

North Workshop


The following are notes from a workshop with representatives from the communities in the north part of the
Region.

What does success with respect to regional transit look like for your community and sub-region?


      •     A reduction in use of cars that can be measured.
      •     Safer roads and a safe transit system.
      •     Reliable, frequent, two-way service that is flexible.
      •     Transit service that is well-connected to other modes of transportation.
      •     Incentives for citizens to use transit and disincentives for them to drive (for example, through higher
            parking fees).
      •     Strong local transit systems.
      •     A shift to a transit mind set.

What are the opportunities and assets and/or the questions and challenges your community and sub-region
faces in making this happen?


      •     The cost related to operating and capital needs, including securing the rights-of-way.
      •     The present state of community development and the need to modify this form.
      •     Leadership; transit needs to be a high on the agenda of politicians.
      •     Safety.
      •     Support from public and elected officials.
      •     The current strength of the CRP and intermunicipal relations is an opportunity.
      •     Wide-spread wealth in the Region is both an opportunity and a challenge.
      •     Climate is also both an opportunity and a challenge.
      •     There may be competing interests with other systems and service providers.
      •     Moving from low density to high density to support transit may be a challenge.
      •     Obtaining provincial support may be a challenge.
      •                                                 t
            Land rich so mentality is such that it doesn’ seem critical to be careful in how land is used.
Calgary Regional Partnership
C a lg a r y R e g i on a l T r a n s it P la n




Transit Symposium
A day-long transit symposium was held in Calgary at the Sheraton Cavalier on February 15, 2009. It was
attended by experts in a range of topics and attended by approximately 200 people.

Speakers


Jan Pezarro – Ms. Pezarro discussed the creation of West Coast Express, a commuter rail service in Metro
                                                         a
Vancouver. The mission of West Coast Express is to be “ service you love to take,”and this has resulted in
a more than doubling of daily ridership since service began and an ability to charge premium fares for this
premium transit service.

John King – Mr. King described the simple but effective strategy of using service standards to improve transit
service. Service standards define minimum hours of service, frequencies, and coverage levels and
communicate to the public and public officials what to expect from the transit system. Service standards can
be used to guide service planning, transit capital investments, and to leverage more funding for investments.

Bill Jenkins – Mr. Jenkins described the basic strategy of GO Transit. By improving service quality, improving
service quantity, improving access to stations, continuously improving, using a business case approach to
decision-making and by being socially responsible, GO Transit has managed to be one of the most
successful commuter rail systems in North America. 77% of their customers are choice riders, and 75% of
customers have used rail for the last year years.

Don Heron – Mr. Heron described some of the benefits of commuter rail, such as the fact that while railroads
                       s
carry 65% of Canada’ surface freight, it only produces 3% of its transportation-related greenhouse gases.
Rail is also an effective form of transportation because it is relatively easy to increase capacity, either by
increasing the length of a train or by adding a second parallel track to an existing single track. Two major
recommendations were given to the Calgary Region with respect to commuter rail development, the first that
they design their future commuter rail system such that it minimizes negatives effects (e.g. noise, vibration)
on the communities and the second that they plan future roadway structure to maintain the operating
envelopes of commuter rail trains.


Bill Lambert and Dave Colquhoun – Mr. Lambert and Mr. Colquhoun provided updates on the
Calgary Metropolitan Plan and Calgary Plan. The regional plan and plan for the City of Calgary are
integrated and strive for the same goals. Both realize that the region and City cannot continue with the status
quo of a car-dependent culture, transit-unfriendly development, and unsustainable funding for transit. It
proposes to improve transit through the “        s:”
                                         Four D’ density, diversity, design and distance.

Alan Hoffman – Mr. Hoffman described the successful use of market research information in the planning of
transit services. Human nature and travel needs suggest that if services go to where people want to go,
when they want to go, and that people feel good about using them, then they will be well-used. Keeping
customers happy is important to the financial performance of a transit agency; it costs more to attract new
passengers than to keep existing passengers
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Regional Open Houses in April-June, 2009
Information about the draft Calgary Metropolitan Plan was distributed through a variety of means. There were
articles and announcements about the draft plan and about the open houses in the media, and the CRP
website was a place where residents could go to look at components of the plan and find out more
information about the open houses. 53 open houses were held throughout the region in the April to
June,2009 period where presentations on the plan were given and attendees could provide comments
through feedback forms. A survey was conducted by ENRG Research Group through the CRP website and
through survey forms handed out to open house attendees. Finally, presentations were given to individual
interest groups.

There was general support for the regional transit plan, and many of the comments received indicated that
the public realizes that high-quality; efficient transit is linked to many other goals of the Calgary Metropolitan
Plan, such as the preservation of agricultural lands, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the
reduction of water and wastewater infrastructure costs. There may have been some concern that the transit
plan was not aggressive enough, and that waiting for the populations to grow in certain sections of the region
to implement transit was not wise, and rather, that it should be done immediately to encourage the transit-
oriented development, establish the transit culture and to provide mobility benefits immediately. There was
also recognition by the public that funding for these new transit services would be an issue if senior levels of
government did not provide funds.

In response to the survey, 55% of respondents indicated that expanding transit was important, and 46%
indicated that expanding local transit was important. The following items were selected as highest priority
attributes of future regional transit service, starting with the most important: reliability (on-time more than
97% of the time), parking for transit customers at a central point in the community, affordability (monthly
transit passes that are under $240 per month), space at stations for being dropped off, frequencies of service
every 30 minutes or better, and initial hours of service that span the entire peak periods (6:00 to 9:00am and
3:30pm to 6:30pm).
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Appendix F – Potential Public Transit
Funding Sources
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Sales Taxes


The federal government levies a 5% goods and services tax (GST) on the sale of most goods and services in
the country, which is added to the price at time of purchase. Most provinces also levy a provincial sales tax
(PST) separate of the federal tax, typically between 5% and 10%; however, Alberta currently does not have a
sales tax.


Although a provincial sales tax has the potential to generate significant revenues that may be applied to a
broad range of programs including public transit, it would be difficult to implement, particularly in the short
term. Appreciating that Alberta does not currently charge PST, new legislation would be required and it
would need to be supported by the general population, possibly requiring a referendum. In addition to these
expenses, new administrative costs would be incurred and businesses would need to upgrade their financial
and accounting systems to accommodate the collection and remittance of the new tax. Finally, as with gas
and property taxes, sales taxes are viewed to be a regressive form of taxation.


Regardless of these challenges, sales taxes are consumption-based and transparent, and could provide a
valuable and large source of stable funding for the CRP. Retail sales in Alberta totalled approximately $61.2
billion in 2007;11 assuming retail spending is distributed evenly across the population, CRP members would
have accounted for approximately 35% of sales, or $21.4 billion. Thus, a 1.0% PST would generate
approximately $214 million in revenues from CRP municipalities, which may be reinvested into the region to
support transit initiatives or other infrastructure and programs.


Sales tax revenues are used to fund transit projects throughout North America. In Dallas, a 1% sales tax
generates $350 million a year for Dallas Area Rapid Transit. 12 Los Angeles recently raised its sales tax by
0.5% to fund transit projects. It is expected that this tax increases will raise $40 billion over the next 30 years.
Transit agencies in the Portland, Minneapolis, and Chicago Regions also depend on sales tax revenues.


Advertising
Advertising is a relatively established means of raising funds to support transit service, with common
examples including posters on buses, bus stop benches and bus shelters. Deals are signed with private
partners who reimburse the transit authority for promoting their products or services. More revolutionary
schemes may consider the re-naming of shelters or stations after the sponsor or advertiser, provided the
level of contribution is appropriate; this is especially appropriate for stations near large-scale private
developments such as malls, where the owner could pay to rename the station after the development. In
doing this, the naming of shelters and stations may actually be more intuitive to the public and assist in way
finding, as stations will be named after the development passengers intended to visit rather than, say, a
particular street or historical figure. Long-term deals may also be reached where the private entity
contributes to the maintenance and landscaping of the station.


11
     Statistics Canada (2008). Retail trade, by province and territory. Retrieved December 19, 2008 from Statistics Canada website:
      http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/trad17a-eng.htm
12
     Puentes, Robert. Testimony given before Mew York State Commission on MTA Financing September 15, 2008
     http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2008/0915_transportation_puentes.aspx?p=1
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The disadvantages of advertising are minimal. A few drivers may perceive elaborate posters at shelters as
distracting, and the general public may view the private sponsorship of shelters and stations negatively and
as privatisation of the transit service. Traditional advertising may include advertising on fleet vehicles, bus
shelters and on printed materials such as tickets, schedules and route maps. While advertising is valuable
as a non-tax revenue source, the funding potential is relatively limited; a 2007 survey of transit agencies
revealed that annual advertising revenues were an average 1.31% of operating budgets, based on figures
from the 25 agencies reporting advertising revenues (23 in the United States and two in Hong Kong). 13
Calgary Transit reports that each bus with vinyl advertising provides about $13,200 in annual revenue, which
is approximately equal to the property taxes collected from 15 homes. 14 Although the revenue generating
capacity of advertising is limited, such programs are straightforward and economical to implement, with
minimal collection and administrative costs.

Public Private Partnerships
Public-Private Partnerships (P3s) are increasingly used throughout the world where governments have
inadequate capital funding to deliver on projects and services in a timely and cost-effective manner. In a P3
partnership, the government acts as the owner, regulator and policy maker, guiding the delivery of the
product or service; the private sector typically designs, constructs, operates, and maintains the project. The
private sector should also have funding invested in the project as a means of transferring risk, and to
encourage cost minimization. Under the P3 model, although government pays for most of the project costs
over a long term (i.e., 35 years), the payments to the private sector are based on performance and can be
reduced if performance requirements are not met.15 The most prominent transit project in Canada funded
under a P3 model was the design, construction and operation of the Canada Rapid Transit Line in Metro
Vancouver.

The advantages of the P3 model are the distribution of risk and performance-based contracts that encourage
cost-minimization, innovation and close adherence to the project schedule. On the other hand, the
agreements are typically very complex from an administrative standpoint, difficult to negotiate for the public
sector, may add to the overall cost of the project, may generate components of projects which are very
controversial (e.g. Canada Line rapid transit construction technique was modified after signing of contract
and significantly disrupted traffic on the Cambie corridor, negatively impacting retail /commercial businesses)
and the private sector typically pays higher borrowing rates that may detract from the return on investment.
Recently, with the world financial difficulties, private sector financing for large transportation infrastructure
projects has not been able to be obtained or borrowing rates have been very high, and the governments
have had to fill the void. The government retains ownership of the project and thus ultimate responsibility for
its delivery, and in the event of default, must usually take over the project to avoid the risk of not delivering
on an important public project or service. For the private sector to manage its risk, leverage is typically


13
     Transit Cooperative Research Program. (1998). TCRP Synthesis 32 – Transit advertising revenue: traditional and new
      sources and structures. [Calculated from data in Table 1, p. 7]. Retrieved December 19, 2008 from the TRB website:
      http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/tcrp/tsyn32.pdf
14
      Calgary Transit. (n.d.).        Advertising.    Retrieved December 22, 2008 from the Calgary Transit website:
      http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/tcrp/tsyn32.pdf
15
     Shirocca Consulting and The Van Horne Institute (2008). Banff, Lake Louise & Canmore Regional Transportation Authority:
      Feasibility study. Prepared for Regional Transportation Authority Study Steering Committee. p.86
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required with respect to such items as transit fares, service levels, and marketing, which governments may
be reluctant to relinquish in fear that the public interest may not be well served.16


Value Capture
Value capture is a financing strategy that aims to capture the increase in property values resulting from new
public investment, such as major transit projects, through land taxes, development levies, public-private
partnerships, or other means. In this way, value capture allows the public sector to recuperate costs and
ensures a more equitable distribution of the economic gains associated with increased land value, which
would otherwise go exclusively to private landowners. As such, value capture is a potentially significant
source of revenue that is being used increasingly by transit agencies such as TransLink, and is strongly
recommended as a means for the CRP and for local communities. By implementing value capture policies
within 400 – 800 m of new BRT hubs and rapid transit or commuter rail stations, the CRP can expect to draw
substantial funds from the increased land values owning to improved transit accessibility.


Based on a review of nearly 100 studies concerning the impacts of transit service on nearby property values,
Smith and Gihring (2006) identify three ways in which proximity to transit can affect land values either
positively or negatively:17

      •     Proximity to transit improves accessibility and gives the location an advantage in attracting
            residential and commercial development that would otherwise occur elsewhere in the region;
      •     Transit can increase overall productivity by reducing total transportation costs, including costs to
            consumers, businesses and governments for vehicles, parking and roads. Transit also provides a
            catalyst for higher density development, which can reduce the costs of providing public services and
            increases productivity due to the improved accessibility and network effects. Although these
            productivity benefits are difficult to quantify, they can be significant. An increase of just a few
            percentage points in property values, a reduction of a few percentage points in automobile and
            parking costs or an increase of a few percentage points in business productivity in a community can
            make hundreds of millions of dollars available for other uses; and
      •     Being located very close to a transit station or along a transit line tends to have a negative impact on
            residential property values, due to noise and air pollution from trains and increased automobile traffic
            from system users.

Despite this last point, the positive impacts of transit proximity on property values tend to far outweigh the
negative impacts. Appreciating the economic benefits attributable to improved transit access and the
corresponding increase in property values, the CRP should carefully consider value capture strategies during
the planning of new transit stations as a means of recuperating capital costs and potentially generating
additional funds to support both the capital and operating budgets. With proper foresight, there are a variety
of strategies that the regional transit agency may implement to capture a portion of the land value increases
attributable to new transit development, such as:


16
   Shirocca Consulting and The Van Horne Institute (2008). Banff, Lake Louise & Canmore Regional Transportation Authority:
    Feasibility study. Prepared for Regional Transportation Authority Study Steering Committee. p.86
17
   Smith, J. and Gihring, T. (2006). Financing transit systems through value capture: an annotated bibliography. p.4
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       •    Local Improvement Districts: A group of property owners share in the cost of new transit
            infrastructure, or associated infrastructure such as sidewalks, benches, shelters, utility lines, or other
            facilities that benefit the community at large.
       •    Public-private partnerships: The CRP co-develops lands adjacent to transit lines and stations with
            private partners to generate higher value by coordinating efforts.
       •    Impact fees: Fees levied on new developments for imposing costs on surrounding communities,
            such as those associated with increased travel demand, which must be addressed by financing new
            transit, road, or pathway upgrades.
       •    Tax Increment Financing District: Tax increments (the additional tax revenues resulting from land
            value increases) within a defined district are used to finance debt issued to pay for new
            development. This is particularly useful in encouraging growth in areas where development would
            not occur otherwise.
       •    Buying and reselling land: Land is purchased prior to undertaking a transit project and is resold to
            private developers upon completing the project at the increased value. To maximize such revenues,
            the CRP may purchase low-density land and then rezone the land to higher density following transit
            development to gain not only from the increased property value, but also the additional value of the
            rezoned land.
       •    Leasing: The CRP purchases the land surrounding future transit lines and stations, and leases the
            sites at higher rates following development.

These value capture policies are effectively a land value tax with significant revenue generating potential for
the CRP. While revenues will vary based on the nature and location of transit facilities, there are a number
of examples of successful land value capture applications to fund transit throughout the world. Hong Kong’    s
rail transit system receives no subsidy and all costs, including interest on bond indebtedness, are paid from
land rents derived from development in station areas; moreover, both the Washington D.C. Metro and
London Tube found that surplus revenues were generated through value capture applications to fund transit
development.18


Vehicle Registration Levy
Another potentially significant source of funding and effective TDM strategy in promoting transit use
throughout the Calgary region is a vehicle registration levy. Effectively a user fee for roadways, the levy
would be collected annually as drivers renew vehicle registrations. A vehicle levy was originally intended as
a source of funding for TransLink when the agency was created by the provincial government in the 1990s,
                                                                s
and is currently being reconsidered to address the agency’ projected budget shortfalls. Similarly, in
September 2008 the City of Toronto began administering a Personal Vehicle Tax, which levies $60 annually
for passenger vehicles and $30 per year for motorcycles or mopeds. The provincial government of Ontario
collects the tax on behalf of the City of Toronto when payment is made for a license plate renewal.19

The primary advantages of a vehicle registration levy are the transparent nature of the tax – showing a clear
link to transportation – as well as the TDM benefits and significant revenue generating capacity. The format

18
     Smith, J. and Gihring, T. (2006). Financing transit systems through value capture: an annotated bibliography. p.5
19
     City of Toronto (2008). City of Toronto: new taxation measures – personal vehicle ownership tax. Retrieved January 19,
      2009 from the City of Toronto website: http://www.toronto.ca/finance/revenue_tools.htm#pvt
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of the levy is also flexible, and heavier or higher-polluting vehicles may be levied at a higher rate; moreover,
drivers paying the levy who also use transit could be provided with a discount on fares or monthly passes to
ease the cumulative financial burden.

As of March 2008 there were 2,906,963 motorized vehicles registered in Alberta, with 829,030 registered in
the City of Calgary.20 Assuming that the number of registered vehicles is proportional to population across
the province, approximately 35% or 1,017,000 vehicles are registered in CRP municipalities, and a vehicle
registration levy would raise approximately $10 million annually per $10 charged.


Payroll Employer Tax
Payroll employer taxes are based on the wages of employees of employers in designated districts. Payroll
taxes increase with inflation (because wages generally increase with inflation), so they are able to keep up
with increases in transit operating costs tied to inflation. 21 While not directly related to transportation, pay roll
taxes provides a degree of equity in that if residents of a transit-served district are paying for transit through
property taxes, employers should pay, too, because they are also receiving the benefits of transit.

Tri-Met in Portland, Oregon, is partially supported by a payroll tax, as are the transit agencies in Cincinnati
and Louisville.

Tolls
Toll collection on roadways or bridges can generate appreciable direct revenue for regional transit.
Furthermore, by making car travel less attractive, more people will purchase transit fares. Tolls can be
imposed on drivers in a variety of ways thanks to new technologies. Automated tolling minimizes the cost of
fee collection and minimizes congestion impacts, and tolls can be activated or increased during peak traffic
hours to regulate travel demand. Tolls can be imposed on certain roadways, certain lanes and across certain
cordons. Tolls are a transparent source of funding, and by discouraging vehicle travel may be regarded as a
form of environmental stewardship. However, the introduction of tolls on regional roadways and bridges
would likely face significant public opposition, and in many cases, enabling legislation may be needed. From
an operational standpoint, tolls may also cause traffic diversion onto parallel toll-free roadways or bridges.
Congestion tolling is not widely used in North America, but charging for roadway use is relatively common.
Cordon tolling has been implemented in London, Singapore and Stockholm.

Cost-Sharing and Revenue-Sharing
Another approach to funding transit is to share costs and/or revenues for services that cross jurisdictions or
serve special groups. In many cases, this reduces the duplication of service and improves the overall
efficiency of the system or systems. It also usually results in reduced costs and increased convenience for
passengers. Some approaches to cost- and revenue-sharing are listed below:


20
   Alberta Transportation (2008). Number of motorized vehicles registered in Alberta as of March 31: 2004 – 2008. Retrieved
    January 19, 2009 from the Alberta Transportation website:
    http://www.transportation.alberta.ca/Content/docType47/Production/vehreg2008.pdf
21
    Puentes, Robert. Testimony given before Mew York State Commission on MTA Financing September 15, 2008
    http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2008/0915_transportation_puentes.aspx?p=1
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      •     A transit agency can pass on some of the costs of providing service through arrangements with
            schools, hospitals and hotels. In New York City, the Department of Education pays New York City
            Transit to issue reduced-fare student transit passes. In some cities, the driver will record the number
            of people getting on or off at a hospital or hotel and charge the institution for those passengers.
      •     A regional transit agency can collect compensation for boardings in a certain location. For example,
            in the Durham Region, local transit system fares are accepted by GO Transit (the regional transit
            provider) for travel within the Region to avoid duplication of services. GO Transit is reimbursed
            $3.00 per local passenger carried.
      •     A regional transit agency can pay local transit systems to delivery passengers to a regional transit
            hub. GO Transit pays some local transit operators $2.00 per passenger brought to a GO Transit
            station.
      •     In some areas, revenues are shared through full fare integration. Two transit service providers will
            fully recognize each others fare media. This is the case in Ottawa and Gatineau.
      •     A transit agency can receive compensation for services delivered outside of their jurisdiction by
            collecting a flat fee. This is the case in Mission, which pays TransLink $160,000 for West Coast
            Express service.
      •     In some places, individuals can purchase a local transit system pass at a discount with the purchase
            of a regional transit system pass. They might receive two fare passes or a regional fare pass with a
            sticker indicating that they have purchased access to the local transit system.
      •     Transit agencies can share the costs of providing service by each providing manpower or vehicles
            for a certain route. This is done on some routes in the Toronto Region.
      •     Cost-sharing is also a consideration for the for infrastructure projects that cross multiple jurisdictions.

The implementation of a regional fare card (Smart Card) will enable more accurate sharing of costs and
revenues. If the Calgary Region one day has a regional transportation authority responsible for coordinating
transit and roads, revenue-generation and funding may be more centralized, reducing the need for revenue-
and cost-sharing.


Other Potential Funding Sources
A variety of other potential funding sources are available to raise revenues from non-tax sources. Retail
kiosks and shops at transit stations can generate funds through rent and/or the sale of maps and
confectionaries, and are a convenience for the public. Costs to provide services such as restrooms can also
be offset by implementing a pay-for-use service, as is commonly applied in Europe and other areas.
Similarly, the lease of land at transit stations to private shop owners can raise funds and may be regarded as
a means of supporting small businesses.

Land development deals may be implemented where rights are sold to use the lands or air rights surrounding
stations, depots, or tracks for property development; this strategy is prevalent in Hong Kong, for example,
where the MTR Corporation Limited uses property development as a primary source of revenue by
incorporating large housing or shopping complexes into stations or surrounding depot lands. Of course, this
strategy is typically feasible only in high density areas and opportunities for such programs may be limited in
the Calgary region.

				
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