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AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN

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AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN Powered By Docstoc
					       ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
     SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES




   AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL
  PLANTS IN WONAGO WOREDA,SNNPR, ETHIOPIA


                 BY: FISSEHA MESFIN



   A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE
    STUDIES OF ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
       MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BOTANICLA STUDIES



                       ADVISORS
               PROF. SEBSEBE DEMISSEW
             DR. TILAHUN TEKLEHAYMANOT



               ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY




                     JULY, 2007
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisors Prof. Sebsebe Demissew and Dr.
Tilahun Teklehaymanot for their consistent invaluable advice, comments and follow up from
problem identification up to the compilation of this work. The technical staffs of the National
Herbarium, AAU have cooperated by allowing all the available resources during the
identification of voucher specimens.

I received much support from the office of the Woreda Administration and Agricultural
Department, chairpersons and development agents of each kebele selected as study sites,
informants and especially two persons namely Ato Woubshet Teshome and Senay Bulbula
who had served as field guides throughout the field study in the study area. I would like to
thank them all.

Last but not least, I would also like to extend my appreciation to my family for the moral
support. My wife W/o Yamrot Bekele deserves the highest appreciation for understanding my
feelings to pursue my studies and allowing me to do so.




                                               I
Table of contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................................................................ I
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................................II
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................................................IV
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................................. V
LIST OF APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................VI
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................................ 1
1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................. 2
2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................................................ 4
   2.1. GENERAL OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................................... 4
   2.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................................................... 4
3. LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................................................... 5
   3.1. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE................................................................................................................................ 5
   3.2. DEVELOPMENT OF ETHNOBOTANY................................................................................................................... 5
   3.3. MEDICINAL PLANTS IN ETHIOPIA ..................................................................................................................... 6
   3.4. MEDICINAL PLANTS IN HUMAN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM .................................................................................. 7
   3.5. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ......................................................................... 8
   3.5. MEDICINAL PLANTS IN RESEARCH .................................................................................................................10
4. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA .......................................................................................................11
   4.1. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ............................................................................................................................11
   4.2. LANDSCAPE AND SOIL ....................................................................................................................................13
   4. 3. CLIMATE ........................................................................................................................................................13
   4. 4. LANDUSE PATTERN ........................................................................................................................................14
   4.6. POPULATION ...................................................................................................................................................14
5. MATERIALS AND METHODS.......................................................................................................................16
   5.1. SELECTION OF STUDY SITES ............................................................................................................................16
   5.2. SAMPLING OF INFORMANTS ............................................................................................................................16
   5.3. ETHNOBOTANICAL DATA COLLECTION...........................................................................................................16
   5.4. PLANT SPECIMEN COLLECTIONS AND IDENTIFICATIONS .................................................................................18
   5.5. DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................................18
6. RESULTS.............................................................................................................................................................19
   6.1. LOCAL CATEGORIES OF VEGETATION AND THE PLANT SPECIES ...................................................................19
   6.2. PLANT DIVERSITY OF THE HOME GARDEN (‘GATTAE ODUMA’) ...................................................................20
   6.3. MEDICINAL PLANTS .......................................................................................................................................21
     6.3.1. Medicinal plants used to treat human ailments .....................................................................................21
     6.3.2. Sources of medicinal plants....................................................................................................................22
     6.3.3. Habit of Medicinal Plants and Parts Used ............................................................................................22
     6.3.4. Mode of Preparation, Dosage and Routes of Application.....................................................................23
     6.3.5. Informant Consensus / Medicinal Plants Use Report............................................................................24
     6.3.6. Preference Ranking on Malaria .............................................................................................................24
     6.3.7. Paired Comparison on Diarrhea ...........................................................................................................25
     6.3.8. Informant consensus factor ....................................................................................................................25
     6.3.9. Direct matrix ranking for multiple use medicinal plants.......................................................................26
   6.4. THREATS TO AND CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE STUDY AREA .........................................26
7. DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................................................................28
   7.1. HOME GARDEN PLANT DIVERSITY .................................................................................................................28
   7.2. MEDICINAL PLANTS .......................................................................................................................................28
     7.2.1. Medicinal Plants Used To Treat Human Ailments ................................................................................28



                                                                                    II
     7.2.2. Sources of Medicinal Plants ...................................................................................................................30
     7.2.3. Habit of Medicinal Plants and Parts Used ............................................................................................30
     7.2.4. Mode of Preparation, Dosage and Route of Application ......................................................................31
   7.3. THREATS AND CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ................................................................................31
8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ...............................................................................................33
9. REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................................35




                                                                               III
List of Tables

TABLE 1: AGROCLIMATIC ZONE OF THE STUDY AREA ...............................................................................................13
TABLE 2: LAND USE CATEGORY IN THE STUDY AREA ..............................................................................................14
TABLE 3: THE POPULATION DATA OF THE STUDY AREA ..........................................................................................15
TABLE 4: SERVICE CATEGORIES OF HOME GARDEN PLANTS (‘GATTAE ODUMA’)....................................................20
TABLE 5: PLANT PARTS USED IN PREPARATION OF REMEDIES ..................................................................................23
TABLE 6: PREPARATION METHODS OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE .............................................................................23
TABLE 7: ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINES ......................................................................24
TABLE 8: INFORMANT CONSENSUS ...........................................................................................................................24
TABLE 9: PREFERENCE RANKING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR TREATING MALARIA ........................................24
TABLE 10: PAIRED COMPARISON OF MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES USED TO TREAT DIARRHEA ...................................25
TABLE 11: INFORMANT CONSENSUS FACTOR BY CATEGORIES OF DISEASES .............................................................25
TABLE 12: DIRECT MATRIX RANKING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH DIFFERENT USES OTHER THAN MEDICINAL
    VALUE (TOTAL SCORE OF TEN INFORMANTS) ....................................................................................................26
TABLE 13: PRIORITY RANKING FACTORS PERCEIVED AS THREATS TO MEDICINAL PLANTS BASED ON THEIR LEVEL
    OF DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS (VALUES 1-6 WERE GIVEN: 1 IS THE LEAST DESTRUCTIVE THREAT AND 6 IS THE
    MOST DESTRUCTIVE THREAT) ............................................................................................................................26




                                                                           IV
List of Figures

FIGURE 1 LOCATION OF WONAGO WOREDA IN GEDEO ZONE; SOUTHERN NATIONS, NATIONALITIES AND PEOPLES
    REGION, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA ..........................................................................................................................12
FIGURE 2 ADMINISTRATIVE MAP OF WONAGO WOREDA .........................................................................................12
FIGURE 3: CLIMADIAGRAM OF THE STUDY AREA FROM 1996 TO 2005 AT KOTTY WEATHER STATION. .................14
FIGURE 4: LIFE FORM DIVERSITY OF PLANT SPECIES IN HOME GARDENS (‘GATTAE ODUMA’).................................20
FIGURE 5: SOURCES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE STUDY AREA ............................................................................22
FIGURE 6: GROWTH FORMS (HABIT) OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR TREATMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH PROBLEMS ......22




                                                                           V
List of appendices

APPENDIX 1: LIST OF INFORMANTS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY ................................................................43
APPENDIX 2: CHECKLIST OF QUESTIONS OR ITEMS USED AS A BASIS FOR DISCUSSION AND INTERVIEW ................45
APPENDIX 3: LIST OF PLANT SPECIES IN WILD VEGETATION (HABIT: T-TREE, SH-SHRUB, H-HERB, CL-CLIMBER,
    AND EP-EPIPHYTES, VOU. NO.-VOUCHER NUMBER) .........................................................................................47
APPENDIX 4: HOME GARDEN PLANT SPECIES (HABIT: T-TREE, SH-SHRUB, H-HERB, AND CL-CLIMBER. USES: SP-
    SPICE, F-FOOD, M-MEDICINAL, CI- CASH INCOME, FN-FENCE, OR-ORNAMENTAL, AND ST-STIMULANT).......54
APPENDIX 5: NUMBER OF MEDICINAL PLANTS SPECIES RECORDED IN EACH FAMILY ...............................................57
APPENDIX 6: NUMBER OF INFORMANTS AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PLANT SPECIES USED TO TREAT FREQUENTLY
    APPEARING HUMAN DISEASES IN THE STUDY AREA (‘DINGETEGNA’-UNIDENTIFIED GASTROINTESTINAL
    DISORDER, ‘KINTAROT’-WART,).......................................................................................................................58
APPENDIX 7: LISTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR TREATING HUMAN AILMENTS, SCIENTIFIC NAME, FAMILY, LOCAL
    NAME, HABIT(H-HERB, SH-SHRUB, T-TREE, CL-CLIMBER), PART USED (R-ROOT, RB-ROOT BARK, L-LEAF,
    ST-STEM, FR- FRUIT, SD-SEED, FL-FLOWER, LX-LATEX, WP-WHOLE PLANT), PREPARATION, DISEASE
    TREATED USED FOR HUMAN, ROUTE OF APPLICATION(O-ORAL, NA-NASAL, EX-EXTERNAL), AND CONDITION
    TO PREPARATION (F-FRESH, D-DRIED, F/D-FRESH OR DRIED). .........................................................................60




                                                                          VI
ABSTRACT

An ethnobotanical study of traditional medicinal plants used by indigenous people in Wonago
Woreda, SNNPR was carried out from November 1, 2006 to December 3, 2006. A total of 80
informants (60 males and 20 females) between the ages of 20 and 85 were randomly selected
from the study sites or kebeles. Out of these, 30 key informants (22 males and 8 females) were
systematically selected based on recommendation from elders and local authorities.
Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations, and
group discussions. Informant consensus, preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, paired
comparison and informant consensus factor (IFC) were calculated. A total of 198 plant
species: 133 species from wild vegetation, 43 species from home gardens and 22 species from
both, belonging to 174 genera and 76 families were collected in the study area. Of these, 58
medicinal plant species belonging to 39 families and 55 genera were useful for treatment of
human health problems. Twenty-seven species (46.5%) of the medicinal plants were shrubs,
followed by 19 (32.7%) herbs, and 12 (20.6%) trees. The most frequently used plant parts
were the roots (17, 29.3%), followed by leaves (14, 24.1%). Different preparation methods
were reported. However, the most widely used method of preparation was in the form of
powder (32, 36.4%), and 29 (32.9%) of the preparations were made by crushing and
pounding and mixed with different plant parts or different part of the same plant. The
common route of application recorded was internal, particularly oral (37, 63.7%). Paired
comparison and preference ranking showed that people have preferences for some species
over others in treating the same ailment. The medicinal plants that are preseumed to be
effective in treating certain diseases such as, ‘malaria and headache’ (82.3%) had higher ICF
value. Agricultural expansion, firewood collection, grazing and drought are major threats to
medicinal plants. It was found that, there is little practice of bringing medicinal plants under
cultivation. Indigenous practicies, various cultural and seasonal restrictions of collecting
medicinal plants have contributed to the management and conservation of medicinal plants in
the area. It is therefore, recommended that people need to be encouraged to cultivate
medicinal plants in their home garden. The participation of the local people and awareness
creation through training or education on sustainable utilization and management of plant
resources should be encouraged.




                                               1
1. INTRODUCTION

Since time immemorial, plants have been indispensable sources in both preventive and
curative traditional medicine preparations for human beings and livestock (Dery et al., 1999).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), medicinal plants form the bases of
traditional or indigenous healthcare systems used by the majority of the population of most
developing nations. Indeed, it is reported that more than 3.5 billion people rely on plants for
the treatment of both human and livestock diseases. In south Asian countries alone 500
million people are reported to seek health security from the leaves, roots and barks of trees.
This global utilization of medicinal plants has considerably increased in the last two decades
(Medhin Zewdu et al., 2001).

The inaccessibility of modern medical system, economic and cultural factors still push
majority of the population in developing countries to depend on traditional medicinal plants
(Cunningham, 1993). According to Dawit Abebe (2001), traditional remedies are the most
important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics for nearly 80% of the population and
95% of traditional medicinal preparations in Ethiopia is of plant origin. The majority of
population living in rural areas and an increased number of the poor in urban centers rely
mainly on traditional medicine and its practitioners to meet their primary health care needs
(Berhane Mewa, 2001).

Despite the use of traditional medicine over many centuries, only relatively small numbers of
plant species have been studied for possible medical applications and the spread of this
knowledge is mostly limited to indigenous societies (Cunningham, 1993). The loss of
valuable medicinal plants due to population pressure, agricultural expansion, and
deforestation is widely reported by different researchers in Ethiopia for example Abebe
Demissie (2001); Getachew Berhan and Shiferaw Dessie (2002). Consequntly, the need to
perform ethnobotanical researches and to document the medicinal plants and the associated
indigenous knowledge must be an urgent task (Pankhurst, 2001; Hamilton, 2003). In addition,
the conservation of ethnobotanical knowledge as part of living cultural knowledge and
practice between communities and the environment is essential for biodiversity conservation
(Martin, 1995).

Though limited numbers of professionals have made an attempt to document the medicinal
plants and traditional knowledge in some parts of Ethiopia, there is a need to do more in parts


                                              2
where such studies have not been conducted due to the multiethnic cultural diversity and the
diverse flora of Ethiopia.

Thus, this study is initiated to document the indigenous knowledge on the use of traditional
medicinal plants by the local people in Wonago Woreda.




                                             3
2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

2.1. General Objective

To document plants species of medicinal value to the community in wonago woreda and the
associated knowledge on use, management, preparation and other aspective of the indigenous
knowledge of the people in wonago woreda.

2.2. Specific Objectives

•   To document indigenous knowledge of the people on use of medicinal plants in study
    area;
•   To identify plant species that are used as medicines for the treatment of human health
    problems;
•   To identify the plant parts used for medicinal purposes and
•   To find out the local methods used by indigenous people to conserve medicinal plants.




                                               4
3. LITERATURE REVIEW

3.1. Indigenous Knowledge

Indigenous knowledge is knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society. It is
contrasted to the knowledge gained at formal institutions. The development of indigenous
knowledge systems, covering all aspects of life, including management of natural
environment, has been a matter of survival to people who generated them. They may be an
on-going experiment or may even have become established as a local tradition (SLUM, 2006).

Indigenous knowledge is a result of many generations’, long years’ experiences, careful
observations and trial and error experiments (Martin, 1995). Thus over centuries, indigenous
people of different localities have developed their own specific knowledge on plant resource
use, management and conservation (Cotton, 1996).

According to Alcorn (1984), indigenous knowledge develops and changes with time and
space. Hence such knowledge includes time-tested practice that developed in the process of
interaction of humans with their environment. One of the widely used indigenous knowledge
systems in many countries is the knowledge and application of traditional medicinal plants.
Such knowledge known as ethnomedicinal knowledge involves traditional diagnosis,
collection of raw materials preparation of the indigenous knowledge on plant remedies in
many countries including Ethiopia, pass from one generation to the other generation verbally
with great secrecy. Such secret and verbal transfer makes the indigenous knowledge or
ethnomedicinal knowledge vulnerable to distortion and in most cases some of the lore is lost
at each point of transfer (Amare Getahun, 1976), hence the need for systematic documentation
of such a useful knowledge now-a-days through ethnobotanical research.

3.2. Development of Ethnobotany

The term ethnobotany was for the first time used by Harshberger in 1895. Harshberger
defined ethnobotany as ‘the use of plants by aboriginal peoples’ yet during the century which
has intervened, considerable attention has focused not only on how plants are used, but also
on how they are perceived and managed, and on the reciprocal relationships between human
societies and the plants on which they depend (Shrestha et al.,1997). There has been an ever



                                             5
increasing interest of anthropologists, botanists and explorers of the world to document the
potential uses or economic potential of plants used by indigenous societies (Cotton, 1996). As
the number of expeditions and scholarly communication became wider, there has been an
intensified and continuous search by researchers in different fields to disclose traditional use
of plants in different parts of the world by indigenous societies (Balick, 1996; Cotton, 1996).

According to Martin (1995), ethnobotanical studies are mainly useful in documenting,
analyzing, and disseminating of knowledge on the interaction between biodiversity and
human society, and how biodiversity is valued in different societies as well as how it is
influenced by human activities.     This in turn shows that ethnobotany is interactive and
dynamic field of study.

Ethnobotanical data collection requires a systematic approach and information can be
collected through actual field observation and semi structured interviews depending on the
particular objective of the research (Martin, 1995). Alcorn (1984) also stated that
ethnobotanists collect information on the indigenous knowledge not only to preserve them but
also to perceive their relevance to development and conservation.

In general, ethnobotany is the scientific investigation of plants as used in indigenous cultures
in food, medicine, magic, rituals, building, household utensils and implements, musical
instruments, fire wood collection, pesticide, clothing, shelter and other purposes. Ethnobotany
is also useful to define local community plant resource needs, utilization and management.
Therefore, the conservation of ethnobotanical knowledge as part of living cultural knowledge
and practices between communities and the environment is essential for biodiversity
conservation (Martin, 1995; Cotton, 1996; Balick and Cox, 1996).

3.3. Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia

According to Pankhurst (2001), Ethiopia, is a country characterized by a wide range of
climate and ecological conditions, possesses enormous diversity of fauna and flora. The
country possesses a particularly wide range of potentially useful medicinal plants, more
extensive indeed than available in many other parts of the world. Dawit Abebe (1986)
estimated that 95% of traditional medical preparations in Ethiopia are of plant origin.




                                               6
In Ethiopia, the long history of using traditional medicinal plants for combating various
ailments can be confirmed by referring to the recent collection of medico-religious man-
scripts of the Axumite kingdom (Fassil Kibebew, 2001). Pankhurst (1990) indicated that the
antiquity of the traditional use of medicinal plants in Ethiopia could not be simply over
looked. It has been noted that testimony to this is found in medical text books that have been
written in Ge’ez, or even Arabic which were written between the mid of 17th and beginning of
the 18th century (Tewolde Brehan Gebre Egziaber et al., 1979; Dawit Abebe and Ahadu
Ayehu, 1993 and Asfaw Debela et al., 1999).

According to Jansen (1981), in Ethiopia, even though the traditional medical practitioners are
the best sources of information about the knowledge of the medicinal plants, it was found
very difficult to obtain their traditional medicinal information as they considered their
indigenous knowledge as a professional secret, only to be passed orally to their older son, at
their oldest age.

In Ethiopia, the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants is being lost at a faster rate
with the increase of modern education, which has made the younger generation to
underestimate its traditional values. In addition the increase in population growth rate would
result in the intesfication of agriculture in marginal areas which would lead to deforestation
with decrease in number or loss of medicinal plants in the wild (Phankhurst, 2001).

3.4. Medicinal Plants in Human Healthcare System

In Ethiopia, plants have been used as a source of traditional medicine from time immemorial
to combat different ailments and human sufferings (Asfaw Debela et al, 1999). Due to its long
period of practice and existence traditional medicine has become an integral part of the
culture of Ethiopian people (Pankhurst, 1965, Mirgissa Kaba, 1996). It is common for people
living in rural and urban centers to treat some common ailments using plants available around
them. (For example, the flowers of Hagenia abyssinica used to expel tapeworm, Ruta
chalepensis leaves used to treat various health problems (Abbink, 1995). The continued
dependence on herbal medicine alongside modern medicine is largely conditioned by
economic and cultural factors (Abbiw, 1996).

Modern healthcare has never been and probably never will provide for the forseable future
adequate and equitable health service any where in Africa, due to the financial limitations



                                               7
related to rapid population growth, political instability and poor economic performance
(Anokbonggo, 1992). Due to incomplete coverage of modern medical system, shortage of
pharmaceuticals and unaffordable prices of modern drugs, the majority of Ethiopian still
depends on traditional medicine. The problem of ensuring the equitable distribution of
modern healthcare has become more serious, as the gap between supply and demand has
continued to widen. Hence, in present-day Africa including Ethiopia, the majority of people
lack access to healthcare, and where available, the quality is largely below acceptable level
(Abbiw, 1996).

It is also noted that since medicinal plants are often with an easy reach compared to modern
drugs that are dispensed in remotely located health institutions most people in Ethiopia rely
on the medicinal plants for their healthcare. Thus, medicinal plants continue to be in high
demand in the healthcare system as components to the modern medicine (Cunningham, 1996).
This indicates the need for in-depth investigation and documentation of plants of traditional
value to rationally use and conserve the plant resources and indigenous knowledge (Dawit
Abebe and Ahadu Ayehu, 1993).

3.5. Conservation and Management of Medicinal Plants

In various parts of the world, medicinal plants are mostly harvested from the wild sources
either for local use or trade purposes (Large, 1997 cited in Matu, 1998). Availability of
medicinal plants has been affected by a dramatic decrease in the area of native vegetation due
to agricultural expansion, deforestation, fire, overgrazing, and drought, trading charcoal and
firewood and urban associated developments (Cunningham, 1996; Kebu Balemie et al.,
2004). However, there were checks and balances in the past that made the use of such plants
sustainable. For example, such practices including taboos on felling certain plants, seasonal
and social restrictions on gathering and the nature of the gathering equipment (Odera, 1997
cited in Matu, 1998). It is reported that, every year the sum total of humans knowledge about
the types, distribution, ecology, methods of management and methods of extraction the useful
properties of medicinal plants is decreasing rapidly which is a continuation of a process of
loss of cultural diversity including traditional knowledge system that has been under way for
hundreds of years (Hamilton, 2003).

Getachew Berhan and Shiferaw Dessie (2002) explained that the knowledge on medicinal
plants is commonly passed from generation to generation. In this process valuable information


                                              8
can be lost when ever a medicinal plant is lost or when a traditional medical practitioner dies
without passing his/her indigenous knowledge to others.

As stated by Zemede Asfaw (2001), in Ethiopia, traditional medicine as elsewhere in other
developing countries is faced with a problem of sustainability and continuity mainly due to
loss of taxa of medicinal plants, loss of habitats of medicinal and other category of plants and
cultures. The diversity of plants in Ethiopia is on the process of erosion due to anthropogenic
pressures (Abebe Demisse, 2001). The same document states that habitat destruction and
deforestation by commercial timber interests and encroachment by agriculture and other land
uses have resulted in the loss of some thousand hectares of forest which harbor useful
medicinal plants, annually over the past several decades.

TRAFFIC international (1998) has explained that the only adequately recorded medicinal
plant export from Ethiopia is that of Catha edulis which is traded primarily as stimulant
(narcotic). However, there are certain medicinal plants such as Embelia schimperi, Hagenia
abyssinica and Glinus lotoides that plants have been over exploited for local markets. The loss
of habitats as a result of deforestation is the main cause for the reduction in the quantity of
medicinal plants; a good example is Hagenia abyssinica growing in the wild (Kloos, 1976).

The growing recognition of the importance of medicinal plants in meeting local and global
healthcare needs provides an important opportunity for conservationists, traditional medicine
proponents, local communities and others to work together to develop mutually supporting
solutions to problems associated with forest loss and biodiversity erosion. Nowadays,
sustained and coordinated efforts are needed to transform currently unsustainable practices of
medicinal plant mining from wild sources to more ecologically sustainable, socially
acceptable, and economically equitable production and utilization systems (Parrotta, 2002). In
fact such valuable activity requires appropriate action, and changes by the full range of
societies and stakeholders involved in the conservation, production, management, marketing,
processing and use of medicinal plants and their derivatives. Since an action on conservation
and sustainable use of medicinal plants need involvement of various sectors and greater public
support, it needs a continuous task of creating public awareness (Shanker, 1993).

Generally, there are some conservation measures that have been undertaken around the world
aimed at protecting threatened medicinal plant species from further destruction (Cunningham,
1993). These include in-situ conservation (on their natural habitat like nature reserves and


                                               9
parks) and ex-situ (field gene banks, seed banks and botanical gardens) conservation.
Cunningham (1996) explains that countries like Sirlanka have implemented a strong policy of
in-situ conservation to save valuable medicinal plants.

There are some cases that there is a tradition of cultivating plants from the wild in home
gardens for their medicinal use in Ethiopia (Zemede Asfaw, 1997). This report indicated that
from the species purposely maintained in home gardens, about 6% are primarily cultivated for
their medicinal value and that in Ethiopia home gardens can play a role in easing the pressure
on those plants that are scarce in native vegetation.

In order to conserve useful plants (including medicinal plants), which are threatened due to
natural or man-made factors in Ethiopia, in-situ and ex-situ conservation strategies should be
complementarily implemented (Abebe Demisse, 2001).

3.5. Medicinal Plants in Research

In 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially launched an international program
to promote and develop basic and applied research in traditional medicine (WHO, 1978; Tsige
Gebremariam and Kaleab Asres, 2001). Medicinal plants then got a focus of attention and
regional offices were established to coordinate basic and applied research activities on such
plants. This was associated with the establishment of data based on medicinal plants to
improve accessibility and dissemination of information on medicinal plants (Farnsworth and
Soejarto, 1991).

According to Sebsebe Demissew and Ermias Dagne (2001), there is a considerable global
interest in tapping the accumulated knowledge of traditional medicine, and therefore,
researches are being carried out in many countries with the aim of increasing the use of
traditional medicine to the welfare of the human population. The same document also
explains that basic and applied researches on medicinal plants are interconnected and the
basic research is primarily important in realizing new knowledge and serving as bases for
applied research.

Tsige Gebremariam and Kaleab Asres (2001) explained that research programs in traditional
medicine must be realistic and be based on the primary healthcare needs of the country, with
an objective of developing safe, effective and quality phytotherapeutic preparation, which can



                                                10
supplement and /or replace modern chemotherapy. Although, it has significant contribution to
the society, it has received little attention in modern research and development until recently
in Ethiopia. Basic researches with special emphasis on systematic study and documentation of
medicinal plants have been made in this country by few professionals like Amare Getahun (
1976), Jansen (1981), Mesfin Taddese (1986), Dawit Abebe and Estifanos Hagos (1991),
Mesfin Taddese and Sebsebe Demissew (1992), Dawit Abebe and Ahadu Ayehu (1993),
Abbink (1995), Mirutse Giday (1999), Bayafers Tamene (2000), Debela Hunde (2001),
Abiyot Birhanu (2002), Kebu Balemie et al. (2004), Ermias Lulekal (2005), Tizazu Gebre
(2005), Etana Tolasa (2007), Tilahun Teklehaymanot and Mirutse Giday (2007), Tilahun
Teklehaymanot et al. (2007) and Mirutse Giday et al. (2007).

These research studies were carried out in different parts of the countries to document the
medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge in the areas studied. Thus there is a
need to carry out similar studies in areas not previously covered in order to get a full picture
of the country’s medicinal plants potential in the future.


4. Description of the Study Area

4.1. Geographical Location

Wonago Woreda (6o 20’E between 6032’E and 38o 14’N between 38024’N) is located 380 km
from Addis Ababa in Gedeo zone; Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region
(SNNPR). It is approximately 248 km2 (24,790 ha) and comprises 19 kebeles (Figs. 1 and 2).




                                                11
Figure 1 Location of Wonago Woreda in Gedeo zone; Southern Nations, Nationalities and
Peoples Region, Southern Ethiopia




Figure 2 Administrative Map of Wonago Woreda




                                          12
4.2. Landscape and Soil

The study area has undulated type of landscape with altitudinal ranging from 1350 to 2875
masl. The major mountain peaks of the Woreda include “Booncho” and “Alala”. There are
permanent rivers, many streams and springs; and diversified natural resources. The soils are
volcanic in origin and well-drained. According to Sustainable Land Use Management (2006),
there are three major soil types in the area; chromic luvisols is the dominant soil type. It is
good in its agricultural potential, and cover large area of the region. The second soil types are
caloric and eutric flovisols and the third soil types are dystric nitisols, which are found on
almost flat to sloping terrain due to high rainfall of the area. Generally, all the three soil types
are suitable for agricultural activities including coffee growing. The depth of the soil reaches
up to 1.5 meters and the pH value of the soil ranges from 4.5 to 5.5 (SLUM, 2006).

4. 3. Climate

Wonago Woreda has three main agroclimatic zones (Table 1) with topography ranging from
wide flat valley bottoms to steep mountain slopes (WWAO, 2005).

Table 1: Agroclimatic zone of the study area

Agroclimatic zone             Hectare       Percentage      Climatic condition
Dega (2100-2875m)                 5,280.7            21.3                     Cool
Weynadega (1500-2100m)          17,600.90              71                    Warm
Kola (1350-1500m)                1,908.83             7.7                        Hot
Total                           24,790.43             100
Source: WWAO, (2005)

The rain-fall distribution of the study area is bimodal. The first main rainy season is a
combination of summer and autumn are traditionally called ‘Kiremt’ and ‘Mahar’ that lasts
from August to November. The second one is the short rainy season what is traditionally
known as ‘Belg’, which lasts from March to May. According to Wonago Woreda Agricultural
Office, the annual rainfall ranges from 873-1449 mm and shows considerable variation from
year to year and even from season to season. In general the mean annual average temperature
of the Woreda is 20.65OC (Fig. 3).




                                                13
        Source: National Meteorological Service Agency
 Figure 3: Climadiagram of the study area from 1996 to 2005 at Kotty Weather Station.


 4. 4. Landuse pattern

 As the agricultural sector is the dominant means of livelihood for the majority of Wonago
 Woreda population, out of the total of 24,790 hectares of land in the Woreda, 22,871 hectares
 is known to have potential for agriculture. In the study area, annual crop covers 5.03 %;
 perennial crop 84.77%, uncultivable land 0.65 % and others are 3.52 % (Table 2).

 Table 2: Land use Category in the Study Area

Item           Cultivated Land       Grazing    Forest   Cultivable   Fallow    Others Total
                                     land       land     land         land             area
           Annual        Perennial
Area    in 1248          21014       507        377      609          161      874      24,790
hectare
%          5.03          84.77       2.05       1.52     2.46         0.65     3.52     100
 Source; WWAO, 2005

 4.6. Population

 The 2005 population census (WWAO, 2005) indicates that Wonago woreda has a total
 population of 162,663. Of these 78,649 (48.3%) are males and 84,014 (51.6%) are females.
 The population density of the Woreda was 702 persons per km2 at national growth rate of 1.07
 % (WWAO, 2005) (Table 3).




                                                14
Table 3: The Population Data of the Study Area

Population   Male         Percent      Female       Percent      Total       %

Urban        10,789       13.71        11,094       13.20        21,883      13.45
Rural        67,860       86.29        72,920       86.80        140,780     86.54
Total        78,649       100          84,014       100          162,663     100
Source: WWAO, 2005


The population of the study area is not evenly distributed within the woreda. The majority of
the population of the study area lives in rural areas (86.54%) and the rest 13.45% of the
population lives in urban centers (WWAO, 2005).




                                             15
5. MATERIALS AND METHODS

5.1. Selection of study sites

The study was conducted in ten kebeles in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR from November 1, 2006
to December 3, 2006. The study sites were selected based on availability of traditional healers
identified with the assistance of local authorities. The study sites were ‘Bankookoto’,
‘Balebukisa’, ‘Deko’, ‘Halemo’, ‘Haseharo’, ‘Karasodity’, ‘Mokonisa’, ‘Sokicha’, ‘Sugale’,
and ‘Tumata cherecha’ kebeles (Fig. 2).

5.2. Sampling of informants

A total of 80 individuals (60 males and 20 females) between the ages of 20-85 were randomly
selected from ten kebeles (Appendix 1). Out of these, 30 key informants (22 males and 8
females) were systematically selected based on recommendation from elders and local
authorities (Development Agents and Kebele administration leaders).

5.3. Ethnobotanical data collection

Ethnobotanical techniques were employed to collect data on knowledge and management of
medicinal plants used by people in Wonago woreda as described in Martin (1995), Alexiades
(1996) and Cotton (1996). The techniques were group discussion, semi-structured interviews,
field observations, informant consensus, preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, paired
comparison and informant consensus factor (IFC).

Semi-structured interviews

A brief group discussion was made with informants at each kebele prior to ethnobotanical
data collection. During the discussions, an attempt was made to let them understand that their
knowledge and the continued practice of their art of traditional medicine will be not
interferred.

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 80 informants in “Gedeoffa” language with
the help of an interpreter following Martin (1995) and Cotton (1996) to collect ethnobotanical
data. The data collected include informants’ name and address, common human ailments/
diseases in the area, part of the medicinal plants used for treating different aliments, status of


                                               16
the medicinal plants in the study area, method of preparation and application, dosage, route of
administration, other uses of the medicinal plants and threat and conservation status of the
plants (Appendix 2).

Field observations

Field observations were performed with the help of local guides and interpreter, as well as
interviewed informants in the study area and the status, habit, and habitat characteristics of the
plants were recorded on site.

Informant consensus

During the course of the study, each informant was visited 2-3 times in order to confirm the
reliability of the ethnobotanical information. Consequently, the responses of an informant that
were not in harmony with each other were rejected since such responses were considered as
unreliable.

Preference ranking

Preference ranking was made following Martin (1995) for five medicinal plants in treating
malaria. Eight randomly selected informants were made to participate in this exercise. The
informants were given the plants and asked to arrange the five medicinal plants based on their
personal preference of efficacy. The medicinal plant believed to be most effective got the
highest value (5), and the one with the least effectiveness got the lowest value (1). Based on
the total score of each species the rank was determined, and this helped to indicate the most
effective medicinal plants used by the community to treat malaria.

Direct matrix ranking

Direct matrix ranking were conducted for five multipurpose medicinal plants commonly
reported by key informants following Cotton (1996). Based on the relative benefits obtained
from each plant, the informants were asked to assign value to each attribute. The list of
attributes included were medicinal, cash income, washing, fire wood and charcoal. By adding
the scores, given it was possible to compare use values of medicinal plants and also to identify
the main cause for over harvesting of the plants.




                                               17
Paired comparison

After identification of the five most important plants based on their high use values as
perceived by the informants, paired comparisons were employed as described by Martin
(1996). Paired comparisons on the five most effective plants in treating diarrhea were
conducted using random number table and flipping coins. Eight informants were randomly
selected from the key informants and allowed to show their responses independently for pairs
of traditional medicinal plants noted for treating diarrhea.

5.4. Plant specimen collections and identifications

Medicinal plants were reported twice in the two different visits of informants were collected
from wild and cultivated sources. The local names, habits and associated plants were recorded
for each of the species. Voucher specimens were collected, pressed and taken to the National
Herbarium (ETH.) of Addis Ababa University (AAU). For identification of the plants that
were not readily identified in the field are takent to the National Herbarium of (AAU).
Identification at the National Herbarium of (AAU) were done using taxonomic keys and
Ethiopian and Eritrea floras (Hedberg and Edwards, 1989 and 1995; Edwards et al., 1995;
Edwards et al., 1997; Edwards et al., 2000; Hedberg et al., 2004; Hedberg et al., 2006) and by
comparison with already identified specimens that are deposited at ETH.

5.5. Data analysis

Preference ranking and paired comparison were computed to assess the degree of
effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against Malaria and Diarrhea respectively.

The Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) was calculated for each category to identify the
agreements of the informants on the reported cures for the group of ailments. The ICF was
calculated as follows: number of use citations in each category (nur) minus the number of
species used (nt), divided by the numbers of use citations in each category minus one
(Heinerich et al., 1998).

                                                n ur − n t
                                        ICF =
                                                 n ur − 1




                                                 18
6. RESULTS

6.1. Local Categories of Vegetation and the Plant Species

The local communities categorized the vegetation of the study area into five types using the
gedeo language based on plant density and associated landform.

I. ‘Raqqa’ refers to densely forested land. Now-a-days this type of vegetation has declined in
the study area because of degradation by human activities, over grazing, and climate changes.

II. ‘Hakka cadanaba’ refers to vegetation growing in marshy or water logged areas often
characterized by salty earth. Plant species such as Phoenix reclinata and Cyperus spp. are
more frequent.

III. ‘Mancchha’ refers to land that is bare or with poor vegetation land having some types of
herbs and grasses appearing only during the rainy season.

IV. ‘Bullukko’ refers to the heterogeneous mixture of shrubs and grass communities not
suited for agriculture.

V. ‘Wodae gido’ refers to wooded and under-growing herbaceous vegetation growing along
riversides. Plant species like Spathodea campanulata subssp. nilotica, Erythrina brucei, Ficus
spp. and Arundo donax are common.

In this study which was conducted in the five local categories of vegetation, a total of 155
plant species were collected from the wild vegetation. Of which, 48 were medicinal plant
species. The collected plant species were distributed among 63 families and 136 genera. The
leading family was Asteraceae with 17 species, followed by Fabaceae with 11 species,
Euphorbiaceae with 9 species, Poaceae and Solanaceae with 7 species each, Rosaceae with 6
species and Myrtaceae with 5 species (Appindix 3).

Regarding life forms, out of the 155 plant species: 56 (36.1%) were herbs, 53 (34.1%) were
shrubs, 41 (26.4%) were tree, 4 (2.55%) were climbers and 1(0.6%) were epiphyte (Appindix
3).




                                             19
6.2. Plant Diversity of the Home Garden (‘Gattae Oduma’)

The people of the study area cultivate diverse plant species in their home gardens (‘Gattae
Oduma’). Plants were grown for their known uses. The number of plants recorded was 65
species in 33 families and 57 genera (Appindix 4). In terms of species composition,
Solanaceae had 6 species followed by Poaceae with 5 species, Asteraceae, Fabaceae,
Lamiaceae and Rosaceae with 4 species and Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Rutaceae with
3 species each (Appindix 4).

Regarding life form, out of the 65 “Gattae Oduma” plant species, 31(47.6%) were herbs;
23(35.3%) were shrubs, 7 (10.7%) were trees and 4 (6.1%) were climbers (Fig. 4).




Figure 4: Life form diversity of plant species in home gardens (‘Gattae Oduma’)


The findings also showed that the home garden flora included 24 (36.9%) food, 10 (15.3%)
medicinal and 31(48.7%) other useful plant species (Table 4). In addition, the analysis of the
same data shows that the majority of the home gardens (38.4%) provide at least two of the
uses listed in Table 4 (‘Gattae oduma’).

Table 4: Service categories of home garden plants (‘Gattae Oduma’)

    Service categories                       No.   of   plant %      of   the
                                             species           total species



                                              20
    Food                                     24                36.9
    Medicine                                 10                15.3
    Food & medicine                          8                 12.3
    Medicine & cash income                   1                 1.5
    Food & cash income                       4                 6.1
    Life fence & ornamental                  1                 1.5
    Medicine & ornament                      3                 4.6
    Spice & medicine                         1                 1.5
    Medicine and fence                       2                 3.0
    Medicine, cash income & stimulant        3                 4.6
    Spice                                    1                 1.5
    Ornament                                 3                 4.6
    Fence                                    1                 1.5
    Stimulant                                1                 1.5
    Food & ornament                          2                 3.0
                           TOTAL             65

6.3. Medicinal Plants

6.3.1. Medicinal plants used to treat human ailments

A total of 58 species of medicinal plants, grouped into 39 families and 55 genera were
documented as useful for the treatment of human ailments. The family Asteraceae were
represented by 7 species (12%) followed by Euphorbiaceae (5, 8.6%), Asclepidaceae (2,
3.4%), Celastraceae (2, 3.4%), Cucurbitaceae (2, 3.4%), Fabaceae (2, 3.4%), Malvaceae (2,
3.4%), Rosaceae (2, 3.4%), Rubiaceae (2, 3.4%), Rutaceae (2, 3.4%), and Tiliaceae (2, 3.4%)
(Appendix 5). These plants are reported as treatment for 36 types of human diseases in the
study area. This study also showed that 7 species were used as remedy for malaria, 6 species
to treat diarrhea, and 5 species for ascariasis (Appendix 6). The main feature of medicinal
plant species and medicinal use in the study area are detailed in Appendix 7.

The highest number of traditional medicinal knowledge was acquired (79%) from parents or
relatives (9.3%) followed by self trial and error, (7.6%) from healers, and the rest (4.1%) from
other sources. The traditional healers of the study area showed a strong tendency to keep their
knowledge secret. Only 1.5% of the healers were inclined to transfer the knowledge to the
outsider without any incentives, except to close family member.




                                                 21
6.3.2. Sources of medicinal plants

The present study revealed that there were various sources for medicinal plants harvesting
(Fig.5). 48(69.1%) were collected from wild vegetation followed by 10 (15.4%) from home
gardens.




Figure 5: Sources of Medicinal plants in the study area


6.3.3. Habit of Medicinal Plants and Parts Used

The shrubs were the most harvested for medicinal purpose. They were represented with
27(46.5%) plant species followed by 19 (32.7%) herbs and 12 (20.6%) tree (Fig.6).




Figure 6: Growth forms (habit) of Medicinal plants for treatment of human health problems


Based on the information from all informants in the study area, the most commonly used plant
parts for remedy preparations were 29.3% roots, followed by 24.1% leaves, fruit 15.5%
(Table 5).


                                               22
Table 5: Plant Parts used in preparation of remedies

        Used part          No of plant species                %
        Root only                           17             29.3
        Root bark                            7               12
        Stem only                            7               12
        Leaf only                           14             24.1
        Fruit only                           9             15.5
        Flower                               1               1.7
        Latex                                1               1.7
        Seed                                 1               1.7
        Whole plant                          1               1.7
        Total                               58

6.3.4. Mode of Preparation, Dosage and Routes of Application

In this study, 32 (36.4%) preparations were made in the form of powder, 29 (32.9%) followed
by crushed and pounded, and 12 (11.3%) in the form of chewing of plant parts used for
treatment of human health problems (Table 6).

Table 6: Preparation Methods of Traditional Medicine

Preparation methods                      Preparations                   %
Powder                                             32                 36.4
Crushing and pounding                              29                 32.9
Chewing                                            10                 11.3
Concoction                                          6                  6.8
Decoction                                           1                  1.1
Others                                             10                 11.3
Total                                              88

People of the study area used various units of measurement such as; finger length (e.g. for
root, root bark, and stem), pinch (e.g. for powdered) and numbers (e.g. for leaves, seeds, fruits
and flowers) were used to estimate and fix the amount of medicine.

In this study, the most popular way of administration of herbal medicines were internal
particularly oral which accounted for 37 (63.7%) followed by 13 (22.4%) dermal and 8
(13.6%) nasal (Table 7).




                                                 23
Table 7: Route of Administration of Traditional Medicines

 Route of administration               Total applications              %
 Internal
          Oral                                          37         63.7
          Nasal                                          8         13.6
 External
          Dermal                                        13         22.4

6.3.5. Informant Consensus / Medicinal Plants Use Report

The informants’ consensus obtained during this study showed that some plants were cited by
41% and above informants (Table 8). Vernonia amygdalina cited by 73 (91.2%) followed by
Croton macrostachyus 71 (88.7%), Lagenaria siceraria with 64 (80%) and Lepidium sativum
with 58 (72.5%).

Table 8: Informant Consensus

Botanical name                     Number of informants                            %
                                     who cited the plant
Vernonia amygdalina                                   73                         91.2
Croton macrostachyus                                  71                         88.7

Lagenaria siceraria                                     64                       80.0

Lepidium sativum                                        58                       72.5
Senna occidentalis                                      47                       58.7
Phytolacca dodecandra                                   46                       57.5




6.3.6. Preference Ranking on Malaria

Preference ranking of five medicinal plants that were reported as effective for treating malaria
(Table 9), which was the most common disease for which large number of patients visited the
traditional medicinal practitioners.

Table 9: Preference ranking of medicinal plants used for treating malaria

List of medicinal plants      R1       R2     R3        R4   R5   R6   R7   R8     Total   rank


                                                   24
Allium sativum                3        2        5         3     3        2    3          3     24          3
Lepidium sativum              2        1        2         2     1        3    2          2     15          4
Croton macrostachyus          4        5        3         4     4        5    5          4     34          2
Phytolacca dodecandra         1        4        1         1     2        1    1          1     12          5
Vernonia amygdalina           5        3        4         5     5        4    4          5     35          1

6.3.7. Paired Comparison on Diarrhea

For medicinal plants that were identified by the informants to be used in treating diarrhea, a
paired comparison was made among five of them (Table10).

Table 10: Paired comparison of medicinal plant species used to treat diarrhea

List of medicinal plants          R1       R2   R3     R4     R5        R6   R7    R8        Total     rank
Ensete ventricosum                1        2    1      2      2         1    2     2         13        4
Vernonia amygdalina               2        3    2      3      2         3    2     1         18        2
Colocasia esculenta               1        1    1      2      2         1    1     2         11        5
Croton macrostachyus              4        3    3      2      3         2    1     3         21        1
Hagenia abyssinica                2        1    3      1      1         3    3     2         16        3

6.3.8. Informant consensus factor

In this study, the result showed that the medicinal plants that are effective in treating certain
disease have higher informant consensus factor values (Table11).




Table 11: Informant consensus factor by categories of diseases

 Category                          Species      %             of No      of %                        ICF
                                                species          informants                          %
                                                                 cited
 Malaria and headache           10              11.60              52             27.3               82.30
 Ascariasis and diarrhea        11              12.70              47             24.7               78.20
 Intestinal    parasite     and 5               5.80               19             10                 77.70
 stomachache
 Gonorrhea & sexual impotence 5                 5.80               16             8.4                73.30
 in men
 Abdominal pain and amoebas        6            6.90               19             10                 72.20
 Ring worm and wounds              7            8.10               16             8.4                60.00
 Bronchitis and cough              6            5.80               12             6.3                54.50
 Fiber illness and lymphatic       5            5.80               9              4.7                50.00
 swelling




                                                     25
6.3.9. Direct matrix ranking for multiple use medicinal plants

In the study sites the majority of the community relies on wild plants for various purposes
such as medicinal, firewood, washing, cash income and charcoal. To assess the relative
importance and to check the major impact on such plants direct matrix ranking was preformed
(Table 12).

Table 12: Direct matrix ranking of medicinal plants with different uses other than medicinal
value (total score of ten informants)

Uses            Croton               Phytolacca       Coffea         Cordia               Millettia
                macrostachyus        dodecandra       arabica        africana             ferruginea

Medicinal       31                   28               26             24                   29
Cash income     29                   12               27             13                   19
Washing         21                   26               0              19                   23
Firewood        13                   9                23             22                   19
Charcoal        18                   7                19             11                   15
Total           112                  82               95             89                   105
Rank            1                    5                3              4                    2




6.4. Threats to and Conservation of Medicinal Plants in the Study Area

In the study area, various human induced and natural factors threaten the survival of many
medicinal plant species. The order of importance of the threat factors in the study area is
summarized in Table 13.

Table 13: Priority ranking factors perceived as threats to medicinal plants based on their level of
destructive effects (values 1-6 were given: 1 is the least destructive threat and 6 is the most
destructive threat)

Factors                                   Respondents (R1-R6)        Total      Percent    Rank
                                 R1       R2    R3    R4   R5   R6
Drought                          3        4     2     3    6    3    21         16.5       4th
Grazing                          5        1     3     5    4    5    23         18.1       3th




                                                     26
Urbanization                   1     5    4     1    3     1     15     11.8      5th
Agricultural expansion         6     2    6     6    5     6     31     24.4      1th
Fire wood                      4     6    5     4    1     4     24     18.8      2th
Construction                   2     3    1     2    2     3     13     10.2      6th


A group discussion, field observation and semi-structured interview administered clearly
showed cultural and traditional activities and associated knowledge on conservation of
medicinal plants by local people. Some traditional practitioners have started to conserve
medicinal plants by cultivating at home gardens, though the effort is very low. Traditional
beliefs in the area have their own role in conservation and sustainable utilization of medicinal
plants. The local people and traditional healers believe that ‘Magano’ or God gives the
knowledge of curing patients, by using medicinal plants, only to selected individuals. They
believe that any act of cutting medicinal plants by non-healers will result in an attack by evil
spirit or ‘Gadabicho’.




                                              27
7. Discussion

7.1. Home Garden plant Diversity

Home gardens in the study sites provide a number of services to the local people. The primary
function of these home gardens is to food stuffs as justified by the prevalence of high number
and dominance of food plants. The occurrence of such high number of plant species in
Wonago home gardens resulted from the farmer’s attempt to have as much as possible high
crop plant diversity in their gardens. This also agrees with findings of Taddese Kanshae
(2002) who discussed the diversity of plants and number of cultivated food plants that are
grown in fields than those in home gardens (‘Gattae oduma’). In some home gardens of the
study area, garden crops for example, Colocasia esculenta, Brassica carinata, Phaseolus
lunatus, and Capsicum annuum are planted along with crops like Zea mays to maximize the
use of the available land.

Home garden plants were also used as medicines to treat human ailments or diseases and a
good number of medicinal plants used by people in the study sites are grown in and around
home gardens. In addition, the results of this study indicated that the largest group is made up
of wild vegetation, strictly followed by the medicinal species grown close to the house, with
an overall representation of about 15.4% by cultivated species and the natural species
accounted for about 69.1%. The finding obtained is similar to Belachew Wassihun et al.
(2003) that reported 133 plant species grown in the ‘Gamo’ home gardens of which 18 were
medicinal plants.

7.2. Medicinal Plants

7.2.1. Medicinal Plants Used To Treat Human Ailments

The highest medicinal plant knowledge acquisation by the people in the study sites were
obtained from (79%) parents or close relatives followed by (9.3%) self trial and error method.
This finding is in agreement with Etana Tolasa, (2007) who reported 91% and 9% traditional
medicinal knowledge acquisition from parents or relatives and self trial and error,
respectively. Keeping the traditional knowledge secrete was highly prevailed in the study
area. Among the interviewed healers, less than 2% were ready to transfer the knowledge
without incentives. Most of the healers’ claim that traditional medicine is effective if done



                                              28
within a family or with a close relative such as a trend which was also reported else where (
Abbink, 1995; Etana Tolasa, 2007).

Fifty-eight medicinal plant species have been documented in the present study. Some
medicinal plants recorded in Wonago are also used as remedies in other parts of Ethiopia. 22
plant species are mentioned in Mesfin Taddese (1986), 11 species in Mesfin Taddese and
Sebsebe Demissew (1992), 23 plant species in Bayafers Tamene (2000), 11 plant species in
Kebu Balemie (2002), 21 plant species in Debela Hunde et al. (2004), 39 plant species in
Ermias Lulekal (2005), 21 plant species in Tilahun Teklehaymanot and Mirutse Giday (2007)
and 17 plant species in Tilahun Teklehaymanot et al. (2007). Twenty-nine of the medicinal
plants have also been used in Africa: 13 by Anokbongo (1992) and 16 by Iwu (1993).

From both paired comparison and preference ranking it could be understood that the most
favoured species are usually the most efficacious, at least in the context of the people who use
them. Furthermore, this also shows the credibility and contuinity of the ethnomedicinal
informantion obtained from indigenous people.

The medicinal plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher
ICF values. Table11 shows some of the categories of diseases that are common: malaria and
headache (82.3%), ascariasis and diarrhea (78.2%), and intestinal parasite and stomachache
(77.7%). This may indicate high incidence of these types of diseases in the study area,
possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of the people. The type of
disease with lower ICF values such as: bronchitis and cough (54.5%) and febrile illness and
lymphatic swelling (50%) are those whose occurrence is rare.

The direct matrix for randomly selected five medicinal plants with different uses other than
medicinal value on five use criteria showed that medicinal plants are widely harvested for
different purposes. This is particularly true for Croton macrostachyus and Millettia
ferruginea. Thus, indigenous people use those species for firewood and charcoal. On the other
hand, Phytolacca dodecandra is extensively used for medicinal purposes other than for
firewood and charcoal collection.




                                              29
7.2.2. Sources of Medicinal Plants

Medicinal plants utilized by indigenous people of Wonago Woreda are collected from the
vegetation in the wild (69.1%), only a few being found under cultivation (15.4%). These
indicated that the local people harvest more medicinal plant species from the wild than from
home gardens.

Tesfaye Awas and Zemede Asfaw (1999) reported that 71% of the medicinal plants of the
‘Berta’ people in western Ethiopia are obtained from the wild vegetation. Zemede Asfaw
(1997) reported that only 6% of the plants maintained in home gardens in Ethiopia are
primarily cultivated for their medicinal value even though many other plants grown for non-
medicinal purposes turn out to be important medicines when some health problems are
encountered. These reasons are also true in the study area.

7.2.3. Habit of Medicinal Plants and Parts Used

The most widely used plant remedies by people of Wonago Woreda are obtained from shrubs
(46.5%) followed by herbs (32.7%). The analysis of the data showed that the majority of
medicinal plants in the wild are shrubs. This result indicated that people rely more on shrubs
and herbs because they are relatively common in the area compared to tree species. This
finding agrees with the findings of (Bayafers Tamene, 2000; Debela Hunde, 2004; Mirutse
Giday and Gobena Amani, 2003; and Ermias Lulekal, 2005). However, the findings of Abiyot
Birhanu (2002), Hussien Adal Mohammed (2004), Tizazu Gebre (2005), and Tilahun
Teklehaymanot and Mirtsue Giday (2007) showed that herbs are the most frequently used.

The most widely sought plant parts in the preparation of remedies are (29.3%) the roots. The
popularity of these parts has grave consequences from both ecological point of view and from
the survival of the medicinal species (Dawit Abebe and Ahadu Ayehu, 1993). Constentinos
Berhe et al. (1995) reported that some plant species such as Dracaena steudneri, Hagenia
abyssinica and Securidaca longepedunculata that are harvested for their roots, barks or whole
plants in many parts of Ethiopia have become scarce and so difficult to find. On the other
hand, collecting leaves alone could not pose a lasting danger to the continuity of an individual
plant compared with the collection of roots, bark, stem or whole plant. These reasons are true
in the study area.




                                               30
7.2.4. Mode of Preparation, Dosage and Route of Application

The most popular mode of preparation was in the form of powder which accounts to 36.4%
followed by 32.9% of crushed and pounding. The potency of using a concoction rather than a
single plant to cure a particular disease is evident when they prescribe two or more medicinal
plants. For instance, the curing potential of Croton macrostachyus in the treatment of malaria
and diarrhea is increased by mixing it with fruit or bulb of Allium sativum in the preparation.
Furthermore; Bersama abyssinica when used in the treatment of febrile illness is potentiated
by mixing it with leaf of Ruta chalepensis and fruit of Zingiber officinale. The effect of one
plant on the other in prescription of multiple sources is well recognized in Ethiopian
traditional medicinal parctice (Dawit Abebe and Ahadu Ayehu, 1993).

In the route of application, the popular one is internal particularly oral that accounted for
63.7%, followed by 22.4% dermal and 13.6% nasal. This is concurrent with the finding of
Dawit Abebe and Ahadu Ayehu (1993) who reported that the leading route of application
used in northern Ethiopia is oral, which accounted for 42%. This is also in agreement with the
result of various ethnobotanical researchers elsewhere in Ethiopia (Mirtuse Giday, 1999;
Debela Hunde, 2001; Getachew Addis et al., 2001; Kebu Balemie et al., 2004; and Ermias
Lulekal, 2005) and indicates oral as the predominant route of application.

The informants’ responses indicated that there were variations in the unit of measurement,
duration and time at which remedies are taken and prescribed by healers for the same kind of
health problems. Amare Getahun (1976), Sofowora (1982), and Dawit Abebe (1986) have
also discussed lack of precision and standardization as one drawback for the recognition of
the traditional health care system.

7.3. Threats and Conservation of Medicinal Plants

The main threat for medicinal plants were agricultural expansion (24.4%), which was most
hazardous to medicinal plants and their habitats. Most informants’ perceived that urbanization
and construction are the least destructive factor (nearly 11.8% and 10.2% of the total score,
respectively). The rise in the price of Coffea arabica and Catha edulis on the market are some
of the contributing factors for the expansion of agriculture. Moreover, during the field study,
it was observed that large number of big trees of Macaranga capensis, Olea europaea ssp.
cuspidata, Pouteria adolfi-friederici, and Syzygium guineense were removed by the local



                                              31
people to prepare the forestlands for agricultural expansion. These factors combined with the
natural vulnerability of the area may lead to further reduction in number of medicinal plants.
Pressure from agricultural expansion, wide spread cutting for fuelwood combined with
seasonal drought is reported in Zerihun Woldu and Mesfin Taddese (1990), Ensermu Kelbesa
et al. (1992) and Kebu Balemie et al. (2004) as main factors for environmental degradation in
areas similar to the study site.

Athough the practitioners know the importance of conserving medicinal plants, limited
conservation effort was observed in the area. Culture and spiritual beliefs some how helped in
the conservation of medicinal plants. For instance, the claim of the traditional healers that
medicinal plants are effective only if cut or collected and administered by the knowledgeable
persons and healers helps in conservation of medicinal plants.




                                              32
8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The ethnobotanical investigation of medicinal plants indicates that the study area is rich in its
medicinal plant composition and the associated indigenous knowledge. Medicinal plants are
widely used in the study area. The wide uses of these plants indicate that there is good
consensus on the effectiveness of their medicinal properties. The traditional medicinal plants
are central to the rural cultures and material needs. People are knowledgeable about the
plants, their distribution, use, and conservation. Indigenous practices some how contributed to
the sustained use, management and conservation of medicinal and multiple-use indigenous
trees. This is further buffered by cultural and spiritual practices.

Traditional medicinal plants are harvested mostly from wild stands followed by home
gardens. They are also obtained from road sides and farm lands. Shrubs were found the
dominant growth forms used for preparation of traditional remedies followed by herbs and
trees. Roots were also found to be the most frequently used plant parts followed by leaves for
preparation of human remedies. Moreover, they employ medicinal plants for different
purposes besides their medicinal value such as washing, cash income, charcoal and firewood
and alcohol preparation.

Therefore, these important medicinal plants are under threat and the indigenous knowledge is
also eroding. The major threats to medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in this
particular study area are: agricultural expansion, firewood collection, grazing and drought in
that order. These have greatly affected the availability of medicinal plants and the indigenous
knowledge of the people. To overcome these problems traditional healers have turned towards
home gardens. Previously, home gardens were employed for growing vegetables. Now-a-
days, traditional healers cultivate scarce and more valuable medicinal plants around their
homes instead of going long distances to fetch medicinal plants. In spite of this fact,
traditional healers still depend to a greater extent on naturally growing species, as they believe
those species in the wild vegetation are more powerful in the prevention and treatment of
different ailment and health problems. Hence, they usually cultivate medicinal plants in their
natural places. This has become the day-to-day habit and culture of most traditional healers.

The results of this study would have significant contribution in efforts directed towards
conservation and preservation of the remaining resources of which there is still a considerable
proportion left, provided that the necessary mechanisms are put in place before it is too late.


                                                 33
Based on the research results, the following recommendations are forwarded:

Encouraging people to grow medicinal plants in their home gardens, live fences and
farmlands. In addition to this, local peoples’ management and conservation of indigenous
resources should be maintained. This will ensure the continuation of the indigenous practices
and the natural vegetation, which carry these medicinal plants.

Promoting the organizational structure at Zone and Woreda Agricultural Offices to identify
and encourage the local herbal medicinal practitioners to enhance the use of traditional
medicine and licensing the work of the practitioners.

The participation of the local people and awareness creation through training or education on
sustainable utilization and management of plant resources should be encouraged: Indigenous
peoples’ who are not involved in traditional healing activities are not aware of the
contributing traditional medicinal plants. Thus, the subject should concentrate on the
protection and maintenance of the natural inhabitats, the forests in general and medicinal
plants in particular.




                                              34
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                                              42
Appendix 1: List of Informants Who Participated In This Study

No. Name                       Sex     Age Marital    Education   Locality
                                           status     status
1     Asefa Selli              M       42  M          No          Bale bukisa
2     Desta Welde              F       46  M          No          Bale bukisa
3     Endasha Wedago           F       29  M          10          Bale bukisa
4     Hiywot Wergecha          F       51  M          No          Bale bukisa
5     Kasaye Gemede            M       39  M          5           Bale bukisa
6     Tadelech Bekele          F       49  M          No          Bale bukisa
7     Tadesse Robe             M       36  M          No          Bale bukisa
8     Tadesse Rodeso           M       32  M          4           Bale bukisa
9     Zenebe Deyaso            M       32  M          No          Bale bukisa
10    Bekelech Gemede          F       37  M          3           Banko okoto
11    Gemede Alemu             M       67  M          No          Banko okoto
12    Lolae Gelgelo            M       49  M          4           Banko okoto
13    Merima Hagi Hussewn      F       39  M          No          Banko okoto
14    Tefera Wegiso            M       28  M          No          Banko okoto
15    Werqnesh Miju            F       38  M          TTI         Banko okoto
16    Migu Sirtu               M       27  M          8           Banko okoto
17    Chebeso Edema            M       50  M          No          Deko
18    Elefinsh Bekulae         F       47  M          No          Deko
19    Hagi Beyene Wase         M       37  M          3           Deko
20    Hirut Chebeso            F       41  M          No          Deko
21    Shoxxe Jigeso            F       35  M          No          Deko
22    Simegh Bekele            F       40  M          6           Deko
23    Trunesh Wedeso           F       52  M          No          Deko
24    Werku Lalunxe            M       41  M          3           Deko
25    Ararso Gura              M       39  M          No          Halemo
26    Ayele Wordefa            M       30  M          3           Halemo
27    Bereanu Dori             M       61  M          No          Halemo
28    Demesse Kallo            M       31  M          5           Halemo
29    Godana Xeko              M       74  M          No          Halemo
30    Madesha Gelchu           M       43  M          5           Halemo
31    Meserte Hailu            F       30  M          4           Halemo
32    Xiba Gemedae             M       37  M          2           Halemo
33    Daneal Jebo              M       32  M          5           Hase haro
34    Deko Boleka              M       40  M          No          Hase haro
35    Fekadu Murti             M       53  M          No          Hase haro
36    Geledeyo Alemu           M       59  M          12          Hase haro
37    Kuxxuya Ayele            M       37  M          No          Hase haro
38    Ture Wakeyo              M       25  S          No          Hase haro
39    Jello Sholka             M       41  M          10          Hase haro
40    Alemu Wakeyo             M       53  M          No          Kara sodity


                                            43
No. Name                 Sex   Age Marital   Education   Locality
                                   status    status
41   Aselefech Migu      F     85  M         No          Kara sodity
42   Gemede Edema        M     25  M         2           Kara sodity
43   Girma Jebo          M     62  M         No          Kara sodity
44   Lema Gemede         M     74  M         No          Kara sodity
45   Meseret Hailu       F     42  M         No          Kara sodity
46   Seta Lorato         M     30  M         9           Kara sodity
47   W/o Lemetae Hasen   F     60  M         No          Kara sodity
48   Alemu Wedo          M     42  M         6           Mokonisa
49   Bali Boku           M     37  M         7           Mokonisa
50   Bedele Dullo        M     71  M         No          Mokonisa
51   Benxxore Dube       M     67  M         No          Mokonisa
52   Demesse Aleyae      M     47  M         No          Mokonisa
53   Hudesae Gebrae      M     31  M         No          Mokonisa
54   Kasahun Tilahun     M     36  M         6           Mokonisa
55   Kebede Werera       M     32  M         8           Mokonisa
56   Lole Berako         M     30  M         5           Mokonisa
57   Abebech Hordofa     F     41  M         3           Sokicha
58   Abera Daka          M     24  M         7           Sokicha
59   Alemu Guyae         M     41  M         No          Sokicha
60   Dawit Xebeto        M     56  M         No          Sokicha
61   Gelegela Guyae      M     39  M         No          Sokicha
62   Niguse Dori         M     72  M         No          Sokicha
63   Samuel Feysa        M     64  M         No          Sokicha
64   Tamerat Xero        M     51  M         No          Sokicha
65   Abera Werasa        M     29  M         7           Sugale
66   Alemnsh Chebeso     F     39  M         No          Sugale
67   Beyene Wuka         M     39  M         3           Sugale
68   Chebeso Gelgelo     M     20  S         8           Sugale
69   Robae Wadiso        M     61  M         No          Sugale
70   Sheferaw Gemede     M     21  M         6           Sugale
71   Sitina Gemede       F     42  M         4           Sugale
72   Werku Gedecha       M     36  M         5           Sugale
73   Asefa Sheferaw      M     51  M         No          Tumata chericha
74   Chenku Mekonen      M     49  M         No          Tumata chericha
75   Mekuria Gocha       M     56  M         No          Tumata chericha
76   Sheferaw Gedada     M     37  M         6           Tumata chericha
77   Tadesse Fundaga     M     72  M         No          Tumata chericha
78   Tegaye Alekae       M     63  M         No          Tumata chericha
79   Wediso Adiyo        M     62  M         No          Tumata chericha
80   Zenebech Leggae     F     27  M         10          Tumata chericha




                                   44
Appendix 2: Checklist of Questions or Items used as a Basis for Discussion and Interview

     1. Information on respondents:
        • Name_________________
        • Age_________________
        • Sex _______________
        • Marital status______________
        • Educational status_______________
        • Locality _______________________
     2. What are the main human health problems?
     3. What do you diagnose each disease/ health problems?
     4. Symptoms of each disease?
     5. How do you control diseases?
     6. How do you treat human diseases?
     7. Which plant/s do you use for treating those particular health problems/diseases?
     8. Local name of the plant (‘Gedeoffa’)
     9. Botanical name
     10. Family name
     11. Other uses of the plant
     12. Use of other plants out of medicinal plant
     13. Habit of the plant: tree, shrub, herb, parasite, semiparasite, liana, climbers, epitaties
           (underlined).
     14. Brief description of the plant (by investigator), incuding: height, flower colour,
           mature fruit colour, mature seed colour, and other unique features
     15. Part/parts of the medicinal plant collected for medicinal use.
     16. Preparation of remedy: detailed account
           •   Used alone, mixed with water or other materials, concoction, and decoction.
           •   Condition to used: fresh, dried, and fresh or dried.
           •   Preparation forms; crushed, pounded, powder, latex, miliky
     17. Amount used (dose) and factors that affect dosage
     18. Does the dose differ among males, females, children, and elders? Is/are there
         antidotes for adverse effects?
     19. Any noticeable side effect (Adverse effect) caused by the medicine (if any)
     20. Are there conditions that forbid taking the medicine such as pregnancy and others?
     21. Are there taboos in the utilization of some medicinal plants in the locality?
     22. How is the medicinal plant (s) preserved (if any)?


                                               45
23. Are there members of the community who frequently use the medicinal plant
24. Are there economic groups who mostly or occasionally use these medicinal plants?
25. Are there regimens in the use of medicinal plants?
26. How is the knowledge passed from elders to younger people in the study area?
27. How does modernization interfere with traditional medicinal system?
28. Are there threats to the medicinal plants? List out the main threats
29. Are there traditional medicinal plants conservation methods in the area? Include the
   management practices by indeginous people
30. Is the plant currently cultivated in the study area?
31. Information on edibility and other uses of the plant besides its medicinal uses/value.
32. What are reciprocal impacts of plant-human interactions?


                 Date______________ time_______________




                                          46
Appendix 3: List of plant species in wild vegetation (Habit: T-tree, Sh-shrub, H-herb, Cl-
climber, and Ep-epiphytes, Vou. No.-voucher number)

 Plant Species                           Family           Local           Ha      Vou.
                                                          name(languag    bit   no
                                                          e)
 Acacia abyssinica Hochst. ex Benth.     Fabaceae         wochhoo         T     FM100
 Acanthus eminens C.B.Clarke             Acanthaceae      Comexxo         S     FM201
 Acanthus pubescens Del.                 Acanthaceae      Dedexxo         S     FM 97
 Achyranthes aspera Lam.                 Amaranthaceae    Derrgu          H     FM115
 Alchemilla cryptantha A. Rich.          Rosaceae         Imbricho        H     FM124
 Allophylus      abyssinicus   (Hochst.) Sapindaceae      Embesae         T     FM132
 Radlk.
 Amaranthus spinosus L.                  Amaranthaceae    Alemae          H     FM180
 Arisaema enneaphyllum Hochst. ex Araceae                 Badenxxo        T     FM99
 A.Rich
 Argemone mexicana L.                    Papaveraceae     Kossalae        H     FM81
 Arundinaria alpina K.Schum.             Poaceae          Kerrkeha        H     FM152
 Arundo donax L.                         Poaceae          Serrdo          H     FM214
 Asparagus africanus Lam.                Asparagaceae     Uffae           Sh    FM206
 Bersama abyssinica Fresen.              Melianthaceae    Jejjeba         S     FM163
 Boswellia neglecta S. Moore             Burseraceae      Galgalchae      T     FM175
 Brucea antidysenterica J.F. Mill.       Simaroubaceae    Kapparro        S     FM200
 Buddleja polystachya Fresen.            Loganiaceae      Affarao         S     FM7
 Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston    Fabaceae         Konnxxera       C     FM186
 Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels    Myrtaceae        Paricho         Sh    FM155
 Calpurnia aurea (Alt.) Benth.           Fabaceae         Chekketa        S     FM98
 Carduus leptacanthus Fresen.            Asteraceae       Guccino         H     FM143
 Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq.           Casuarinaceae    Shewshewae      T     FM76
 Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk ex Endl.     Celastraceae     Chatae          Sh    FM19
 Caylusea abyssinica (Fresen.) Fisch. Resedaceae          Sheggitae       H     FM131
 & Mey.
 Centella asiatica (L.) Urban            Apiaceae         Xxerexxo        H     FM125
 Cirsium englerianum O.Hoffm.            Asteraceae       Galigloo        H     FM64



                                              47
Plant Species                          Family           Local          Ha     Vou.
                                                        name(languag   bit   no
                                                        e)
Cissus qudriangularis L.               Vitaceae         Chobihada      Cl    FM27
Citrus lemon (L.) Burm.f.              Rutaceae         Lomae          Sh    FM123
Citrus medica L.                       Rutaceae         Burtukanae     Sh    FM189
Coffea arabica L.                      Rubiaceae        Bunno          S     FM1
Commelina diffusa Burm. f.             Commelinaceae    W/hankurae     H     FM129
Cordia africana Lam.                   Boraginaceae     Waddissa       T     FM167
Crepis rueppellii Sch. Bip.            Asteraceae                      H     FM178
Crotalaria pallida Ait.                Fabaceae                        H     FM95
Croton macrostachyus Del.              Euphorbiaceae    Bissano        T     FM162
Cyathula cylindrica Moq.               Amaranthaceae    Gixxaa         H     FM80
Cyathula        uncinulata    (Schrad.) Amaranthaceae   Gixxaa         H     FM4
Schinz
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.            Poaceae          Serrdo         H     FM110
Cynoglossum coeruleum Hochst ex Boraginaceae            Korchibae      H     FM135
A. Rich
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.        Boraginaceae     Korchibae      H     FM114
Cyperus dichroostachyus A. Rich.       Cyperaceae       Embuteteya     H     FM147
Cyperus mundfii (Nees) Kunth           Cyperaceae       Rogrogal       H     FM82
Dactyliandra stefaninii (Chiov.) C. Cucurbitaceae                      Cl    FM192
Jeffrey
Datura stramonium L.                   Solanaceae       Ashefareceae   H     FM47
Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.) Ref.     Fabaceae         Yed/zafae      T     FM130
Dicrocephala integrifolia (L.f..) O. Asteraceae         Gishtu         H     FM151
Kuntze

Discopodium penninervum Hochst.        Solanaceae       Serbae         T     FM199
Dissotis senegambiensis (Guill. & Melastomataceae       Arkaae         H     FM156
Perr.) Triana
Dodonaea angustifolia L.               Sapindaceae      Ittechhae      Sh    FM83
Dracaena afromontana Mildbr.           Dracaenaceae     Woreko         T     FM174
Dracaena steudneri Engler              Dracaenaceae     Afrafartu      T     FM37



                                            48
Plant Species                           Family            Local           Ha     Vou.
                                                          name(languag    bit   no
                                                          e)
Droguetia iners (Forssk.) Schweinf.     Urticaceae        Haroxxae        H     FM191
Drymaria cordata (L.) Schultes          Caryophyllaceae                   H     FM166
Echinops amplexicaulis Oliv.            Asteraceae        Messichae       H     FM173
Ekebergia capensis Sparrm.              Meliaceae         Sessa           T     FM185
Embelia schimperi Vatke                 Myrsinaceae       Sharrengo       Sh    FM122
Englerina              woodfordioides Loranthaceae        Eritobekkesis   EP    FM141
(Schweinf.) M.Gilbert                                     a
Erythrina brucei Schweinf.              Fabaceae          Korchae         T     FM79
Eucalyptus globulus Labill              Myrtaceae         D/barzafae      T     FM150
Eucalyptus saligna Smith                Myrtaceae         K/barzafae      T     FM157
Euphorbia candelabrum Kostshy           Euphorbiaceae     Addama          Sh    FM48
Euphorbia pulcherrina (R. Grah.) Euphorbiaceae            Abababo         Sh    FM40
Willd
Euphorbia tirucalli L.                  Euphorbiaceae     Kinchbae        S     FM40
Ficus ovata Vahl                        Moraceae          Shollae         T     FM153
Ficus sur Forssk.                       Moraceae          Sholae          T     FM161
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.                Apiaceae          Mello           H     FM193
Girardinia diversifolia (Link.) Friis   Urticaceae        Mutate          H     FM199
Gnaphalium rubriforum Hilliard          Asteraceae        Nophixxo        H     FM12
Gomphocarpus        purpurascens    A. Asclepiadaceae     Mexxino         Sh    FM142
Rich.
Grevillea robusta R. Br.                Proteaceae                        T     FM182
Grewia      ferruginea       Hochst.ex Tiliaceae          Ogomdii         S     FM121
A.Rich.
Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.        Asteraceae        Mechae          H     FM154
Guizotia scabra (Vis.) Chiov.           Asteraceae                        H     FM207
Hagenia         abyssinica    (Bruce.) Rosaceae           Kossae          T     FM119
J.F.Gmel
Hibiscus flavifolius Ulbr.              Malvaceae         Bayirro         H     FM109
Hyparrhenia filipendula (Hochst.) Poaceae                 Gedecho         H     FM137



                                             49
Plant Species                         Family          Local          Ha     Vou.
                                                      name(languag   bit   no
                                                      e)
Stat
Hypericum peplidifolium A. Rich.      Clustiaceae     Dammae         Sh    FM195
Hypericum revolutum Vahl              Clustiaceae                    Sh    FM93
Indigofera emarginella A. Rich        Fabaceae        Boffeae        H     FM172
Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don          Bignonaceae     Y/zafae        T     FM145
Jasminum abyssinicum Hochst.          Oleaceae        Tembele        Cl    FM177
ex A. Rich.
Juniperus procera Hochst ex Engl.     Cupresaceae     Xxdiae         T     FM159
Justicia schimperiana (Hochst. ex Acanthaceae         Dummiuggae     S     FM30
A. Nees) T. Anders
Kanahla laniflora (Forssk.) R. Br.    Asclepidaceae   Wundiffo       Sh    FM136
Lagenaria       siceraria   (Molina) Cucurbitaceae    Botto          H     FM205
Standl.
Laggera alata (D.Don) Sch. Bip. ex Asteraceae         Luggae         S     FM112
Oliv.
Laggera crispata (Vahl) Hepper        Asteraceae      Hopphicho      S     FM116
Lantana camara L.                     Verbenaceae     Yewoffekolo    Sh    FM146
Leucaena leucocephala L.              Fabaceae                       Sh    FM169
Lippia adoensis Hochst. ex Walp.      Verbenaceae     Kessae         Sh    FM197
Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Sim       Euphorbiaceae   Yunddae        T     FM31
Maesa lanceolata Forssk.              Myrsinaceae     Kaggano        T     FM210
Malus sylvestris Miller               Rosaceae        Apiliae        T     FM53
Malva verticillata L.                 Malvaceae       Xxummo         H     FM160
Manihot esculenta Granz               Euphorbiaceae   Yammenoi       H     FM119
Maytenus arbutifolia (A. Rich.) Celastraceae          Kombollechae Sh      FM138
Wilczek
Maytenus senegalensis (L.) Excell     Celastraceae    Shekko         Sh    FM54
Melia azedarach L.                    Meliaceae       Nemae          T     FM115
Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Bak.   Fabaceae        Berberae       T     FM190
Momordica foetida Schumach &          Cucurbitaceae   Yubarrae       Sh    FM108



                                           50
Plant Species                          Family           Local          Ha     Vou.
                                                        name(languag   bit   no
                                                        e)
Thonn.
Moringa stenopetala L.                 Moringaceae      Shefferaw      T     FM62
Nicotiana tabacum L.                   Solanaceae       Tambo          Sh    FM56
Oenanthe palustris (Chiov.) Norman     Apiaceae                        H     FM91
Olea europaea L. ssp. cuspidata Oleaceae                Wayrro         T     FM187
(Wall. ex G.Don)
Osyris quadripartita Decn.             Santalaceae      Watto          Sh    FM105
Otostegia tomentosa A. Rich.           Lamiaceae        Mukalonii      S     FM63
Oxalis radicosa A. Rich.               Oxalidaceae                     H     FM127
Panicum maximum Jacq.                  Poaceae                         H     FM140
Parthenium hysterophorus L.            Asteraceae       Partinumae     H     FM2
Passiflora edulis Sims                 Passifloraceae   Woyane         Cl    FM134
Pentas schimperiana (A. Rich.) Rubiaceae                Dibexxo        Sh    FM78
Vatke
Persea americana Mill.                 Lauraceae        Kokae          T     FM75
Phoenix reclinata Jacq.                Arecaceae        Xenebo         T     FM106
Phytolacca dodecandra L’Herit.         Phytolaccaceae   Indodae        S     FM176
Pinus radiata L.                       Pinaceae                        T     FM92
Pisum sativum L.                       Fabaceae         Attaro         H     FM128
Plantago lanceolata L.                 Plantaginaceae   Diggixxae      H     FM107
Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb.     Podocarpaceae    Zigebo         T     FM11
Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms          Araliaceae       Teleha         T     FM179
Pouteria   adolfi-friederici   (Engl.) Sapotaceae       Quarero        T     FM200
Baehni
Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkam      Rosaceae         T/kaka         T     FM209
Psidium guajava L.                     Myrtaceae        Gettamae       S     FM89
Pycnostachys eminii Gurke              Lamiaceae        Shegino        Sh    FM102
Rhamnus prinoides L’Herit.             Rhamnaceae       Gesho          S     FM49
Rhus vulgaris Meikle                   Anacardiaceae    Xxugutae       S     FM57
Ricinus communis L.                    Euphorbiaceae    Gulloo         S     FM71



                                            51
Plant Species                            Family            Local          Ha     Vou.
                                                           name(languag   bit   no
                                                           e)
Rubus apetalus Poir.                     Rosaceae          Engorae        S     FM149
Rubus steudneri Shweinf.                 Rosaceae          Engoraae       S     FM74
Rumex nepalensis Spreng                  Polygonaceae      Dangago        H     FM10
Saliva nilotica Juss. ex Jacq.           Lamiaceae                        H     FM85
Sapium ellipticum (Krauss) Pax           Euphorbiaceae     Waggiso        T     FM211
Satureja paradoxa (Vatke) Engler         Lamiaceae         Naddae         H     FM204
Schinus molle L.                         Anacardiaceae                    T     FM69
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link             Fabaceae          Assenmeka      H     FM103
Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.               Fabaceae                         Sh    FM113
Sida    schimperiana      Hochst.    ex Malvaceae          Gebresede      Sh    FM170
A.Rich.
Snowdenia       polystachya   (Fresen.) Poaceae                           H     FM183
Pilg.
Solanum americanum Miller                Solanaceae                       Sh    FM73
Solanum anguiniri Lam.                   Solanaceae        Embayo         Sh    FM203
Solanum incanum L.                       Solanaceae        K/embayo       Sh    FM86
Solanum indicum L.                       Solanaceae        D/embayo       Sh    FM104
Spathodea       campanulata      subspp. Bignonaceae                      T     FM121
nilotica P. Beauv.
Sphaeranthus suaveolens (Forssk.) Asteraceae                              H     FM77
DC
Stellaria sennii Chiov.                  Caryophyllaceae                  H     FM190
Stephania abyssinica (Dilloy and A. Menispermaceae         Shesheno       H     FM101
Rich.) Walp.
Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC.          Myrtaceae         Debobessa      T     FM117
Tagetes minuta L.                        Asteraceae        Chebbo         H     FM148
Thelypteris      confluens    (Thunb.) Thelypteridaceae                   H     FM7
Morton.
Tragia cinerea (Pax) Gilbert & Euphorbiaceae               Aleblabitae    H     FM87
Radcl. Smith.



                                              52
Plant Species                        Family       Local          Ha     Vou.
                                                  name(languag   bit   no
                                                  e)
Trichilia dregeana Sond.             Meliaceae    Yumbarro       T     FM126
Triumfetta tomentosa Boj.            Tiliaceae    Kombocho       Sh    FM171
Vepris     dainellii    (Pichi-Serm.) Rutaceae                   Sh    FM133
Kokwaro
Vernonia amygdalina Del.             Asteraceae   Ebicha         S     FM31
Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.         Asteraceae   Dangireto      S     FM144
Xanthium spinosum L.                 Asteraceae                  H     FM88
Xanthium strumarium L.               Asteraceae   Dehanekayae    H     FM9




                                          53
Appendix 4: Home garden plant species (Habit: T-tree, Sh-shrub, H-herb, and Cl-climber. Uses:
Sp-spice, F-food, M-medicinal, Ci- cash income, Fn-fence, Or-ornamental, and St-stimulant)

Plant species                 Family            Local name       Ht   Use          Vou.
                                                                              no
Aframomum          corrorima Zingebraceae       Okkoshae         H    Sp      FM39
(Braun) Jansen.
Allium cepa L.                Alliaceae         Kagelcha         H    F       FM14
                                                Sunkurtae
Allium sativum L.             Alliaceae         Dimoxxa          H    F , M FM15
                                                sunkurtae
Ananas comosus L.             Bromelianceae     Annanassae       H    F       FM45
Annona squamosa L.            Annonaceae        Gishta           S    F       FM18
Artemisia          abyssinica Asteraceae        Sugetieae        H    M       FM17
Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich.
Artemisia afra Jack. ex Asteraceae              Chugughee        H    M       FM38
Willd.
Beta vulgaris L.              Chenopodaceae     Dammooxxa        H    F       FM24
Brassica carinata A. Br.      Brassicaceae      Shaanna          H    F       FM23
Brassica oleracea L.          Brassicaceae      Faragae          H    F       FM70
                                                shaanna
Cajanus cajan L.              Fabaceae          Atarra           H    F       FM44
Capsicum annum L.             Solanaceae        Miximixo         H    F, M    FM25
Capsicum frutescens L.        Solanaceae        Bereberae        H    F       FM26
Carica papaya L.              Caricaceae        Papaya           T    F, M    FM46
Catha edulis (Vahl)           Celastraceae      Chatae           S    M,      FM19
Forssk. ex Endl.                                                      CI
Citrus lemon (L.) Burm.f.     Rutaceae          Lomae            S    F,M     FM64
Citrus medica L.              Rutaceae          Trungo           S    F       FM27
Coffea arabica L.             Rubiaceae         Buno             S    M,      FM1
                                                                      CI
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Araceae                Godarre          H    F, M    FM43
Schott
Cucurbita pepo L.             Cucurbitaceae     Buqe             Cl   F       FM16



                                              54
Datura stramonium L.          Solanaceae        Atsefareceae   H    M       FM47
Daucus carota L.              Apiaceae          Karoti         H    F       FM36
Dioscorea        praehensilis Dioscoreaceae     Qoco           Cl   F       FM28
Benth.
Dovyalis abyssinica (A. Flacourtiaceae          Akuku          S    Fn,     FM13
Rich.) Warb                                                         O
Dracaena steudneri Engl.      Dracaenaceae      Afarfartu      T    M, O FM37
Ensete           ventricosum Musaceae           Warqo          Sh   M      , FM5
(Welw.) Cheesman                                                    O
Eragrostis      tef   (Zucc.) Poaceae           Xxaffae        H    M       FM22
Trotter
Euphorbia       candelabrum Euphorbiaceae       Addama         Sh   M,      FM48
Kostshy                                                             fn
Euphorbia       pulcherrima Euphorbiaceae       Ababa          S    Or      FM40
(R. Grah.) Willd.
Glycine max (L.) Merr.        Fabaceae          Atara          S    F       FM55
Gossypium herbaceum L.        Malvaceae         Jirbi          S    M,CI FM29
Helianthus annuus L.          Asteraceae        Suufii         H    F, M    FM65
Hordeum vulgare L.            Poaceae           Dinnaae        H    F       FM21
Ipomoea batatas L.            Convolvulaceae    Boynnaae       C    F,      FM41
Justicia schimperiana         Acanthaceae       Dhumuga        S    M,Fn FM30
(Hochst.     ex Nees) T.
Anders
Lepidium sativum L.           Brassicaceae      Faxxoo         H    M       FM20
Lycopersicon esculentum Solanaceae              Timatimi       H    F       FM42
Mill
Malus sylvestris Mill         Rosaceae                         T    F       FM53
Mangifera indica L.           Anacardiaceae     Mango          T    F, CI   FM61
Maytenus        senegalensis Celastraceae       Shekko         Sh   M       FM54
(Lam.) Excell
Moringa stenopetala L.        Moringaceae       Shifferaw      T    M,      FM62
                                                                    Or
Musa paradisiaca L.           Musaceae          Musi           H    F, Or FM33



                                               55
Nicotiana tabacum L.          Solanaceae       Tambo           H    CI,     FM56
                                                                    M
Ocimum basilicum L.           Lamiaceae        Basobila        H    F       FM67
Ocimum           lamiifolium Lamiaceae         Damakase        H    M       FM52
Benth.
Otostegia tomentosa A. Lamiaceae               Tunjuti         S    Fn      FM63
Rich.
Persea americana Mill.        Lauraceae        Abokado         T    F, CI   FM75
Phaseolus lunatus L.          Fabaceae         Coma            Cl   F       FM34
Phoenix reclinata Jacq.       Arecaceae        Maxxaae         T    Or      FM66
Plectranthus edulis Vatke     Lamiaceae        Dinich-Oromo    H    F       FM60
Prunus persica L.             Rosaceae         Kokae           S    F       FM32

Punica granatum L.            Punicaceae       Romanoo         S    F       FM68
Rhamnus              prinoides Rhamnaceae      Geshae          S    St      FM47
L'Herit.
Rhus vulgaris Meikle          Anacardiaceae    Suggutae        Sh   M       FM57
Ricinus communis L.           Euphorbiaceae    Qobo            S    M,      FM71
                                                                    Sp
Rosa abyssinica Lindley       Rosaceae         Xigeradao       Sh   Or      FM6
Rubus steudneri Shweinf.      Rosaceae         Engorrei        Sh   F, Or FM74
Ruta chalepensis L.           Rutaceae         Ciladami        H    M       FM50
Saccharum officinarum L.      Poaceae          Shunkora        H    F, CI   FM72
Solanum         americanum Solanaceae                          Sh   F       FM73
Miller
Sorghum vulgare Pers.         Poaceae          Agadae          H    F       FM35
Vernonia amygdalina Del.      Asteraceae       Ebicha          S    M       FM31
Vicia      faba L.            Fabaceae         Baqqalleo       H    F, M    FM59
Zea mays L.                   Poaceae          Beedeella       H    F,CI    FM58
Zingiber officinale Roscoe    Zingiberaceae    Jaanjiibeello   H    F, M    FM51




                                              56
Appendix 5: number of Medicinal plants species recorded in each family

Family                   Total No     %
Acanthaceae              1            1.7
Alliaceae                1            1.7
Apiaceae                 1            1.7
Araceae                  1            1.7
Asclepidaceae            2            3.4
Asparagaceae             1            1.7
Asteraceae               7            12
Boraginaceae             1            1.7
Brassicaceae             1            1.7
Caricaceae               1            1.7
Caryophyllaceae          1            1.7
Celastraceae             2            3.4
Curcurbitaceae           2            3.4
Dracaenaceae             1            1.7
Euphorbiaceae            5            8.6
Fabaceae                 2            3.4
Lamiaceae                1            1.7
Loganiaceae              1            1.7
Malvaceae                2            3.4
Meliaceae                1            1.7
Melianthaceae            1            1.7
Moraceae                 1            1.7
Moringaceae              1            1.7
Myrsinaceae              1            1.7
Myrtaceae                1            1.7
Musaceae                 1            1.7
Phytolaccaceae           1            1.7
Podocarpaceae            1            1.7
Polygonaceae             1            1.7
Resedaceae               1            1.7
Rosaceae                 2            3.4
Rubiaceae                2            3.4
Rutaceae                 2            3.4
Sapindaceae              1            1.7
Simaroubaceae            1            1.7
Solanaceae               1            1.7
Tiliaceae                2            3.4
Verbenaceae              1            1.7
Zingibraceae             1            1.7




                               57
Appendix 6: Number of informants and percentage of total plant species used to treat frequently
appearing human diseases in the study area (‘Dingetegna’-Unidentified gastrointestinal
disorder, ‘Kintarot’-Wart,)

Health problem                          No. plant    % of total    No. of           % of total
                                        species      medicinal     informants       informants
                                                     plants        that cited the
                                                                   species
Abdominal pain                          3            3.4           11               4.1
Amoebiasis                              3            3.4           8                3.1
Ascariasis                              5            5.8           16               6.0
Bleeding nose                           1            1.1           5                1.8
Bronchitis                              3            3.4           7                2.6
Cough                                   3            3.4           5                1.8
Diarrhea                                6            6.9           31               11.6
‘Dingetegia’                            3            3.4           7                2.6
Epilepsy                                4            4.6           9                3.3
Evil eye                                2            2.3           3                1.1
Excessive menstral bleeding             1            1.1           4                1.5
Febrile illness                         3            3.4           5                1.8
Fire burn                               1            1.1           5                1.8
Fungal infection                        1            1.1           3                1.1
Gonorrhea                               3            3.4           9                3.3
Headache                                3            3.4           13               4.9
Hemorrhoids                             1            1.1           3                1.1
Hepatitis                               2            2.3           4                1.5
Infected eye                            1            1.1           2                0.7
Intestinal parasite                     3            3.4           11               4.1
‘Kintarot’/wart                         2            2.3           1                0.3
Leprosy                                 1            1.1           2                0.7



                                              58
Lymphatic swelling                       2              2.3        4            1.5
Malaria                                  7              8.1        39           14.7
Mental problem                           2              2.3        3            1.1
‘Mich’                                   2              2.3        4            1.5
Food Poison                              2              2.3        4            1.5
Ring worm                                3              3.4        7            2.6
Sexual impotency in men                  2              2.3        7            2.6
Snake poison                             1              1.1        3            1.1
Stomachache                              2              2.3        8            3.0
Tonsillitis                              1              1.1        3            1.1
Toothache                                1              1.1        5            1.8
Trachoma                                 1              1.1        3            1.1
Urine retention                          1              1.1        2            0.7
Wounds                                   4              4.6        9            3.3
Total                                    86                        265
N.B: The total number of plant species used for human treatment documented was 58. The
total numbers of plant species given in this table are 86. This is because of the fact that for
one type of disease different plant species are used.




                                               59
Appendix 7: Lists of medicinal plants for treating human ailments, scientific name, family, local name, Habit(H-herb, Sh-shrub, T-tree, Cl-climber),
part used (R-root, Rb-root bark, L-leaf, St-stem, Fr- fruit, Sd-seed, Fl-flower, Lx-latex, WP-whole plant), Preparation, Disease treated used for
human, Route of application(O-oral, Na-nasal, Ex-external), and condition to preparation (F-fresh, D-dried, F/D-fresh or dried).

Scientific name          Families         Local name     Hb    PU Preparation and application              Diseases        RA      PC
                                          (language)                                                       treated
Allium sativum L.        Alliaceae        Dimoxxa        H     Fr    Chewing and swallowed early Malaria                   Or
                                          sunkurtae                  morning for four days before
                                                                     breakfast
Artemisia                Asteraceae       Sugetieae      H     St    Crushed, pounded and mixed with Eye                   Ex      F
abyssinica                                                           butter and creamed on affected infection
Sch.Bip. ex         A.                                               part
Rich
Artemisia afra Jack. Asteraceae           Chugughee      H     L     Crushed, Pounded and mixed with Abdominal             Or      F/D
ex Wild                                                              some water and boil then drink pain
                                                                     the warm solution.
                                                                     Chewing and swallowed                 Headache
                                                                     The powder mix with butter and Malaria
                                                                     drink with coffee for three days
                                                                     before breakfast
Asparagus                Asparagaceae     Uffae          Sh    R     Fine powder of plant part mixed Wound                 Ex      D
africanus L.                                                         with butter and applied to wound



                                                                            60
Brucea               Simaroubaceae   Kapparro   Sh   Rb   The powder mixed with water and Wound            Ex   F/D
antidysenterica                                           applied on affected part
J.F.Mill
Bersama abyssinica Melianthaceae     Jejjebba   Sh   R    Crushed, pounded and mixed with Bronchitis       Or   F
Fresen                                                    cold water and drink at the
                                                          morning
                                                          Crushed, pounded mix with leaf Fibrile
                                                          of Ruta chalepensis and mix with illness
                                                          water and drink.
Buddleja             Logniaceae      Affarao    Sh   L    Crushed, pounded and mixed with ‘Dingetegia’     Na   D
polystachya Fresen                                        water and the infusion is taken.

Capsicum annum L.    Solanaceae      Miximixo   H    Fr   Chewing and swallowed               Ascariasis   Or   F/D
Carduus              Asteraceae      Guccino    H    St   Fine powder of plant part mixed Ascariasis       Or   D
leptacanthus                                              with butter and drink with coffee
Fresen.                                                   or tea.
                                                          Crushed, pounded and mix with Hemorrhoids
                                                          leaf of Vernonia amygdalina and
                                                          drink the solution.




                                                              61
Carica papaya L.       Caricaceae   Papaya      T    Fr   Roasted with barley seeds and eat.     Amoebiasis   Or   F


                                                          Chewed and swallow the liquid.         Intestinal
                                                                                                 parasite


Catha edulis (Vahl) Celastraceae    Chatae      Sh   St   Crushed, pounded and mix with Urine                 Or   F
Forssk. ex Endl.                                          leaves of Vernonia amygdalina retation
                                                          are boiled together and one glass
                                                          of the filtrate is served as a drink
Caylusea               Resedaceae   Sheggitae   H    R    Crushed, pounded and mixed with Ascariasis          Or   F/D
abyssinica (Fresen.)                                      water; then drink
Fish. & Mey.
Citrus lemon (L.) Rutaceae          Lomae       Sh   Fr   Chewing     and     swallowed     the Cough         Or   F
Burm.f.                                                   solution
Coffea arabica L.      Rubiaceae    Buno        Sh   L    Smoke inhalation of dried leaves Vomiting           N    D
                                                          is applied; infusion of leaves is
                                                          given to be drink
Colocasia esculenta Araceae         Godarre     H    R    Crushed, pounded and mix with Diarrhea              Or   F/D
(L.) Schott.                                              fruit of Zingiber officinale with
                                                          coffee and drink.
                                                          Fine powder of plant part mixed Trachoma



                                                              62
                                                           with water and the mixture drink
                                                           or thick paste applied on affected
                                                           part
Cordia      africana Boragnaceae     Waddissa    T    Rb   Smoke the wood ash                         Evil eye   N    D
Lam.
Croton               Euphorbiaceae   Bissano     T    L    Very old leaves are collected from Malaria            Or   F/D
macrostachyus Del.                                         seven branches at early morning
                                                           and crushed, pounded and mix
                                                           with water and boiled, then mix
                                                           with        Allium    sativum     (bulb)
                                                           roasted        with     butter.     The
                                                           preparation left over night outside
                                                           home. Then at the morning drink.
                                                           Concoction                                 Diarrhea
                                                           Concoction                                 Epilepsy
                                                           Exudates of old leaf is rubbed on Ringworm
                                                           affected part
Dodonaea             Sapindaceae     Ittechhae   Sh   Fr   Crushed, pounded and mixed with Ecoparasite           Or   D
angustifolia L.F.                                          water and the mixture is drink.
                                                           The powder is mixed with water Lymphatic
                                                           and drink.                                 swelling



                                                                  63
Dracaena steudneri Dracaenaceae    Afrafartu   T    R    Fine powder of plant parts mixed Wound         Ex   D
Engl.                                                    with milky latex of Euphorbia
                                                         candelabrum and paste applied to
                                                         wound.
Embelia schimperi Myrsinaceae      Sharrengo   Sh   R    Concoction                           Leprosy   Or   F
Vatke
Ensete ventricosum Musaceae        Warqo       Sh   R    Crushed, pounded and mix with Abdominal        Or   F
(Welw.) Cheesman                                         water and drink the mixture.         pain
                                                         Crushed, pounded and mix with Amoebiasis
                                                         water and drink the mixture.
                                                         Crushed, pounded and mix with Diarrhea
                                                         water and drink the mixture.
Eucalyptus         Myrtaceae       Deredawa    T    St   Boil freash stem with water and ‘Mich’         Ex   F
globulus                           barzafae              inhale repeatedly the vapour while
Labill                                                   boiling.
                                                         Crushed, pounded and mix with Malaria
                                                         water and wash all the body for
                                                         three days.
Euphorbia          Euphorbiaceae   Addama      Sh   Lx   Milky latex of the plant applied Ringworm      Ex   F
candelabrum                                              on the infected part.
Kostshy



                                                             64
Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbiaceae       Kinchibae   Sh   R    Crushed, pounded and mixed with ‘Kintarot’     Ex   F/D
L.                                                            leaf of Coffea arabica and rubbed
                                                              on affected part.
Ficus ovata Vahl        Moraceae        Shollae     T    Fr   The fine powder is mixed with Ringworm         Ex   D
                                                              butter and this is applied after
                                                              scratching
Foeniculum              Apiaceae        Melloo      H    R    Crushed, pounded and mixed with Abdominal      Or   F/D
vulgare Mill                                                  coffee or tea then drink.            pain
Gomphocarpus            Asclepidaceae   Mexxino     Sh   Rb   Concoction                           Fibrile   Or   F/D
purpurascens       A.                                                                              illness
Rich.
Gossypium               Malvaceae       Jirbiae     Sh   Rb   The powder is mixed with water Lymphatic       N    D
herbaceum L.                                                  and boiled, then the infusion is swelling
                                                              drink
Grewia ferruginea Tiliaceae             Ogomdii     Sh   Rb   Crushed, pounded with roots of Cough           Or   F/D
Hochst. ex A. Rich.                                           Ensete ventricosum and mixed
                                                              with water and kept over night,
                                                              one glass of the mixture is served
                                                              as a drink before breakfast.
                                                              Crushed, pounded and mixed with Evil eye
                                                              butter and drink for three days.



                                                                  65
Hagenia abyssinica Rosaceae           Kossae      T    Fl   Mix the powder with honey and a Ascariasis         Or   F/D
(Bruce.) J. F. Gmel.                                        little bit of water and then boil and
                                                            drink before breakfast for five
                                                            days.
                                                            Mix the powder with local ‘tella’ Diarrhea
                                                            and leave for overnight and drink
                                                            before breakfast for three days
Helianthus annuus Asteraceae          Suffae      H    Fr   Mix the powder with water and Food poison          Or   D
L.                                                          drink
Justicia                Acanthaceae   Dummiugga   Sh   L    Crushed, pounded and mixed with Intestinal         Or   F/D
schimperiana                          e                     leaf of Croton macrostachyus and parasites
(Hochst.    ex     A.                                       boiled, then one glass is given as a
Nees) T. Anders                                             drink for three days.
Kanahala laniflora Asclepiadaceae     Wundiffo    Sh   R    Crushed,     pounded       root    is Amoebiasis   Or   F/D
(Forssk.) R. Br.                                            concocted with leaf of Croton
                                                            macrostachyus        and      Senna
                                                            occidentalis are given as a drink
                                                            on non-fasting days.
                                                            The concoction is mixed with Bronchitis
                                                            butter and drink for three days
                                                            before breakfast.



                                                                66
                                                       Fine powder mix with honey and Hepatitis
                                                       drink     for    three    days   before
                                                       breakfast.
Lagenaria siceraria Cucurbitaceae   Botto    H    Fr   Ripe fruit including seeds are Gonorrhea              Or   F
(Molina) Standl.                                       immersed in water for overnight;
                                                       one glass is drink in the morning
                                                       before breakfast.
                                                       Ripe fruit is bored, rinsed with ‘Dingetgha’
                                                       cold water; one glass is served as
                                                       a drink
Lantana camara L.   Verbenaceae     Yewofe   Sh   St   Fine powder of plant part mixed Diarrhea              Or   D
                                    kollo              with water and the mixture boiled.
                                                       Then drink for three days.
Lepidium    sativum Brassicaceae    Feaxxo   H    Sd   The powder mixed with coffee Intestinal               Or   F/D
L.                                                     and drink                                 parasites
                                                       Crushed,        pounded    seeds    are Malaria
                                                       mixed with leaf of Allium sativum
                                                       and honey, one cup or three
                                                       spoons are served each day for
                                                       five days before eating any kind
                                                       of foods. After each dose, one



                                                           67
                                                          glass      of     melted        butter    is
                                                          recommended             for     immediate
                                                          recovery.
                                                          The Powder with leaf of Ocimum ‘Mich’
                                                          lamiifolium is mixed with coffee
                                                          and drink at the morning.
                                                          The Powder with leaf of Ocimum Headache
                                                          lamiifolium mixed with coffee and
                                                          drinkfor        three    days      at    the
                                                          morning.
Maytenus              Celastraceae   Shekko     Sh   R    The powder mixed with water or Epilepsy        Or   F/D
senegalensis (Lam.)                                       butter and drink with coffee or tea
Excell                                                    for five days.
                                                          The powder mixed with leaf of Headache
                                                          ocimum lamiifolium and drink
                                                          with coffee.
Millettia ferruginea Fabaceae        Berberae   T    Fr   The fine powder is mixed with Fungal           Ex   F/D
(Hochst.) Bark                                            butter and applied on infected infection
                                                          part.
Momordica foetida Cucurbitaceae      Yubarrae   Sh   R    Crushed, pounded and mixed with Bronchitis     N    F/D
Schumach.                                                 bulb of Allium sativum and drink



                                                              68
                                                              before breakfast for three days.
                                                              The powder is mixed with water Food poison
                                                              and the infusion drink
Moringa                 Moringaceae      Sihferaw   T    L    Chewing      and    swallowed      the Vomiting   Or   F
stenopetala L.                                                solution
Ocimum                  Lamiaceae        Damakase   H    L    Crushed, pounded and mix with Cough               N    F
lamiifolium Hochst.                                           butter or coffee and drink the
Ex Benth.                                                     morning for three days.
Pentas                  Rubiaceae        Dibexxo    Sh   Rb   The fine powder is mixed with Epilepsy            Or   F/D
schimperiana      (A.                                         water and drink
Rich.) Vatke
Phytolacca              Phytolaccaceae   Indoodae   Sh   L    Crushed, pounded and mixed with Malaria           Or   F/D
dodecandra L’Herit                                            water is drink for three days
                                                              before breakfast.
Podocarpus              Podocarpaceae    Zigbo      T    R    The powder is mixed with water Fibrile            Or   F/D
falcatus     (Thunb.)                                         and drink for three days before illness
Mirb.                                                         breakfast.
Prunus       africana Rosaceae           T/kaka     T    Rb   Crushed, pounded and mixed with Ascariasis        Or   D
(Hook.F.) Kalkam                                              water and drink
                                                              The powder mixed with leaf of Gonorrhea
                                                              Parthenium hysterophorus then



                                                                  69
                                                            drink for three days.
Ricinus     communis Euphorbiaceae    Gulloo      Sh   L    Crushed, pounded with coffee, tea Sexual               Or   F
L.                                                          or milk; drunk two cups per day impotency in
                                                            before sexual intercourse                men
Rumex       nepalensis Polygonaceae   Dangago     H    St   The fine powder is mixed with Wound                    Ex   F/D
Spreng.                                                     butter and the pasts is applied on
                                                            affected part
Ruta chalepensis L.    Rutaceae       Xenadamae   H    L    Crushed, pounded and mixed with ‘Dingetega’            Or   F
                                                            cold water or coffee, one cup is
                                                            served as a drunk.
                                                            Chewing          and     swallowed   the Stomachache
                                                            solution before taking any kind of
                                                            food.
                                                            Chewing          and     swallowed   the Toothache
                                                            solution and stay for six hours
                                                            without taking any kind of food.
Senna occidentalis Fabaceae           Assenmeka   H    R    The powder is mixed with water Bleeding                Or   F
(L.) Link                                                   and drink for three days                 nose
                                                            The powders are mixed with Excessive
                                                            butter and drink three cups per menstrationa
                                                            day        for   three     days   before l bleeding



                                                                  70
                                                             breakfast.
                                                             The powder is mixed with honey Gonorrhea
                                                             and        drink     before      sexual
                                                             intercourse.
                                                             Chewing        and   swallowed       the Tonsillitis
                                                             solution
Sida schimperiana Malvaceae            Gebresede   Sh   L    Crushed, pounded and Boiled Epilepsy                   Or   F/D
Hochst. ex A.Rich.                                           with water and cool for two hours,
                                                             two glasses are served as a drink.
                                                             The powder is mixed with water Mental
                                                             and drink the mixture for three problem
                                                             days before breakfast.
Stellaria      sennii Caryophyllacea               H    R    Decoction                                  Hepatitis   N    F
Chiov.                 e
Tragia       cinerea Euphorbiaceae     Alebelabitae H   St   Fine powder of plant part mixed ‘Kintarot’             Ex   D
(Pax)    Gilbert   &                                         with butter and drink before
Radcl. Smith                                                 sexual      intercourse       with   his
                                                             partner.
                                                             Fine powder of plant part mixed Sexual
                                                             with honey and drink before impotency in
                                                             sexual intercourse                         men



                                                                   71
Trichilia dregeana Meliaceae        Yumbarro     T    W   Concoction                               Mental     N     F
Sond.                                                 P                                            problems
Triumfetta           Tiliaceae      Kombocho     Sh   L   The powder mixed with a little bit Fire burn        Ex    D
tomentosa Boj.                                            of local ‘araqi’ and then apply the
                                                          paste to wound
Vernonia             Asteraceae     Ebicha       Sh   L   Crushed, pounded and mixed with Diarrhea            Or    F/D
amygdalina Del.                                           little water then drink for five
                                                          days.
                                                          Wash the patient body with the Malaria
                                                          plant part and drink for three days.
Vernonia             Asteraceae     Dangireto    Sh   R   Crushed, pounded and mix with Snake                 Or    F
auriculifera Hiern                                        cold water, one cup of the filtrate poison
                                                          is given for adult, one-half of the
                                                          cup for children for three days
Xantium              Asteraceae     Dehanekaya   H    L   The        plant   part   squeezing   it Skin       Ex    F
strumarium                          e                     through clean locally made cloth infection
L.                                                        for five days on affected part or “Kintarot”
                                                          wash the affected part for both
                                                          diseases.
Zingiber officinale Zingeberaceae   Jaanjiibeello H   R   Chewed and swallowed                     Stomachache Or   F/D
Rosc.



                                                                72
73
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