Slide 1 - The Atlanta Wine School

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Class 1-Viticulture
& Grape Varieties
         Welcome to the CSW Program
             Administered by Atlanta Wine School

   CSW credential launched in 2002 at the request of industry
     – ―Need for an objective, independent certifying body to
       validate wine proficiency‖
   This Study Guide and Program is the only of its kind
    offering this depth and breadth of knowledge, published by
    a wine society in the US.
   So…How does the CSW compare with other credentials?
                Credential Comparisons
                 Wine Spirit   International    Court of         Society of
                  Education     Sommelier        Master            Wine
                Trust (WSET)    Guild (ISG)    Sommeliers        Educators

                  Advanced         Wine          Certified        Certified
Comparable          Level      Fundamentals     Sommelier        Specialist of
 Programs                         Level II                       Wine (CSW)

    Costs                                           $745
  including      $725 + $950      $1500        (must travel to       $999
prerequisites      = $1655                      take exam &
   & exam                                      course is self-

Post-nominal         NO            NO               NO               YES
CSW Credential Program Details

   Guideline for studying: 6 hours per week minimum
   Pass Rate: < 50% for self-study
   Online Wine Academy: Use for pre-test, study material
    reinforcement, section quizzes, and practice exam. NOTE: If
    any material in the online sections seems to contradict the
    study guide, ALWAYS go with the Study Guide answer.
   Exam Date: Sunday, March 2nd, 4pm @ AWS Wine Room
     – As part of your tuition you are provided ONE (1) exam
        registration good for 1 year from your course sign-up.
        Should you require a re-test, fees are $235 for non-
        members of the SWE or $160 for members of the SWE.
Chapter 1: Viticulture
                             Chapter 1: Viticulture
•Agricultural Importance of the Grape Vine
    •Thrives between 30° - 50° north latitude & 30° - 40° south latitude
                                           Vine Facts
   LOW Nutritional Requirements
     – Potassium
     – Nitrogen
     – Phosphorus
   First crop of grapes used for wine in 3rd year or 3rd ―leaf‖
   Six years for a vine to reach maturity
   20 years is when vine vigor begins to decline
   Vitis Vinifera is native to Eurasia
     – Vine Terminology
          • Variety or Subspecies (ex Chardonnay)
          • Clone: vine descended from a single plant cutting
          • Mutation: vine which develops different characteristics; can lead
            to new varieties (ex Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc)
          • Cross: the offspring from reproduction of different varieties within
            the same species (Cabernet Franc + Sauvignon Blanc =
            Cabernet Sauvignon)
          • Hybrid: the offspring from reproduction of different varieties
            between two different species (Vinifera + Labrusca =
            French/American Hybrid)
Annual Growth Cycle
    of the Vine
Annual Growth Cycle
    of the Vine
Annual Growth Cycle
    of the Vine
Annual Growth Cycle
    of the Vine
Annual Growth Cycle
    of the Vine
                                                        Vine’s Metabolic

    Photosynthesis is a process where the leaves rely on
     sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen
     and sugar.
    Photosynthesis’ range is 50°F - 95°F

Image sourced from
                                              Vine’s Metabolic

    •A process where water evaporates through the stomata, openings on
    underside of leaves
    •Serves the same purpose of perspiration—COOLING
    •Rate of transpiration closely linked to climate
    •A process where sugars are broken down by vine to use as energy source
    •A process where materials are moved from one area of the plant to another.
    Ex: Sugars translocate from leaves to the fruit
                                  Canopy Management
This is the vine’s MICROCLIMATE
                                   Canopy Management
This is the vine’s MESOCLIMATE (the vineyard)
                                  Canopy Management
This is the vine’s MACROCLIMATE (the region)
                                                 Canopy Management
Winter pruning: remove previous season’s growth
Shoot Thinning: removal of unwanted shoot growth
Summer Hedging: removal of cane’s growing tips
Shoot Devigoration: forcing upward growing into downward growing (high vigor)
Shoot Positioning: arranging shoots for good sunlight and air circulation
Leaf Removal: Allowing sunlight to strike clusters but not burn grapes
Trellis System: the Superstructure to support vine’s growth in space
                                     The Balanced Vine

   Dr. Richard Smart, Australian Enologist
     – 1991 book Sunlight into Wine dispelled notion that “vine must
        struggle” to produce quality fruit
   Vine Balance is understanding relationship between soil/root
    system and the number of leaves it can maintain.
   Qualities associated with GOOD vine balance:
     – Shoot length 3-4 ft long w/out hedging
     – Shoot density allows almost 100% sun to leaf penetration
     – Shoot girth smaller than girth of little finger
     – Few if any laterals on shoots
     – Berry size small for variety
                                              Role of the Soil

Q: What do the world’s great vineyards have in common?
A: Regardless of soil type or elevation or slope, the vineyards are not fertile
thus they self-regulate the water supply, thus negating any ―extremes‖. These
sites have good ―drainage systems‖, thus quality is consistent regardless of
vintage year.
Soil Fractions
•CLAY: finest of inorganic soils; greatest capacity for holding water/nutrients
•SILT: intermediate size & intermediate capacity for holding water/nutrients
•SAND: largest of inorganics in size; least capacity for holding water/nutrients
•MINERALS: help create good soil structure
•ROCKS: affect water drainage; on surface impact ambient temperatures
•ORGANIC MATTER: makes clay more crumbly; helps sandy soils retain
                   Major Vine Diseases & Pests

Powdery Mildew (oidium)
 Fungus native to North
 Sulfur Spray used to

                                  Photo credit David Gadoury

Downy Mildew (pernospera)
 Fungus native to North
 Copper Sulfate sprays
  (Bordeaux Mixture) are used
  to treat
                                 Photo credit Peter Magarey
                       Major Vine Diseases & Pests

Botrytis (Noble Rot)
 Fungus spreads with humidity & warm
 Weather must turn warmer & DRIER for
  positive side-affects in white-skinned
 No positive results with red-skinned

Black Rot                                  Photo credit William J. Moller

 Fungus native to North America
 Controlled via fungicides
                              Viticultural Practices

 Attempt to build the soil, protect the
  environment, encourage biodiversity,
  and protect health of employees &
 No pesticides, fungicides, insecticides
  or herbacides & fertilizers
 Simply: Build soil using microbial
  activity and Eliminate toxicity of
 Does allow use of “natural” inorganic
  elements of copper & sulfur
                              Viticultural Practices

Integrated Pest Management
 Normally part of Organic Viticulture
 Recognizes insect life cycles,
   predators, hosts
 Good bugs eat bad bugs
                            Viticultural Practices

 Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner
 If Organic views the world as an
   ecosystem, then Biodynamic views the
   entire universe as an ecosystem
 A growing trend in Viticulture
                             Viticultural Practices

 Used in environments where
  organic/biodynamic are not practical
 Judicious use of agro-chemicals
 Cover crops used to eliminate erosion
 Ground under vine canopy plowed
  rather than use herbicides
 Growing with “best intentions”
                    White Grape Varieties

Chardonnay           ~ Winemaking
Sauvignon Blanc      ~ Clarity of Flavor
Riesling             ~ Balance
Chenin Blanc         ~ Aroma & Substance
Pinot Grigio/Gris    ~ Refreshment
Gewürtztraminer      ~ Spice & Scent
Viognier             ~ Heady Aromas
Muscat               ~ Grapes, pure and simple
                     Red Grape Varieties

Cabernet Sauvignon   ~ Structure & Power
Merlot               ~ Fleshiness, Softness & Sensual
Pinot Noir           ~ Aroma & Texture
Zinfandel            ~ Impact
Syrah/Shiraz         ~ Herbs & Spice
Sangiovese           ~ Rustic & Savory flavors of the earth
Gamay                ~ Flowers & Fruit
Grenache             ~ Alcohol
Barbera              ~ Dedication & Purpose
Cabernet Franc       ~ Herbs and Tea
Nebbiolo             ~ Aroma & Structure
 That’s it for today!

Verbal Quiz next week
    …be ready!!

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