African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic Why Africa Fears

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					                            African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
 Volume 3, Issue 9                              NEWSLETTER                                                   October 2008

                           HIV/AIDS - MALARIA
    Why Africa Fears Western                                        What is the African Traditional
            Medicine                                                  Herbal Research Clinic?
                                                                            We can make you healthy and wise
               By Harriet A.Washington
                                                                   Nakato Lewis
                                                                   Blackherbals at the Source of the Nile, UG Ltd.
July 31, 2007
Op-Ed Contributor                                                  The African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic located
TO Westerners, the repatriation of five nurses and a doctor        in Bukoto, Uganda is a modern clinic facility created to
to Bulgaria last week after more than eight years’                 establish a model space whereby indigenous herbal
imprisonment meant the end of an unsettling ordeal. The            practitioners and healers can upgrade and update their
medical workers, who in May 2004 were sentenced to                 skills through training and certification and respond to
death on charges of intentionally infecting hundreds of            common diseases using African healing methods and
Libyan children with H.I.V., have been freed, and another          traditions in a modern clinical environment.
international incident is averted.                                 Traditional healers are the major health labor resource
But to many Africans, the accusations, which have been             in Africa as a whole. In Uganda, indigenous traditional
validated by a guilty verdict and a promise to reimburse           healers are the only source of health services for the
the families of the infected children with a $426 million          majority of the population. An estimated 80% of the
payout, seem perfectly plausible. The medical workers’             population receives its health education and health care
release appears to be the latest episode in a health care          from practitioners of traditional medicine. They are
nightmare in which white and Western-trained doctors and           knowledgeable of the culture, the local languages and
nurses have harmed Africans — and have gone                        local traditions. Our purpose is to raise public
unpunished.                                                        awareness and understanding on the value of African
                                           Continued on page 2
                                                                   traditional herbal medicine and other healing practices
                                                                   in today’s world.
                                                                   The Clinic is open and operational. Some of the
1 Why Africa Fears Western Medicine
                                                                   services we offer are African herbal medicine,
3 Afrikan Spirituality-Challenges Facing Indigenous Knowledge
4 Feature – Ancient African Medicine, Egypt and the World          reflexology, acupressure, hot and cold hydrotherapy,
6 Feature – Med Schools, Journals Fight Big Pharma’s Sway          body massage, herbal tonics, patient counseling, blood
7 Pathologists Believe They Have Pinpointed Achilles Heel of HIV   pressure checks, urine testing (sugar), and nutritional
8 Feature – WHO Murdered Africa                                    profiles. We believe in spirit, mind and body. Spiritual
14 Threat of World Aids Pandemic Among Heterosexuals is Over
15 Common Gene makes Africans more Vulnerable to HIV
                                                                   counseling upon request.
16 Feature – What are Duffy Antigens?
19 Malaria Drug Contributing to Antibiotic Resistance                   Visit us also at
20 Malaria Fuels HIV Spread
                                                                     Hours: 9:00 am to 6:00 pm Monday thru Friday
21 Scientists Map Genomes of Malaria Parasite
25 Feature – The African Traditional Herbal Research Centre          10 am to 4:00 pm Saturday - Sundays – Closed
27Traditional Medicine Playing Important Role
30 More Herbal Medicine Flood Ugandan Markets
32 Ugandans Now Live Up to 50 Years
33 Feature – Unified Field Theory of Disease
36 Researcher Record Major Breakthrough Against Malaria
42 HIV Hides from Drugs for Years
44 Drug Factors Sub-Standard
49 Farmers Reap Fortunes of Malaria Treatment
54 Herb Of The Month – Bridelia micrantha & More

                                         -1-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
  Continued from page 1 – Why Africa Fears Western            cines are contaminated with H.I.V. or are actually
  Medicine                                                    sterilization agents in disguise. This would sound incredible
The evidence against the Bulgarian medical team, like         were it not that scientists working for Dr. Basson’s Project
H.I.V.-contaminated vials discovered in their apartments,     Coast reported that one of their chief goals was to find
has seemed to Westerners preposterous. But to dismiss         ways to selectively and secretly sterilize Africans.
the Libyan accusations of medical malfeasance out of
hand means losing an opportunity to understand why a          Such tragedies highlight the challenges facing even the
dangerous suspicion of medicine is so widespread in           most idealistic medical workers, who can find themselves
Africa.                                                       working under unhygienic conditions that threaten patients’
                                                              welfare. Well-meaning Western caregivers must sometimes
Africa has harbored a number of high-profile Western          use incompletely cleaned or unsterilized needles, simply
medical miscreants who have intentionally administered        because nothing else is available. These needles can and do
deadly agents under the guise of providing health care or     spread infectious agents like H.I.V. — proving that
conducting research. In March 2000, Werner Bezwoda, a         Western medical practices need not be intentional to be
cancer researcher at South Africa’s Witwatersrand             deadly.
University, was fired after conducting medical
experiments involving very high doses of chemotherapy         Although the World Health Organization maintains that the
on black breast-cancer patients, possibly without their       reuse of syringes without sterilization accounts for only 2.5
knowledge or consent. In Zimbabwe, in 1995, Richard           percent of new H.I.V. infections in Africa, a 2003 study in
McGown, a Scottish anesthesiologist, was accused of five      The International Journal of S.T.D. and AIDS found that as
murders and convicted in the deaths of two infant patients    many as 40 percent of H.I.V. infections in Africa are
whom he injected with lethal doses of morphine. And Dr.       caused by contaminated needles during medical treatment.
Michael Swango, ultimately convicted of murder after          Even the conservative W.H.O. estimate translates to tens of
pleading guilty to killing three American patients with       thousands of cases.
lethal injections of potassium, is suspected of causing the   Several esteemed science journals, including Nature, have
deaths of 60 other people, many of them in Zimbabwe           suggested that the Libyan children were infected in just this
and Zambia during the 1980s and ’90s. (Dr. Swango was         manner, through the re-use of incompletely cleaned medical
never tried on the African charges.)                          instruments, long before the Bulgarian nurses arrived in
These medical killers are well known throughout Africa,       Libya. If this is the case, then the Libyan accusations of
but the most notorious is Wouter Basson, a former head        iatrogenic, or healer-transmitted, infection are true. The acts
of Project Coast, South Africa’s chemical and biological      may not have been intentional, but given the history of
weapons unit under apartheid. Dr. Basson was charged          Western medicine in Africa, accusations that they were
with killing hundreds of blacks in South Africa and           done consciously are far from paranoid.
Namibia, from 1979 to 1987, many via injected poisons.        Certainly, the vast majority of beneficent Western medical
He was never convicted in South African courts, even          workers in Africa are to be thanked, not censured. But the
though his lieutenants testified in detail and with           canon of “silence equals death” applies here: We are
consistency about the medical crimes they conducted           ignoring a responsibility to defend the mass of innocent
against blacks.                                               Western doctors against the belief that they are not treating
Such well-publicized events have spread a fear of             disease, but intentionally spreading it. We should approach
medicine throughout Africa, even in countries where           Africans’ suspicions with respect, realizing that they are
Western doctors have not practiced in significant             born of the acts of a few monsters and of the deadly
numbers. It is a fear the continent can ill afford when       constraints on medical care in difficult conditions. By
medical care is already hard to come by. Only 1.3 percent     continuing to dismiss their reasonable fears, we raise the
of the world’s health workers practice in sub-Saharan         risk of even more needless illness and death.
Africa, although the region harbors fully 25 percent of the   Harriet A. Washington is the author of “Medical
world’s disease. A minimum of 2.5 health workers is           Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation
needed for every 1,000 people, according to standards set     on Black Americans From Colonial Times to the Present.”
by the United Nations, but only six African countries
have this many.                                     
The distrust of Western medical workers has had direct
consequences. Since 2003, for example, polio has been
on the rise in Nigeria, Chad and Burkina Faso because
many people avoid vaccinations, believing that the vac-                               ☻☻☻☻☻☻

                                       -2-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
It is commonly accepted that we are living in the                            The traditional shrine as a symbol of our cultural history
“information age”. We are generators of vast knowledge.
True as it may seem, it has been noted that the present
generation is actually losing more information than it is
acquiring. Most shocking is the erosion of culturally based            coming generations, until writing finally reached Africa
knowledge represented by thousands of disappearing (RAFI,              for us to access it and preserve the knowledge.
1997). For example, experts in linguistics note that half of the
6000 languages spoken in the world will die out during the             The light of knowledge in Africa remained burning and it
21st century.                                                          is still burning even through the interventions of Arabs
                                                                       and colonial masters. These external forces nearly
As each language vanishes, tens of thousands of years of               exterminated the pillars of African education in skills and
cultural heritage and indigenous knowledge is lost. Loss of            technology. The intruders` referred to Africa knowledge
this cultural diversity is intricately linked with loss of             of skills and technology as satanic, primitive, backward
agricultural biodiversity. Loss of biodiversity puts at stake          and outdated, even up to today.
food security and nutrition and overall agricultural
development.                                                           Given the nature of Lake Nalubale (Victoria) basin
                                                                       climate, soil types and fresh waters, these three are
The movement of people is leading to loss of farming                   responsible for the wealth of biodiversity of plants,
communities, languages and indigenous cultures; all represent          animals, ants, birds etc. People of the ancient past took
the erosion of human intellectual capital on massive scale.            advantage of the environment and were able to survive
Development of sustainable agriculture systems depends                 many problems using the environment as answers to
upon the innovative capacity of farmers, forest dwellers,              overcome their day to-day challenges.
pastoralists, and fisher-folk together with their accumulated          In Africa, each item is believed to belong to the Almighty,
knowledge. Therefore, recognising, rewarding and protecting            the creator, giver and overseer of all creations, visible and
indigenous knowledge systems is critical for agricultural              invisible ones. And that invisible power of creation is
development, food security and nutrition.                              believed to be the giver and taker of life. The second way
Successful strategies should be formulated and implemented             an African perceives nature is by way of association and
to save our indigenous knowledge through environmental                 identification of themselves with in terms of totems,
impact assessment awareness/research, documentation, and               clans, etc.
publication.                                                           The third way Africans have looked at nature is by
 “The responsibility of conserving our indigenous knowledge            taboos. It is taboo whenever a member in any one's given
is for all of us, white and black. We came from one person,            community treated nature in a way perceived to result in
our CREATOR.”                                                          spoiling or destruction of the status quo.

In Africa, I salute our great ancestors who carried out studies        The fourth way is to have sacred people, animals, rocks,
on nature-given resources to name items as food, medicine,             caves, trees, rivers, mountains etc.
shelter materials etc for our use.                                     The list is endless, but the important aspect in all these
This valuable intellect has been passed on from generation to          efforts is to create controls and wise use and management
generation mainly in verbal communication. We are quite an             of nature- given resources.
intelligent race to preserve information in that way for many          Recommendation: There is need to carryout research on
centuries without any written text to be left behind for the           the culture aspect for sustainable use of natural resources.
________________________                                               There should be functional and participatory research in
Managing Editor: Nakato Lewis                                          the world. There is a need to integrate our cultural aspects
PUBLISHER: KIWANUKA LEWIS                                              into modern ways for natural resource management.
Published monthly and freely by BHSN for the African Traditional                                       ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Herbal Research Clinic

                                             -3-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
                African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9                            NEWSLETTER                                                 October 2008

                                       FEATURED ARTICLES
    Ancient African Medicine, Egypt, (Khemit) and the
                                               By Jide Iwechia
                                                  June 08, 2007
Interestingly, certain remedies prescribed by Egyptian     The medical documents were first discovered in the
physicians were way ahead of modern anticipation. For      mid-19th century but then suppressed because it
instance, celery and saffron which were used for           demonstrated facts which were antithetical to the
rheumatism are currently hot topics of pharmaceutical      official but hypocritical racist attitudes which then
research, and pomegranate was used to eradicate            prevailed.
tapeworms, a remedy that remained in clinical use until    According to one of the scientists, Dr Jackie
50 years ago. Acacia is still used in cough remedies       Campbell:
while aloes form a basis to soothe and heal skin           “Classical scholars have always considered the ancient
conditions. The knowledge and the uses of essential oils   Greeks, particularly Hippocrates, as being the fathers
and resins were introduced to the world by the ancient     of medicine but our findings suggest that the ancient
Egyptians.” The early Egyptians appear to have been        Egyptians were practising a credible form of pharmacy
the first to recognize that stress could contribute to     and medicine much earlier,”
illness. They established sanitariums where people
                                                           “When we compared the ancient remedies against
would undergo “dream therapy” and treatments with
                                                           modern pharmaceutical protocols and standards, we
“healing waters.
                                                           found the prescriptions in the ancient documents not
It is now official! The western propaganda press and its   only compared with pharmaceutical preparations of
scholarly co-conspirators in the academia have finally     today but that many of the remedies had therapeutic
admitted that African Khemit gave the world the gift of    merit.”
medical sciences as opposed to previously peddled lies
which identify Greece as the origin of medicine.           “Many of the ancient remedies we discovered survived
Imhotep, the Prince of Peace, the Egyptian inventor of     into the 20th century and, indeed, some remain in use
medicine and healing was a real historical African         today, albeit that the active component is now
genius who received the book of healing from the           produced synthetically.”
mysterious forces of ancestral Africa.
This book was later given to the world and it forms the    Imhotep was the world’s first named physician, and
basis of modern medicine and surgery.                      the architect who built Egypt’s first pyramid. He is
                                                           indisputedly the world’s first doctor, a priest, scribe,
The entire ancient world, including the ancient Greeks
                                                           sage, poet, astrologer, a vizier and chief minister, to
celebrated this venerable old man of wisdom who was
                                                           Djoser (reigned 2630–2611 BC), the second king of
synonymous with ingenuity. Even Hippocrates, so-
                                                           Egypt’s third dynasty.
called Greek Father of Modern Medicine was a devotee
of Imhotep the Prince of Peace.                            An inscription on one of that king’s statues gives us
                                                           Imhotep’s titles as the “the prince of peace,”
Scientists examining documents dating back more than
                                                           “chancellor of the king of lower Egypt,” the “first one
3,500 years have confirmed that the origins of modern
                                                           under the king,” the “administrator of the great
medicine lie in ancient Egypt and not with Hippocrates
                                                           mansion,” the “hereditary Noble,” the “high priest of
and the Greeks. The medical papyri were written in
                                                           Heliopolis,” the “chief sculptor,” and finally the “chief
2,500 BC – 1,000, thousands of years before
Hippocrates was born.
                                                                                               Continued on page 5

                                     -4-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
Continued from page 8 – Ancient African Medicine           Devotees bought offerings to his medical and spiritual
As a builder, Imhotep is the first recorded master         school in Saqqara, including mummified Ibises and
architects. He was the first pyramid architect and         sometimes, in the hope of being healed.
builder, and among his works one counts the Djoser’s       He was later even worshipped by the early Christians as
Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara, Sekhemkhet’s              one with Christ who was made to adopt one of the titles of
unfinished pyramid, and possibly the Edfu Temple.          Imhotep, “the Prince of Peace”. The early Christians often
The Step Pyramid remains today one of the most             appropriated those pagan forms and persons whose
brilliant architecture wonders of the ancient world and    influence through the ages had woven itself so powerfully
is recognized as the first monumental stone structure.     into tradition that they could not omit them.
Imhotep was also the first known physician, medical        He was worshiped in Greece where he was identified with
professor and a prodigous writer of medical books. As      their god of medicine, Aslepius. He was honored by the
the first medical professor, Imhotep is believed to have   Romans and inscriptions praising Imhotep were placed on
been the author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus in which        the walls of Roman temples. Most surprisingly, he even
more than 90 anatomical terms and 48 injuries are          managed to find a place in Arab traditions, especially at
described.                                                 Saqqara where his tomb is thought to be located.
He also founded a school of medicine in Memphis,           Materia Medica
possibly known as “Asklepion, which remained               The ancient Egyptian physicians treated wounds with
famous for two thousand years. All of this occurred        honey, resins (including cannabis resin) and elemental
some 2,200 years before the Western Father of              metals known to be antimicrobial. This practice is still a
Medicine Hippocrates was born.                             valid medical protocol even today.
According to Sir William Osler, Imhotep was the:           Again, just like in these modern times, the prescriptions for
“..first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from   laxatives included castor oil and colocynth and bulk bran
the mists of antiquity.” Imhotep diagnosed and treated     and figs were used to promote regularity.
over 200 diseases, 15 diseases of the abdomen, 11 of
                                                           Other references show that colic was treated with
the bladder, 10 of the rectum, 29 of the eyes, and 18 of
                                                           hyoscyamus, which is still used today, and that cumin and
the skin, hair, nails and tongue. Imhotep treated
                                                           coriander were used as intestinal carminatives.
tuberculosis, gallstones, appendicitis, gout and
arthritis. He also performed surgery and practiced         Musculo-skeletal disorders were treated with rubefacients
some dentistry. Imhotep extracted medicine from            to stimulate blood flow and poultices to warm and soothe
plants. He also knew the position and function of the      similar to the practices of modern practitioners of sports
vital organs and circulation of the blood system. The      medicine.
Encyclopedia Britannica says, “The evidence afforded
                                                           Interestingly, certain remedies prescribed by Egyptian
by Egyptian and Greek texts support the view that
                                                           physicians were way ahead of modern anticipation. For
Imhotep’s reputation was very respected in early
                                                           instance, celery and saffron which were used for
times. His prestige increased with the lapse of
                                                           rheumatism are currently hot topics of pharmaceutical
centuries and his temples in Greek times were the
                                                           research, and pomegranate was used to eradicate
centers of medical teachings.”
                                                           tapeworms, a remedy that remained in clinical use until 50
Along with medicine, he was also a patron of               years ago.
architects, knowledge and scribes. James Henry
                                                           Acacia is still used in cough remedies while aloes forms a
Breasted says of Imhotep:
                                                           basis to soothe and heal skin conditions. The knowledge
“In priestly wisdom, in magic, in the formulation of       and the uses of essential oils and resins were introduced to
wise proverbs; in medicine and architecture; this          the world by the ancient Egyptians.”
remarkable figure of Zoser’s reign left so notable a
                                                           The early Egyptians appear to have been the first to
reputation that his name was never forgotten. He was
                                                           recognize that stress could contribute to illness. They
the patron spirit of the later scribes, to whom they
                                                           established sanitariums where people would undergo
regularly poured out a libation.”
                                                           “dream therapy” and treatments with “healing waters.
Imhotep was, together with Amenhotep, the only
                                                           Altogether, around 50 percent of the plants used in ancient
mortal Egyptians that ever reached the position of full
                                                           Egypt remain in clinical use today. Many of the medical
gods. He was also associated with Thoth, the god of
                                                           and surgical instruments such as knives and forceps have
wisdom, writing and learning, and with the Ibises,
which was also associated with Thoth.                                                           Continued on page 13
                                     -5-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
                 African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9                              NEWSLETTER                                                  October 2008

                                        FEATURED ARTICLES
  Med Schools, Journals Fight Big Pharma’s Sway
             Even as new guidelines are set, potential for conflict remains, say many
                                                The Associated Press
                                                September 10, 2008
TRENTON, N.J. - Just about every segment of the              “We should say "Enough!"
medical community is piling on the pharmaceutical            She said industry influence includes swaying doctors
industry these days, accusing drugmakers of deceiving        and medical students to their brands with gifts, funding
the public, manipulating doctors and putting profits         research at top teaching hospitals but keeping control of
before patients.                                             the studies and results, failing to disclose study authors’
                                                             conflicts of interest, even taking over the continuing
Recent articles and editorials in major medical journals
                                                             medical education system for doctors by running
blast the industry. Medical schools, teaching hospitals
                                                             courses on new treatments. Critics say such courses are
and physician groups are changing rules to limit the
                                                             taught by company-paid speakers who often promote
influence of pharmaceutical sales reps. And three top
                                                             expensive new drugs over older, cheaper ones.
editors of the prestigious New England Journal of
Medicine last month publicly sided against the drug          “We should all get together and say, ’Enough!”’
industry in a U.S. Supreme Court case over whether           DeAngelis said.
patients harmed by government-approved medicines
                                                             Already, top journals are listing study authors’ conflicts
may still sue in state courts.
                                                             of interest, and dozens of medical schools and medical
As more voices have called for change, new guidelines        specialty societies are barring gifts to doctors and
for how drugmakers and doctors should interact are           limiting their other financial ties to industry. Some
coming from both industries, and doctors say some            schools bar professors from being paid drug company’s
abuses of the past have ended. But the industries’           speakers. And one expert noted drugmakers have
dealings remain fraught with potential conflict because      stopped giving cash prizes to medical students for
the sectors depend on each other so much — medicine          presenting favorable research on their drugs at
on drugmakers’ research dollars and drugmakers on the        conferences.
credibility researchers give them.
                                                             Still, no one is suggesting anything as drastic as cutting
“The influence that the pharmaceutical companies, the        off industry funding for academic research on new
for-profits, are having on every aspect of medicine ... is   drugs. Those billions help pay lab and other expenses at
so blatant now you’d have to be deaf, blind and dumb         virtually all U.S. teaching hospitals, medical schools and
not to see it,” said Journal of the American Medical         affiliated practices, while giving the drugs’ developers
Association editor Dr. Catherine DeAngelis, a longtime       the cachet of having big-name academic researchers
industry critic. “We have just allowed them to take          running their studies.
over, and it’s our fault, the whole medical community.”
                                                             The industry’s trade group, in an apparent response, in
In an April editorial in her journal, DeAngelis noted        July revised its 2002 “Code on Interactions with Health-
two studies indicated past reports about Merck & Co.’s       care Professionals” to ban giving out pens, mugs and
withdrawn pain reliever Vioxx frequently were penned         other noneducational gifts, taking doctors to restaurants
by ghostwriters and that reports on some Vioxx studies       and giving them tickets for shows or sports events.
minimized the risk of death. Merck has denied the            Bringing meals to their offices and donating anatomical
charges.                                                     models and textbooks will still be allowed when the
                                                             voluntary code takes effect in January.
“Manipulation of studies and publications by the
pharmaceutical and medical device industries is either       “America’s pharmaceutical companies devote many
increasing or there has been more exposure of these          years and billions of dollars to researching and develop-
practices,” she wrote.                                                                             Continued on page 7
                                      -6-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
Continued from page 6 – Med Schools, Journals Fight Big        said Dr. Barbara Barnes, head of industry relations.
                                                               Rothman said there’s a new effort to “clean up”
ing life-saving medicines,” and help drive progress and        continuing medical education of doctors, the only
economic growth, said Diane Bieri, general counsel for         professionals he knows who don’t pay for it themselves.
Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America.
“We will always face criticism and at times deserve it but     In June, the Association of American Medical Colleges
our companies remain committed to listening to and             put out guidelines that bar drugmakers from paying for
learning from parties with divergent points of views.”         continuing medical education sessions on specific topics
                                                               but allow donations to a central fund.
Hollie Gilroy, spokeswoman for the HealthCare Institute
of New Jersey, a trade group including many top                The Council of Medical Specialty Societies, which
drugmakers, said the industry is an easy target, but           represents 32 specialty groups, this summer, started
criticisms about gifts to doctors, beyond logo-bearing         collecting each group’s best practices on disclosure and
pens and similar items, are either outdated or                 limitations on speaking and other activities by their
exaggerated. She said the industry is quick to police itself   officers. Council CEO Dr. Norman Kahn said a new
and tries to keep high ethical standards when dealing with     council policy should be ready in November.
health-care professionals.                                     Meanwhile, Sen. Charles Grassley of Iowa, a frequent
“There is no industry far and away that has been more          industry critic, is sponsoring a bill to require drugmakers
generous than the pharmaceutical industry,” Gilroy             to report all payments to doctors — from buying meals to
added, noting companies give away medication samples,          flying them to conferences at resorts.
fund large prescription assistance programs for the poor,      Doctors say there’s more to be done, but see an impact.
have helped African countries get AIDS medications, and
donate drugs and medical supplies after major disasters.       Dr. Marc Siegel, an internist and associate professor at
                                                               New York University School of Medicine, said the
But pharmaceutical analyst Steve Brozak of WBB                 school has fewer drugmaker-sponsored events, and he no
Securities said drugmakers will find ways to adapt to new      longer gets offers of baseball tickets or paid junkets as a
rules.                                                         consultant at a doctors’ meeting — things he turned down
“The earlier you can hook one of these doctors, the more       anyway. He said some colleagues no longer let drug sales
loyal they are” to a brand, Brozak said.                       reps in their offices, but he does.

Medical groups have been fighting industry influence           “I don’t mind — I like my staff to get a free lunch,”
harder since a 2006 JAMA editorial by 11 prominent             Siegel said. “I don’t think it influences one iota what I
doctors urged teaching hospitals to lead in cleaning up        prescribe.”
conflicts of interest between medicine and industry.          
New Web site shows med schools policies
David Rothman, president of the Institute on Medicine as          Pathologists Believe They
a Profession, said about one-fourth of U.S. medical
schools now have policies on industry gifts “that really          Have Pinpointed Achilles
pass muster.” Some bar sales reps from giving doctors                    Heel of HIV
drug samples — but allow donations to a central supply
office — and don’t let them wander their halls to speak to     ScienceDaily (July 16, 2008) — Human Immuno-
doctors.                                                       deficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of
                                                               Texas Medical School at Houston believe they have
“You’re not being bribed, you’re being gifted,” doctors        uncovered the Achilles heel in the armor of the virus that
may think, but industry freebies influence prescribing         continues to kill millions.
patterns, Rothman said.
                                                               The weak spot is hidden in the HIV envelope protein
On Wednesday, his group launched the first public              gp120. This protein is essential for HIV attachment to
database showing detail conflict of interest policies at       host cells, which initiate infection and eventually lead to
most of the 125 U.S. academic medical centers.                 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS.
At University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, possibly       Normally the body’s immune defenses can ward off
the strictest, pharmaceutical reps since February have had     viruses by making proteins called antibodies that bind the
to get a perfect score on an online training program about     virus. However, HIV is a constantly changing and
its rules to get appointments. Some reps have been             mutating virus, and the antibodies produced after
warned about infractions, but none have been banned,                                                 Continued on page 10
                                        -7- Traditional African October 2008
                 African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9                             NEWSLETTER                                                  October 2008

                                         FEATURED ARTICLES
               WHO MURDERED AFRICA - Excerpts
                                    By William Campbell Douglas, M.D.

There is no question mark after the title of this article    can change the genetic composition of cells that they
because the title is not a question. It's a declarative      enter.
statement. WHO, the World Health Organization,
                                                             The World Health Organization, in published articles,
murdered Africa with the AIDS virus. That's a
                                                             called for scientists to work with these deadly agents and
provocative statement, isn't it?
                                                             attempt to make a hybrid virus that would be deadly to
The answers to this little mystery, Murder on the            humans: "And attempt should be made to see if viruses
WHO Express, will be quite clear to you by the end           can in fact exert selective effects on immune function.
of this report. You will also understand why the other       The possibility should be looked into that the immune
suspects, the homosexuals, the green monkey and the          response to the virus itself may be impaired if the
Haitians, were only pawns in this virocidal attack on        infecting virus damages, more or less selectively, the cell
the world. If you believe the government propaganda          responding to the virus."
that AIDS is hard to catch then you are going to die
                                                             That's AIDS. What the WHO is saying in plain English is
even sooner than the rest of us. The common cold is a
                                                             "Let's cook up a virus that selectively destroys the T-cell
virus. Have you ever had a cold? How did you catch
                                                             system of man, an acquired immune deficiency."
it? You don't really know, do you? If the cold virus
were fatal how many people would there be left in            Why would anyone want to do this? If you destroy the T-
the world?                                                   cell system of man you destroy man. Is it even remotely
                                                             possible that the World Health Organization would want
Yellow fever is a virus. You catch it from mosquito
                                                             to develop a virus that would wipe out the human race?
bites. Malaria is a parasite also carried by
mosquitoes. It is many times larger than the AIDS            If their new virus creation worked, the WHO stated, then
virus (like comparing a pinhead to a moose head) yet         many terrible and fatal infectious viruses could be made
the mosquito easily carries this large organism to           even more terrible and more malignant. Does this strike
man.                                                         you as being a peculiar goal for a health organization?
The tuberculosis germ, also, much larger than the            Sometimes Americans believe in conspiracies and
AIDS virus, can be transmitted by fomites (inanimate         sometimes they don't. Was there a conspiracy to kill
objects such as towels). The AIDS virus can live for         President Kennedy? Twenty-five years later the debate
as long as 10 days on a dry plate. You can't                 still continues, and people keep changing their minds.
understand this murder mystery unless you learn a            One day it's yes, the next day it's no-depending on what
little virology.                                             was served for breakfast or how the stock market did the
                                                             day before.
Many viruses grow in animals and many grow in
humans, but most of the viruses that affect animals          But what about the green monkey? Some of the best
don't affect humans. There are exceptions, of course,        virologist in the world and many of those directly
such as yellow fever and small pox.                          involved in AIDS research, such as Robert Gallo and Luc
                                                             Montagnier, have said that the green monkey may be the
There are some viruses in animals that cause very
                                                             culprit. You know the story: A green monkey bit a native
lethal cancer in those animals, but do not affect man
                                                             on the ass and, bam-AIDS all over central Africa.
or other animals. The bovine leukemia virus (BLV),
for example, is lethal to cows but not humans. There         There is a fatal flaw here. It is very strange. Because
is another virus that occurs in sheep called sheep           Gallo, Montagnier and these other virologists know that
visna virus which is also non-reactive in man. These         the AIDS virus doesn't occur naturally in monkeys.
deadly viruses are "retro viruses" meaning that they                                               Continued on page 9
                                       -8- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 8 – WHO Murdered Africa                   They used smallpox vaccine for their vehicle and the
In fact it doesn't occur naturally in any animal.             geographical sites chosen in 1972 were Uganda and other
                                                              African states, Haiti, Brazil and Japan. The present or
AIDS started practically simultaneously in the United         recent past of AIDS epidemiology coincides with these
States, Haiti, Brazil, and Central Africa. (Was the           geographical areas.
green monkey a jet pilot?) Examination of the gene
structure of the green monkey cells proves that it is not     Dr. Strecker points out that even if the African green
genetically possible to transfer the AIDS virus from          monkey could transmit AIDS to humans, the present
monkeys to man by natural means. Because of the               known amount of infection in Africa makes it statistically
artificial nature of the AIDS virus it will not easily        impossible for a single episode, such as a monkey biting
transfer from man to man until it has become very             someone, to have brought this epidemic to this point. The
concentrated in the body fluids through repeated              doubling time of the number of people infected, about
injections from person to person, such as drug addicts,       every 14 months, when correlated with the first known
and through high multiple partner sexual activity After       case, and the present known number of cases, prove
repeated transfer it can become a "natural" infection         beyond a doubt that a large number of people had to have
for man, which it has.                                        been infected at the same time. Starting in 1972 with the
                                                              first case from our mythical monkey and doubling the
Dr. Theodore Strecker's research of the literature            number infected from that single source every 14 months
indicates that the National Cancer Institute in               you get only a few thousand cases. From 1972 to 1987 is
collaboration with the World Health Organization              15 years or 180 months. If it takes 14 months to double
made the AIDS virus in their laboratories at Fort             the number of cases then there would have been 13
Detrick (now NCI). They combined the deadly                   doublings, 1 then 2, then 4, then 8, etc. In 15 years, from
retroviruses, bovine leukemia virus and sheep visna           a single source of infection there would be about 8,000
virus, and injected them into human tissue cultures.          cases in Africa, not 75 million AIDS infected people. We
The result was the AIDS virus, the first human                are approaching World War II mortality statistics here-
retrovirus known to man and now believed to be 100            without a shot being fired.
percent fatal to those infected.
                                                              Dr. Theodore A. Strecker is the courageous doctor who
The momentous plague that we now face was                     unraveled this conundrum, the greatest murder mystery of
anticipated by the National Academy of Sciences               all time. He should get the Nobel Prize but he'll be lucky
(NAS) in 1974 when they recommended that                      not to get "suicided." ("Prominent California doctor ties
"Scientists throughout the world join with the                his hands behind his back, hangs himself, and jumps from
members of this committee in voluntarily deferring            20th floor. There was no evidence of foul play.") Strecker
experiments (linking) animal viruses." What the NAS           was employed as a consultant to work on a health
is saying in carefully guarded English is: "For God's         proposal for Security Pacific Bank. He was to estimate
sake, stop this madness!"                                     the cost of their health care for the future. Should they
The creation of the AIDS virus by the WHO was not             form a health maintenance organization? (HMO) was a
just a diabolical scientific exercise that got out of hand.   major issue. After investigating the current medical
It was a cold-blooded successful attempt to create a          market he advised against the HMO because he found
killer virus which was then used in a successful              that the AIDS epidemic will in all probability bankrupt
experiment in Africa. So successful in fact that most of      the nation's medical system.
central Africa may be wiped out, 75,000,000 dead              He became fascinated with all the peculiar scientific
within 3-5 years.                                             anomalies concerning AIDS that kept cropping up. Why
It was not an accident. It was deliberate. In the             did the "experts" keep talking about green monkeys and
Federation Proceedings of the United States in 1972,          homosexuals being the culprits when it was obvious that
WHO said: "In the relation to the immune response a           the AIDS virus was a man-made virus? Why did they say
number of useful experimental approaches can be               that it was a homosexual and drug-user disease when in
visualized." They suggested that a neat way to do this        Africa it was obviously a heterosexual disease? If the
would be to put their new killer virus (AIDS) into a          green monkey did it, then why did AIDS explode
vaccination program, sit back and observe the results.        practically simultaneously in Africa, Haiti, Brazil, the
                                                              United States and southern Japan?
 "This would be particularly informative in siblings,"
they said. That is, give the AIDS virus to brothers and       Why, when it was proposed to the National Institute of
sisters and see if they die, who dies first, and of what,     Health that the AIDS virus was a combination of two
just like using rats in a laboratory.                         bovine or sheep viruses cultured in human cells in a
                                                                                                    Continued on page 11
                                        -9- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 7–Pathologists Believe They Have pin-     have identified antibodies that, instead of passively bind ing
pointed A. Heel of HIV                                        to the target molecule, are able to fragment it and destroy
infection do not control disease progression to AIDS. For     its function. Their recent work indicates that naturally
the same reason, no HIV preventative vaccine that             occurring catalytic antibodies, particularly those of the IgA
stimulates production of protective antibodies is             subtype, may be useful in the treatment and prevention of
available.                                                    HIV infection,” said Steven J. Norris, Ph.D., holder of the
                                                              Robert Greer Professorship in the Biomedical Sciences and
The Achilles heel, a tiny stretch of amino acids numbered     vice chair for research in the Department of Pathology and
421-433 on gp120, is now under study as a target for          Laboratory Medicine at the UT Medical School at Houston.
therapeutic intervention. Sudhir Paul, Ph.D., pathology
professor in the UT Medical School, said, “Unlike the         The abzymes are derived from HIV negative people with
changeable regions of its envelope, HIV needs at least        the autoimmune disease lupus and a small number of HIV
one region that must remain constant to attach to cells. If   positive people who do not require treatment and do not get
this region changes, HIV cannot infect cells.                 AIDS. Stephanie Planque, lead author and UT Medical
                                                              School at Houston graduate student, said, “We discovered
Equally important, HIV does not want this constant            that disturbed immunological events in lupus patients can
region to provoke the body’s defense system. So, HIV          generate abzymes to the Achilles heel of HIV. The human
uses the same constant cellular attachment site to silence    genome has accumulated over millions of years of
B lymphocytes - the antibody producing cells. The result      evolution a lot of viral fragments called endogenous
is that the body is fooled into making abundant antibodies    retroviral sequences. These endogenous retroviral
to the changeable regions of HIV but not to its cellular      sequences are overproduced in people with lupus, and an
attachment site. Immunologists call such regions              immune response to such a sequence that resembles the
superantigens. HIV’s cleverness is unmatched. No other        Achilles heel can explain the production of abzymes in
virus uses this trick to evade the body’s defenses.”          lupus. A small minority of HIV positive people also start
Paul is the senior author on a paper about this theory in a   producing the abzymes after decades of the infection. The
June issue of the journal Autoimmunity Reviews.               immune system in some people can cope with HIV after
Additional data supporting the theory are to be presented     all.”
at the XVII International AIDS Conference Aug. 3-8 in         Carl Hanson, Ph.D., who heads the Retrovirus Diagnostic
Mexico City in two studies titled “Survivors of HIV           Section of the Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory of
infection produce potent, broadly neutralizing IgAs           the California Department of Public Health, has shown that
directed to the superantigenic region of the gp120 CD4        the abzymes neutralize infection of human blood cells by
binding site” and “Prospective clinical utility and           diverse strains of HIV from various parts of the world.
evolutionary implication of broadly neutralizing antibody     Human blood cells are the only cells that HIV infects.
fragments to HIV gp120 superantigenic epitope.”
                                                              “This is an entirely new finding. It is a novel antibody that
First reported in the early 1980s, HIV has spread across      appears to be very effective in killing the HIV virus. The
the world, particularly in developing countries. In 2007,     main question now is if this can be applied to developing
33 million people were living with AIDS, according to a       vaccine and possibly used as a microbicide to prevent
report by the World Health Organization and the United        sexual transmission,” said David C. Montefiori, Ph.D.,
Nations.                                                      director of the Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine Research &
Paul’s group has engineered antibodies with enzymatic         Development at Duke University Medical Center. The
activity, also known as abzymes, which can attack the         abzymes are now under development for HIV
Achilles heel of the virus in a precise way. “The abzymes     immunotherapy by infusion into blood. They could also be
recognize essentially all of the diverse HIV forms found      used to guard against sexual HIV transmission as topical
across the world. This solves the problem of HIV              vaginal or rectal formulations.
changeability. The next step is to confirm our theory in      “HIV is an international priority because we have no
human clinical trials," Paul said.                            defense against it,” Paul said. “Left unchecked, it will likely
Unlike regular antibodies, abzymes degrade the virus          evolve into even more virulent forms. We have learned a
permanently. A single abzyme molecule inactivates             lot from this research about how to induce the production of
thousands of virus particles. Regular antibodies inactivate   the protective abzymes on demand. This is the Holy Grail
only one virus particle, and their anti-viral HIV effect is   of HIV research -- development of a preventative HIV
weaker.                                                       vaccine.”
“The work of Dr. Paul’s group is highly innovative. They                                                Continued on age 11

                                     -10- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 10 – Pathologists believe they have           Because of the trillions of possible genetic combinations
pinpointed Achilles. Heel of HIV                                  there will never be a vaccine. Even if they could develop a
Major contributors to the research from the UT Medical            vaccine they would undoubtedly give us something equally
School include Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Ph.D., and Hiroaki             bad as they did with the polio vaccine (cancer of the brain),
Taguchi, Ph.D., both with the Department of Pathology             the swine flu vaccine (a polio-like disease), the smallpox
and Laboratory Medicine, and Miguel Escobar, M.D., of             vaccine (AIDS), and the hepatitis vaccine (AIDS).
the Department of Pediatrics. Maria Salas and Hanson,             There are precedents. This is not the first time the virologist
both with the Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory,           have brought us disaster. SV-40 virus from monkey cell
contributed. The research was funded by the National              cultures contaminated polio cultures. Most people in their
Institutes of Health and the Texas Higher Education               40's are now carrying this virus through contaminated polio
Coordinating Board.                                               inoculations given in the early 60's. It is known to cause
Journal references:                                               brain cancer which explains the increase in this disease that
                                                                  we have seen in the past ten years.
Planque et al. Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role
and potential clinical utility. Autoimmunity Reviews, 2008; 7     This is the origin of the green monkey theory. The polio
(6): 473 DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2008.04.002                        vaccine was grown on green monkey kidney cells. Sixty-
Stephanie Planque et al. Catalytic antibodies to HIV:             four million Americans were vaccinated with SV-40-
Physiological role and potential clinical utility. Autoimmunity   contaminated vaccine in the 60's. An increase in cancer of
Reviews, 2008; 7 (6): 473 DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2008.04.002       the brain, possibly multiple sclerosis, and God only knows
Adapted from materials provided by University of Texas Health     what else the tragic result is. The delay between vaccination
Science Center at Houston.
                                                                  and the onset of cancer with this virus is as long as 20-30
                                                                  years. 1965 plus 20 equals 1985. Get the picture?
                        ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                    The final piece of the puzzle is how AIDS devastated the
Continued from page 9 – WHO Murdered Africa                       homosexual population in the United States. It wasn't from
                                                                  smallpox vaccination as in Africa because we don't do that
laboratory, did they say it was "bad science" when that's         any more. There is no smallpox in the United States and so
exactly what occurred?                                            vaccination was discontinued.
As early as 1970 the World Health Organization was                Although some AIDS has been brought to the United States
growing these deadly animal viruses in human tissue               from Haiti by homosexuals, it would not be enough to
cultures. Cedric Mims, in 1981, said in a published article       explain the explosion of AIDS that occurred simultaneously
that there was a bovine virus contaminating the culture           with the African and Haitian epidemics.
media of the WHO. Was this an accident or a "non-
accident"? If it was an accident why did WHO continue             The AIDS virus didn't exist in the United States before
to use the vaccine?                                               1978. You can check back in any hospital and no stored
                                                                  blood samples can be found anywhere that exhibits the
This viral and genetic death bomb, AIDS, was finally              AIDS virus before that date.
produced in 1974. It was given to monkeys and they died
of pneumocystis carni which is typical of AIDS.                   What happened in 1978 and beyond to cause AIDS to burst
                                                                  upon the scene and devastate the homosexual segment of
Dr. R. J. Biggar said in Lancet. "...The AIDS agent...            our population? It was the introduction of the hepatitis B
could not have originated de novo." That means in plain           vaccine which exhibits the exact epidemiology of AIDS.
English that it didn't come out of thin air. AIDS was
engineered in a laboratory by virologist. It couldn't             A Doctor W. Szmuness, born in Poland and educated in
engineer itself. As Doctor Strecker so colorfully puts it:        Russia, came to this country in 1969-Szmuness's
"If a person has no arms or legs and shows up at a party          immigration to the U.S. was probably the most fateful
in a tuxedo, how did he get dressed? Somebody dressed             immigration in our history. He, by unexplained process,
him."                                                             became head of the New York City blood bank. (How does
                                                                  a Russian trained doctor become head of one of the largest
There are 9,000 to the fourth power possible AIDS                 blood banks in the world? Doesn't that strike you as
viruses. (There are 9,000 base pairs on the genome.) So           peculiar?)
the fun has just begun. Some will cause brain rot similar
to the sheep virus, some leukemia-like diseases from the          He set up the rules for the hepatitis vaccine studies. Only
cow virus and some that won't do anything. So the virus           males between the ages of 20 and 40, who were not
will be constantly changing and trying out new esoteric           monogamous, would be allowed to participate in this study.
diseases on hapless man. We're only at the beginning.             Can you think of any reason for insisting that all experi-
                                                                                                           Continued on page 12
                                          -11- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 11 – WHO Murdered Africa                Dr. Robert Gallo, who has been mixed up in some very
mentees be promiscuous?                                     strange scientific snafus, supports this theory. Whether the
                                                            infection of 75 million Africans was deliberate or
The Centers for Disease Control reported in 1981 that       accidental can be debated but there is no room for debate
four percent of those receiving the hepatitis-vaccine       about whether the smallpox shots; "awakened the
were AIDS-infected. In 1984 they admitted to 60             unsuspected virus infection." There is absolutely no
percent. Now they refuse to give out figures at all         scientific evidence that this laboratory-engineered virus was
because they don't want to admit that 100 percent of        present in Africa before the World Health Organization
hepatitis vaccine receivers are infected with AIDS.         descended upon these hapless people in 1967 with their
Where is the data on the hepatitis vaccine studies?         deadly AIDS-laced vaccine. The AIDS virus didn't come
FDA? CDC? No, the U.S Department of Justice has it          from Africa. It came from Fort Detrick, Maryland, U.S.A.
buried where you will never see it. What has the            The situation is extremely desperate and the medical
government told us about AIDS?                              profession is too frightened and cowed (as usual) to take
* It's a homosexual disease-WRONG. (The                     any action. Dr. Strecker attempted to mobilize the doctors
homosexuals certainly spread it but the primary             through some of the most respected medical journals in the
responsibility wasn't theirs.)                              world. The prestigious Annals of Internal Medicine said
                                                            that his material "appears to be entirely concerned with
* It's related to anal intercourse only-WRONG.              matters of virology" and so try some other publication.
* Only a small percentage of those testing positive for     In his letter to The Annals, Strecker said, "If correct human
AIDS would get the disease-WRONG.                           experimental procedures had been followed we would not
* It came from the African green-back monkey-               find half of the world stumbling off on the wrong path to
WRONG.                                                      the cure for AIDS with the other half of the world covering
                                                            up the origination of the damned disease. It appears to me
* It came from the cytomegalovirus-WRONG.                   that your Annals of Internal Medicine is participating in the
* It was due to popping amyl nitrate with sex-              greatest fraud ever perpetrated."
WRONG.                                                      I guess they didn't like that so Strecker submitted his
* It was started 400 years ago by the Portuguese-           sensational and mind-boggling letter with all of the proper
WRONG. (It started in 1972.)                                documentation to the British journal, Lancet. Their reply:
                                                            "Thank you for that interesting letter on AIDS. I am sorry
* You can't get it from insects-WRONG.                      to have to report that we will not be able to publish it. We
* The virus can't live outside the body-WRONG.              have no criticism" but their letter was "overcrowded with
                                                            submissions." They're too crowded to announce the end of
The head of the Human Leukemia Research Group at            western civilization and possibly all mankind? It doesn't
Harvard is a veterinarian. Dr. O. W. Judd, International    seem reasonable.
Agency for Research on Cancer, the agency that
requested the production of the virus in the first place,   What can we do? The first thing that should be done is
is also a veterinarian. The leukemia research he is         close down all laboratories in this country that are dealing
conducting is being done under the auspices of a school     with these deadly retroviruses.
of veterinary medicine.                                     Then we must sort out the insane irresponsible and
Now there is nothing wrong with being a vet but, as we      traitorous scientists involved in these experiments and try
have pointed out, the AIDS virus is a human virus. You      them for murder. Then maybe, just maybe, we can re-staff
can't test viruses in animals and you can't test            the laboratories with people who will work to save a
leukemias in them either. It doesn't work. So why           remnant of people to repopulate and re-civilize the world.
would your government give Judd, a veterinarian, eight      References:
and one-half million dollars to study leukemia in a
veterinary college? As long as we are being used as         1. Allison, et al, Bull WHO 1972. 47:257-63 and Amos, et
experimental animals, maybe it's appropriate.               al. Fed Proc. 1972, 31:1087
The London Times should be congratulated for                2. Omni Magazine, March. 1986, p. 106.
uncovering the smallpox-AIDS connection. But their          3. Jan. 11, 1986. [???]
expose was very misleading. The article states that the     4. London Times Front page, May 11, 1987.
African AIDS epidemic was caused by the smallpox           
vaccine "triggering" AIDS in those vaccinated.                                       ☻☻☻☻☻☻

                                     -12 - Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 5 – Ancient African Medicine,         Sources:
Egypt and the World                             
not changed their design since the ancient Africans
first sent out this knowledge to the world. Today,
researchers are still discovering “new” cures based on    ?category=animals&guid=20070228104530
old Egyptian remedies, such as eating celery to help
curb inflammation associated with arthritis.              Chronicle of the Pharaohs (The Reign-By-Reign Record of the
                                                          Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt) Clayton, Peter A. 1994
Roots of Kemitic Knowledge                                Thames and Hudson Ltd ISBN 0-500-05074-0.
The study further conducted genetic and chemical
analysis on plant remains and resins, with the goal of    Complete Pyramids, The (Solving the Ancient Mysteries) Lehner,
identifying trade routes, which species were used and     Mark 1997 Thames and Hudson, Ltd ISBN 0-500-05084-8.
how these plants might have been cultivated outside
their natural growing ranges.                             Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul
                                                          1995 Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers ISBN 0-8109-3225-3.
After detailed facts gathering and analysis the
scientists proposed that the African Egyptians            History of Ancient Egypt, A Grimal, Nicolas 1988 Blackwell
obtained their medical knowledge from nomadic             None Stated.
African tribes that united to form ancient Egypt, as
well as from neighbouring African people in Kush          Monarchs of the Nile Dodson, Aidan 1995 Rubicon Press ISBN
and beyond.                                               0-948695-20-x.

Current medical practices by the living African           Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian 2000 Oxford
societies and traditions still show similarities to       University Press ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
Pharaohic medicine.                                  
The continued use by African natural Doctors of
medicinal herbs and animal products, and practices
such as cosmetic dental filing, brain trepanning,
                                                           AIDS Epidemic hits Men Hard
orthopedic procedures, known to ancient Egyptians         CDC: More than half of infections among gay and bisexual
suggest sustained scientific and religious interaction                         men in 2006
in the past.
Alas, current studies are revealing that the knowledge    September 11, 2008
of medicine was transferred from central west Africa
                                                          WASHINGTON - AIDS remains largely a disease of gay
to Egypt, just like everything else that was gifted
                                                          and bisexual men in the United States but also
from Kush to Kemet.
                                                          disproportionately infects black women, according to an
This is very significant since it is widely known that    analysis published on Thursday.
the foundations of modern western medicine came
                                                          Last month, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
from Egypt. Around 50 percent of the plants used in
                                                          Prevention reported that more than 56,000 people in the
ancient Egypt remained in clinical use. Medical tools
                                                          United States become newly infected with the human
like forceps, scissors and surgical blades, were lifted
                                                          immunodeficiency virus each year, far more than previous
unchanged from ancient Egyptian medical science
                                                          estimates of about 40,000.
into modern western medicine. Medical practices,
and knowledge of human anatomy, also found their          Now the CDC has further analyzed those numbers to find
way into the body of scientific knowledge underlying      the fatal and incurable virus largely infects men who have
western medicine.                                         sex with men, or MSM — a group that includes gays,
                                                          bisexuals and men who may have the occasional sexual
Since the knowledge of Egyptian medical science
                                                          encounter other men.
was from inner Africa, more precisely central and
western Africa, the world owes this continent and its     "The male-to-male sexual contact transmission category
children a belated tribute, a sound recognition for       represented 72 percent of new infections among males,
having bequeathed the science of healing and hygiene      including 81 percent of new infections among whites, 63
to later cultures and civilizations who still owe the     percent among blacks, and 72 percent among Hispanics,”
unrequited debt of appreciation for Africa’s              the report said.
beneficence.                                                                                      Continued on page 15

                                     -13 - Traditional African Clinic October 2008
  Threat of World Aids Pandemic                               receiving anti-retroviral drugs in the developing world,
                                                              but this is less than a third of the estimated 9.7 million
  among Heterosexuals is Over,                                people who need them. In all there were 33 million
          Report Admits                                       people living with HIV in 2007, 2.5 million people
                                                              became newly infected and 2.1 million died of Aids.
 A 25-year health campaign was misplaced outside
                                                              Aids organisations, including the WHO, UN Aids and
  the continent of Africa. But the disease still kills        the Global Fund, have come under attack for inflating
          more than all wars and conflicts                    estimates of the number of people infected, diverting
                 By Jeremy Laurance                           funds from other health needs such as malaria, spending
                                                              it on the wrong measures such as abstinence programmes
8 June 2008                                                   rather than condoms, and failing to build up health
The Independent                                               systems.
 A quarter of a century after the outbreak of Aids, the       Dr De Cock labelled these the "four malignant
World Health Organisation (WHO) has accepted that the         arguments" undermining support for the global campaign
threat of a global heterosexual pandemic has disappeared.     against Aids, which still faced formidable challenges,
In the first official admission that the universal            despite the receding threat of a generalised epidemic
prevention strategy promoted by the major Aids                beyond Africa.
organisations may have been misdirected, Kevin de             Any revision of the threat was liable to be seized on by
Cock, the head of the WHO's department of HIV/Aids            those who rejected HIV as the cause of the disease, or
said there will be no generalised epidemic of Aids in the     who used the disease as a weapon to stigmatise high risk
heterosexual population outside Africa.                       groups, he said. "Aids still remain the leading infectious
Dr De Cock, an epidemiologist who has spent much of           disease challenge in public health. It is an acute infection
his career leading the battle against the disease, said       but a chronic disease. It is for the very, very long haul.
understanding of the threat posed by the virus had            People are backing off, saying it is taking care of itself.
changed. Whereas once it was seen as a risk to                It is not."
populations everywhere, it was now recognised that,           Critics of the global Aids strategy complain that vast
outside sub-Saharan Africa, it was confined to high-risk      sums are being spent educating people about the disease
groups including men who have sex with men, injecting         who are not at risk, when a far bigger impact could be
drug users, and sex workers and their clients.                achieved by targeting high-risk groups and focusing on
Dr De Cock said: "It is very unlikely there will be a         interventions known to work, such as circumcision,
heterosexual epidemic in other countries. Ten years ago a     which cuts the risk of infection by 60 per cent, and
lot of people were saying there would be a generalised        reducing the number of sexual partners.
epidemic in Asia – China was the big worry with its huge      There were "elements of truth" in the criticism, Dr De
population. That doesn't look likely. But we have to be       Cock said. "You will not do much about Aids in London
careful. As an epidemiologist it is better to describe what   by spending the funds in schools. You need to go where
we can measure. There could be small outbreaks in some        transmission is occurring. It is true that countries have
areas."                                                       not always been good at that."
In 2006, the Global Fund for HIV, Malaria and                 But he rejected an argument put in The New York Times
Tuberculosis, which provides 20 per cent of all funding       that only $30m (£15m) had been spent on safe water
for Aids, warned that Russia was on the cusp of a             projects, far less than on Aids, despite knowledge of the
catastrophe. An estimated 1 per cent of the population        risks that contaminated water pose.
was infected, mainly through injecting drug use, the same
level of infection as in South Africa in 1991 where the       "It sounds a good argument. But where is the scandal?
prevalence of the infection has since risen to 25 per cent.   That less than a third of Aids patients are being treated –
                                                              or that we have never resolved the safe water scandal?"
Dr De Cock said: "I think it is unlikely there will be
extensive heterosexual spread in Russia. But clearly there    One of the danger areas for the Aids strategy was among
will be some spread."                                         men who had sex with men. He said: "We face a bit of a
                                                              crisis [in this area]. In the industrialised world
Aids still kills more adults than all wars and conflicts      transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men
combined, and is vastly bigger than current efforts to        is not declining and in some places has increased.
address it. A joint WHO/UN Aids report published this
month showed that nearly three million people are now                                                Continue on page 15

                                     -14- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 14 – Threat of World HIV Pandemic        especially in the black community.
Among Heterosexuals is Over
                                                             "The alarming number of new infections among young
"In the developing world, it has been neglected. We have     black MSM underscores the need to ensure that each new
only recently started looking for it and when we look, we    generation has the knowledge and skills to prevent HIV
find it. And when we examine HIV rates we find they are      infection beginning early in their lives," the report reads.
                                                             Girls and women made up 27 percent of new infections,
"It is astonishing how badly we have done with men who       with high-risk sexual contact with men causing 80
have sex with men. It is something that is going to have     percent of new infections.
to be discussed much more rigorously."
                                                             "Among females, 61 percent of infections were in blacks,
The biggest puzzle was what had caused heterosexual          23 percent were in whites, and 16 percent were in
spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa – with           Hispanics," the CDC report reads.
infection rates exceeding 40 per cent of adults in
Swaziland, the worst-affected country – but nowhere          There is no cure for the AIDS virus, which is transmitted
else. "It is the question we are asked most often – why is   in bodily fluids such as blood, semen and breast milk.
the situation so bad in sub-Saharan Africa? It is a          Around the world, sexual contact is by far the most
combination of factors – more commercial sex workers,        common mode of transmission although people who use
more ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases, a young       contaminated needles can be infected, and blood
population and concurrent sexual partnerships."              transfusions also can cause infection.

"Sexual behaviour is obviously important but it doesn't      "African-Americans make up 12 percent of the total U.S.
seem to explain [all] the differences between populations.   population, yet represented 45 percent of new HIV
Even if the total number of sexual partners [in sub-         infections in the United States in 2006," the CDC wrote.
Saharan Africa] is no greater than in the UK, there seems    Globally, 33 million people are infected with HIV and 25
to be a higher frequency of overlapping sexual               million have died of it. There is no vaccine or cure
partnerships creating sexual networks that, from an          although drug cocktails can help control the infection.
epidemiological point of view, are more efficient at
spreading infection."
Low rates of circumcision, which is protective, and high
rates of genital herpes, which causes ulcers on the               Common Gene makes
genitals through which the virus can enter the body, also
contributed to Africa's heterosexual epidemic.                 Africans more Vulnerable to
But the factors driving HIV were still not fully                          HIV
understood, he said.                                                            James Randerson
"The impact of HIV is so heterogeneous. In the US , the
rate of infection among men in Washington DC is well         July 17, 2008
over 100 times higher than in North Dakota, the region
with the lowest rate. That is in one country. How do you     Around 11% of HIV infections in Africa may be due to a
explain such differences?"                                   genetic variant common in people of African descent that
                                                             makes them more vulnerable to the virus. The genetic          change, which is less prevalent in other ethnic groups,
                                                             increases the likelihood of infection with the most com
Continued from page 13 - Aids Epidemic Hits Men              mon strain of the virus (HIV-1) by 40%. Once infection
Hard                                                         has occurred, though, the genetic variant slows the
                                                             progression of the disease, prolonging the patient's life by
Of the new infections in 2006, more than half were           around two years.
among gay and bisexual men, the CDC found. Of these,
46 percent of new infections were among whites, 35           The newly discovered genetic factor may go some way to
percent among blacks and 19 percent in Hispanics.            explaining why AIDS is so prevalent in sub-Saharan
                                                             Africa. According to the World Health Organisation,
But among the overall U.S. population, more blacks are       there were 4.3 million people newly infected with HIV
affected — 46 percent of new infections were among           worldwide in 2006 and 2.9 million deaths from AIDS-
blacks.                                                      related illnesses. Around a third of all new infections and
The CDC said it needed to redouble prevention efforts,                                             Continued on page 17
                                     -15- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
             African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9                          NEWSLETTER                                                     October 2008

                                      FEATURED ARTICLES
                             “What are Duffy Antigens?”
An antigen is a molecule that will set off the forces of     In 1950, the Duffy blood group was named for the
the immune system to get rid of things that may be bad       multiply transfused hemophiliac whose serum
for us.                                                      contained the first example of anti-Fya. In 1951, the
                                                             antibody to the antithetical antigen, Fyb, was discovered
Scientists are just starting to realize that the antigen
                                                             in the serum of a woman who had been pregnant three
molecules that distinguish one blood type from another
                                                             times. Using these antibodies three common
have a lot of other important jobs elsewhere in our
                                                             phenotypes were defined: Fy(a+b+), Fy(a+b-), and
                                                             Fy(a-b+). Differences in the racial distribution of the
Here's how it works. All our cells have numerous             Duffy antigens were discovered four years later when it
molecules on the surface that, like little billboards,       was reported that the majority of Blacks had the
announce, `This cell is part of us. It's supposed to be      erythrocyte phenotype Fy(a-b-). This phenotype is
here. Do not attack!'                                        exceedingly rare in Whites. The frequency of the Fy(a-
Immune system cells traveling around in our blood are        b-) phenotype is 68 percent in American Blacks and 88-
trained to recognize self molecules and pass right by.       100 percent in African Blacks. The absence of Duffy
But if our immune system inspects a foreign cell in our      antigens on erythrocytes results in their resistance to
blood and doesn't recognize a molecule on the surface,       invasion by two malaria parasites, Plasmodium vivax
it treats that molecule as an antigen and attacks. That      and Plasmodium knowlesi. This racial variation in
attack often involves creating a molecule called an          distribution of the Duffy system antigens provides one
antibody designed specifically to fit the unique shape of    of the few known examples of selective advantage
the foreign antigen. The antibody attaches to the            conferred by a blood group phenotype. The Duffy
antigen and, like a chemical loudspeaker, summons            genes, located on chromosome one at position 1922-23,
other components of the immune system to come                have recently been cloned and sequenced. The
destroy the invader.                                         difference between Fya and Fyb is a change in the
                                                             amino acid at position 43 from aspartic acid (Fya) to
In 1901 Karl Landsteiner of Austria noticed that some        glycine (Fyb). Studies have shown that blacks whose
red blood cells had one kind of molecule on their outer      erythrocytes express Fyb antigen also have the antigen
surface, which he labeled simply A, and some had a           on the cells of their kidney, heart, muscle, brain and
different one that he labeled B.                             placenta. The Duffy gene codes for a protein known as
Some didn't have either, and he called those O (as in        a chemokine receptor, which is important in the
zero, not the letter ``o''.) Those molecules turned out to   inflammatory process.
be antigens. The discovery made transfusions possible        Rh is another well-known red blood cell antigen.
and earned Landsteiner a Nobel prize. Since then,            Rhesus monkeys experimentally transfused with human
we've discovered nearly 300 different antigens on red        blood made the antibody this time, thus the Rh.
blood cells, with names like Duffy, Lutheran,
Dombrock, Kidd, Diego, P, Yt, and Kx.                        If you have this antigen (there are actually 40 antigens
                                                             in the Rh family) you're Rh positive. If you don't,
They're mostly named for the people whose blood              you're Rh negative. Rh and ABO antigens are the most
carried unique antibodies. Like Mr. Duffy, the English       important ones determining whether a transfusion will
patient who got sick after a transfusion. He received the    work.
right ABO type. But there was another antigen on the
transfused blood that his immune system didn't like. It      But nature didn't put antigens on our red blood cells to
made a special antibody cell nobody had ever seen            make sure transfusions would work. Transfusions are
before to fit onto and attack that antigen. That antigen     not a natural occurrence. So what's going on?
was named Duffy.                                                                                Continued on page 17

                                      -16- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 17 – “What are Duffy Antigens”
                                                               Scientists make Gene Link to
It turns out that these molecules are involved in many
other biological processes.                                        African HIV Epidemic
Remember Duffy? Well, many Africans and African-                         Mark Henderson, Science Editor
Americans don't have a Duffy antigen. As a result, they
can survive a form of malaria that infects the cell only if    From The Times
it can attach to Duffy. No Duffy antigen, no P. vivax          July 17, 2008
                                                                A genetic variant peculiar to Africans substantially raises
Remember the P antigen? One species of E. coli bacteria        their risk of infection with HIV, according to research
needs that molecule to attach to tissue cells in the urinary   that suggests evolved susceptibility may be helping to
tracts of children. Some children have that molecule.          drive the continent’s Aids epidemic.
Some don't. Those without it don't get that kind of urinary
                                                               The 90 per cent of Africans who carry the DNA variation
                                                               are 40 per cent more likely to contract HIV than those
The molecule that the bacterium H. pylori attaches to in       without it, after similar exposure to the virus, scientists
the stomach lining to cause ulcers is an antigen when it's     from Britain and America have found.
on red blood cells.
                                                               As the genetic change is common among people of
On some non-blood cells, antigens appear, or disappear,        African ancestry but virtually unknown among other
or change, as tumors go from benign to cancerous. Some         ethnic groups, it could explain in part why HIV-Aids is
antigen molecules appear to play a role in helping cancer      more prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The United
spread through the body. Some help blood cell                  Nations estimates that 22.5 million people there are HIV-
membranes maintain their shape. Some help cells process        positive, more than two thirds of the global total of
proteins.                                                      approximately 33.2 million.
Statistical associations, which don’t automatically prove      The variant, known as “Duffy-negative”, is so common in
cause and effect, show that A's have more cancers than         Africa that it could be responsible for about 11 per cent
O's and that O's bleed more than A's. B's defecate the         of the continent’s HIV burden, or 2.5 million cases,
most. O's have the best teeth, but suffer more than other      scientists said.
blood types from plague infections. A's have the worst
                                                               “It is an Africa-specific variant, which is why it’s so
                                                               interesting in the context of Aids research,” said Robin
There are wide racial, ethnic, and geographic differences      Weiss, Professor of Infection and Immunity at University
in blood types around the world. There are twice as many       College London, a member of the study team.
O's among native Australians as among Japanese.
                                                               “It could certainly be a contributing factor to the scale of
Eskimos in Greenland are 25 times more likely to be B's
                                                               the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It’s the first time, so
than Navajos in North America. Citizens of India are four
                                                               far as we understand, that a genetic factor that increases
times more likely to be B's than residents of England.
                                                               susceptibility to infection has come into play.”
All the findings suggest that molecules that distinguish
                                                               Sexual behaviour is also involved in the epidemic in
blood types probably developed differently in different
                                                               Africa, the only part of the world in which it
people as part of the random processes of mutation and
                                                               predominantly affects heterosexuals.
evolution. As nature tests which ones are best, some will
offer advantages, some disadvantages, in ways that             The Duffy-negative gene has probably spread so widely
immuno-hematologists like Garratty are only beginning          through the African population because it provides
to understand.                                                 resistance to a form of malaria called Plasmodium vivax.
                                                               Professor Weiss believes it may also once have increased
                                                               resistance against a precursor of the most deadly malaria
                         hy/112398.htm                         parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                    These traits would have been highly advantageous in
                                                               evolutionary Africa. As HIV is a new human pathogen,
                                                               thought to have jumped from chimpanzees to people
                                                               between 1910 and 1950, the gene’s effect on the virus
                                                               would have had no negative consequences until recently.
                                                                                                     Continued on page 18
                                        -17- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 18 – Scientists make Gene Link to             is complicated because the disease has developed
African HI Epidemic                                               resistance to the most commonly used treatments. A sur-
“Something that protected against malaria in the past is          vey comprising of Semi-Structured Interviews and a
now leaving the host more susceptible to HIV,” Professor          questionnaire was undertaken in the rural villages of
Weiss said.                                                       Buseete and Busambira found in Kamuli district, Uganda,
                                                                  to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of
Matthew Dolan, of the San Antonio Military Medical                malaria and to document existing knowledge, attitudes
Centre in Texas, said: “After thousands of years of               and practices related to malaria recognition, control and
adaptation, this Duffy variant rose to high frequency             treatment.
because it helped protect against malaria. Now, with
another global pandemic on the scene, this same variant           The people were knowledgeable about malaria. Malaria
renders people more susceptible to HIV. It shows the              attacked individuals an average of six times a year.
complex interplay between historically important                  Conditions favoring the breeding of mosquitoes, such as
diseases and susceptibility in contemporary times.”               dense bush, were evident in all homesteads. Preferred
                                                                  malaria treatment was biased towards the Allopathic
For the study, published in the journal Cell Host &               Medicine (AM) system. This preference for AM was
Microbe, scientists examined a group of US Air Force              attributed to ignorance of how to exploit herbal medicines
personnel, of whom more than 1,200 are HIV-positive,              for the treatment of malaria and also to the belief that
and who have been followed for nearly 22 years. The               allopathic medicines were superior to herbal medicines.
Duffy-negative genotype was seen almost exclusively in
African-Americans.                                                Some respondents stated a preference to herbal
                                                                  medicines, though. This preference was motivated by the
A continent cursed                                                free and ready accessibility to plants. Knowledge of using
— Sub-Saharan Africa is the globe’s most Aids-affected            herbal medicines was average and was mainly restricted
region. In 2005, 24.5 million of its people were living           to women.
with HIV and of all Aids sufferers, 64 per cent live there
                                                                  Twenty seven species were reportedly used in
— In 2005, about 2.7 million people became infected               antimalarial herbal preparations. The most frequently
with HIV and more than two million died                           mentioned species were Vernonia amygdalina,
                                                                  Momordica foetida, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Lantana
— More than two million children under 15 are HIV-                camara and Mangifera indica. Concoctions were prepared
positive and more than 90 per cent live in Africa                 as cold extracts and were administered in variable doses.
— About 12 million African children under 17 have lost            It is proposed that the most frequently mentioned species
one or both parents to Aids                                       be considered for further research to evaluate their
                                                                  efficacy and safety.
— About 72 per cent of all people needing anti-retroviral
treatment live in Africa, and only one in six receives the
necessary medicine                                                                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻

— Swaziland has the highest HIV rate, at 33.4 per cent of
population. Botswana has 24.1 per cent and Zimbabwe
                                                                   9 Million Children Worldwide
20.1 per cent     Source: UNAids                                         Died Before Age 5     Rate of under-five mortality dipped slightly from
                        345263.ece                                                2006, UNICEF says
     Herbal Medicines for the                                     September 11, 2008
     Treatment of Malaria in                                      LONDON - More than 9 million children globally died
                                                                  before their fifth birthday in 2007, down slightly from
     Kamuli District, Uganda                                      2006, but a huge gap remains between rich and poor
                                                                  countries, especially in Africa, UNICEF said on Friday.
                John R.S. Tabuti
       Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda                       Efforts to promote breastfeeding, immunizations and
                                                                  anti-malaria measures have helped cut child deaths to 9.2
Abstract                                                          million from 9.7 million a year ago and 12.7 million in
Malaria is the single most important cause of ill health,         1990, the figures from the United Nations Children’s
death and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its management           Fund showed.                       Continued on page 19
                              -18- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 18 – 9 Million Children Worldwide
Died Before Age 5                                              Malaria Drug ‘Contributing to
“Since 1960, the global under-five mortality rate has             Antibiotic Resistance’
declined more than 60 percent, and the new data shows
the downward trend continues,” UNICEF Executive
                                                              Daily Monitor
Director Ann Veneman said in a statement.
                                                              August 3, 2008
Improvements in Latin America and the Caribbean,
                                                               A new study shows that overuse of a drug used to
Central and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and
                                                              prevent and treat malaria may be contributing to growing
in parts of Asia drove the overall decline, but deaths
                                                              resistance to a related antibiotic.
remain high in sub-Saharan Africa where one in seven
children dies before age 5.                                   Researchers report in the journal PloS ONE that
                                                              Escherichia coli bacteria resistant to the antibiotic
AIDS is still a major killer of children in sub-Saharan
                                                              ciprofloxacin – a type of fluroquinolone – were detected
Africa, though countries such as Eritrea, Malawi,
                                                              in the digestive tracts of villagers from remote rainforest
Mozambique, Niger and Ethiopia have made significant
                                                              communities in Guyana, despite them never having been
progress in cutting mortality rates, UNICEF said.
                                                              given the drug.
“Sub-Saharan Africa now accounts for almost half of the
                                                              Most of the villagers had been given the drug chloroquine
9.2 million deaths among children in this age group
                                                              – a drug closely related to ciprofloxacin – to prevent and
annually,” according to the UNICEF report published in
                                                              treat malaria.
the journal Lancet.
                                                              535 villagers were sampled for resistant bacteria in the
“High levels of fertility...together with high levels of
                                                              three-year study, with 4.8 per cent found to be carrying
mortality in children aged less than 5 years have led to an
                                                              ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli.
increase in the absolute number of deaths (in this
region).”                                                     Guyana recorded over 11,000 cases of malaria last year,
                                                              the Minister of Health, Dr. Leslie Ramsammy, told
Worldwide, the death rate for children under age 5 was
                                                              SciDev.Net. He said the findings were “interesting” and
68 per 1,000 live births in 2007, down from the 93 per
                                                              that the Ministry of Health would commission its own
1,000 in 1990 and 72 per 1,000 a year ago.
                                                              study to test the accuracy of the research results.
Sierra Leone had the worst under-five mortality rate in
                                                              The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used throughout the world
the world with 262 out of every 1,000 children dying
                                                              to treat bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary
before their fifth birthday. The rate in industrialized
                                                              tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. This is
nations was 6 per 1,000.
                                                              the first study to show that resistance can emerge in
A number of countries, including Laos, Bangladesh,            individuals never exposed to the antibiotic.
Bolivia and Nepal, have also made good progress toward
                                                              Drug resistant bacteria are known to arise from overuse
meeting global targets to reduce the child mortality rates
                                                              of antibiotics, which is why researchers were surprised to
by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, UNICEF said.
                                                              discover that they can develop in areas that do not have
“Recent data also indicate encouraging improvements in        access to ciprofloxacin, says study co author Michael
many of the basic health interventions, such as early and     Silverman, an infectious disease specialist at Lakeridge
exclusive breast feeding, measles immunization, Vitamin       Health Network in Ontario, Canada.
A supplementation, the use of insecticide-treated nets to
                                                              In fact, he says, ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli were even
prevent malaria, and prevention and treatment of AIDS,”
                                                              more widespread in remote Guyanese villages than in the
Veneman said.
                                                              United States intensive care units “where every second
“These interventions are expected to result in further        person is on antibiotics”.
declines in child mortality over the coming years.”
                                                              E. coli is one of the most common causes of infection in
       URL:             humans. A decade ago it was nearly universally
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                   susceptible to ciprofloxacin,” says Andrew Simor, a
                                                              senior scientist at the Sunnybrooke Health sciences
                                                              Center at the University of Toronto.
                                                              Today, he says, as many as 30 per cent of hospital
                                                              patients tested have E. coli that fails to respond to
                      ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                  ciprofloxacin.                    Continued on page 20
                            -19- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 19 – Malaria Drug Contributing to         malaria has helped HIV infect hundreds of thousands
Antibiotic Resistance                                         and perhaps millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.
Resistance to ciprofloxacin could be an important             AIDS was first identified a quarter century ago.
public health problem in areas where malaria is               At the same time, HIV fuels malaria's spread because
endemic - and therefore chloroquine use common –              HIV-infected people are more susceptible to malaria as
because ciprofloxacin and other fluroquinolones could         a result of HIV ravaging the immune system, the body's
be less effective, write the authors.                         natural defenses, the researchers said.
Silverman stressed that the study highlights the need to      AIDS and malaria are concentrated in sub-Saharan
continue to try to prevent malaria through the use of         Africa. Abu-Raddad said scientists were puzzled when
insecticide-treated bed nets, along with the                  they realized that the risky sexual behavior by people in
development of an effective vaccine.                          the region was not by itself sufficient to explain the
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                   swift spread of HIV, so other factors must be involved.

      Malaria Fuels HIV/Aids                                  They focused their work on Kisumu, a Kenyan city by
                                                              Lake Victoria where HIV and malaria are both
        Spread In Africa                                      common. They said 5 percent of HIV infections can be
                                                              blamed on the increased HIV viral load due to malaria,
                   By Will Dunham                             and 10 percent of adult malaria cases can be blamed on
December 8, 2006                                              HIV.
Note - What the story ISN'T saying is that mosquitoes         Since 1980, 8,500 more people got HIV infections, and
are SPREADING HIV. Every time a mosquito or ANY               there were 980,000 more episodes of malaria (a person
biting insect takes blood from an infected human and          can get it more than once) in a city whose adult
then bites the next person, scores of viruses and             population is 200,000, the study found.
bacteria are transmitted. To write a news story without
                                                              PUBLIC HEALTH EFFORTS
pointing to the obvious disease-vectoring reality of
                                                              The findings have implications for public health efforts,
mosquitoes is gross deception at the least. This is a         Abu-Raddad said, showing the importance for
particularly odious statement: "Higher viral load             authorities to tackle these diseases together.
causes more HIV transmission, and malaria causes
high HIV viral load.” Mosquitoes are already KNOWN            Of the 39.5 million people worldwide infected with
to transmit over 70 different retroviruses. HIV is a          HIV, 24.7 are in the poor countries of sub-Saharan
retrovirus...but there is no mention of any of this in the    Africa. About 2.1 million of the world's 2.9 million
following story. - ed                                         AIDS deaths in the past year were in this region.
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Malaria may be helping                 Malaria kills more than a million people annually,
spread the AIDS virus across Africa, the continent            mostly young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
hardest hit by the incurable disease, scientists said on      The researchers produced their results with a
Thursday.                                                     mathematical model using HIV and malaria infection
The way the two diseases interact greatly expands the         data gathered in Malawi by James Kublin of the
prevalence of both among people in sub-Saharan                Hutchinson Center. This enabled them to quantify for
Africa, a team of scientists said in a study in the journal   the first time the synergy between malaria on HIV and
Science.                                                      its toll on people.
Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite,       Scientists previously determined that a lack of male
greatly boosts viral load -- the amount of human              circumcision and the incidence of genital herpes also
immunodeficiency virus in the blood of infected people        were facilitating the spread of HIV. Abu-Raddad noted
-- making them more likely to infect a sex partner with       that circumcised men are much less likely to get HIV,
HIV, they stated.                                             and that genital herpes opens a door for HIV to infect a
"Higher viral load causes more HIV transmission, and
malaria causes high HIV viral load," said lead study          Abu-Raddad said malaria now can be considered a
author Laith Abu-Raddad of the Fred Hutchinson                third serious factor facilitating the spread of HIV.
Cancer Research Center in Seattle and the University of       The two diseases drive one another even though they
Washington.                                                   have different modes of transmission-- malaria by mos-
Abu-Raddad, an AIDS researcher, estimated that                                                    Continued on page 21
                             -20- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 20 – Malaria Fuels HIV Spread in
Africa                                                          Scientists Map Genomes of
quito and HIV predominantly by sexual intercourse,                   Malaria Parasites
Abu-Raddad noted.                                                Discovery will help in creating new treatments,
Abu-Raddad said once an HIV person gets malaria, his                       vaccines, researchers say
or her viral load goes up and stays higher for six to          Reuters
eight weeks, making the person far more infectious to          October 8, 2008
others.                                                        WASHINGTON - Scientists have mapped the genomes                of the parasite that causes most cases of malaria outside
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                    Africa and a monkey parasite that is emerging as an
                                                               important cause of malaria in people in Southeast Asia.
Continued from page 15 - Common Gene Makes                     This information should help guide efforts to develop
Africans More Vulnerable to HIV                                new drugs and vaccines to fight the mosquito-borne
AIDS- related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa,              disease, two teams of researchers wrote in the journal
where there are eight countries in which adult HIV             Nature on Wednesday.
prevalence exceeds 15% of the population.                      "It's going to be a very powerful tool," Jane Carlton of
Ironically, scientists believe that the genetic variant is     New York University Langone Medical Center said.
at such high levels in Africa because it conferred             A team led by Carlton worked out the complete genetic
resistance to a now extinct form of malaria.                   sequence of the parasite Plasmodium vivax, which
A team of British and US researchers studied a group           causes malaria in Latin America and Asian countries
of 3,484 people in the US Air Force, of whom 1,266             including India, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia,
were infected with HIV. They tested each for a gene            Melanesia and the Korean peninsula.
variant called Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines           It accounts for up to 40 percent of malaria globally,
(DARC), which has been extensively studied in the past         with an estimated 2.6 billion people threatened by the
because of its ability to confer resistance to one form of     parasite.
the malaria parasite. The gene is known to be common
among people of African descent.                               Although the malaria it causes is only occasionally
                                                               fatal, it triggers severe symptoms such as repeated
The team report in the journal Cell, Host and Microbe          episodes of high fever followed by headache, chills and
that subjects who were DARC-negative were more                 profuse sweating, vomiting, diarrhea and enlargement
likely to be infected with HIV. The gene variant               of the spleen.
appeared to make them 40% more susceptible to
infection.                                                     The vivax parasite can remain dormant in the liver only
                                                               to re-emerge and cause relapses months or years after
By extrapolating this figure to the number of people in        the initial illness. The researchers found genes that may
Africa with the same genetic variation, the researchers        be responsible for this dormancy, perhaps paving the
estimate that 11% of all HIV infections in the continent       way for scientists to find ways to disrupt it.
are due to this increased susceptibility.
                                                               The researchers identified genes in the parasite that
"The mystery of variable infection and progression was         seem to help it invade a person's red blood cells and
originally thought to be mainly the result of viral            evade the immune system. The parasite is becoming
characteristics, but in recent years it has become             resistant to some antimalarial drugs.
evident that there is a strong host genetic component,"
said team member Dr Sunil Ahuja of the University of           A team led by Arnab Pain of the Wellcome Trust
Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio.                    Sanger Institute in Britain deciphered the full genetic
                                                               sequence of the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi.
"The big message of this paper is that something that
protected people against malaria in the past is now            This parasite is rapidly establishing itself as the fifth
leaving them more susceptible to HIV," said Robin              human-infecting malaria parasite and has emerged as a
Weiss of University College London, who also worked            considerable health problem in Southeast Asia, Pain
on the study.                                                  said.      The researchers also found a trick used by the knowlesi
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                    parasite to avoid detection by the immune system.
                                                                                                 Continued on page 32
                             -21- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
                                                             The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has
  Malaria Builds Resistance,                                 supported malaria efforts, is also expected to announce
         Kills Millions                                      new funding toward malaria medicines, controls and
                                                             vaccine research this weekend.
                GLENN McKENZIE
                                                             "We hope that malaria gets some additional visibility,"
Associated Press                                             Bill Gates, the Microsoft tycoon, said in a conference call
September 20, 2003                                           with journalists. "Of those million people who die,
LAGOS, Nigeria - Malaria, the ancient mosquito-borne         overwhelmingly those are children. ... This is something
disease that was rolled back by medical advances in the      we should demand more action on."
mid-20th century, is making a deadly comeback.               Malaria campaigners complain that despite the increased
Strains of the disease are becoming increasingly             focus, their efforts remain woefully underfunded.
resistant to treatment, infecting and killing more people    Whereas AIDS vaccine research receives $400 million a
than ever before - sickening as many as 900 million last     year, malaria research receives just $60 million.
year, according to estimates by the U.S. Agency for          While donors commit an estimated $200 million each
International Development.                                   year to treating impoverished patients and distributing
More than 1 million people - and as many as 2.7              mosquito nets and insecticides to prevent mosquito bites
million by some estimates - of those victims died. The       that transmit the disease, experts say they need at least $1
vast majority of the deaths were in Africa.                  billion to make a dent.

Shivering and sweating feverishly, Felicia Egbuchue          "Malaria has to some extent been forgotten by the
took the malaria medicine her doctor prescribed.             international community," said Allan Schapira, a senior
Although it had cured her in years past, this time it        official in WHO's Rollback Malaria program. "Apart
didn't. She was rushed to the hospital, and hooked up to     from AIDS, it is the single worst child health problem
an intravenous drip.                                         that we haven't got a grip on."

"I have no inner strength. I feel like I'm dying," the 30-   In Nigeria, a nation of 126 million people where
year-old university student said from her hospital bed.      government officials estimate up to one-quarter of the
                                                             world's malaria deaths occur, researchers at the national
After three days in a private hospital in Nigeria's          Nigerian Institute of Medical Research test malaria
commercial capital of Lagos, Egbuchue recovered from         treatments and other drugs on mice in a single tiny,
what doctors said was a strain that had become resistant     stiflingly hot laboratory.
to many of the standard treatments.
                                                             "The resources available in Nigeria for this work are
"Malaria is something that we thought we had                 limited or even nonexistent," research director Philip
conquered years ago. But more and more of our people         Agomo said.
are dying from it every day," said Patrick Dike, a
malaria specialist at the Lagos hospital.                    A major cause of malaria's alarming resurgence is the
                                                             parasite's increasing resistance to the drugs used to treat
Only AIDS kills more people worldwide. Among child           and prevent the disease - including chloroquine, the
ren, malaria kills even more than AIDS.                      cheapest and most effective anti-malarial since the 1950s.
The economic cost of malaria is also high - in countries     The number of alternatives are limited. The WHO
of Africa, Asia and Latin America where the disease is       supports use of multi-drug combinations based on
endemic, the World Health Organization estimates up          artemisinin, until recently an extract from the "sweet
to $12 billion are lost annually to the disease.             wormwood" plant used in China for centuries but little
Americans traveling abroad also are at risk. Of the 225      known in the West.
Marines and Navy forces who went ashore to assist            Yet aid agency officials say that artemisinin is not yet
West African peacekeepers in Liberia, 51 showed              produced in large enough quantities to affordably treat
symptoms - an unusually high rate, U.S. officials said.      the large numbers of Africans who need it most.
International efforts to contain or even eradicate the       Some governments and Western donors have been
disease have received a boost in recent years with           hesitant to promote the treatment widely because of a
major grants from the U.S. government and from the           lack of funds - artemisinin is 10 times more expensive
$4.7 billion five-year U.N. Global Fund for Aids,            than chloroquine, or between $4.50 and $9 for a three-
Tuberculosis and Malaria.                                    day treatment.
                                                                                                   Continued on page 23
                            -22- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 22 – Malaria Builds Resistance          malaria drugs.
"It is definitely the future," Anne Peterson, head of       A team of French and Cameroonian scientists made the
global health for USAID in Washington, said of              discovery after collecting samples of Anopheles
artemisinin-based drugs. "Yet it is far more expensive      mosquitoes from five localities including Oveng village
and harder to get out to the numbers of people who          -- which lies between two rivers near the border with
need it."                                                   Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.
The Nobel Prize-winning international humanitarian          "It is then that we discovered that the samples from
group Medecins Sans Frontieres is urging the United         Oveng village were different from existing varieties in
States and other Western governments to support and         terms of morphology and behaviour," Parfait Herman
fund artemisinin-based therapy regimens. It notes           Awono-Ambene, one of the scientists who carried out
chloroquine and other drugs have become ineffective in      the research, told Reuters on Friday.
up to 80 percent of malaria cases in some countries.
                                                            Mosquitoes from the Anopheles group transmit malaria
"Donors must stop wasting their money funding drugs         -- which kills roughly 3,000 people every day -- to
that don't work," MSF said in a report.                     humans along rivers in Africa. The results of the study
Peterson, the USAID official, said that until it receives   were published in the July issue of the Journal of
more funds, the U.S. agency will support the use of the     Medical Entomology.
"cheapest, most effective drugs" in countries where         "The interesting thing about Oveng Form is that it is
they still have use.                                        hardly found inside houses though it bites human
Dike, the Lagos doctor, said in the absence of              beings just like others and contains the malaria-carrying
affordable alternatives, he and some colleagues have in     agent Plasmodium falciparum," Awono-Ambene said,
desperation begun exchanging information about what         referring to the most life-threatening form of the
available combinations work best to treat patients.         disease.

"People don't understand why their relatives are            He said the mosquito found in Oveng becomes very
sometimes not recovering, or why they are not being         active at dusk, feeding on people who live near or along
cured as quickly as they are used to being cured. How       the banks of the two rivers.
do you explain drug resistance? When they are               More research will need to be carried out to determine
suffering, the doctor is blamed."                           whether this variety is only present in Oveng village,          but Awono-Ambene said the mosquito was also likely
                    ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                  to exist in neighbouring Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.
                                                            Malaria costs Africa around $12 billion a year in lost
       New Malaria-Carrying                                 income.
        Mosquito Found in                                   In Cameroon, it represents 35 to 40 percent of deaths in
                                                            hospitals and is responsible for 40 percent of deaths
           Cameroon                                         among children aged between zero and five.
                   By Tansa Musa                            The country's public health authorities are promoting
24 July 2004                                                the use of impregnated nets to fight the disease, but
                                                            adequate nets are not always easily available and at
YAOUNDE, July 24 (Reuters) - A new form of                  3,500 CFA francs ($6.5) they are often too expensive
mosquito carrying the parasite responsible for the most     for the average household.
deadly form of malaria, Africa's biggest killer alongside
HIV/AIDS, has been discovered in a village in southern
Cameroon, researchers say.                                                         ☻☻☻☻☻☻

Discovery     of     the  hitherto-unknown      variety,                      FYI – In Uganda
provisionally dubbed "Oveng Form" after the village         25-40 Percent of outpatients visit health centres due to
where it was found, is likely to make the fight against     Malaria.
the malaria in Cameroon even more difficult,
researchers say, although more research is needed.          20 Percent of hospital admissions and 15 per cent of
                                                            in-patients deaths are due to Malaria.
It joins four other species already known in the central
African country, all of them resistant to common anti-      Malaria is the leading cause of death in Uganda.
                            -23- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
                                                            treatment in the area of enforced HIV illness. And the
  Scientists say Africa Must                                letter has been sent to one of the prominent figure
  Make Own Drugs to Fight                                   within the African community. We will appreciate if
                                                            you can pass on this letter to other African people
        AIDS, Malaria                                       within the community.
           By ELLIOTT SYLVESTER                             I believe that the human and health rights of Africans in
                                                            New Zealand are being severely transgressed in the
Associated Press
                                                            testing, diagnosis and treatment (especially when
March 20, 2003
                                                            enforced) of HIV disease. This discrimination is
STELLENBOSCH, South Africa - Scientists chal-               manifest in several forms.
lenged African nations Thursday to produce their own
                                                            Simply being Black African in New Zealand is seen as
generic drugs - not just rely on pharmaceutical giants to
                                                            “high risk” compared to being tested in African
help fight AIDS, malaria and other diseases ravaging
                                                            countries. This is an important consideration in relation
the continent.
                                                            to interpretation of the tests (because the interpretation
African nations lag behind countries such as Cuba and       is arbitrary). The staff deciding the test results are
India that produce "homegrown" medicines, Gordon            informed in their own 2000 handbook: “By mid 1999,
Dougan, a British vaccine expert, told a conference on      1,355 patients had been reported with HIV infection
the human genome initiative.                                since the beginning of the epidemic and 678 with
"We need to reinvent local production of high quality       AIDS.
generic vaccines," Dougan said. "Countries are no           Currently there are about 700 HIV infected people
longer producing their own vaccines, and this is why        living in New Zealand of whom 107 have AIDS.
huge pharmaceutical companies control the industry."        Homosexual males remain the biggest identifiable risk
More than 300 scientists from 16 countries are in           group (63% now) but in the last 18 months infected
Stellenbosch, about 30 miles north of Cape Town, at a       heterosexual immigrants, particularly from Africa, are
conference aimed at using knowledge of the human            the most rapidly increasing group. After falling for
genome - a genetic blueprint that scientists are working    several years, the number of newly reported HIV
to map - to help combat diseases.                           infected people rose in 1998, significantly contributed
                                                            to by this immigrant group,” i.e. it’s those Black
Dr. Hoosen Coovadia, HIV/AIDS researcher at South           Africans who are increasing our rate of HIV disease,
Africa's University of Natal, said African governments      not our racist coercion in testing. Black Africans are
should translate scientific research into policy to         more than 200 times more likely to be “positive” on
overcome the most serious diseases facing Africa.           these tests. Rules of privacy and confidentiality are not
The United Nations estimates there were 3.4 million         adhered to; the doctors reason that hospital personnel
new HIV infections in Africa in 2001 - almost 70            have a right to know if a Black African has HIV so they
percent of the global total.                                don’t “catch” the AIDS disease.

British Dr. Matt Berriman told the conference human         This despite the fact that not one single health care
genome research has cut the time it is taking him to        worker anywhere in the world has contracted AIDS
find a vaccine for malaria - a vaccine he said may ready    through accidental exposure in the 23 years since the
for use in 20 years.                                        ‘epidemic’ began. Black Africans and their children are
                                                            being coerced into these tests, where white Europeans
The mosquito-borne disease kills about 3,000 Africans       are not. A Black African presenting with any medical
a day, most of them under five years of age.                condition, however unrelated to any possible HIV
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                 disease, to a New Zealand hospital suffers great
                                                            pressure to get an HIV test.
 To all African People Living
                                                            MOH and Statistics NZ figures demonstrate that Black
        in New Zealand                                      Africans have a higher prevalence of HIV in New
                                                            Zealand than the reported rate in extremely high risk
March 1, 2008                                               and frequently tested prisoners in South African
This letter is to let all African people living in New      prisons. The prison population comprises intravenous
Zealand about the discrimination that is happening here     drug users and men who have sex with men without
in New Zealand in regard to the testing, diagnosis and      condoms. Given that these prisoners are all tested every
                                                                                                Continued on page 36

                            -24- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
             African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9                         NEWSLETTER                                                     October 2008

                                    FEATURED ARTICLES
      The Afrikan Traditional Herbal Research Centre
                     Progress Report
                                           Nakato Lewis
                          Blackherbals at the Source of the Nile, UG Ltd.
                                                  October 2008
  The concept of indigenous or local traditional             Seldom documented, Afrikan indigenous knowledge
  knowledge refers to the complete bodies of knowledge,      (AIK) is passed orally from generation to generation.
  expertise, practices and technology, maintained and        Unfortunately, scientific awareness of the value of
  developed by people with long histories of close           Afrikan indigenous knowledge is growing at a time
  interaction with the natural environment. These sets of    when such knowledge is under tremendous threat. It is
  understandings, interpretations and meanings are part      in danger of disappearing, as a result of the ever-
  of a cultural complex that includes language, naming       growing Western influences for rapid technological
  and classification systems, ways of using and recycling    change and because the capacity and facilities needed
  resources, rituals, spirituality and a worldview. Such     to document, evaluate, validate, protect and disseminate
  knowledge provides the basis for local decision-making     such knowledge are lacking. For this situation to
  about many fundamental aspects of day-to-day life          change, infrastructures, facilities, research, and
  within these societies, such as hunting and gathering      financial resources are needed. More research needs to
  food, fishing, agriculture and animal husbandry, food      be done on AIK systems and more methods developed
  production, water, health, and adaptation to               for dealing with it. Afrikan claims of indigenous
  environmental or social change.                            solutions to specific problems by indigenous
                                                             knowledge systems need to be validated and attempts
  As in all traditional societies, Afrikan people have
                                                             made to improve or adapt those systems. This research
  evolved sophisticated realms of knowledge, derived
                                                             should be conducted with people who possess the
  from experimentation or observation to explain,
                                                             indigenous knowledge and with the local communities
  predict, and control natural phenomena. This
                                                             involved. There are signs of a growing demand for
  indigenous knowledge often appears to differ from-or
                                                             education systems in Afrika, tailored to local needs. It
  even run counter to-the scientific principles taught by
                                                             is these efforts that are providing increased attention to
  colonial powers. Evidence of Afrika's store of
                                                             knowledge systems based in local traditions and
  indigenous scientific knowledge has emerged recently
                                                             cultures and the need to revitalise these systems from
  in a variety of disciplines. For example, living on the
                                                             an educational point of view.
  desert's edge, Afrika's nomadic pastoralists are
  acknowledged to be among the world's experts on            Importance of Indigenous Knowledge
  famine and range management. The thousand-year-old         In the past, modern science has considered methods of
  cultures living south of Timbuktu along the Niger River    Afrikan indigenous knowledge as primitive. Many
  in Mali consult written texts that we appreciate today,    traditional practices, during the colonial period, were
  as a model of environmental conservation. Afrika's         declared illegal by the colonial authorities. However,
  traditional plant breeders cultivated tropical gardens     AIK has made and continues to make significant
  that contain as many as 150 intercropped species and       contributions to resolving local problems. From
  recognition is given to the Afrikan for the development    developing countries worldwide an increasing flow of
  of a remarkably productive agricultural system. The        information is being transmitted and the role that
  continent's materia medica of more than 7,000 animal,      indigenous knowledge plays in a range of sectors.
  plant, and mineral products for the treatment of illness   Besides alleviating poverty, this range includes such
  is a resource that western-trained scientists are avidly   sectors as agriculture (intercropping techniques, animal
  copying and studying.                                                                          Continued on page 26
                           -25- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 25 –The Afrikan Traditional Herbal       and fiber for thousands of years with few if any outside
Research Centre                                              inputs. Many of these practices have been forgotten or
production, pest control, crop diversity, animal             abandoned in developed countries, but have continued
healthcare, seed varieties), biology (botany, fish           to be used by many traditional, subsistence, or partially
breeding techniques), human healthcare (through              subsistence farmers in developing countries. Most
traditional medicine), the use and management of             traditional methods of agriculture were developed
natural resources (soil conservation, irrigation and other   empirically, through millennia of trial and error, natural
forms of water management), and education (oral              selection, and keen observation. Some of these
traditions, local languages).                                practices, which often conserve energy, maintain
                                                             natural resources, and reduce chemical use, are worthy
Furthermore, through modern ethno-botanical research,        of examination. Today over half of the worlds' arable
indigenous knowledge is contributing to science in           land is farmed by traditional farmers. Many of their
fields relevant to natural resource management. In           techniques are unknown or poorly understood, but have
particular, indigenous knowledge helps scientists            allowed them to produce crops and animals with
understand the issues of biodiversity and natural forest     minimal or no purchased inputs. Traditional farming
management provide insights into crop domestication,         systems      often     resemble      natural      tropical
breeding and management, and gives scientists a new          agroecosystems. This and their striking diversity give
appreciation of the principles and practices of 'slash-      them a high degree of stability, resilience, and
and-burn' techniques in agriculture, agro-ecology, agro-     efficiency.
forestry, crop rotation, pest and soil management, and
other areas of agricultural science.                         Traditional farming, however, is being replaced by
                                                             modern intensive farming systems in many parts of the
One of the major prerequisites for the entire process of     world. This represents the loss of farming systems that
collecting, applying and disseminating indigenous            are stable, sustainable and from which many valuable
knowledge is the full participation of the local people      lessons can be learned. Although high yields of modern
involved. Full participation can be achieved only when       intensive agriculture have made it possible to feed the
the local communities are able to participate on an          ever-increasing human population, it has been
equal level. Capacity building is therefore a key issue,     accomplished at the expense and to the destruction of
and vital if traditional knowledge systems are to receive    the surrounding ecosystems. Traditional agricultural
the active support to sustain them. Capacity building        practices must be understood and conserved, before
must include training to better equip indigenous people      they are lost through the rapid advance of modern
and young scientists to carry out research on traditional    agriculture in developing countries.
knowledge, and to promote and develop that research to
better appreciate traditional knowledge. This can be         They are fertilizing the Earth on a global scale through
achieved through collaborations between national             intensive agriculture, fossil fuel combustion and
governments and Afrikan organisations and by placing         widespread cultivation of leguminous crops. Evidence
indigenous knowledge on the agenda of science for            is growing that the use of huge additional quantities of
development in general.                                      nitrogen are exacerbating acidification, causing
                                                             changes in the species composition of ecosystems. It
Afrika is a natural treasure house, endowed with             also raises nitrate levels in freshwater supplies above
wonderful examples of physical and cultural diversity.       acceptable limits for human consumption, producing an
Afrika is also a laboratory for studying the boundaries      aquatic environment that favours plant over animal life
between modern scientific methods and technologies           in many freshwater habitats. Pesticide use causes the
and traditional practices. Indigenous knowledge has a        acute poisoning of 3.5 to 5 million people a year.
trans-generational, communal, spiritual and cultural         Worldwide, 400 million tonnes of hazardous waste are
nature. Western science is based solely on                   being generated each year. About 75 per cent of
technological aspects of the physical world. Indigenous      pesticide use and hazardous waste generation occurs in
knowledge and western science should be seen as two          developed countries. Despite restrictions on toxic and
systems of knowledge that can supplement, rather than        persistent chemicals such as DDT, PCBs and dioxin in
compete with each other.                                     many developed countries, manufacturing of these
Traditional Agriculture                                      chemicals continues for export and remains widely
Traditional farming is an important reserve and source       used in developing countries.
of biodiversity. It is still perhaps the only sustainable    Microbial food-borne illnesses are the largest class of
system. Ancient farmers developed sustainable agri-          emerging infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics and
culture practices, which allowed them to produce food -                                          Continued on page 27
                            -26- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 26 - The Afrikan Traditional Herbal      yields per season. If problems develop, they just add
Research Centre                                              more man-made chemicals, a poison or a stimulant, to
hormones in agriculture is growing. Their prolonged          their crops. The soil on many commercially farms has
use on farm animals has resulted in cancerous tumours        become so unnatural that it no longer holds water
and unmanageable bacterial and viral infections in           normally and even requires more water, which contribute
animals. Of particular concern, are the antibiotics and      to waste and further leeching of nutrients from the soil.
hormones fed each year to hogs, chickens, and cattle,        Many farmers no longer bother to develop mulch or plow
specifically designed to reduce their bacterial              old crops back into the soil. Pesticides destroy most of
populations and promote faster growth for food               the living organisms in the soil, thus old crops cannot be
production. A major important fact is that the bacteria      transformed into beneficial soil.
these antibiotics are designed to destroy are growing        Traditional agriculture methods, such as cross-pollination
increasingly resistant to antibiotics and at a faster pace   or selective breeding, are based on natural reproductive
than if these antibiotics were used only to treat animals    mechanisms. These traditional methods will cross only
diagnosed with disease. This has created super-bugs          one kind of plant or animal with a similar species. Fruits
and super infections in human and animals.                   and vegetables grown organically show significantly
Multinational corporations use genetic engineering to        higher levels of cancer-fighting antioxidants than
monopolize the seed supply and raise the cost of             modernly grown foods. Consumer interest in organic
farming so that the western global agricultural industry     foods, produced without the use of pesticides, chemicals
can consolidate its control worldwide. Traditional           or genetic engineering, has ballooned in recent years due
farmers support billions of people on the planet by          to increasing concerns about health and food safety.
saving seeds from crops and replanting these seeds the       Researchers are beginning to appreciate that many
following year. Most farmers cannot afford to buy new        traditional farmers in the developing world are still
seeds every year, so collecting and replanting seeds is a    practicing farming methods that are in balance with the
crucial part of the agricultural cycle. Food has been        surrounding ecosystems, stable, sustainable and highly
grown successfully this way for thousands of years.          efficient. Portrayed as ignorant and not adaptive,
The existence of genetically engineered crops goes           traditional farmers have actually been utilizing very
against all the natural laws of nature, producing toxic      sophisticated methods of agricultural production for
reactions as well as food allergies. The safety of their     centuries. These farming systems can perhaps help the
long-term use is not established. Many research studies      developed world to grow food with fewer chemical
show that genetically engineered plants can harm             inputs, slow erosion, control pests, decrease our
wildlife and sensitive ecological systems, which Afrika      dependence on fossil fuels and feed an expanding global
must guard against.                                          population.

Genetically modified material contaminates more than         The challenge for the future is how to increase yields in
two-thirds of conventional crops in the United States,       traditional systems while retaining a certain measure of
dooming organic agriculture and posing a severe future       their integrity, in other words, to finds methods of
risk to health. Because of the contamination, farmers        sustainable intensification. Conversely, we need to
unknowingly plant billions of GM seeds a year,               integrate biological diversity into existing modern
spreading genetic modification throughout North              commercial agricultural systems in developed countries.
American agriculture. This will become even more of a        There is evidence that the adoption of traditional
danger to health with the next generation of GM crops,       conservation methods on large commercial farms can
bred to produce pharmaceuticals and industrial               promote biological diversity (*FAO, 1996). Techniques
chemicals. Trade in genetically engineered food, crops       such as crop rotation, intercropping, cover crops,
and microorganisms is dominated by a handful of              integrated pest management, and green manures can be
multinational corporations, the same corporations            adapted for use in larger commercial systems. These
involved in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals,              practices can reduce dependence on fertilizers and
nutraceuticals, pesticides, herbicides and other             pesticides and promote sustainable intensification. An
chemicals.                                                   integration of farming systems, combining the
                                                             productivity of modern systems and the sustainability of
Today, most commercial farms are depleted of                 traditional systems, could help to preserve biological
nutrients and natural soil organisms. Due to the             diversity and feed a growing population without
convenience of synthetic fertilizers, herbicides, and        excessive damage to the environment.
pesticides, farmers no longer need to rotate their crops,
which now grow faster and are accompanied by greater
                                                                                                  Continued on page 37
                            -27- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
                                                              for enhancing Research and Development in traditional
 Traditional Medicine Playing                                 medicine.
  Important Role - Nduhura                                    The Ministry of Health pledges its total support to all
               The Republic of Uganda                         Scientists and Natural Chemotherapeutics Research
                                                              Laboratory in particular for their effort in Research and
Daily Monitor                                                 Development of traditional medicine. A number of
November 6, 2007                                              herbal formulations are being standardized to ensure
Uganda joins other African countries to commemorate           that they are safe and efficacious. The Natural
the 5th African Traditional Medicine ay. The theme for        Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory has managed
this year is ‘Research & Development of Traditional           to identify the research priorities in traditional medicine
Medicine in WHO African Region’.                              which is inline with Health Sector Strategic Plan.

In Uganda and the rest of Africa, traditional medicine        As we commemorate this day therefore I call upon all
continues to play a very important role in health care        scientists to embrace Research and Development of
delivery for primary health care. A large number of the       traditional medicine. This will add value to our natural
population in Uganda tends to rely on traditional             products and herbal medicines for fulfilling the
medicine and this has resulted in the tremendous rise in      growing needs in quality and safety in natural products.
number of people using traditional medicine country-          We also need to ensure that our natural resources are
wide.                                                         conserved as we develop traditional medicine.

Therefore, pharmaceutical companies, traditional health       The World Health Organization (WHO) observes this
practitioners, conventional health practitioners have a lot   day on every 31 of August. However, in Uganda, this
to benefit in traditional medicine (herbal medicine) if       day for this year will be observed in November 2007.
Research and Development is embraced. This is an area         I wish all Ugandans joyous celebration of the 5th
Uganda has a competitive advantage. The government of         African Traditional Medicine Day.
Uganda is encouraging investment in this sector in order
to create employment for scientific innovators.                            FOR GOD AND MY COUNTRY

The role of research and development in traditional                Minister of State for Health General Duties,
medicine in Uganda is very important. There is great                      Honorable Richard Nduhura
need for scientists and researchers to carry out
comprehensive research and development of traditional
medicine to ensure that validated and standardized
                                                                Enhancing Research in the
products are used in health delivery systems. Most of our         WHO African Region
herbal formulations are not standardized to meet the
minimum national requirement for registration with                 Research and Development of Traditional
National Drug Authority.                                             Medicine in the WHO African Region
Public and private collaboration is crucial in the            Daily Monitor
development of traditional medicine in Uganda. The            November 6, 2007
Government of Uganda has come out strongly to support
                                                              In Africa, close to 80% of the population continue to
science based courses at the universities and science
                                                              rely on traditional medicine for health delivery. In most
based researches. The millennium science initiative under
                                                              cases traditional medicines has been found within
Uganda National Science Council for Science and
                                                              reach, easy access and with minimal side effects.
Technology is one among the many examples of
                                                              However this is not to say it’s free from unwanted side
Government initiatives to support research and
                                                              effects. Lack of proper standards for herbal medicines
development. This is an opportunity for all the
                                                              has affected its integration into the National health care
stakeholders in traditional medicine to encourage our
                                                              delivery systems for African countries including
young scientists to get involved in research and
                                                              Uganda. The Natural Chemotherapeutics Research
                                                              Laboratory (NCRL) is faced with challenges of
The Ministry of Health public private partnership policy      evaluating large numbers of herbal medicines locally
for Health is intended to streamline research and             used in order to justify their therapeutic claims as well
development of traditional medicine. The National policy      as demonstrate their clinical efficacy.
on Traditional and Complimentary Medicine (TCM) is
                                                              While herbal medicine is useful, it poses lots of chal-
due to be tabled to cabinet. This Policy forms background                                          Continued on page 29
                            -28- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 28 – Enhancing Research in the WHO           and 26th July 2007 was a great land mark in the history
Africa Region                                                    of NAPRECA, Uganda.
lenges for example, safety and efficacy before it can            The NCRL was privileged to be treated to a pre-
sustainably be integrated into the health care delivery          symposium activity that revived research and
systems. This is the reason the World Health                     development in the light of hinging on
Organisation (WHO) has strongly come out to support a            ethnopharmacology and the need to be proactive to
number of countries with Research and Development                environmental issues. All these are to ensure a
guidelines in traditional medicine.                              successful future in research and development in
There is also added financial support from WHO for               natural products.
institutions to develop policies on traditional medicine         Through the above theme, NCRL will strengthen
and clinically validate herbal therapies.                        Research and Development of herbal medicines in the
Despite the challenges, NCRL has been at the forefront of        country though wider institutional collaborations with
Research and Development of herbal medicine in                   other institutions e.g., Uganda Industrial Research
Uganda. A number of herbal formulations are being                Institute, National Drug Authority, Uganda National
standardized to ensure that they are safe and efficacious        Council for Science and Technology, Uganda National
and thereafter be considered for registration with               Bureau of Standards, Uganda Export Promotion Board,
National Drug Authority (NDA).                                   Uganda Investment Authority and a number of
                                                                 academic Research Institutions.
The Network on Medicinal Plants and Traditional
Medicine Project with a Secretariat at NCRL, supported           Currently with collaboration with National Drug
by International Development Research Centre (IDRC),             Authority, some of the herbal formulae are to be
Ottawa, Canada has also assessed current research                registered and these products will be able to be sold in
activities on medicinal plants and traditional medicine in       pharmacies and drug shops around the country. In
E. Africa, identified the research priorities in medicinal       addition, a number of private investors have started to
plants and traditional medicine, enhanced research               invest in herbal pharmaceutical processing of local
capacities and harmonized research approaches and                herbal products which range from decoction, infusions,
methodologies for sustainable management of medicinal            syrups , cosmetics and many others,
plants. The project has promoted collaborative research          The former National Enterprise Corporation now NEC-
projects in medicinal plants and traditional medicine            Healthworld Ltd is due to commence manufacture of
within the E. African countries and strengthened the             some of the herbal products in Uganda.
capacity of traditional health practitioners in Research
and Development in traditional medicine.                         Many local and international private investors have
                                                                 contacted NCRL and Ministry of Health to discuss
A meeting on the institutionalization of the Network             issues of partnership in research and development of
within the Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) of              herbal medicine. These among other include Republic
the East Africa Community was held in Kampala in                 of North Korea, China, Egypt, Iran and countries within
September 2007. It was attended by representatives from          the East African region.
the LBVC, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
                                                                 The Government is currently in the final stages of
It was recommended that the Network evolves into a               developing the National Policy on Traditional and
partnership in order to carry out activities identified in the   Complimentary Medicine (TCM) and soon to discuss
strategic framework of Network of Medicinal Plants and           the traditional medicine practice Bill as developed by
Traditional Medicine (EA). The LVBC is ready to                  Law Reform Commission in 2002 that will regulate
embrace the Network if it evolved into a partnership and         practice of traditional medicine and bring it to national
this will also bring in Rwanda and Burundi as they are           and internationally acceptable standards. The policy
now members of the East African Community. The                   and bill are waiting input from stakeholders before the
recently conclude Natural Product Research in East and           bill is tabled to cabinet. The Ministry of Health through
Central Africa (NAPRECA) Conference threw light on               support from World Health Organization and
recent advancement in Natural Product Research and               collaboration with stakeholders is also developing code
Development. This conference was able to revive hope             of ethics for the tradition healing practice. The TCM
about the possible cures of the forgotten or neglected           Policy, Traditional Medicine Practice Bill and Code of
tropical diseases for example, trypanosomiasis,                  Ethics for Traditional Medicine will stream-line
onchorcirciasis, etc from our biodiversity. The meeting of       Research and Development in Traditional medicine.
great renowned scientists in such a high profile
                                                                                                    Continued on page 30
conference hosted by Makerere University between 22nd
                               -29- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from age 29 – Enhancing Research in the WHO        Wasswa is a traditional herbalist.
African Region
                                                             In Uganda, herbalists are frequently confused with
As a constituent sector of the proposed Uganda National      traditional healers commonly known as witchdoctors.
Health Research Organization (UNHRO), NCRL is to             Herbalists are often criticized because of the negativity
become a Research Institute for Traditional and              the latter portray. They on the other hand insist that their
Complimentary Medicine (RITCOM). It will therefore           approach to disease treatment is scientific with no
have a wider mandate to encompass; agronomy, product         mystical power to their medicine.
development, legal and social aspects as a holistic
approach to research and development in traditional          According to Mr Elijah Ntege, they like in modern
medicine and healing practices.                              science, have laboratories where they carry out tests to
                                                             ascertain the nutrient content of leaves, animal bones,
With this year’s theme for the 5th ATM celebrations,         ash, soil and their curative powers in relation to the
stakeholders in traditional medicine will be able to do      disease.
research and development in traditional medicine by;
                                                             Traditional medicine is at the core of the matter. In many
    •   Adding value to natural products (herbal             places in the country are structures with posts reading
        medicines) as well as promote investment in this     Herbal Research Clinic. These have been on the rise
        sector thus support the Poverty Eradication          lately; you are often lost for choice in places like Katwe
        Action Plan (PEAP) and Plan for Modernization        where every shop has this label.
        of agriculture (PMA) policies
                                                             And like it is said, necessity is the mother of invention;
    •   Improving conservation of natural resources for      the initiator of al this research seems to have been the
        their sustainable utilization.                       HIV/Aids epidemic in the early 90s.
    •   Improving livelihood of the poor people by           Dr. Abubakar Rasid Lukwago of the Dr. Yakubu
        ensuring that they are healthy.                      Lukwago Herbal Research clinic in Kasubi says that his
                                                             late father, Dr Rashid Lukwago who focused on HIV
    •   Strengthen the capacity of individuals and local
                                                             treatment, founded the clinic in 1990 on William Street.
        enterprises in research and development in her
        medicines.                                           “It begun in 1990 with the onset of the HIV epidemic,”
                                                             he explains, adding that “our father was mainly handling
    •   Ensuring that herbal medicines are standardized      people living with the virus mainly.”
        to meet the minimum requirement for
        registration and acceptability in the National       These doctors are true medical personnel as per the
        health care delivery system.                         public eye. They wear white clinical coats, examine
                                                             patients, and prescribe doses; the clinics are jammed with
Natural Chemotherapeutic Research Laboratory is very         patients seeking healing for their ailments. They are even
grateful to WHO, IDRC and other donor partners for the       referred to as “doctor”; you do not have to swear by the
financial support to te government of Uganda for Resarch     ‘Hippocratic oath’ after all to earn the title.
and development of traditional medicine in Uganda.
                                                             Nonetheless, what is traditional medicine all about and
Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory would          why is the herbal research sector suddenly mushrooming?
like to wish everybody a successful celebration to mark
the 5th African Traditional Medicine Day.                    Based on Research
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                  Dr Yakubu Lukwago explains that theirs is treatment and
                                                             research that has grown over the years. “We have moved
More Herbal Medicines Flood                                  on from HIV/Aids treatment we can now handle all
                                                             disease apart from cancer and sickle cells where we can
    the Ugandan Market                                       only offer tranquilizers since these have no cure.”
                  Stella Nakakande                           “We even check for UTI, which is by far the commonest
Daily Monitor                                                infection in women,” he as.
March 22, 2008                                               When it comes to HIV, Dr. Lukwago says, they have the
Armed with the art of psychology, witchdoctors devised       right medicine to boost the immunity and get rid of
ways to ensure that the secret of their non-possession of    unwanted symptoms like lip ulcers commonly called “red
supernatural powers would be known only to a few             lips”, loss of appetite, chronic diarrhoea, Herpes Zoster
trusted practitioners,” writes Br. Anatoli Wasswa of the     (kisippi) and cough among others. For the lip ulcers and
                                                                                                   Continued on page 31
Banakaloli Brothers in his book Unveiling Witchcraft. Br.
                           -30- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 30 – More Herbal Medicines Flood the
Ugandan Market                                                     Have You Tried Something
Herpes Zoster, the clinic has a powder and medicated                       Herbal?
Vaseline applied on the infected area.
                                                                                   Rachel Kabejjaa
“It takes five to seven days for these to disappear,” he
                                                                 Sunday Monitor
                                                                 July 12, 2008
“They even have antibiotics for cough infection as a
                                                                 More people are turning their attention to    alternative
result of Tuberculosis.
                                                                 medicine, herbal or natural beauty             products,
The authenticity of all this of course can only be proved        supplements, and home remedies because        they have
by the user although one wonders why these medicines             been discovered to be an effective means      of curbing
have no names. In Kamengo Herbal Research Clinic in              ailments and barely have side effects.
Katwe, every bottle has a label of the diseases treated
                                                                 When it comes to beauty solutions, herbal alternatives
apart from that containing medicine for HIV/Aids. The
                                                                 are made from natural products. These products are
attendant knows it by the liquid’s colour perhaps and its
                                                                 always less or unprocessed hence making them suitable
positioning on the shelves. Like ARVs, one should never
                                                                 for all skin types. For ages, our great grandparents lived
run out of stock of this, the doctors tell me.
                                                                 on such products and they were healthy and looked
Mysterious                                                       good like the Egyptians for instance and used herbs like
They are also hesitant to reveal the contents of their           fenugreek and roses to prevent wrinkles.
medicine. “We mix a couple of things,” they say. For
                                                                 Then processed cosmetics became popular only for
each disease, there is a complex set of ingredients. The
                                                                 table to turn again to herbal solutions hence the boom
contents are given names like “red liquid” or “black
                                                                 of both international and local industries manufacturing
powder”. The source of these is also mysterious.
                                                                 herbal jellies like Samona and Movit herbal jellies,
“We get trees from Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Somalia,          soaps creams, massage and aromatherapy oils, beauty
Tanzania and so many other countries,” Dr. Lukwago               spas, reflexology, bath gels, moisturizers and herbal
says when asked to explain their origin and names. “We           powder containing natural combination of neem tree,
name the species ourselves so they have no definite              basil flowers, aloe Vera, oregano, lavender and other
naming.”                                                         naturals. Studies have found that aloe Vera which is a
To an onlooker, it is as if they are reluctant to reveal their   popular ingredient in herbal products has antimicrobial,
“magic mixtures”; they want to stay around much longer           anti-inflammatory, an immune-stimulating actions as
and no kind of coercion is enough to make them name              well as large quantities of vitamins E and C, zinc, and
these species.                                                   amino acids.
                                                                 Thus the healing properties of this traditional plant
They will only restrict themselves to the ingredients            have finally been isolated. Dr Liu Zheng of Natural
noting that the main composition of red liquid is                Chinese Herbal and Acupuncture Clinic Kira road says
magnesium, zinc and potassium required to boost one’s            that herbal products are also cost friendly and don’t
immunity. The explanation ends there.                            have animal products hence causing less or no
More interestingly, these herbalists have scientific labs        irritations to the skin.
not only for research but also for analysis of one’s health.     Herbal beauty products also come with advantages like
They, like with modern medicine, diagnose and check for          being easy to prepare, are readily available even in your
the disease, before any prescription is made.                    home compounds. They have no known side effects
Prices range from Shs4,000 to Shs70,000 for the CD4              and (with some exception) are absolutely safe even for
count performed for people living with HIV. They also            prolonged use, and they can bring long lasting results
have pregnancy tests.                                            and    even     complete      healing    according     to
                                                        The biggest known
Interestingly though, only one of these herbalists, Elijah       disadvantage is that some treatments may take months,
Ntege of the Babakaloli Brothers said they do not offer          even years, depending on the problem, for complete
HIV/Aids treatment. “What should we treat in HIV?’ he            healing. However, the first results usually show after
wondered.                                                        10-14 days, which gives sufferers a reason to continue
Well, that begs the question, what do others treat?              with the treatment.
                       ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                                         ☻☻☻☻☻☻

                             -31- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
                                                              This growth has been mainly attributed to good policies
Ugandans Now Live Up to 50                                    and governance, which the report says “matter a great
     Years – Report                                           deal.”

                     Peter Nyanzi                             Ms Obiageli Ezekwesili, the World Bank Vice
                                                              President for Africa Region said over the past 10 years
Daily Monitor                                                 Africa has recorded an average growth rate of 5.4 per
November 20, 2007                                             cent “which is at par with the rest of the world” but that
Uganda is one of only two countries that have made the        the ability to support, sustain and diversify the sources
greatest gains in improving life expectancy in the last 10    of these growth indicators “would be critical not only to
years, a new World Bank report has shown.                     Africa’s capacity to meet the MDGs but also to
                                                              becoming an exciting investment destination for global
According to the African Development Indicators (ADI)         capital.”
2007 that was released last week, the life expectancy of
Ugandans has now climbed by seven years to 50, up from        The report says Africa now enjoys better growth
just 43 in 200l.                                              prospects because the leaders have under taken major
                                                              reforms over the past decade. But it decries the
With Tanzania behind at 46.3 and Kenya at 49.0, Uganda        negligible role the private sector has played in
is now the only country above the 50 mark in the Great        improving the living conditions of the citizen.
Lakes region and therefore the best country for those who
want to live a bit longer.                                    It says accelerating and sustaining growth requires
                                                              improving Africa’s investment climate, spurring
Ugandan mothers also have a better chance to survive          innovation, and building institutional capacity to
during pregnancy with a maternal mortality ratio of           govern well.
880:100,000 live births compared to Tanzania’s                                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻
1,500:100,000 and Kenya’s 1,000:100,000.
                                                              Continued from page 21 - Scientists Map
But the situation is not as good for children under-five      Genomes of Malaria Parasites
with a mortality rate of 136:1,000 live births compared to
Kenya’s 120:1,000 and Tanzania’s 122:1,000.                   Some of its genes closely resemble a human gene
                                                              involved in regulation of the immune system.
Generally, the report says because of HIV/Aids, TB,
malaria, and other diseases, improvements in life             The World Health Organization said malaria killed
expectancy have stalled in some countries and retreated       881,000 people and infected 247 million people
in a few others.                                              worldwide in 2006, the latest year for which figures
                                                              were available. Some malaria experts say those
Uganda is also largely lagging behind in adult literacy       numbers underestimate the problem.
rates with only 57 per cent of females able to read and
write compared to Tanzania’s 62.2 per cent and Kenya’s        Most deaths occur in Africa and are caused by the
70 per cent.                                                  Plasmodium falciparum parasite, whose genome was
                                                              mapped in 2002.
The report says poor health and poor schooling hold back
improvements in people’s productivity and the chances of      The researchers found the vivax genome was similar in
meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).              many ways to the falciparum parasite, meaning that
                                                              certain vaccine approaches being tried against the
Malaria is still a big concern in the region with             African parasite may be worth trying against this one.
152/100,000 Ugandans dying of the disease compared to
Kenya’s 63/100,000 and Tanzania’s 130/100,000 people.         "During the course of evolution, malaria parasites have
                                                              devised different tricks to avoid being detected and
But the report is generally positive about growth             dampen the host immune responses," Pain said by e-
prospects for Africa where about 41 per cent of the           mail.
people still live on less than $1 (Shs1,700) a day. On the
continent, Uganda is listed as second among the countries     "Thus, it has been rather difficult to find a single
with the largest proportion of people living in the rural     parasite protein that could be used as an effective
areas (87.4 per cent) next to Burundi (90 per cent).          vaccine candidate which would provide effective and
                                                              long-term protection against all parasite strains
The report says after years of stop-and-start results, many   circulating within a given population at a given time,"
African economies “appear to be growing at the fast and       he said.
steady rates needed to put a dent in the region’s high            URL:
poverty rate and attract global investment.”                                       ☻☻☻☻☻☻
                            -32- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
             African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9         NEWSLETTER                        October 2008

                      FEATURED ARTICLES
     Unified Field Theory of Disease and Nutritional Causation or
                                             Professor Charles Ssali
                                  Mariandina Nutritional Health Products

Disease is any type of disorder or body function which       develops. When these nutrients are supplied to the
is a result of:                                              person with diabetes, the situation improves rapidly
                                                             back to normal.
    1. Bacterial, viral, fungal infection.
                                                             All body cells develop from what are called stem cells
    2. Degenerative change in cells.
                                                             in the embryonic stage. A stem cell requires proper
    3. Congenital and Hereditary.                            nutrition as found in vegetable foods in their original
All can be traced back to some nutritional deficit. All      unprocessed state in order to develop with the adult
diseases would be eliminated from man if the victim          specialised cells as you find in various body organs like
were to be fed on a properly balanced diet right from        the brain, liver, glands, skin, muscle, bones, intestinal
the moment of conception. The development of a               and respiratory tracts. The lack of liberal supplies of
fertilised egg into a fetus depends on the availability of   these nutrients we find in fruits and vegetables creates a
nutrients to power and nourish the developing fetus.         deficiency in the availability of vitamins like A, B, C
                                                             etc, minerals like iron, zinc, selenium etc, besides plant
These nutrients act as free radical scavengers to protect    hormones, enzymes and chlorophyll all of which play
the body cells from the harmful effects of free radicals     an important role in the proper development and
that come out of body metabolism. The free radicals are      specialisation of body cells. Examples of congenital
capable of disrupting fetal development. The invasion        defects that can be traced back to nutrition include,
of body tissues by bacteria, viruses and fungus is           heart defects, spina bifida, missing limbs,
dependent on the absence of enough nutrients to              hydrocephalus and many others. A liberal supply of
strengthen the immune system, which mops up the              vitamins and minerals are vital in this respect.
organisms. The free radicals are the ones which              Infections of the mother during pregnancy include
promote the reproduction of all the invading organisms       viruses like rubella which only occur where antiviral
and in turn the organisms promote the production of          nutrients like vitamin A, C and E are in short supply.
free radicals.                                               The virus disrupts the proper cell divisions required to
It is obvious that even congenital or developmental          complete some body organs like the heart etc.
abnormalities can be traced back to nutrition. Nutrition     The immune system which protects us from all
may be affected by the use of toxic substances or drugs      infections depends on nutrition to produce antibodies
that affect cell division leading to abnormalities and       and the necessary defence cells like macrophages and
congenital defects. One such chemical is thalidomide         lymphocytes. Any deficiency in the necessary nutrients
and the virus called rubella. All these lead to birth        results in weakening of the immune system which is
degenerative diseases like diabetes, asthma,                 followed by an invasion of the body of bacteria viruses,
vascular/heart diseases are all traceable to some            fungus and even degeneration of body cells. Nutrients
nutritional deficit, which causes the cell death in the      help the body to clean itself by mopping up free
organs concerned. The pancreas loses the ability to          radicals that we produce during cellular metabolism.
secrete insulin as a result of the degeneration of the       These free radicals include hydrogen peroxide, which
cells in the islets of langerhans. These specialist cells    attacks cell structures if left in position for too long. It
die as a result of a nutrition lacking in vitamins and       can attack vital structures like the cell membrane, the
minerals. Taking white sugar from which molasses             nucleus and mitochondria. The damage they inflict on
containing vitamins and minerals are removed during          the cells is what can cause conditions like diabetes
processing leads to one such ways by which diabetes                                               Continued on page 34
                            -33- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 33– Unified Theory of Disease…              the increased need for detoxification. This is the reason
when insulin secreting cells (islets of langerhans ) die in     why those who indulge in such practices develop cancer
increasing numbers till it results in insulin deficiency        of the breast, lungs, uterus and prostate. Others develop
called diabetes. When nutrients are replenished, the cells      diabetes, Asthma and blood pressure because of the
regenerate and diabetes can be cured. The same occurs in        nutritional deficit created by the increase in the demand
other body cells where cancer occurs because of the             for nutrients for the detoxification of free radicals.
destruction of mitochondria making metabolism using
                                                                A disease state like AIDS is a complex manifestation of
oxidation of glucose impossible for lack of the necessary
                                                                nutritional deficiencies that include vitamins, minerals,
enzymes in the mitochondria (KREB’S cycle) which
                                                                plant hormones, amino acids and enzymes. The body
power the process. This leads the cells to generate heat
                                                                needs plant ingredients found in leafy vegetables e.g.
energy using fermentation processes and the production
                                                                chlorophyll, lecithin and many others. The HIV invades
of lactic acid. This is the way cancer occurs in body
                                                                the body by penetrating its cells which are deficient in
tissues like in the breasts, uterus, lungs, glands and other
                                                                nutrients and abounding in free radicals. This window of
                                                                opportunity occurs in all people who indulge in junk
The cure for cancer must therefore address this anomaly         foods, drug abuse, over use of antibiotics, fizzy drinks
by reconstructing the damaged cell structures and               with artificial sweeteners. These factors depress the
restoring     normal     body      metabolism.     Powerful     immune system allowing the virus to successfully
antioxidants, which act as free radical scavengers in the       establish itself in the body. If the free radicals are
affected parts of the body help the tissues to detoxify         regularly mopped up using the free radical scavengers
itself and prevent further cell, damage from free radicals.     called antioxidants as found in fresh fruit and vegetables,
The oxygen that is released by hydrogen peroxide can            then the virus and cancer cells are eliminated by the
attack cell structures and cause the equivalent of iron rust    power of the immune system.
in the body. In situations like these, one requires to drink
                                                                During sexual union the male partner ejaculates about 2
a lot of water in order to enable the kidneys to excrete
                                                                mls of semen which carry the male spermatozoa. This
those impurities from the blood circulation where they
                                                                semen also carries with it nutrients to be used by the
may continue causing traumatic effects on tissues. Water
is an essential part of our nutritional requirements. If the    sperm and the early embryo. To collect these nutrients in
body is denied water supply, it deteriorates rapidly            the semen, one pint of the male partner’s blood is
                                                                stripped of all these elements which include vitamins,
because of dehydration and accumulation of toxic
                                                                minerals, enzymes, hormones etc, etc. Repeated
impurities. These impurities which accumulate in tissues
                                                                ejaculations can deplete the male partner’s blood of
cause body damage by depleting the supplies of nutrients
from the food taken in daily. The ageing process is             essential elements required by his immune system. The
perpetuated by this growing nutritional deficit. As we          result of such a situation is to make him vulnerable to
                                                                infections like viruses and STDs including HIV. This is
grow we cut down on our intake of the essential nutrients
                                                                the reason why promiscuous males may easily develop
of vitamins and minerals. The sum total of the nutritional
                                                                AIDS which means Acquired Immune Deficiency
deficiency and chronic dehydration is the progressive
                                                                Syndrome. Semen is rich in zinc and selenium both of
ageing process we observe in everyday life. In such a
situation the body cells fail to reproduce themselves as        which are very important for strengthening immunity by
                                                                providing it with specialised cells called T helper
they should by replacing themselves with identical
                                                                lymphocytes. These T helper lymphocytes go through the
copies. This is why the hair begins to lose pigmentation
                                                                thymus gland which prepares them for the battlefield
and becomes gray and the skin loses its elasticity,
                                                                capability against virus invaders. The thymus gland
eventually becoming rough and wrinkled. This is the
reason why cancer incidence increases with age or               requires a lot of zinc to do the job. Selenium is needed to
                                                                make the body’s antioxidant called glutathione
pollution in the internal and external environment. If we
                                                                peroxidase. This natural antioxidant is very important in
look after ourselves properly by taking a well balanced
                                                                clearing out hydrogen peroxide from the body cells. A
diet consisting of unprocessed fresh vegetables and fruits,
                                                                diet rich in these nutrients will play an important role in
then drink the required amounts of water, then we would
be able to maintain our health status close to ideal for        protecting us against all infections and cancer. The
                                                                prostrate gland in the male is the equivalent of the uterus
many years.
                                                                in the female. Both these organs are prone to developing
Medicinal herbs are no more than foods with the required        cancer if nutrition is deficient in these essential elements
nutrients to correct the cellular nutritional deficiency that   among others.
led to the diseased state. The use of Contraceptive pills,
                                                                On the other hand, female partners stand to gain nutrients
over use of antibiotics and smoking are some of the forms
                                                                                                      Continued on page 35
of drug abuse which drain heavily on nutrients because of
                               -34- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 34 – Unified Theory of Disease……            which contain the necessary ingredients to do the job.
which are drained out of the male partner’s blood. Most         This has been achieved in cases of breast cancer, cancer
of the semen’s essential ingredients are absorbed into the      of uterus, melanoma and other cancers.
female circulation through the birth canal. This provides       Hormone dependent disorders like diabetes, thyroid gland
her with the elements mentioned above for added                 dysfunction, menopause, libido and many others can be
protection against nutritional deficiency diseases that         eliminated by providing these necessary nutrients by
come as a result of a weakened immune system. This              using diet and where required, food supplements.
explanation could account for the survival phenomenon           Menopause and loss of virility comes because of the
observed among professional female sex workers in               progressive reduction in our food intake as we grow
Kenya and Uganda. These prostitutes have been found to          older. As a result of eating processed foods like white
survive HIV infection despite their risk factors. It has also   sugar, white flour and processed grain where the nutrients
been observed that these sex workers begin to succumb to        are removed and fed to lower animals, we develop
HIV/AIDS when they retire from their profession. This           deficiency diseases like diabetes, scurvy, eczema, lupus
would eliminate the original theory that they have a            and asthma. These come about because our body’s
special genetic make up that protects them against HIV. I       immune systems have been programmed wrongly
am of the opinion that it is the constant liberal supply of     because of introducing adverse antigens into the body
essential nutrients that boosts their immunity to the           through vaccinations and inoculations. All these
optimum levels capable to resisting STDs.                       immunity or autoimmune disorders could be corrected by
Herpes Zoster which is a result of chickenpox virus             providing the body with the nutrients the body needs to
manifesting itself as blisters on the skin is another           reprogramme the immunity. By providing these
example of the power of the immune system. This virus           supplements we have been successful in eliminating all
only surfaces when the body is malnourished and                 symptoms and signs of lupus, asthma, eczema, thyroid
immune deficient. The development of cancer cells starts        gland problems and so on.
when the natural killer cells that hunt and destroy them        Stroke which is a result of the blocking of blood clotting
are weakened by poor nutrition. This poor nutrition may         could be eliminated. The underlying disorder is in the
be a result of ingesting overwhelming amounts of toxic          metabolism of cholesterol leading to partial or complete
substances that require large amounts of nutrients to           blockage of a blood vessel. Where there is a blood clot or
excrete through the kidneys. If such nutrients are not          a ruptured blood vessel and bleeding, you find an
available then the immune system is weakened and the            accumulation of free radicals, white blood cells in the
natural killer cells fail to cope with the cancer cell          clot. This pathology needs nutrients to put it right. The
development in the tissues. This if kept up for long            cholesterol needs nutrients to facilitate its breakdown into
enough, then the particular site develops cancer. These         energy. The blood clot and the repair of the damaged
toxic substances like aspartame (Nutrasweet), contracep-        blood vessel will be completed by the white blood cells.
tive pills, radioactive materials, alcohol, hydrocarbons,       We have seen this happen in many cases of stroke where
asbestos etc, etc. These elements cause the production of       paralysis disappeared within weeks or months when the
free radicals to rise and stagnate in tissues. This             necessary nutrients were provided to the patient. Brain
stagnation leads to the damage of cell wall, DNA cross          and nerve disorders may develop because of using too
links and mitochondria structural damage. This DNA              much alcohol or a diet deficient in vitamins and minerals.
damage leads to genetic mutation and cancer changes.            Even psychiatric disorders are a result of the body’s
The damage to mitochondria structure leads to the failure       failure to make the right nerve transmitters for lack of the
of the cell to metabolise glucose using oxygen. As a            proper nutrients. Where these mental problems existed,
result of this failure, the cell turns to fermentation to       we provided the patients with nutritional supplements and
produce heat energy with the production of a toxic lactic       an improved diet. The result was an improvement or
acid. This is what cancer cells do. They multiply               recovery from the dementia of a psychiatric problem.
uncontrollably and destroy normal tissues in the
                                                                As a result of the above observations as summarised, the
neighbourhood. Some of these uncontrollable cells break
                                                                following conclusion was inevitable. The Unified Field
off and carry their characteristics to other parts of the
                                                                Theory of Disease and Nutrition (establishes) postulates
body as metastasis that spread destruction and death. This
                                                                that all disease states have their origin in some form of
process can be halted by providing the tissues with the
                                                                malnutrition at one stage or another. Even those arising
required nutrients to repair the cellular damage in DNA
                                                                from genetic defects could be attributed to the influence
and mitochondria. These nutrients must also strengthen
                                                                of a mutation that occurred because of a nutritional defect
the immune cells to be capable of destroying the cancer
                                                                in the diet of the individual or alternatively the mutation
cells. This is possible through the use of herbal nutrients
                                                                                                      Continued on page 36
                             -35- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 35– Unified Theory of Disease…             lighting these concerns is in the process of being written
persisted because of lack of proper nutrition. All disease     and will be published on the website, but it
states whether they are congenital, infective, and             isn’t enough. I am hoping that as a prominent African in
degenerative have a nutritional factor in their causation,     NZ you can help bring to light these terrible injustices.
promotion or elimination.                                      We have been working with 2 excellent human rights   lawyers on one individual case, and the lawyers would be
                         oducts.htm                            happy to instigate a class-action lawsuit on behalf of all
                      ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                   Black Africans who may have been harmed, or whose
                                                               rights have been infringed by the racist medical system in
Continued from page 24– To All African People                  New Zealand.
Living in New Zealand
                                                               Yours sincerely
6 months, how can it be that clean-living, monogamous
Africans in New Zealand are more likely to have HIV            Felix Mwashomah & Cathy van Miert
disease? There is something very wrong with this picture.      Tel: 09-5277257, or 09-5261954.
Black Africans are much more likely to have a false                                 ☻☻☻☻☻☻
positive test result due to exposure to TB, malaria,
leprosy, and inherited blood disorders like sickle cell         Africa: Researchers Record
anaemia, malnutrition and many other factors. MOH              'Major Breakthrough' Against
statistics also demonstrate that over 300 Black Africans
in New Zealand at this time have HIV disease. Many if                     Malaria
not most of these likely represent false positives, but
people are instructed to take anti-HIV medicines that are
                                                                     Abimbola Akosile With Agency Report
extremely harmful (and more so to Black people). In the                             Lagos
case of Black African children, the parents are being
ordered by the courts to give their children the anti-HIV      This Day (Lagos)
medicine.                                                      15 July 2008
Almost every person taking these drugs experiences             Australian scientists yesterday identified a potential
severe and life-threatening side effects. Most adults          treatment to combat malaria, a global scourge, which kills
decide the treatment is worse than the disease and stop        about 300,000 Nigerians, mostly children below five
taking the drugs. Black African children do not have this      years, annually.
right according to the doctors. Doctors are lying to the
courts by stating that HIV-infected Africans pose a risk to    According to a report on the British Broadcasting
the wider community if they refuse anti-HIV drugs; even        Corporation (BBC) website, researchers in Melbourne
the manufacturers drug prescribing sheets state that           believe their discovery could be a major breakthrough in
taking the drugs does not prevent transmission to others.      the fight against the disease; where the malaria parasite
                                                               produces a glue-like substance which makes the cells it
In any event, HIV appears to have extremely low trans-         infects sticky, so they cannot be flushed through the
missibility; a study in the US followed hundreds of            body.
couples where one partner was positive and the other
negative for 10 years. Twenty five percent of the couples      The researchers, according to the report, have shown how
did not use condoms regularly, and 47 couples reported         removing a protein responsible for the glue can destroy
having unsafe sex, but not one single negative person          its stickiness, and undermine the parasite's defence.
became positive. It is certain that many Africans have         The malaria parasite, named Plasmodium falciparum,
died from taking the anti-HIV drugs. More than 20% of          effectively hijacks the red blood cells it invades,
Black Americans have a genetic difference in the way           changing their shape and physical properties
their body processes the drugs, which can result in blood      dramatically.
drug levels three times higher than they should be – a
potentially lethal dose. In Black Africans this genetic        Among the changes it triggers is the production of the
difference is likely to be higher than 20%. When the           glue-like substance, which enables the infected cells to
African person dies from these drugs, the doctors write        stick to the walls of the blood vessels. This stops them
“AIDS” on the death certificate.                               being passed through the spleen, where the parasites
                                                               would usually be destroyed by the immune system.
We feel these issues need to be raised publicly; Black
                                                                                                    Continued on page 42
Africans have a right to know these facts. An article high-
                            -36- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 27 – The Afrikan Traditional Herbal           stimulate new ties with business and avoid damage
Research Centre                                                   to the environment
Food Science                                                  •   Coordinate food and agricultural programs with
The food production and delivery chain is a complex               actions to combat poverty, and;
intersection of several sectors of the economy. The
farmer produces raw agricultural commodities. The             •   Increase food production for intra and inter-
commodities are purchased by food processors that in              continental trade with other Afrikans/Blacks
turn sell or distribute the product to wholesalers. The           throughout the Continent and the Diaspora.
wholesalers market the products to retailers who sell         In Uganda, for example, the use of natural spices and
the raw or modified agricultural products to consumers.       preservatives such as bird peppers, pimento, cloves,
Throughout this chain there are opportunities for             and cinnamon was discouraged by colonial powers and
product loss through spoilage and spillage.                   the medical community. African bird pepper is one
Obviously post-harvest losses can be reduced if there is      such spice that grows wild all over Uganda and is
a value-added post-harvest system in the country that         extremely beneficial to health. For 10,000 years, the
properly stabilizes food for the food delivery system.        chili pepper has been used as a natural preservative and
Such a value-added sector is dependent on several             for such physical ailments as poor circulation,
factors including a dependable supply of indigenous           regulating blood pressure, digestion, and respiratory
raw agricultural commodities, an economy that                 problems. In Jamaica, bird pepper was used by the
supports investment in hardware and industry, a               Maroons (Africans), to naturally preserve meat and
regulatory system that fosters a fair and competitive         food. Obtaining informational access to Western
market structure, and a well-trained, educated work           research libraries and computer databases could go far
force. It is this last item, a well-trained and educated      in providing much needed information on such topics
work force that is addressed in this proposal.                not readily available on the Afrikan continent.
Uganda represents a large area, capable of producing a        Afrikan Traditional Medicine (ATM)
wide variety of agricultural commodities. The majority        In all countries of the world, there exists traditional
of the current food needs are produced locally, with the      knowledge related to the health of humans and animals.
remainder being imported. Much of the imported foods          Presently, eighty percent of the world’s populations
are fully processed and packaged when they arrive and         still depend upon traditional and indigenous knowledge
inserted immediately into the distribution and                in medicine and herbal practices. In Afrika, traditional
marketing systems. One obvious mechanism to enhance           healers and the herbal remedies made from plants play
the local economy is to convert raw commodities into          an important role in the health of millions of people.
consumer ready products locally. The transfer of              Afrika has a long and impressive list of medicinal
knowledge and technology enhances opportunities to            plants based on local knowledge. Based upon holistic
process indigenous products to local tastes and               principles, this science pre-dates Egyptian medical
customs, providing jobs, leading to economic stability.       science and is between 20,000 and 100,000 years old.
Exporting these products also generates much-needed           In fact, it is the oldest medical science on the planet.
foreign exchange and brings real development to the           Afrikan health practitioners are devoted to teaching
country and the region. In this way, developing               individuals how to improve their physical, mental, and
countries are able to claim a share in global markets,        spiritual health through preventative lifestyles. Doctors
thereby bringing prosperity to their people.                  and health personnel have continued to shun traditional
                                                              medical practitioners despite their contribution to
Moreover, the benefits of knowledge and technology            meeting the basic health needs of the population,
transfer with respect to traditional agriculture and food     especially the rural people in developing countries.
science can help to:                                          Developing countries have begun to realise that their
•   Develop programs and policies that strengthen             current health systems are dependent upon western
    farmers, businesses, and markets                          technologies and upon western medicines that are
                                                              expensive and whose medicinal supply is toxic, erratic
•   Increase rural education and training and build           at best or non-existent.
    public institutions
                                                              The ancient Afrikans believed that a healthy immune
•   Expand traditional agricultural research and              system is responsible for the health and healing of the
    outreach to exploit existing and new technologies,        human body. From this premise, health problems occur
    such as food science (processing, preservation and        as the result of “something lacking” in our nutrition,
    packaging), and information technologies, to                                                 Continued on page 38
                            -37- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 37 - The Afrikan Traditional Herbal         vaccinations and pharmaceutical drugs, these diseases are
Research Centre                                                 devastating the continent's Black population. The
leaving the human body vulnerable to disease. Afrikan           AIDS/Malaria genocide, taking place in Afrika, is
medicine is a nutrient based system. A diet and lifestyle       painting a clear pattern of death, of cultural, economic
deficient in vital nutrients makes us susceptible to            and agricultural destruction which will be followed by
opportunistic infections, and cellular disorganisation          encroaching Western political, economic and military
(cancer). Western doctors believe that the body destroys        control.
itself with disease and that harmful bacteria and viruses       Control over the world’s natural plant resources are also
are trying to kill good bacteria and viruses. Therefore,        at risk. For the very same economic reasons mentioned
they must give toxic, poisonous drugs and vaccines to           above, the pharmaceutical industry has formed an
stop the body from killing itself.                              international cartel by the code name "Codex
The Afrikan system of health disagrees with the idea of         Alimentarius" with the aim to outlaw any health
germs being the sole source of disease. Their philosophy        information in connection with vitamins and to limit free
is consistent with the laws of nature, based upon an            access to natural therapies on a worldwide scale. The
ancient belief in the body’s natural ability to heal itself     multinational drug companies are helping to place a ban
when given the appropriate herbs, seeds, and foods.             on natural herbal products as well to monopolize the
Moreover, our African biochemistry requires a type of           vitamin and herbal remedies as their limitless source of
nutritional support (African Dietetics) that is not readily     revenue. In fact, what is already occurring in many
available in western cultures or through western                developing countries is "biopiracy", where corporations
medicine. The science of African biochemistry is based          use the folk wisdom of indigenous peoples to locate and
on the biochemical molecule, melanin. The lack of               understand the use of medicinal plants and then exploit
melanin-sustaining foods (which can be found in plant           them commercially through patents. From such an act of
phyto-nutrients) is one of the major causes of our              biopiracy, two drugs derived from the rosy periwinkle
nutritional deficiencies leading to disease.                    (vincristine and vinblastine), earn $100 million annually
                                                                for Eli Lilly. The plant is indigenous to the rainforest of
Currently, we are witnessing a breakdown of western             Madagascar and Madagascar has received nothing in
European systems to cure diseases, derived from both            return.
natural and unnatural causes. Most pharmaceutical drugs,
developed primarily to relieve symptoms, do not cure            These same multinational companies have introduced
diseases. Vaccines were developed to immunize against           diseases that can destroy the plants and herbs we use as
disease, but can also be use to spread disease. For             natural sources of nutrients, so that we can become more
example, immunization by vaccination has been the               dependent on their products. These are the same
means of spreading some of the most fatal and infectious        multinational corporations that have a monopoly on the
diseases, such as leprosy, syphilis, tetanus, tuberculosis,     development and production of genetically modified
smallpox and presently AIDS, polio and meningitis.              organisms, pesticides and herbicides, which poison the
Economic interest is the main reason why no medical             environment and produce metabolic changes in our foods
breakthroughs exist for the control or elimination of the       and in our bodies.
most common diseases and why these diseases continue            Biodiversity is Afrika's richest asset. Traditional know-
like epidemics on a worldwide scale. The pharmaceutical         ledge on the properties of plants, seeds, algae and other
industry withholds public information about the effects         biological resources is being sought by western scientists
and risks of their prescription drugs and vaccines and          for medicinal, agricultural and other purposes. Trade in
life-threatening side-effects are omitted or openly denied.     biological resources is big business today, but the terms
Many Blacks in the U.S., like their counterparts                are tipped in favour of the multinational corporations and
throughout Africa and the Diaspora, cannot even afford          are not in Afrika’s benefit, undermining the collective
pharmaceutical drugs to alleviate the symptoms of               rights of communities to biodiversity. Since time
disease.                                                        immemorial, Afrikan people have depended upon free
In healthcare, intellectual property rights have increased      and open access to a rich diversity of biological resources
the price of pharmaceutical drugs. Generally, the chronic       for food, fuel, medicine, shelter, economic security, and
ailments and diseases that affect Afrikans in the               the exchange and trade of such resources among
Diaspora, i.e. cancer, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, etc.   themselves. In agriculture, the commercialisation of the
are based on improper diet and lifestyles. By design,           seed market, patents on seed, and the introduction of
Afrika is plagued with natural and unnatural occurrences        genetic engineering have serious implications for
of communicable, parasitic and infectious diseases, such        Afrika’s farmers and food security.
as AIDS, malaria, polio, etc. With their corresponding                                                Continued on page 39
                               -38- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 38 – The Afrikan Traditional Herbal     foods known by the enslaved Africans in the Diaspora,
Research Centre                                             such as in the United States, was discouraged and hence,
Much of the knowledge on Afrika’s indigenous plant          most of that knowledge was lost. Many Afrikan societies
population and their curative powers are from studies       throughout the Diaspora however, retained some of their
mapped and funded by western countries and stored in        Afrikan traditions, such as the Jamaican Maroons.
western information depositories such as PROTA in the       What we had learned from a previous trip to Uganda in
Netherlands or from the Medical Research Council in         2004 was that many Ugandans were also in danger of
South Africa. There exist over 7000 medicinal plants in     losing their indigenous knowledge and the ability to heal
Tropical Africa. Although these studies are far from        themselves using traditional Afrikan healing methods.
complete, 76 plants indigenous to Uganda and 208            Ugandans were told by practitioners of Western medicine
indigenous to East Afrika are listed. Information on        that traditional herbal solutions do not work and is
indigenous medicinal plants in Uganda needs to be           considered witchcraft. As a result, there is ample
gathered and assembled in a centralised location for use    evidence that Ugandans are beginning to suffer the same
by herbalists and other medical professionals. This will    fate as their brothers and sisters in the Diaspora. What is
allow local indigenous knowledge to be published and        even more surprising was that many of the herbs which
protected and its plant uses, standardised.                 could be used to correct some of the most common
This rather long introduction, written in 2005 is the       ailments of many Ugandans could be found in their own
introduction text of a proposal Blackherbals presented      compounds! Meanwhile, multinational pharmaceutical
to several Ugandan government agencies and NGOs             companies were and are documenting Afrikan herbs and
such     as    MPAMBO        Multiversity,    National      plants with the intent of commercially developing and
Chemotherapeutics Laboratory (NCRL), National               patenting expensive new drugs.
Council of Traditional Herbalists Associations              As Afrikans, we should take ownership of our ancient
(NACOTHA), etc. to establish a school of African            knowledge and resources and exercise our intellectual
Traditional Herbal Medicine. The aim and objectives of      property rights to pass our indigenous knowledge to our
our proposal are:                                           descendents for their descendents. The Afrikan’s
•   To recapture indigenous Afrikan thought, history,       knowledge of herbal medicine, both on the continent and
    herbal, medicinal and agricultural traditions and all   in the Diaspora, is far older, than any indigenous group
    other indigenous knowledge to reeducate our             on the planet. But, there are not many books for the world
    people to Afrikan culture.                              to see on Afrikan Traditional Medicine (ATM). We
                                                            suggested that Uganda can become a world model by
•   To use and integrate this knowledge with                taking the initiative and developing an independent and
    technology to develop our nation of people,             alternative health care system based primarily but not
    alleviate poverty and achieve higher levels of self-    solely upon their indigenous knowledge of herbs, food
    sufficiency, dignity and self-determination.            and plants.
•   To take responsibility for Afrika’s health, wealth      At that time, however, we were told by everyone that
    and education using Afrikan indigenous knowledge        Uganda lacked the capacity, the infrastructure and the
    as the foundation for understanding the complex         resources for these types of endeavors. So we elected to
    world we live in today.                                 start our own clinic - The African Traditional Herbal
                                                            Research Clinic/Centre - to learn first-hand about African
Who we are
We are Kiwanuka and Nakato Lewis, husband (retired          herbal-based medicine, traditional herbs and their uses, to
engineer) and wife (retired research chemist), partners,    conduct clinical research on herbal plants for use in our
born in Jamaica and the United States, respectively,        herbal formulations that could positively impact the
descendants of enslaved Afrikans from the Diaspora,         health of Afrikan people everywhere and finally to learn
standing on the shoulders of our Ancestors.                 about African Spirituality and its integration in holistic
Initially, as RGL Enterprises International Inc.,
(registered in New York and Toronto, Canada), we            RGL Enterprises Intl/Blackherbals at the Source of the
created to address the lack of         Nile UG Ltd. is registered in Uganda since November
herbal/nutritional knowledge among Afrikans/Blacks in       2005. In February 2006, The African Traditional Herbal
the Diaspora.                                               Research Clinic/Centre was established with the initial
                                                            help of NACOTHA, of which Kiwanuka Lewis is a
With the growth of Western medicine, we discovered          member and the clinic is registered as a traditional herbal
that the use of Afrikan herbal medicine and traditional     association. Both Kiwanuka and Nakato are registered
                                                                                                  Continued on page 40
                            -39- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 37 – The Afrikan Traditional Herbal      diseases, symptoms and conditions with varying degrees
Research Centre                                              of success. Our present patient load is over 300 people
with the Ugandan Government as traditional herbalists.       and new patients are arriving everyday. Most of our
                                                             patients have multiple health problems. As required by
Our first two years was devoted to the research and          our protocol, none of our patients take western
development of herbal formulas, in a clinical setting, to    pharmaceuticals. Some of the services we offer are non-
address the health problems of continental Afrikans          invasive treatments for:
suffering from traditional African diseases and chronic
diseases acquired from the adoption of Western culture.          1.    AIDS (Herbal Antiviral)
                                                                 2.    Malaria
Many of the local herbs have been tested in the treatment        3.    Diarrhea/Constipation
of various symptoms at our research centre. The results          4.    Heart problems (pressure, circulation, strokes)
are very, very encouraging. Our BHSN formulas contain            5.    Diabetes
selected wild-crafted herbs gathered and collected from          6.    Sexual Transmitted diseases
historically traditional sites throughout Uganda. The            7.    Respiratory ailments (asthma, colds and TB)
herbs we collect and use are traditional organic, free of        8.    Ulcers and other Digestive disorders
all pesticides, herbicides, chemical inputs and when             9.    Skin diseases and rashes
necessary produced using traditional agricultural                10.   Arthritis and Rheumatism
methods.                                                         11.   Reproductive problems -Fertility (Men and
We have established good working contacts with other                   Women)
traditional herbal groups in Central Uganda (Walussi             12.   Tumours and Growths
Mountain, PROMETRA) and with Kasese/Rwenzori area                13.   Sickle Cell Anemia
in western Uganda, (KADDENTHCA), enabling us to                  14.   Central Nervous System (Epilepsy)
learn from them as they are learning from us. Recently,          15.   Cancer
our contacts have extended to groups in eastern Uganda           16.   Paralysis
as well as to groups in the war-torn north.                      17.   Gout
                                                                 18.   Weight Loss
We have attended various workshops and symposia, such            19.   Urinary Tract Infections
as NCRL, Malaria Consortium, NAPRECA, Uganda                     20.   Hepatitis
Industrial Research Institute, Uganda Historical Memory          21.   Detoxification
and Reconciliation Council, Inter Cultural Union of              22.   Energy Tonics
Uganda, Makerere University and Marcus Garvey Pan                23.   Muscle Pain
Afrikan Institute in Mbale. At MPAI, Kiwanuka is a               24.   Feminine Problems
research fellow and Nakato is on the Board of Directors.         25.   Addictions
Kiwanuka is also an executive Board Member of the
Walussi Spiritualists Committee. Walussi Mountain in         Over 35% of our patients were presented to us with
central Uganda is our village.                               malaria symptoms. Many were previously diagnosed with
                                                             recurring malaria and laboratory tests continue to show
ATHR Clinic                                                  parasites in their blood even after taking western
With information gathered from a community needs             prescription medicines. Our treatment consists of only
survey conducted by BHSN in Bukoto Parish, Kampala           three bottles of Blackherbals’ Malaria Mix (without
in October 2005, we identified 12 immediate diseases         artemesia) taken over a period of 4-6 weeks. Laboratory
affecting area residents. Therefore, our efforts were        testing of our patients have confirmed the absence of
concentrated on herbal medicines for these disorders. Our    these parasites after treatment and many of our patients
research uncovered many existing traditional African         have remained parasite-free for nearly two years and still
herbal formulas. With respect to usage, standardization,     counting. Our formula has been effective in the treatment
quality control and dosage, we have sought to refined        of malaria even during the onset of symptoms as well as
them and to created and develop new ones as well. Our        in the prevention of disease. Therefore, it is very puzzling
aim is to use this concept throughout various                for us and difficult to accept that there can be a malaria
communities in Uganda to effectively fight diseases at       epidemic in Uganda when herbal medicine is equally if
home, the natural way. We have been asked to take our        not more effective than western pharmaceuticals.
concept abroad to other parts of the African continent and
to the Diaspora where our people are suffering from the      Moreover, we have able to increase the CD-4 count of
same diseases, only in larger numbers.                       HIV/Aids patients using herbal detoxification and herbal
                                                             antiviral formulas. Thus we have been able to effectively
Since then, we have provided treatment for over 60
                                                                                                   Continued on page 39
                           -40- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 38 – The Afrikan Traditional           conditions. We believe that an informed patient is one who
Herbal Research Centre                                     will begin to take responsibility for his or her health,
treat both malaria and HIV patients while reducing the     because ultimately that is where it belongs.
side effects associated with taking western
pharmaceuticals for HIV/Aids and malaria. In addition,     We train our employees to develop proper work ethics, to
there is no shortage of the herbal medicine since we       display honesty, integrity and accountability and
only use local herbs.                                      transparency in all endeavors as well as pride in themselves
                                                           and the work they do. This is our biggest challenge.
Fifty-four percent of our patients present themselves
with digestive problems, namely ulcers, gastritis and      The Way Forward
gout. These disorders are generally associated with        For the past six months we have been standardizing our
Ugandan diet, the love for milk, meat and alcohol. We      formulations to determine dosage, shelf life and efficacy in
have been able to completely eliminate gout, heal          concordance with the standards set forth by the National
ulcers and gastrointestinal problems even in patients      Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory, the National Drug
with advanced symptoms.                                    Authority and the Uganda National Bureau of Standards. In
                                                           the coming months, our formulas will be presented to these
Our herbal formula for diabetes, ‘DIA-B’ has been          government agencies for formal registration and approval.
effective in controlling blood sugar levels to the point   We are proud and happy to say we have made some
that one only has to monitor oneself and make the          significant achievements and contributions. Our new
necessary corrections through diet and exercise to         product line at BHSN reflect many Afrikan traditional plant
maintain control, thus eliminating the need for constant   materials whose uses are documented throughout the
medication.                                                Afrikan continent, but have never been actively promoted.
Thirty-one per cent of our patients suffer from high       In conjunction with MPAI, we are helping to establish a
blood pressure and other pressure-related problems.        School of African Traditional Medicine over the next
One of the major causes is the Ugandan love for salt       several years.
and salty food. This is a common problem not just for      Blackherbals has introduced a new service to link our clinic
Ugandans but Black people worldwide. Along with            operations with our internet storefront. We do custom made
dietary changes, Blackherbals ‘BP’ has been very           formulations for off-site patients in health crisis who do not
successful in maintaining normal blood pressure levels     have access to herbal practitioners. What we require is a
without the side effects usually experience with           letter or email stating the problem, your symptoms, your
pharmaceuticals. Incorporating the use of spices in        diet, current prescriptions and any diagnostic data provided
one’s food has gone far to help our patients alleviate     by doctors, hospitals, etc. This information is used to set up
the salt from their diet. Some of our patients, who have   your patient chart and to determine the individual efficacy
been on blood pressure medication for years, use only      and effectiveness of our formulas. We formulate herbal
herbal medicine to control their blood pressure.           solutions for various health problems and symptoms, that in
Forty percent of our clients have some type of             many cases can be just as effective in treating the illness as
respiratory disorders. In the dry season, Uganda can be    prescription medicines, which in many cases can become
very dusty and many people are affected, developing        resistant to the disease, will only address one issue of the
flu-like symptoms and cough. Patients suffering from       problem, or may be too toxic. A custom-made diet is
asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia have found                detailed for the patient because the Afrikan diet is essential
substantial relief taking our respiratory mixes.           to our good health and recuperation. The cost of our
                                                           formulations is dependent upon the type of medical
Thirty-five per cent of patients are women complaining     problems, quantity and availability of required herbs,
of female problems to include painful menstruation         number of formulations needed and duration of treatment.
fibroid tumours and blocked tubes, some requiring          Our prices are very affordable. Please email us
surgery. We have been successful in reducing the size for more details. We look
of the tumours, saving many from surgery. We have          forward to hearing from you soon. We invite you also to
had 100% success rate with goiters and some hernias.       visit us online at to learn more
All of our patients are detoxified prior to or during      about us and our concerns on the survival of Black people.
treatment. For some, detoxification is all that is         In our own small way, we are helping to bring about a
required for the symptoms to disappear. We also            “Black Awakening” not just with words but through active
provide patient counseling on their dietary habits and     participation in this historical process.
what they can do to improve their health naturally. We                            ☻☻☻☻☻☻
provide information in the form of newsletters and
articles to educate and enlighten our patients on their
                           -41- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 36 - Africa: Researchers Record         The Kano State Commissioner for Health, Malama Aisha
Major Breakthrough                                          Ishiaku, recently stated that the malaria scourge accounts
The Australian team developed mutant strains of P.          for an annual economic burden of about N132 billion in
falciparum, each lacking one of 83 genes known or           Nigeria.
predicted to play a role in the red cell remodeling         Reports also revealed that in Africa, malaria accounts for
process. Systematically testing each one, they were able    10 per cent of the continent's disease burden as well as the
to show that eight proteins were involved in the            $12 billion yearly lost in productivity.
production of the key glue-like substance.
                                                            Globally, about 40 per cent of world population (2.4
Removing just one of these proteins stopped the             billion) is known to be at risk. An estimated 300-500
infected cells from attaching themselves to the walls of    million cases of malaria occur globally every year.
blood vessels, the report revealed.
Professor Alan Cowman, a member of the research                                        ☻☻☻☻☻☻
team at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical
Research, said targeting the protein with drugs, or              HIV ‘Hides from Drugs for
possibly a vaccine, could be key to fighting malaria.
"If we block the stickiness, we essentially block the
virulence or the capacity of the parasite to cause          BBC
disease," he said.                                          March 16, 2008
Malaria is preventable and curable, but can be fatal if     HIV can survive the apparently effective onslaught of
not treated promptly. The disease kills more than a         antiretroviral drugs for years by hiding away in the body’s
million people each year. Many of the victims are           cells, research shows.
young children in sub-Saharan Africa.                       The US National Cancer Institute found low levels of
Available statistics indicate that one out of every five    dormant HIV in patients seven years after they started – and
Nigerian children will die before their fifth birthday,     responded well to - standard therapy.
with malaria alone being responsible for one quarter of     The finding confirms patients must take drugs indefinitely,
these deaths.                                               and that any break runs the risk of rekindling infection.
Malaria is said to be responsible for an estimated 30 per   The study features in Proceedings of the National Academy
cent of deaths among children, 11 per cent among            of sciences.
pregnant women and 80 per cent of diseases in reported
cases in health facilities. It is certainly the leading     People with HIV need to take treatment indefinitely
cause of morbidity and mortality in the country.            because current drugs cannot reach this pool of dormant
                                                            virus. The researchers followed 40 patients infected with
Records also show that 50 per cent of Nigeria's             HIV for seven years.
population suffers from, at least, one episode of malaria
attack each year. The disease accounts for over 45 per      Doctors do not usually record infection levels once the
cent of all outpatient visits.                              number of HIV particles falls below 50 per milliliters of
The Federal Government spends millions annually on
awareness campaigns and provides malaria control            However, the NCI team used highly sensitive equipment to
measures, which involves programmes such as the Roll        measure infection levels below this threshold. They found
Back Malaria Initiative, where special insecticide-         that the virus was still present at low levels in 77% of the
treated bed-nets are produced and distributed to the        patients.
people, especially nursing mothers.                         The research suggests that although potent antiretroviral
Various countries and international organisations such      therapy can suppress HIV infection to almost undetectable
as Japan and the World Health Organisation (WHO)            levels, it cannot eradicate the virus.
are also collaborating with the country in the fight        The researchers said that even though levels of the virus
against her 'biggest' killer.                               that remain are low, they are high enough to rekindle
In the country, malaria is directly or remotely             infection if treatment is interrupted.
responsible for the loss of millions of productive hours,   The risk of infecting others is low, but cannot be ruled out.
resulting in colossal reduction in individual and           They believe HIV may be harboured by CD-4+ cells, which
collective productivity.                                    parlay a role in the immune system. Continued on page 43
                              -42- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 44- HIV hides from Drugs for Years     provide services for the children visited in eastern Uganda,
These cells are most likely infected before therapy was    less than one per cent of the children access ARVs.
initiated and the amount of virus they produce is small.   Dr Elyanu said in Budadiri health centre IV in Sironko
Researcher Dr Sarah Palmer said: “It is extremely          District and Amuria health centre IV in Amuria District,
important that new drugs are developed to eradicate        although 85 and 94 children infected with HIV/Aids
HIV infection as the side effects associated with long     respectively have been registered to get ARVs, only one is
term HIV treatment can be severe.                          accessing it at each of the centres.

She also warned that failing to take prescribed            Dr Elyanu said at Budaka health centre IV and Pallisa
medication raised the risk that HIV could begin to         Hospital, only four children are accessing ARVs.
develop resistance, rendering future treatment less        He said les than three children are accessing ARVs in
effective.                                                 Kumi, Bukedea, Bukwo, Kapchorwa, Kaberamaido,
                    ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                 Katakwi, Butaleja, Bududa and Manafwa.
     Only 5% Rural Children
     Access ARVs – Study                                       ARVs can double Patients’
                   David Mafabi
                                                                     Lives - Study
Daily Monitor                                                                  Kakaire Kirunda
March 26, 2008                                             Daily Monitor
Only 17 per cent of the children infected with             July 31, 2008
HIV/Aids in Uganda access anti-retroviral drugs.           People using antiretroviral (ARV) drugs can now expect to
Of these, less than five per cent are from rural areas,    live into their 60s and beyond, if finds from an international
according to research done by Baylor College of            study are anything to go by.
Medicine Children’s Foundation-Uganda                      A report published in the Lancet medical journal indicates
Most of the 83 per cent infected children in rural areas   people living with HIV/Aids could have ARVs prolong
do not access treatment and usually die, Baylor College    their lives by anywhere between 30 and 50 years, meaning
of Medicine Children’s Foundation Uganda [BCMCF-           a person that embarks on ARV therapy at 20 could live up
U] regional coordinator Dr Peter Elyanu says.              to 70 years.

BCMCF-U is an indigenous, child focused NGO                Analysing 18,587 (1996-99), 13,914 (2000-02) and 10,584
specialized in child HIV/Aids and affiliated to the        (2003-05) patients on combination antiretroviral therapy
Baylor International Paediatric Aids Initiative (Bipai).   (ART), researchers from Canada and the United Kingdom
                                                           sought to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy
Dr Elyanu, a paediatrician, was last Wednesday             among HIV-positive individuals.
addressing medical staff, district leaders, and
representatives of NGOs involved in the fight against      Results from 14 studies in that period show that Aids-
HIV/Aids in Pallisa town during a conference to seek       related deaths decreased progressively through the years,
ways of increasing child HIV/aids services in the          accounting for a 40 percent reduction by 2005.
region.                                                    Published in the July 26 edition of the Lancet medical
He said due to lack of access to ARVs, about 75 per        journal, the study showed that an individual starting
cent of children infected with HIV/Aids die before the     successful HIV treatment aged 20 would be expected to
age of five.                                               live to be 63, and that a patient initiating an anti-HIV drugs
                                                           regimen aged 35 could live to the age of 67.
Dr Elyanu said whereas currently Uganda has close to
140,000 children living with HIV/Aids and another          Since the 1966 introduction of antiretroviral therapy,
25,000 continue to be infected annually, access to         combination therapy regimen have become more effective,
paediatric HIV/Aids services and ARTs have remained        better tolerated and have been simplified in terms of dosing.
limited to the central region thereby leaving many of      The researchers also found that starting treatment with a
the infected children in rural areas dying within the      CD4 cell count above 200 would mean that a person aged
fifth year.                                                20 could expect to live to be 70, and that a 35-year-old
He said, in most government health centres meant to        could survive into their 72nd year.
                                                                                                   Continued on page 44
                           -43- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 45 – ARVs Can Double Patient Lives     record the production process," said the report. It also noted
A CD4 count is used to assess the immune status of         that half the companies did not have internal audit systems
HIV infected persons.                                      and there was little input from the managers in the
                                                           production process.
In Uganda, there are currently about 132,000 people on
antiretroviral therapy, yet nearly 300,000 require the     Despite the shortcomings, the companies had hand washing
drugs.                                                     facilities, ongoing installations of air-conditioning systems
                                                           and quality control labs.
However, the government recently allocated Shs60
billion to the health sector for the procurement of        Mbaziira said the firms would be graded in five categories
ARVs, a move likely to bring another 150,000 persons       depending on their performance. "The worst ones with
living with HIV on treatment.                              critical working conditions will have their certificates and
                                                           licenses withdrawn. They will also be instantly closed."
Uganda has set a target of putting 263,000 people on
treatment by 2012, and 342,000 by 2020.                    Copies of the survey's highlights, which were given to the
                                                           participants, were later withdrawn after complaints from
But this raises questions on sustainability, as 95 per     some manufacturers who wanted the results to remain
cent of the ARV programme is currently donor               confidential.
supported, mainly by the American-funded President’s
Emergency Plan for Aids Relief (Pepfar) initiative.        "This is unfair to us. How are we going to convince
                    ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                 exporters that our products are of good quality? You should
                                                           have addressed the press, exporters and manufacturers
        Drug Factories Sub-                                differently," retorted one as several participants nodded in
             Standard                                      However, the authority's chief inspector, Kate Kikule, said:
                 By Conan Businge                          "There is nothing to hide. In this way we can build our local
                                                           producers by improving their products' quality. All drugs
                                                           are inspected before getting to the market.
New Vision (Kampala)
18 July 2008                                               "Only those that meet the standard are distributed to the
THE majority of drug manufacturing companies in
Uganda do not meet operational standards, according to     NDA chief Apollo Muhairwe stressed that the "inspections
a new survey. A survey by the National Drug Authority      were done to develop the local drug manufacturing
revealed that several companies will be closed soon,       industry."
after their grading is completed. The companies were      
not named.                                                                            ☻☻☻☻☻☻
The report was presented at the authority's annual
general meeting at Protea Hotel in Kampala on                 CDC: 1.1 million Americans
Thursday. It noted that most companies do not meet
required minimum production standards. It also found
                                                                   have AIDS Virus
unsanitary protective uniforms, change rooms,              Population living with HIV grows as more become infected,
production rooms, stores, corridors and wash areas for                            survive longer
manufacturing vessels."                                    October 2, 2008
 "Half of the manufacturing companies had problems         WASHINGTON - A new estimate of how many Americans
with cleaning sanitary premises," said Nasser Mbaziira,    have the AIDS virus puts the number at about 1.1 million,
the eastern regional drug inspector, "A number of them     the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said on
have procedure guidelines, but no records; and the         Thursday.
reverse was true for others." He added that there were
also anomalies in the flow of the production process.      The CDC numbers, based on 2006 data, show the
                                                           population living with HIV is growing as people become
The inspectors explained that there should be a specific   newly infected and as more patients survive thanks to HIV
flow of the production process to avoid contamination      drugs.
and back flows.
                                                           The report also suggests that past estimates that more than 1
"Much as there is improvement in documentation of          million Americans were living with HIV overstated the
manufacturers' activities, the majority of them do not                                               Continued on page 45
                           -44- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 44 – CC: 1.1 M Americans have            (510,100 people). About 35 percent of those with HIV
AIDS Virus                                                   were white and 18 percent were Hispanic, according to the
actual total number of people with HIV infections at the     CDC.
time.                                                        Black women were nearly 18 times more likely than white
The agency used different methods than it has in the         women to be infected with HIV, while black men were six
past to calculate the number. Its most recent nationwide     times more likely than white men, the CDC said. Hispanics
estimate of 1 million had been given for 2003, and           were 2.6 times more likely than whites to be infected.
using the new methods the CDC figured that 994,000           In 2006, about 14,000 Americans died of AIDS. At the end
were living with HIV that year.                              of 2006, the disease had killed nearly 546,000 Americans
"These data really show the continued impact that the        since being first recognized in the early 1980s.
epidemic is having on Americans, and they really             To make the new estimates, the CDC used information on
reinforce the severe toll that is experienced in multiple    new HIV diagnoses taken from 40 states with the best data
communities," the CDC's Richard Wolitski said in a           and AIDS diagnoses and deaths taken from all 50 states, as
telephone interview.                                         well as a statistical method called "back-calculation."
The CDC report reinforced previous findings that the         Globally, 33 million people have HIV and 25 million have
epidemic disproportionately affects blacks of both           died of it.
sexes as well as gay and bisexual men.
As the number of people living with HIV grows, so                                  ☻☻☻☻☻☻
does the cost of providing medical services to this
population and the burden on the U.S. health care             HIV Spread Still High Despite
system, Wolitski said.
                                                                    Fall in Infection
The CDC estimated that about one in five — 232,700
of the 1.1 million people infected with the human                                  Evelyn Lirriin
immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS — did not            Saturday Monitor
know they were infected. The total U.S. population is        August 2, 2008
300 million.
                                                             Uganda is one of the countries where a significant
"We're not going to be able to treat our way out of this     prevention of new infections of HIV has been registered,
epidemic. We need to have strong prevention programs         the latest report by the Joint United Nations Programme on
so we can prevent these infections from occurring in         HIV indicates.
the first place," said Wolitski, acting chief of the CDC's
HIV/AIDS prevention division.                                The report released on July 29 says that much of the
                                                             dramatic declines have been as a result of change in sexual
Men made up three quarters of people with HIV                behaviour.
                                                             “In a number of heavily affected countries such as Kenya,
The CDC previously reported that more people are             Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe, dramatic changes in
becoming infected each year than previously estimated,       sexual behaviour have been accompanied by declines in the
with 56,300 new HIV infections in the United States in       number of new infections,” the report says.
2006. Previous estimates put the number of new
infections at about 40,000 a year.                           It says that a decline in new infections in these countries
                                                             has contributed to the global stabilization of people infected
Of all the people infected with HIV, 48 percent were         by the virus since the late 1990s.
men who have sex with men, the CDC said. While
male-to-male sexual contact was the leading cause of         According to the report, some of the factors contributing to
HIV infections, heterosexual sex — mostly women              the decline in sexual behaviour are the increased use of
having sex with men who are injection drug users —           condoms and abstinence from [sex] until later years.
accounted for 28 percent of HIV-infected people.             The report warns that even with the registered prevention of
Injection drug use, which spreads the blood-borne virus      new infections, there is still a long way before the promise
via contaminated needles, contributed 19 percent of the      of an Aids free generation is fulfilled. It says that progress
HIV cases.                                                   is still uneven across countries, and the epidemics future
                                                             still uncertain.
Blacks make up 12 percent of the overall population
but accounted for 46 percent of those infected with HIV                                              Continued on page 46

                            -45- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 45 – HIV Spread Still High Despite
Fall in Infection                                                 HIV Infection Rate High
Uganda has been promoting the ABC – Abstinence, Be                    Among Forces
Faithful and use a Condom approach for HIV
prevention. This enabled the country to reduce its
                                                                              By Rehema Aanyu
national HIV prevalence from about 30 per cent in the       New Vision (Kampala)
early years of the epidemic to about 6.4 per cent to        17 July 2008
date. However, recent trends indicate that since 2000,
                                                            The rate of new HIV infection is high among the armed
the prevalence has stagnated.
                                                            forces compared to the civilian population, the director
This latest comprehensive report published by Unaids        general of the Uganda AIDS Commission has said.
is based on progress review reports from 147 countries
                                                            Dr. Kihumuro Apuuli noted that the infection rates were
globally as part of efforts to implement the 2001
                                                            two to five times higher among the forces than in the
declaration of commitments on HIV.
                                                            whole population.
The report also says that increased financing for HIV
                                                            "For every two people put on anti-retroviral (ARV)
programmes, especially in low income countries
                                                            treatment, five more are infected. It is like chasing a
including Uganda has contributed to lowering
prevalence and preventing new infections.
                                                            He observed that the armed forces were also at increased
The Director General of the Uganda Aids Commission,
                                                            risk of contracting and spreading HIV due to their
Dr Kihumuro Apuuli, said in Uganda’s Progress
 Report that some of the factors driving the epidemic
                                                            Apuuli was on Tuesday addressing the army, the Police
include behavioural, social, cultural, economic and
                                                            and Prisons Service chiefs at the Kampala Protea Hotel.
geographic factors like poverty and early marriage.
                                                            He attributed the new infections to increased interaction
Dr Apuuli said that new infections are found highest
                                                            between combatants and civilians, and rise in commercial
among cohabiting married or widowed people. This
group category, he said contribute to 42 per cent of the
new infections, conventional sex contributes 22 per         Apuuli also cited decreased availability of health services
cent, mother to child transmission 21 per cent, while       related to sexually transmitted infections and the lack of
casual sex contribute to 14 per cent of new infections.     adequate knowledge and means to prevent transmission.
According to Dr Apuuli, currently the HIV prevalence        The armed forces should incorporate HIV/AIDS
rate is 6.4 percent, with percentages higher in the urban   interventions in their programmes and counter
areas at 10.1 per cent while in the rural areas             stigmatisation of victims, Apuuli suggested.
prevalence stands at 5.7 per cent.
                                                            "The armed forces must help in building bridges between
In a press statement, the executive Director of Unaids,     communities and vulnerable groups to make their lives
Dr Peter Piot said the positive progress should be          easier."
sustained. “Gains in saving lives by preventing new
                                                            He also called for more funding to expand access to anti-
infections and providing treatment to people living with
                                                            retroviral therapy as well as medicines to treat
HIV must be sustained over the long term,” he said.
                                                            opportunistic infections and other sexually transmitted
“Short term gains should serve as a platform for            diseases.
reinvigorating combination HIV prevention and
                                                            The director of HIV/AIDS interventions in the army, Lt.
treatment efforts and not spur complacency,” Dr Piot
                                                            Col. Stephen Kusasira, said the disease was the main
                                                            cause of death in the force.
          Daily Monitor Brief - May 8, 2008                 He said they were incorporating sensitisation on the
                                                            pandemic in all command duties and training.
    At least 27,000 babies in Uganda are born with
    HIV/Aids every year, according to new statistics        The meeting was organised by the Community Health
released by the Parliamentary Committee on HIV/Aids.        and Information Network.
 Less than 20% of HIV positive pregnant women have
    access interventions to prevent mother to child
                            -46- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
                                                           cision as a strategy for men who have sex with men in the
     Circumcision may not                                  United States," Millett said.
   reduce gay male HIV risk                                The CDC's Dr. Peter Kilmarx, who was not involved in
Study: No clear proof procedure protects men who           the research, said the agency is preparing formal
                                                           recommendations on circumcision in the United States,
              are intimate with guys
                                                           with a draft due to be made public early next year.
October 7, 2008
                                                           Millett said there are signs circumcision might protect
WASHINGTON - There is not enough evidence to say           certain gay and bisexual men depending on sexual
circumcision protects men from getting the AIDS virus      practices. The virus can be transmitted through blood or
during sex with other men even as studies show it          semen.
protects them when having sex with women, U.S.
                                                           Studies in Australia and Peru showed that men who
researchers said on Tuesday.
                                                           engaged in insertive anal sex only and were not being
A review of 15 studies involving 53,567 gay and            penetrated by male sex partners got a significant
bisexual men in the United States, Britain, Canada,        protective effect from HIV infection from being
Australia, India, Taiwan, Peru and the Netherlands         circumcised, Millett said.
failed to show a clear benefit for those who were
                                                           "Of course, if you're being penetrated by a partner during
circumcised, researchers from the U.S. government's
                                                           sex, you being circumcised is not going to protect you
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.
                                                           from HIV infection," Millett said.
Circumcised men     were 14 percent less likely to be
                                                           Millett said two U.S. studies and one in Peru conducted
infected with the   human immunodeficiency virus, or
                                                           before the introduction in 1996 of combination drug
HIV, than those     who were uncircumcised, but the
                                                           treatment for HIV infections, called highly active
finding was not     statistically significant, the CDC
                                                           antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, showed that
researchers said.
                                                           circumcised men were 53 percent less likely to be
"You can't necessarily say with confidence that we're      infected with HIV than uncircumcised men.
seeing a true effect there," said the CDC's Gregorio
                                                           He said it is possible that since the advent of HAART,
Millett, who led the study that appeared in the Journal
                                                           which helped turn HIV infection into a chronic disease
of the American Medical Association.
                                                           rather than a death sentence for many people, some gay
"Overall, we're not finding a protective effect            and bisexual men may have felt freer to engage in risky
associated with circumcision for gay and bisexual          sexual practices.
men," Millett said in a telephone interview.
Studies involving men in Africa, where the AIDS                                  ☻☻☻☻☻☻
epidemic is primarily spread by sex between men and
women, showed that male circumcision halved the risk               The Other Face of
of female-to-male HIV infection.
                                                                Circumcision in HIV War
Experts say this reduced HIV risk may be because cells
on the inside of the foreskin, the part of the penis cut                    Michael Bahinyoza
off in circumcision, are especially susceptible to HIV                       HIV Prevention
infection. The virus also may survive better in a warm,    Daily Monitor
wet environment like that found beneath the foreskin.      August 1, 2008
But whether circumcision might lower the risk of HIV       The Geneva-based World Health Organisation has
infection in sex between men had remained unclear.         reportedly, over the last couple of months been leading
Gay and bisexual men play a much larger role in AIDS       UN Agencies (UNAIDS), UNICEF, UNFPA) to support
in many countries outside of Africa, the epidemic's        particularly African countries to develop male
epicenter.                                                 circumcision    policies    and    strategies  in   the
                                                           broader/comprehensive HIV prevention strategy.
For example, the CDC last week said 48 percent of the
1.1 million Americans infected with HIV are men who        The follows results from the three Randomised
have sex with men. More than three-quarters of U.S.        Controlled Trials (RCTs) undertaken in Kisumu (Kenya),
men are circumcised.                                       Rakai (Uganda), and Orange Farm (South Africa) show-
                                                           ing that male circumcision could reduce the risk of heter-
"We really cannot recommend overall male circum-                                                Continued on page 48
                           -47- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 47 – The Other Face of Circumcision      viral load and thus infectivity to the female partner.
osexually acquired HIV infection in men by about 60          For now, it may be wise for our own Ministry of Health,
per cent.                                                    the medical fraternity and the public to be cautious and
According to media reports, Rwanda has already rolled        not to be overwhelmed by the hyperbolic’ promotion of
out male circumcision in the military, a country where       male circumcision in HIV prevention.
ironically, circumcised men have a higher rate of HIV        Pre-marital chastity and fidelity, nurtured and supported
than ‘intact’ men. (              by needed life skills within viable and dynamic support
A colleague told me last week, seven of his friends (all     groups, remain time-tested HIV/AID preventive
of them single) had been circumcised in this ended           weaponry as the infected and affected are given needed
month of July and that the RCT findings had majorly          care and support.
influenced their decision. It is worth noting that
because of information deficiency and other challenges,
there have been a number of exaggerated claims made
                                                                Breakthrough Reported in
for the reported efficacy of male circumcision in                   Malaria Drug Trial
preventing HIV infection.
                                                                                Kakaire Kirunda
Many people are not even aware that the results from
the above mentioned randomized Controlled Trials are         Daily Monitor
about prevention of female-to-male HIV infection.            May 1, 2008
Secondly, not many young people (and probably adults         Canadian scientists working with Ugandans at Makerere
as well) seem aware that the trial results clearly           University have reported that their novel drug candidates
indicated that male circumcision reduces the risk            to treat malaria have demonstrated good safety in their
infection. Unfortunately, many young male adolescents        first toxicity tests in animals.
and some men prefer reading or hearing reducing the          This was announced on Monay in a press release by the
risk as eliminating the risk. Undoubtedly, there is ‘a       Canada-based Upstream Biosciences Inc. The Institute
heaven of difference’ between risk reduction and risk        was founded in 2004 in the Canadian province of British
elimination and hopefully, this can be well grasped in       Columbia.
the preventive campaign against HIV/Aids.
                                                             “Researchers reported that Upstream’s anti-malarial
Reputable senior research fellows, Garry Dowsett and         candidates were well tolerated, with no signs of serious
Murray Coach, from Australia suggest in their findings;      toxicity at likely healing dosages,” the release reads in
“The use of male circumcision in preventing HIV              part.
infection” that the results of the three RCTs contain
exaggerated claims. In his work; “The Demonisation of        According to the researchers, activity in this range in a
the Foreskin and the Rise of Circumcision in Britain.”       new class of anti-malarial drugs has the potential to
Darby RJL, too brings to the fore what he considers          represent an important advance in the treatment of a
information that the respective supervisors of the three     resistant form of the disease.
RCTs should not have ignored.                                The release said the new data represents the third set of
Apparently it turns out that all the three RCTs were         positive toxicity results in animals obtained by
terminated early, arguably before the incidence of HIV       researchers at Makerere University for Upstream’s drug
infection in the circumcised males caught up with the        candidates     for     malaria,    trypanosomiasis       and
incidence of infection in the non-circumcised males. It      leishmaniasis, all diseases caused by related parasites.
is therefore highly probably that non-circumcised got        “These first positive toxicity results in animals for our
infected more quickly than their circumcised friends         anti-malarial candidates mark an important step in our
because the circumcised males required a period of           programmed to develop safe and effective drugs to fight
abstinence after circumcision, suggesting, among other       this pervasive condition,” Mr. Joel Bellenson, CEO
things, likely that if the studies had continued as          Upstream was quoted as saying.
initially scheduled, the difference in infection incidence
between the two groups males would have been small.          However, in a follow-up interview with Daily Monitor,
                                                             Mr Bellenson said researchers can now move on to
As has been noted by our own Ministry of Health, male        testing the drugs in sick animals,” and we know how high
circumcision does not protect women. Since viral load        a dosage ceiling we can use for this testing.”
is the cardinal predictor of the risk of HIV
transmission, male circumcision would not reduce the                                                Continued on page 49
                            -48- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 47 – Breakthrough Reported in           considering replacing of traditional food crops with the
Malaria Drug Trial                                          quick maturing artemesia, a crop used in the production
Asked how soon human trials would begin, he said it         of artemesinin - an ingredient in the manufacture of anti-
was hard to make precise predictions about the timing       malaria drugs such as Coartem, and Artemether.
of trials.                                                  “I have so far given up on growing sorghum, a traditional
He added: “Drug development has several stages and          crop regarded highly in the area. “I prefer Artemesia
sometimes requires taking one step back to make two         because it matures faster [3 months] and gives higher
steps forward. When we get the animal efficacy data, it     returns compared to sorghum that takes seven months,”
will tell us whether we need to use our artificial          he said.
intelligence software to make the drugs more potent or      Two years ago, farmers like Mr. Tabaro were hard to
less toxic.”                                                find. “People were at first reluctant to take on the crop
Mr. Bellenson explained that the current malarial drugs     because of the bad experience they had had with the now
have a similar mode of action and the parasites become      defunct Agro Management [a company that introduced
resistant to chemicals related to these older drugs quite   pyrethrum growing in the area],” Mr Cleth Rugwiza, the
easily.                                                     extension officer of Aflo Alpine Pharma Ltd (AAPL),
“Our compounds are a completely different chemical
structure and are therefore likely to work by blocking      Introduced in 2005, artemesia was not well received as
different proteins activities,” he added.                   farmers remained reluctant to hurriedly replace their food
                                                            crops with the untested cash crop on fragmented pieces of
“In addition, our compounds may have another                land.
advantage to work against sleeping sickness, Nagana
and kala azar as well as malaria. This would simplify       When the pioneers registered successes, Mr Rugwiza
drug stocking logistics and administration to sick          said, more farmers then clamoured for more seedlings
patients.”                                                  from extension agents. Outgrowers have since grown
                                                            from 350 farmers when the crop was first introduced to
Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in        more than 12,000 farmers to date.
Uganda, accounting for 25-40 per cent of all outpatient
visits at healthcare facilities.                            “We did a lot of work to diminish the negative experience
                                                            through sensitization in churches, and public gatherings,”
Up to 20 per cent of all hospital admissions and 15 per     he said.
cent of in-patient deaths are due to malaria.
                      ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                Mr. Aggrey Bitungukye, another farmer, said:” At first, I
                                                            thought a kilogramme of dried leaves was difficult to
  Farmers Reap Fortunes of                                  raise but when I managed to raise about 220 kilograms
                                                            from my piece of land, I picked up even more interest.”
     Malaria Treatment                                      Income Boost
             Godwin Muhwezi-Bonge                           Persuaded by the need to diversify incomes of
                                                            subsistence farmers in Kabale, Aflo Alpine Pharma
Daily Monitor
                                                            Limited, introduced the cultivation of a locally grown,
March 4, 2008
                                                            affordable anti-malarial treatments, for distribution in
Mr. John Tabaro, an elderly farmer in Kabale District       local, regional, and international markets.
who has tilled the land for years growing mainly
                                                            “Kabale was chosen for its alpine climate akin to that of
sorghum made his first Shs2 million last year thanks to
                                                            Vietnam and India where the plant is mainly grown,” Mr
a “little-known” crop Sweet Wormwood whose
                                                            Rugwiza said.
scientific name is Artemsia annua.
                                                            Chloroquine and quinine-based derivatives have long
“I made about Shs2 million after three months of
                                                            been used in the treatment of malaria in sub-Saharan
growing [it], I had never made so much money before
                                                            Africa, where the disease kills about 3,000 per day.
[and now] I managed to take my children to school and
all I think of is more and more artemesia,” he said         However, patients’ increasing resistance to traditional
gleefully.                                                  anti-malarial drugs, and the need to stem off malarial
                                                            deaths has given birth to a new line of treatment in
Such is the reception the alien crop has received in an
                                                            Artemesinin Combination Therapy, of which artemesinia
area with no tradition of growing cash crops that after
                                                            extracted from Artemesia annua forms a vital component.
three seasons of uninterrupted cash flow, farmers are
                                                                                                 Continued on page 51
                            -49- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
                                                            Kayinga said he had reported to the resident district
 NDA to Licence Herbalists,                                 commissioner. He noted that half of the healers in
      Regulate Food                                         Masaka were from Tanzania, Burundi and the DR Congo.

                 Herbert Mugagga                            "We are planning a major operation against illegal
Daily Monitor                                               healers. We expelled the Maasai from Kenya, who had
November 19, 2007                                           flocked the region, because of their dubious characters,"
                                                            said Kayinga.
The National Drug Authority will start licensing
herbalists in the country to ease monitoring. This was      "But we still have a problem with the Tanzanians. These
disclosed by Dr Josephine Nanyanzi, the Authority’s         illegal healers sexually exploit women clients, exposing
Inspector of Drugs in an interview with Daily Monitor       them to HIV/AIDS."
last week.                                                  The southern regional Police chief, Andrew Sorowen,
Dr. Nanyanzi said the institution is currently holding      urged immigration officials to stop foreign healers from
consultative meetings with herbalists and at the same       entering the country illegally. He noted that local leaders
time sensitizing them to come up with appropriate           were no longer crosschecking the documents of new
guidelines. He said the move aims to ensure that            people coming to reside in their areas.
premises where herbal medicines are stored or sold are      "The LCs should check for stamped letters from their
suitable for the purpose. “We are mandated to ensure        counterparts where the new residents originate because
that the available drugs are of good quality and best of    we may end up harbouring criminals." Sorowen blamed
the public.                                                 child sacrifice on illegal traditional healers.
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                                       ☻☻☻☻☻☻

         Policy to Regulate                                    Tanzanians kill Albinos for
         Herbalists in Offing                                           Luck
Daily Monitor                                               BBC, Tanzania
November 11, 2007                                           April 4, 2008
Government has drafted a policy to regulate operations      Tanzania’s President Jakaya Kikwete has ordered a
of traditional healers. “If passed, the policy would        crackdown on witchdoctors who use body parts from
create an enabling environment for the full and suitable    albinos in magic potions to allegedly bring people good
utilization of traditional and complementary medicine       luck or fortune.
in addressing some of the challenges facing the natural
healthcare system,” said Mr. Franklin Nsubuga               “This is senseless cruelty. It must stop forthwith,” Jakaya
Muyonjo, a ministry of health consultant.                   Kikwete said on television, AFP news agency reports.

                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                 “I am told that people kill albinos and chop their body
                                                            parts, including fingers, believing they can get rich when
      Uganda: 23,000 Illegal                                mining or fishing,” he said. The order comes after the
                                                            murder of 19 albinos in the last year.
       Healers in Masaka                                    The BBC’s Vicky Ntetema in Dar es Salaam says there is
                 Dismus Buregyeya                           a widespread belief in Tanzania that the condition is the
                                                            result of a curse put on the family.
New Vision (Kampala)
16 July 2008                                                Old women with red eyes have been killed in parts of
                                                            Tanzania, after being accused of witchcraft, she says.
A total of 23,115 traditional healers in Masaka are not
registered, according to the district traditional healers   In the past, Tanzania’s Albino Society has accused the
and herbalists' association.                                government of turning a blind eye to the killing of
The chairman, Ssalongo Kayinga, told The New Vision
on Tuesday that Nyendo Division alone had 343 illegal       There are some 270,000 albinos among Tanzania’s
healers. "We have only 38 registered healers in Nyendo      population of some 35 million, the highest population in
yet the division has 381 practicing. The situation is       East Africa.
worse at the district level where out of the 24,000                               ☻☻☻☻☻☻
traditional healers only 885 are registered," he said.
                            -50- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 49 - – Farmers reap Fortunes           slowed down on buying as a way of storing the stock
 “We extract up to 98.6 per cent of Artemesinin from       with the farmers. Currently we have more stock than the
dried leaves of artemesia annua,” Mr. Robert               available warehouse space,” he said. “As soon as we
Tumushabe, the factory supervisor of AAPl, said. The       dispose of the stock in our stores, we will begin buying.”
factory processes 12 tonnes of dried artemesia leaves      He said buying on credit is part of the company’s new
per day. One tonne of dried Artemesia leaves produces      system of “streamlining field payment.” The company
six kilogrammes of crude artemesinin crystals.             discarded the “on-spot payment system”, though popular
The Artemesin is then sold to the world’s renowned         with farmers, had its own shortfalls.
pharmaceutical     companies     such   as     Cipla       “Farmers would bring to buying centres more or less
Pharmaceutical of India from where Artemesinin-based       produce than anticipated, which disorganised our
drugs are manufactured.                                    accounting system” Mr Zagyenda said. “We later adopted
“Our market is worldwide but we sell most of our bulk      an organized way of buying where we issue holder
in India,” Mr Freedie Zagyeda, the chief executive         certificates to farmers for whatever we have bought.”
officer of AAPL, said.                                     Speculators
There is growing demand for Artemesinin as leading         He believes the current discontent among farmers is
pharmaceuticals on manufacture of Artemesinin-based        mainly fuelled by speculators who were caught off guard
drugs after World Health Organisation authorized           by the company’s change of heart.
Artemesinin combination therapy as the new line of         “They buy quantities in the hope of cashing in on the
malaria treatment.                                         stock during the time of scarcity. They are now getting
Unfortunately, this demand has not translated into         impatient,” he said. “Genuine farmers stay put because
higher Artemesinin prices on the world market instead      we will begin buying in two months time.”
prices have been falling. World market prices fell from    AAPL operates an out-grower scheme supported by the
$350 per Kg in 2005 to $200 per Kg in 2007, a thing        company’s nucleus farms. Farmers receive technical
that has negatively impacted on the company’s bottom       advice from the company’s extension who have basic
line.                                                      training in the agronomy and management of Artemesia
Although Mr Zagyenda maintains that the falling            annua.
Artemesinin prices on the world market will not affect     “We train extension workers to assist farmers with the
the company’s relationship with the farmers,               growing of Artemesia,” Mr Rugwiza said. It is these
testimonies show that the farmers are already feeling      agents that also determine the quality of the leaf. The
the pinch. Out-growers are complaining that their          agents mainly operate in the five regions of Kabale
produce is rotting away in their stores as the company     District.
remains reluctant to collect.
                                                           Farmers receive free seedlings from extension agents.
“I have sacks of dry leafs stuck here,” Mr Bitungukye      Farmers then plant the seedlings, which take about 3 to 4
said. “Much as I would like to keep growing artemesia,     months to mature before harvest.
I cannot because of lack of market.”
                                                           The leaves are dried for 2 to 3 days and later sold at
Mr Tabaro said: “Nowadays these people [AAPL] buy          collection centres before it is transported to the factory
on credit. They are not treating us as they did            for processing. A kilogramme of dried artemesia annua
previously.” He added: ‘I have stop planting because I     leaves cost Shs1,000 per kg. The plant is best suited to
cannot sell.”                                              the alpine climate present in Kabale.
Growing Stock                                              And as such, the plant has not encountered diseases,
Mr Zagyenda said the company cannot abandon                which makes it easier for farmers. Trials are also going
farmers and will stick to its promise of buying whatever   on in the surrounding district of Mbabara and
stock the farmers have.                                    Ntunogamo. “There are dry leaves waiting to be collected
“We provide free seedlings to farmers through our          in Mbarara,” Mr Rugwiza said.
extension agents; it is a joint investment. That is        As the world prices of Artemesinin continue to tumble,
assurance enough that we have interest in their stock,”    the company is planning to diversify its product range.
Mr Zagyhenda said.                                         “We conducting trials for new crops,” Mr Zagyenda said.
According to him, the company slowed down on               The company has hired services of an Indian Agronomist,
buying as a way to contain the growing stock. “We          Dr S.K. Natarajan to carry out the trials.
                           -51- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
                                                             “When you are infected, you have to increase on the food
      ‘Malnutrition Increases                                intake. An additional mug of nutritious porridge, Katogo
       Resistance to ARVs’                                   [beans with cassava or matooke (banana) or groundnuts
                                                             or greens], and other snacks must be taken between meals
A quarter of people on ARVs are malnourished. These          so that the body gets the required amount of energy to
      deter the drugs from acting as required.               fight the virus,” Dr Mwadime said. “When the virus is in
                     Jane Nafula                             its advanced stage, at least two mugs of nutritious
                                                             porridge are recommended.”
Daily Monitor                                                                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻
July 21. 2008
Severe malnutrition among people living with                  9 Million Ugandans Starving
HIV/Aids is one of the factors forcing the HIV virus to                – Museveni
become resistant to antiretroviral drugs.
                                                              213,000 Million People Starving in Sub-Saharan
The Regional Nutrition and HIV/Aids Advisor for the
Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA)
                                                             Africa. Food is exported to neighbouring countries.
Project, Dr Robert Mwadime, said malnourished                              John Augustine Emojong
patients have thin muscles and weak bodies that deter
the drugs from acting as required.                           Daily Monitor
                                                             October 20, 2008
“Patients who are thin lack the muscles and nutrients
needed to support the process of absorbing,                  President Yoweri Museveni has revealed that close to
metabolizing and distributing the drugs in the body,”        nine million Ugandans are starving due to food shortage
Dr Mwadime said.                                             caused by the effects of climate changes.

Dr Mwadime told a workshop on nutrition and HIV              In a speech read for him by the Third Deputy Prime
monitoring and evaluation at Entebbe last week.              Minister and Minister for Information and National
                                                             Guidance, Mr Kirunda Kivejinja during celebrations to
He said even a deficiency of one specific nutrient can       mark the World Food Day in Tororo on Thursday, Mr.
affect this process.                                         Museveni said at least 213 million people in Sub-Saharan
Participants were drawn from Kenya, Tanzania,                Africa are starving due on food shortage.
Rwanda, Zambia, Namibia, Malawi and Ethiopia.                He said the climate change, which is affecting food
Dr Mwadime said malnutrition may lead to excessive           production, is a big threat to Uganda’s economy.
interaction of the drugs with the nutrients and affect its   He said the government is improving the meteorological
effectiveness. He said the HIV virus can also become         department to enhance climate change forecasts that
resistant if a patient does not take the drugs as            would give farmers better guidance.
                                                             “We need to strengthen our meteorological departments
The resistance of HIV to ARVs is one of the major            so as to be able to give our farmers accurate information
challenges facing the government’s programme of              on climate change. We have been relying on guesswork
prolonging the lives of its patients. Dr Mwadime said        most of the time,” Mr Museveni said.
the number of malnourished people living with
HIV/Aids is increasing.                                      Mr Museveni said the government has increased funding
                                                             to the National Agricultural Advisory Services
“It is estimated that one of every four people starting to   programmes to help farmers diversify food production.
take ARVs, is malnourished,” he said. About 30,000 of
170,000 people who are on antiretroviral therapy are         World Food Programme (WFP) representative Hakan
likely to be malnourished.                                   Tongul revealed that 700,000 people are facing starvation
                                                             in Karamoja sub-region.
Dr Mwadime also said that between 30 and 40 per cent
of malnourished children who are admitted at                 Mr Tongul blamed the ever increasing food prices across
Mwanamujimu clinics have HIV/Aids. Mwanamujimu               the world on bio-energy production which has been on
are nutrition centres where malnourished children are        the rise in the past few years.
put on special diet to regain lost body nutrients. He said   He, however, noted that though Uganda is not very much
the World Health Organisation requires people who are        affect by the effects of bio-energy production, much of
HIV positive to eat more food than they were eating          the food produced is exported to neighbouring
before they became infected.                                                                     Continued on page 53
                            -52- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 53 – 9 M Ugandans Starving            “Uganda’s population grew from 4.8 million people in
countries.                                                1950 to 24.3 million in 2002. It is estimate to be about 30
                                                          million today.” It says that a high population will
“It is the neighbouring countries such as Kenya and       undermine the country’s efforts to achieve social-
Sudan that are causing food shortages for Uganda          economic transformation and development.”
because much of the food produced is taken there,”
Mr Tongul said.                                           The Population Secretariat which falls under the Ministry
                                                          of Finance, Planning and Economic Development,
He said the WP was now changing its strategy from         observes that the high population has a bearing on the
food aid to food existence by supporting food             current rising food prices and food shortages both in
production programmes rather than keep buying             Uganda and globally.
and donating it, except in special circumstances.
                                                          Although the availability and use of effective
He revealed that last year, the WP spent $55              contraception is a key to slowing population growth, only
million to purchase food in Uganda, adding that           24 percent of married women in Uganda reportedly use
WP expects to spend close to $100 million next            contraceptives.
year if the situation continues to worsen.                                      ☻☻☻☻☻☻
                                                          Briefly - Condom Shortage by
   Uganda’s Population
                                                                   October – MP
 Growth at 1.2 M Annually
                                                          Daily Monitor
                   Evelyn Lirri                           June 27, 2008
Daily Monitor                                             Uganda is likely to face a shortage of reproductive health
June 27, 2008                                             commodities by October this Network for African
A fertility rate of 6.7 per cent among Ugandan            Women Ministers and Parliamentarians members said.
women is contributing to the country’s high               “We are likely to have a severe shortage of condoms by
population which experts say is now growing by            October, Mityana MP Sylivia Namabidde said. “It will be
1.2 million people annually.                              very severe if the Ministry of Health does not prioritise
                                                          these commodities.” Members of NAWMP said the
This surge in population growth, which is                 budget had not addressed the issue of reproductive health
reportedly among the highest worldwide threatens          yet the country is among those committed to attaining
to put enormous pressure on the government’s              Millennium Development goals and especially the fifth
ability to provide social services like health,           MDG. The fifth MDG aims at reducing of maternal
education and housing.                                    deaths to three quarters by the year 2015. However, the
“Every year the population of Uganda increases by         members said the country was unlikely to achieve this
over 1.2 million people, and at this rate, the country    since the budget never mentioned anything about
will have 130 million people by 2050,” the                maternal health.
Population Secretariat said in a statement to
announce this years’
                                                             Only 38% Ugandans Know
Population Day set for July 11.
                                                                  Their HIV Status
Uganda will celebrate the day in Mbarara District
under the theme “Promote and Invest in family             Daily Monitor
Planning for National Development’.                       April 19, 2008
The day focuses on the right to access to family          The Minister of Health, Steven Mallinga has said 38 per
planning information and services to help people          cent Ugandans know their HIV status and said this
make informed choices about reproductive health           number is still low if HIV/Aids is to be controlled and
issues.                                                   prevented from spreading further. Dr Mallinga disclosed
                                                          this on Thursday while launching the Routine HIV
“This theme is timely because Uganda’s population         Counseling and Testing at Hoima Regional Referral
is growing at a high rate and there are few               Hospital. The Minister called upon the entire population
measures in place to check this, “the statement           to go for free HIV/Aids counseling and testing.
reads in part.                                                                  ☻☻☻☻☻☻

                            -53- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
           Mission Statement                                           Herb of the Month
                                                                    KATAZAMITI (Bridelia micrantha)
Our aim at The African Traditional Herbal
Research Clinic is to propagate and promote the            Despite intensive efforts to control malaria and HIV/AIDS,
                                                           these diseases continue to be the greatest health problems
awareness in Afrikan peoples at home and abroad of
                                                           facing Africa. It is estimated that there are at least 300
their health, biodiversity, history and cultural           million clinical cases (worldwide) of malaria per annum,
richness. We gather pertinent information on these         making it and HIV/AIDS (33-36 million worldwide) two of
issues and disseminate these freely to our people in       the top three killers among diseases in Africa.
Uganda, the rest of the continent, and anywhere in
                                                           Katazamiti, native to sub-Saharan Africa is a semi-
the Diaspora where Afrikans are located…. One of
                                                           deciduous to deciduous tree up to 20 m tall with a dense
the main ingredients for increasing poverty, sickness,     rounded crown and tall, bare stem. All parts of the plant are
exploitation and domination is ignorance of one's          used in traditional medicine. Bridelia micrantha, as it is
self, and the environment in which we live.                formerly called, is traditionally used in the treatment of
Knowledge is power and the forces that control our         stomach ailments and diseases such as gastritis,
lives don't want to lose control, so they won't stop at    salmonellosis, gastro-enteritis, diarrhea and constipation,
anything to keep certain knowledge from the people.        tapeworms and as an emetic for poisons (causes vomiting).
Therefore, we are expecting a fight and opposition to      Scientific studies have shown that extracts of the whole
our mission. However, we will endeavor to carry            stem demonstrate antimicrobial activity by inhibiting the
                                                           growth of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and
forward this work in grace and perfect ways.
                                                           campylobacter jejuni/coli. It is used as a treatment for skin
                                                           problems such as ulcers, boils and rashes; for respiratory
 “Where there is no God, there is no culture.
                                                           problems such as persistent cough, TB, pneumonia,
    Where there is no culture, there is no
                                                           bronchitis and pleurisy; as an analgesic (pain reliever); as
  indigenous knowledge. Where there is no
                                                           an antimalarial; for toothache and gum diseases; for painful
 indigenous knowledge, there is no history.
                                                           menstruation; to prevent abortion; as a stimulate and
Where there is no history, there is no science
                                                           restorative tonic (alternative) for fortifying pregnant
 or technology. The existing nature is made
                                                           women; for sickle cell anemia, HIV/AIDS; and anemia in
by our past. Let us protect and conserve our
                                                           general. Preliminary research on medical properties of
          indigenous knowledge.”
                                                           Katazamiti has shown this herb to be beneficial in treating
                     ☻☻☻☻☻☻                                HIV/AIDS as it cures diarrhea and stomach discomfort and
                                                           has anti-cancer properties, which are common illnesses in
CALENDAR          OF    EVENTS                             AIDS and contributes to the well-being of the patient. It has
                                                           also been shown to be a possible principle inhibitor to HIV-
SPECIAL EVENT:                                             1 reverse transcriptase. Katazamiti is also traditionally used
PLACE: AFRIKAN TRADITIONAL HERBAL RESEARCH CLINIC          in treating psychological problems such as neurosis and
TIME:                                                      psychosis and for protection against one’s enemies.
Afrikan Traditional Herbal Research Clinic                                                                 BULK RATE
1175A Mukalazi Road, P.O. Box 29974                                                                        US POSTAGE
Bukoto, Kampala, Uganda East Africa                                                                        PAID
Phone: +256 (0) 782 917 902                                                                                PERMIT       NO.

Email:                                                                             00000

ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED                                 Mailing Address
                                                             Street Number and Name
                                                             City, Country, etc.

                             -54- Traditional African Clinic October 2008

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