African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9 NEWSLETTER October 2008
HONORING THE AFRICAN TRADITIONAL HERBALIST
HIV/AIDS - MALARIA
Why Africa Fears Western What is the African Traditional
Medicine Herbal Research Clinic?
We can make you healthy and wise
By Harriet A.Washington
Blackherbals at the Source of the Nile, UG Ltd.
July 31, 2007
Op-Ed Contributor The African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic located
TO Westerners, the repatriation of five nurses and a doctor in Bukoto, Uganda is a modern clinic facility created to
to Bulgaria last week after more than eight years’ establish a model space whereby indigenous herbal
imprisonment meant the end of an unsettling ordeal. The practitioners and healers can upgrade and update their
medical workers, who in May 2004 were sentenced to skills through training and certification and respond to
death on charges of intentionally infecting hundreds of common diseases using African healing methods and
Libyan children with H.I.V., have been freed, and another traditions in a modern clinical environment.
international incident is averted. Traditional healers are the major health labor resource
But to many Africans, the accusations, which have been in Africa as a whole. In Uganda, indigenous traditional
validated by a guilty verdict and a promise to reimburse healers are the only source of health services for the
the families of the infected children with a $426 million majority of the population. An estimated 80% of the
payout, seem perfectly plausible. The medical workers’ population receives its health education and health care
release appears to be the latest episode in a health care from practitioners of traditional medicine. They are
nightmare in which white and Western-trained doctors and knowledgeable of the culture, the local languages and
nurses have harmed Africans — and have gone local traditions. Our purpose is to raise public
unpunished. awareness and understanding on the value of African
Continued on page 2
traditional herbal medicine and other healing practices
in today’s world.
INSIDE THIS ISSUE
The Clinic is open and operational. Some of the
1 Why Africa Fears Western Medicine
services we offer are African herbal medicine,
3 Afrikan Spirituality-Challenges Facing Indigenous Knowledge
4 Feature – Ancient African Medicine, Egypt and the World reflexology, acupressure, hot and cold hydrotherapy,
6 Feature – Med Schools, Journals Fight Big Pharma’s Sway body massage, herbal tonics, patient counseling, blood
7 Pathologists Believe They Have Pinpointed Achilles Heel of HIV pressure checks, urine testing (sugar), and nutritional
8 Feature – WHO Murdered Africa profiles. We believe in spirit, mind and body. Spiritual
14 Threat of World Aids Pandemic Among Heterosexuals is Over
15 Common Gene makes Africans more Vulnerable to HIV
counseling upon request.
16 Feature – What are Duffy Antigens?
19 Malaria Drug Contributing to Antibiotic Resistance Visit us also at www.Blackherbals.com
20 Malaria Fuels HIV Spread
Hours: 9:00 am to 6:00 pm Monday thru Friday
21 Scientists Map Genomes of Malaria Parasite
25 Feature – The African Traditional Herbal Research Centre 10 am to 4:00 pm Saturday - Sundays – Closed
27Traditional Medicine Playing Important Role
30 More Herbal Medicine Flood Ugandan Markets
32 Ugandans Now Live Up to 50 Years
33 Feature – Unified Field Theory of Disease
36 Researcher Record Major Breakthrough Against Malaria
42 HIV Hides from Drugs for Years
44 Drug Factors Sub-Standard
49 Farmers Reap Fortunes of Malaria Treatment
54 Herb Of The Month – Bridelia micrantha & More
-1-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
Continued from page 1 – Why Africa Fears Western cines are contaminated with H.I.V. or are actually
Medicine sterilization agents in disguise. This would sound incredible
The evidence against the Bulgarian medical team, like were it not that scientists working for Dr. Basson’s Project
H.I.V.-contaminated vials discovered in their apartments, Coast reported that one of their chief goals was to find
has seemed to Westerners preposterous. But to dismiss ways to selectively and secretly sterilize Africans.
the Libyan accusations of medical malfeasance out of
hand means losing an opportunity to understand why a Such tragedies highlight the challenges facing even the
dangerous suspicion of medicine is so widespread in most idealistic medical workers, who can find themselves
Africa. working under unhygienic conditions that threaten patients’
welfare. Well-meaning Western caregivers must sometimes
Africa has harbored a number of high-profile Western use incompletely cleaned or unsterilized needles, simply
medical miscreants who have intentionally administered because nothing else is available. These needles can and do
deadly agents under the guise of providing health care or spread infectious agents like H.I.V. — proving that
conducting research. In March 2000, Werner Bezwoda, a Western medical practices need not be intentional to be
cancer researcher at South Africa’s Witwatersrand deadly.
University, was fired after conducting medical
experiments involving very high doses of chemotherapy Although the World Health Organization maintains that the
on black breast-cancer patients, possibly without their reuse of syringes without sterilization accounts for only 2.5
knowledge or consent. In Zimbabwe, in 1995, Richard percent of new H.I.V. infections in Africa, a 2003 study in
McGown, a Scottish anesthesiologist, was accused of five The International Journal of S.T.D. and AIDS found that as
murders and convicted in the deaths of two infant patients many as 40 percent of H.I.V. infections in Africa are
whom he injected with lethal doses of morphine. And Dr. caused by contaminated needles during medical treatment.
Michael Swango, ultimately convicted of murder after Even the conservative W.H.O. estimate translates to tens of
pleading guilty to killing three American patients with thousands of cases.
lethal injections of potassium, is suspected of causing the Several esteemed science journals, including Nature, have
deaths of 60 other people, many of them in Zimbabwe suggested that the Libyan children were infected in just this
and Zambia during the 1980s and ’90s. (Dr. Swango was manner, through the re-use of incompletely cleaned medical
never tried on the African charges.) instruments, long before the Bulgarian nurses arrived in
These medical killers are well known throughout Africa, Libya. If this is the case, then the Libyan accusations of
but the most notorious is Wouter Basson, a former head iatrogenic, or healer-transmitted, infection are true. The acts
of Project Coast, South Africa’s chemical and biological may not have been intentional, but given the history of
weapons unit under apartheid. Dr. Basson was charged Western medicine in Africa, accusations that they were
with killing hundreds of blacks in South Africa and done consciously are far from paranoid.
Namibia, from 1979 to 1987, many via injected poisons. Certainly, the vast majority of beneficent Western medical
He was never convicted in South African courts, even workers in Africa are to be thanked, not censured. But the
though his lieutenants testified in detail and with canon of “silence equals death” applies here: We are
consistency about the medical crimes they conducted ignoring a responsibility to defend the mass of innocent
against blacks. Western doctors against the belief that they are not treating
Such well-publicized events have spread a fear of disease, but intentionally spreading it. We should approach
medicine throughout Africa, even in countries where Africans’ suspicions with respect, realizing that they are
Western doctors have not practiced in significant born of the acts of a few monsters and of the deadly
numbers. It is a fear the continent can ill afford when constraints on medical care in difficult conditions. By
medical care is already hard to come by. Only 1.3 percent continuing to dismiss their reasonable fears, we raise the
of the world’s health workers practice in sub-Saharan risk of even more needless illness and death.
Africa, although the region harbors fully 25 percent of the Harriet A. Washington is the author of “Medical
world’s disease. A minimum of 2.5 health workers is Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation
needed for every 1,000 people, according to standards set on Black Americans From Colonial Times to the Present.”
by the United Nations, but only six African countries
have this many. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/31/opinion/31washington.html
The distrust of Western medical workers has had direct
consequences. Since 2003, for example, polio has been
on the rise in Nigeria, Chad and Burkina Faso because
many people avoid vaccinations, believing that the vac- ☻☻☻☻☻☻
-2-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
BY: KABATABAZI PATRICIA
It is commonly accepted that we are living in the The traditional shrine as a symbol of our cultural history
“information age”. We are generators of vast knowledge.
True as it may seem, it has been noted that the present
generation is actually losing more information than it is
acquiring. Most shocking is the erosion of culturally based coming generations, until writing finally reached Africa
knowledge represented by thousands of disappearing (RAFI, for us to access it and preserve the knowledge.
1997). For example, experts in linguistics note that half of the
6000 languages spoken in the world will die out during the The light of knowledge in Africa remained burning and it
21st century. is still burning even through the interventions of Arabs
and colonial masters. These external forces nearly
As each language vanishes, tens of thousands of years of exterminated the pillars of African education in skills and
cultural heritage and indigenous knowledge is lost. Loss of technology. The intruders` referred to Africa knowledge
this cultural diversity is intricately linked with loss of of skills and technology as satanic, primitive, backward
agricultural biodiversity. Loss of biodiversity puts at stake and outdated, even up to today.
food security and nutrition and overall agricultural
development. Given the nature of Lake Nalubale (Victoria) basin
climate, soil types and fresh waters, these three are
The movement of people is leading to loss of farming responsible for the wealth of biodiversity of plants,
communities, languages and indigenous cultures; all represent animals, ants, birds etc. People of the ancient past took
the erosion of human intellectual capital on massive scale. advantage of the environment and were able to survive
Development of sustainable agriculture systems depends many problems using the environment as answers to
upon the innovative capacity of farmers, forest dwellers, overcome their day to-day challenges.
pastoralists, and fisher-folk together with their accumulated In Africa, each item is believed to belong to the Almighty,
knowledge. Therefore, recognising, rewarding and protecting the creator, giver and overseer of all creations, visible and
indigenous knowledge systems is critical for agricultural invisible ones. And that invisible power of creation is
development, food security and nutrition. believed to be the giver and taker of life. The second way
Successful strategies should be formulated and implemented an African perceives nature is by way of association and
to save our indigenous knowledge through environmental identification of themselves with in terms of totems,
impact assessment awareness/research, documentation, and clans, etc.
publication. The third way Africans have looked at nature is by
“The responsibility of conserving our indigenous knowledge taboos. It is taboo whenever a member in any one's given
is for all of us, white and black. We came from one person, community treated nature in a way perceived to result in
our CREATOR.” spoiling or destruction of the status quo.
In Africa, I salute our great ancestors who carried out studies The fourth way is to have sacred people, animals, rocks,
on nature-given resources to name items as food, medicine, caves, trees, rivers, mountains etc.
shelter materials etc for our use. The list is endless, but the important aspect in all these
This valuable intellect has been passed on from generation to efforts is to create controls and wise use and management
generation mainly in verbal communication. We are quite an of nature- given resources.
intelligent race to preserve information in that way for many Recommendation: There is need to carryout research on
centuries without any written text to be left behind for the the culture aspect for sustainable use of natural resources.
________________________ There should be functional and participatory research in
Managing Editor: Nakato Lewis the world. There is a need to integrate our cultural aspects
PUBLISHER: KIWANUKA LEWIS into modern ways for natural resource management.
Published monthly and freely by BHSN for the African Traditional ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Herbal Research Clinic
-3-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9 NEWSLETTER October 2008
Ancient African Medicine, Egypt, (Khemit) and the
By Jide Iwechia
June 08, 2007
Interestingly, certain remedies prescribed by Egyptian The medical documents were first discovered in the
physicians were way ahead of modern anticipation. For mid-19th century but then suppressed because it
instance, celery and saffron which were used for demonstrated facts which were antithetical to the
rheumatism are currently hot topics of pharmaceutical official but hypocritical racist attitudes which then
research, and pomegranate was used to eradicate prevailed.
tapeworms, a remedy that remained in clinical use until According to one of the scientists, Dr Jackie
50 years ago. Acacia is still used in cough remedies Campbell:
while aloes form a basis to soothe and heal skin “Classical scholars have always considered the ancient
conditions. The knowledge and the uses of essential oils Greeks, particularly Hippocrates, as being the fathers
and resins were introduced to the world by the ancient of medicine but our findings suggest that the ancient
Egyptians.” The early Egyptians appear to have been Egyptians were practising a credible form of pharmacy
the first to recognize that stress could contribute to and medicine much earlier,”
illness. They established sanitariums where people
“When we compared the ancient remedies against
would undergo “dream therapy” and treatments with
modern pharmaceutical protocols and standards, we
found the prescriptions in the ancient documents not
It is now official! The western propaganda press and its only compared with pharmaceutical preparations of
scholarly co-conspirators in the academia have finally today but that many of the remedies had therapeutic
admitted that African Khemit gave the world the gift of merit.”
medical sciences as opposed to previously peddled lies
which identify Greece as the origin of medicine. “Many of the ancient remedies we discovered survived
Imhotep, the Prince of Peace, the Egyptian inventor of into the 20th century and, indeed, some remain in use
medicine and healing was a real historical African today, albeit that the active component is now
genius who received the book of healing from the produced synthetically.”
mysterious forces of ancestral Africa.
This book was later given to the world and it forms the Imhotep was the world’s first named physician, and
basis of modern medicine and surgery. the architect who built Egypt’s first pyramid. He is
indisputedly the world’s first doctor, a priest, scribe,
The entire ancient world, including the ancient Greeks
sage, poet, astrologer, a vizier and chief minister, to
celebrated this venerable old man of wisdom who was
Djoser (reigned 2630–2611 BC), the second king of
synonymous with ingenuity. Even Hippocrates, so-
Egypt’s third dynasty.
called Greek Father of Modern Medicine was a devotee
of Imhotep the Prince of Peace. An inscription on one of that king’s statues gives us
Imhotep’s titles as the “the prince of peace,”
Scientists examining documents dating back more than
“chancellor of the king of lower Egypt,” the “first one
3,500 years have confirmed that the origins of modern
under the king,” the “administrator of the great
medicine lie in ancient Egypt and not with Hippocrates
mansion,” the “hereditary Noble,” the “high priest of
and the Greeks. The medical papyri were written in
Heliopolis,” the “chief sculptor,” and finally the “chief
2,500 BC – 1,000, thousands of years before
Hippocrates was born.
Continued on page 5
-4-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
Continued from page 8 – Ancient African Medicine Devotees bought offerings to his medical and spiritual
As a builder, Imhotep is the first recorded master school in Saqqara, including mummified Ibises and
architects. He was the first pyramid architect and sometimes, in the hope of being healed.
builder, and among his works one counts the Djoser’s He was later even worshipped by the early Christians as
Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara, Sekhemkhet’s one with Christ who was made to adopt one of the titles of
unfinished pyramid, and possibly the Edfu Temple. Imhotep, “the Prince of Peace”. The early Christians often
The Step Pyramid remains today one of the most appropriated those pagan forms and persons whose
brilliant architecture wonders of the ancient world and influence through the ages had woven itself so powerfully
is recognized as the first monumental stone structure. into tradition that they could not omit them.
Imhotep was also the first known physician, medical He was worshiped in Greece where he was identified with
professor and a prodigous writer of medical books. As their god of medicine, Aslepius. He was honored by the
the first medical professor, Imhotep is believed to have Romans and inscriptions praising Imhotep were placed on
been the author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus in which the walls of Roman temples. Most surprisingly, he even
more than 90 anatomical terms and 48 injuries are managed to find a place in Arab traditions, especially at
described. Saqqara where his tomb is thought to be located.
He also founded a school of medicine in Memphis, Materia Medica
possibly known as “Asklepion, which remained The ancient Egyptian physicians treated wounds with
famous for two thousand years. All of this occurred honey, resins (including cannabis resin) and elemental
some 2,200 years before the Western Father of metals known to be antimicrobial. This practice is still a
Medicine Hippocrates was born. valid medical protocol even today.
According to Sir William Osler, Imhotep was the: Again, just like in these modern times, the prescriptions for
“..first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from laxatives included castor oil and colocynth and bulk bran
the mists of antiquity.” Imhotep diagnosed and treated and figs were used to promote regularity.
over 200 diseases, 15 diseases of the abdomen, 11 of
Other references show that colic was treated with
the bladder, 10 of the rectum, 29 of the eyes, and 18 of
hyoscyamus, which is still used today, and that cumin and
the skin, hair, nails and tongue. Imhotep treated
coriander were used as intestinal carminatives.
tuberculosis, gallstones, appendicitis, gout and
arthritis. He also performed surgery and practiced Musculo-skeletal disorders were treated with rubefacients
some dentistry. Imhotep extracted medicine from to stimulate blood flow and poultices to warm and soothe
plants. He also knew the position and function of the similar to the practices of modern practitioners of sports
vital organs and circulation of the blood system. The medicine.
Encyclopedia Britannica says, “The evidence afforded
Interestingly, certain remedies prescribed by Egyptian
by Egyptian and Greek texts support the view that
physicians were way ahead of modern anticipation. For
Imhotep’s reputation was very respected in early
instance, celery and saffron which were used for
times. His prestige increased with the lapse of
rheumatism are currently hot topics of pharmaceutical
centuries and his temples in Greek times were the
research, and pomegranate was used to eradicate
centers of medical teachings.”
tapeworms, a remedy that remained in clinical use until 50
Along with medicine, he was also a patron of years ago.
architects, knowledge and scribes. James Henry
Acacia is still used in cough remedies while aloes forms a
Breasted says of Imhotep:
basis to soothe and heal skin conditions. The knowledge
“In priestly wisdom, in magic, in the formulation of and the uses of essential oils and resins were introduced to
wise proverbs; in medicine and architecture; this the world by the ancient Egyptians.”
remarkable figure of Zoser’s reign left so notable a
The early Egyptians appear to have been the first to
reputation that his name was never forgotten. He was
recognize that stress could contribute to illness. They
the patron spirit of the later scribes, to whom they
established sanitariums where people would undergo
regularly poured out a libation.”
“dream therapy” and treatments with “healing waters.
Imhotep was, together with Amenhotep, the only
Altogether, around 50 percent of the plants used in ancient
mortal Egyptians that ever reached the position of full
Egypt remain in clinical use today. Many of the medical
gods. He was also associated with Thoth, the god of
and surgical instruments such as knives and forceps have
wisdom, writing and learning, and with the Ibises,
which was also associated with Thoth. Continued on page 13
-5-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9 NEWSLETTER October 2008
Med Schools, Journals Fight Big Pharma’s Sway
Even as new guidelines are set, potential for conflict remains, say many
The Associated Press
September 10, 2008
TRENTON, N.J. - Just about every segment of the “We should say "Enough!"
medical community is piling on the pharmaceutical She said industry influence includes swaying doctors
industry these days, accusing drugmakers of deceiving and medical students to their brands with gifts, funding
the public, manipulating doctors and putting profits research at top teaching hospitals but keeping control of
before patients. the studies and results, failing to disclose study authors’
conflicts of interest, even taking over the continuing
Recent articles and editorials in major medical journals
medical education system for doctors by running
blast the industry. Medical schools, teaching hospitals
courses on new treatments. Critics say such courses are
and physician groups are changing rules to limit the
taught by company-paid speakers who often promote
influence of pharmaceutical sales reps. And three top
expensive new drugs over older, cheaper ones.
editors of the prestigious New England Journal of
Medicine last month publicly sided against the drug “We should all get together and say, ’Enough!”’
industry in a U.S. Supreme Court case over whether DeAngelis said.
patients harmed by government-approved medicines
Already, top journals are listing study authors’ conflicts
may still sue in state courts.
of interest, and dozens of medical schools and medical
As more voices have called for change, new guidelines specialty societies are barring gifts to doctors and
for how drugmakers and doctors should interact are limiting their other financial ties to industry. Some
coming from both industries, and doctors say some schools bar professors from being paid drug company’s
abuses of the past have ended. But the industries’ speakers. And one expert noted drugmakers have
dealings remain fraught with potential conflict because stopped giving cash prizes to medical students for
the sectors depend on each other so much — medicine presenting favorable research on their drugs at
on drugmakers’ research dollars and drugmakers on the conferences.
credibility researchers give them.
Still, no one is suggesting anything as drastic as cutting
“The influence that the pharmaceutical companies, the off industry funding for academic research on new
for-profits, are having on every aspect of medicine ... is drugs. Those billions help pay lab and other expenses at
so blatant now you’d have to be deaf, blind and dumb virtually all U.S. teaching hospitals, medical schools and
not to see it,” said Journal of the American Medical affiliated practices, while giving the drugs’ developers
Association editor Dr. Catherine DeAngelis, a longtime the cachet of having big-name academic researchers
industry critic. “We have just allowed them to take running their studies.
over, and it’s our fault, the whole medical community.”
The industry’s trade group, in an apparent response, in
In an April editorial in her journal, DeAngelis noted July revised its 2002 “Code on Interactions with Health-
two studies indicated past reports about Merck & Co.’s care Professionals” to ban giving out pens, mugs and
withdrawn pain reliever Vioxx frequently were penned other noneducational gifts, taking doctors to restaurants
by ghostwriters and that reports on some Vioxx studies and giving them tickets for shows or sports events.
minimized the risk of death. Merck has denied the Bringing meals to their offices and donating anatomical
charges. models and textbooks will still be allowed when the
voluntary code takes effect in January.
“Manipulation of studies and publications by the
pharmaceutical and medical device industries is either “America’s pharmaceutical companies devote many
increasing or there has been more exposure of these years and billions of dollars to researching and develop-
practices,” she wrote. Continued on page 7
-6-Traditional African Clinic – October 2008
Continued from page 6 – Med Schools, Journals Fight Big said Dr. Barbara Barnes, head of industry relations.
Rothman said there’s a new effort to “clean up”
ing life-saving medicines,” and help drive progress and continuing medical education of doctors, the only
economic growth, said Diane Bieri, general counsel for professionals he knows who don’t pay for it themselves.
Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America.
“We will always face criticism and at times deserve it but In June, the Association of American Medical Colleges
our companies remain committed to listening to and put out guidelines that bar drugmakers from paying for
learning from parties with divergent points of views.” continuing medical education sessions on specific topics
but allow donations to a central fund.
Hollie Gilroy, spokeswoman for the HealthCare Institute
of New Jersey, a trade group including many top The Council of Medical Specialty Societies, which
drugmakers, said the industry is an easy target, but represents 32 specialty groups, this summer, started
criticisms about gifts to doctors, beyond logo-bearing collecting each group’s best practices on disclosure and
pens and similar items, are either outdated or limitations on speaking and other activities by their
exaggerated. She said the industry is quick to police itself officers. Council CEO Dr. Norman Kahn said a new
and tries to keep high ethical standards when dealing with council policy should be ready in November.
health-care professionals. Meanwhile, Sen. Charles Grassley of Iowa, a frequent
“There is no industry far and away that has been more industry critic, is sponsoring a bill to require drugmakers
generous than the pharmaceutical industry,” Gilroy to report all payments to doctors — from buying meals to
added, noting companies give away medication samples, flying them to conferences at resorts.
fund large prescription assistance programs for the poor, Doctors say there’s more to be done, but see an impact.
have helped African countries get AIDS medications, and
donate drugs and medical supplies after major disasters. Dr. Marc Siegel, an internist and associate professor at
New York University School of Medicine, said the
But pharmaceutical analyst Steve Brozak of WBB school has fewer drugmaker-sponsored events, and he no
Securities said drugmakers will find ways to adapt to new longer gets offers of baseball tickets or paid junkets as a
rules. consultant at a doctors’ meeting — things he turned down
“The earlier you can hook one of these doctors, the more anyway. He said some colleagues no longer let drug sales
loyal they are” to a brand, Brozak said. reps in their offices, but he does.
Medical groups have been fighting industry influence “I don’t mind — I like my staff to get a free lunch,”
harder since a 2006 JAMA editorial by 11 prominent Siegel said. “I don’t think it influences one iota what I
doctors urged teaching hospitals to lead in cleaning up prescribe.”
conflicts of interest between medicine and industry. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26622463/
New Web site shows med schools policies
David Rothman, president of the Institute on Medicine as Pathologists Believe They
a Profession, said about one-fourth of U.S. medical
schools now have policies on industry gifts “that really Have Pinpointed Achilles
pass muster.” Some bar sales reps from giving doctors Heel of HIV
drug samples — but allow donations to a central supply
office — and don’t let them wander their halls to speak to ScienceDaily (July 16, 2008) — Human Immuno-
doctors. deficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of
Texas Medical School at Houston believe they have
“You’re not being bribed, you’re being gifted,” doctors uncovered the Achilles heel in the armor of the virus that
may think, but industry freebies influence prescribing continues to kill millions.
patterns, Rothman said.
The weak spot is hidden in the HIV envelope protein
On Wednesday, his group launched the first public gp120. This protein is essential for HIV attachment to
database showing detail conflict of interest policies at host cells, which initiate infection and eventually lead to
most of the 125 U.S. academic medical centers. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS.
At University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, possibly Normally the body’s immune defenses can ward off
the strictest, pharmaceutical reps since February have had viruses by making proteins called antibodies that bind the
to get a perfect score on an online training program about virus. However, HIV is a constantly changing and
its rules to get appointments. Some reps have been mutating virus, and the antibodies produced after
warned about infractions, but none have been banned, Continued on page 10
-7- Traditional African October 2008
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9 NEWSLETTER October 2008
WHO MURDERED AFRICA - Excerpts
By William Campbell Douglas, M.D.
There is no question mark after the title of this article can change the genetic composition of cells that they
because the title is not a question. It's a declarative enter.
statement. WHO, the World Health Organization,
The World Health Organization, in published articles,
murdered Africa with the AIDS virus. That's a
called for scientists to work with these deadly agents and
provocative statement, isn't it?
attempt to make a hybrid virus that would be deadly to
The answers to this little mystery, Murder on the humans: "And attempt should be made to see if viruses
WHO Express, will be quite clear to you by the end can in fact exert selective effects on immune function.
of this report. You will also understand why the other The possibility should be looked into that the immune
suspects, the homosexuals, the green monkey and the response to the virus itself may be impaired if the
Haitians, were only pawns in this virocidal attack on infecting virus damages, more or less selectively, the cell
the world. If you believe the government propaganda responding to the virus."
that AIDS is hard to catch then you are going to die
That's AIDS. What the WHO is saying in plain English is
even sooner than the rest of us. The common cold is a
"Let's cook up a virus that selectively destroys the T-cell
virus. Have you ever had a cold? How did you catch
system of man, an acquired immune deficiency."
it? You don't really know, do you? If the cold virus
were fatal how many people would there be left in Why would anyone want to do this? If you destroy the T-
the world? cell system of man you destroy man. Is it even remotely
possible that the World Health Organization would want
Yellow fever is a virus. You catch it from mosquito
to develop a virus that would wipe out the human race?
bites. Malaria is a parasite also carried by
mosquitoes. It is many times larger than the AIDS If their new virus creation worked, the WHO stated, then
virus (like comparing a pinhead to a moose head) yet many terrible and fatal infectious viruses could be made
the mosquito easily carries this large organism to even more terrible and more malignant. Does this strike
man. you as being a peculiar goal for a health organization?
The tuberculosis germ, also, much larger than the Sometimes Americans believe in conspiracies and
AIDS virus, can be transmitted by fomites (inanimate sometimes they don't. Was there a conspiracy to kill
objects such as towels). The AIDS virus can live for President Kennedy? Twenty-five years later the debate
as long as 10 days on a dry plate. You can't still continues, and people keep changing their minds.
understand this murder mystery unless you learn a One day it's yes, the next day it's no-depending on what
little virology. was served for breakfast or how the stock market did the
Many viruses grow in animals and many grow in
humans, but most of the viruses that affect animals But what about the green monkey? Some of the best
don't affect humans. There are exceptions, of course, virologist in the world and many of those directly
such as yellow fever and small pox. involved in AIDS research, such as Robert Gallo and Luc
Montagnier, have said that the green monkey may be the
There are some viruses in animals that cause very
culprit. You know the story: A green monkey bit a native
lethal cancer in those animals, but do not affect man
on the ass and, bam-AIDS all over central Africa.
or other animals. The bovine leukemia virus (BLV),
for example, is lethal to cows but not humans. There There is a fatal flaw here. It is very strange. Because
is another virus that occurs in sheep called sheep Gallo, Montagnier and these other virologists know that
visna virus which is also non-reactive in man. These the AIDS virus doesn't occur naturally in monkeys.
deadly viruses are "retro viruses" meaning that they Continued on page 9
-8- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 8 – WHO Murdered Africa They used smallpox vaccine for their vehicle and the
In fact it doesn't occur naturally in any animal. geographical sites chosen in 1972 were Uganda and other
African states, Haiti, Brazil and Japan. The present or
AIDS started practically simultaneously in the United recent past of AIDS epidemiology coincides with these
States, Haiti, Brazil, and Central Africa. (Was the geographical areas.
green monkey a jet pilot?) Examination of the gene
structure of the green monkey cells proves that it is not Dr. Strecker points out that even if the African green
genetically possible to transfer the AIDS virus from monkey could transmit AIDS to humans, the present
monkeys to man by natural means. Because of the known amount of infection in Africa makes it statistically
artificial nature of the AIDS virus it will not easily impossible for a single episode, such as a monkey biting
transfer from man to man until it has become very someone, to have brought this epidemic to this point. The
concentrated in the body fluids through repeated doubling time of the number of people infected, about
injections from person to person, such as drug addicts, every 14 months, when correlated with the first known
and through high multiple partner sexual activity After case, and the present known number of cases, prove
repeated transfer it can become a "natural" infection beyond a doubt that a large number of people had to have
for man, which it has. been infected at the same time. Starting in 1972 with the
first case from our mythical monkey and doubling the
Dr. Theodore Strecker's research of the literature number infected from that single source every 14 months
indicates that the National Cancer Institute in you get only a few thousand cases. From 1972 to 1987 is
collaboration with the World Health Organization 15 years or 180 months. If it takes 14 months to double
made the AIDS virus in their laboratories at Fort the number of cases then there would have been 13
Detrick (now NCI). They combined the deadly doublings, 1 then 2, then 4, then 8, etc. In 15 years, from
retroviruses, bovine leukemia virus and sheep visna a single source of infection there would be about 8,000
virus, and injected them into human tissue cultures. cases in Africa, not 75 million AIDS infected people. We
The result was the AIDS virus, the first human are approaching World War II mortality statistics here-
retrovirus known to man and now believed to be 100 without a shot being fired.
percent fatal to those infected.
Dr. Theodore A. Strecker is the courageous doctor who
The momentous plague that we now face was unraveled this conundrum, the greatest murder mystery of
anticipated by the National Academy of Sciences all time. He should get the Nobel Prize but he'll be lucky
(NAS) in 1974 when they recommended that not to get "suicided." ("Prominent California doctor ties
"Scientists throughout the world join with the his hands behind his back, hangs himself, and jumps from
members of this committee in voluntarily deferring 20th floor. There was no evidence of foul play.") Strecker
experiments (linking) animal viruses." What the NAS was employed as a consultant to work on a health
is saying in carefully guarded English is: "For God's proposal for Security Pacific Bank. He was to estimate
sake, stop this madness!" the cost of their health care for the future. Should they
The creation of the AIDS virus by the WHO was not form a health maintenance organization? (HMO) was a
just a diabolical scientific exercise that got out of hand. major issue. After investigating the current medical
It was a cold-blooded successful attempt to create a market he advised against the HMO because he found
killer virus which was then used in a successful that the AIDS epidemic will in all probability bankrupt
experiment in Africa. So successful in fact that most of the nation's medical system.
central Africa may be wiped out, 75,000,000 dead He became fascinated with all the peculiar scientific
within 3-5 years. anomalies concerning AIDS that kept cropping up. Why
It was not an accident. It was deliberate. In the did the "experts" keep talking about green monkeys and
Federation Proceedings of the United States in 1972, homosexuals being the culprits when it was obvious that
WHO said: "In the relation to the immune response a the AIDS virus was a man-made virus? Why did they say
number of useful experimental approaches can be that it was a homosexual and drug-user disease when in
visualized." They suggested that a neat way to do this Africa it was obviously a heterosexual disease? If the
would be to put their new killer virus (AIDS) into a green monkey did it, then why did AIDS explode
vaccination program, sit back and observe the results. practically simultaneously in Africa, Haiti, Brazil, the
United States and southern Japan?
"This would be particularly informative in siblings,"
they said. That is, give the AIDS virus to brothers and Why, when it was proposed to the National Institute of
sisters and see if they die, who dies first, and of what, Health that the AIDS virus was a combination of two
just like using rats in a laboratory. bovine or sheep viruses cultured in human cells in a
Continued on page 11
-9- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 7–Pathologists Believe They Have pin- have identified antibodies that, instead of passively bind ing
pointed A. Heel of HIV to the target molecule, are able to fragment it and destroy
infection do not control disease progression to AIDS. For its function. Their recent work indicates that naturally
the same reason, no HIV preventative vaccine that occurring catalytic antibodies, particularly those of the IgA
stimulates production of protective antibodies is subtype, may be useful in the treatment and prevention of
available. HIV infection,” said Steven J. Norris, Ph.D., holder of the
Robert Greer Professorship in the Biomedical Sciences and
The Achilles heel, a tiny stretch of amino acids numbered vice chair for research in the Department of Pathology and
421-433 on gp120, is now under study as a target for Laboratory Medicine at the UT Medical School at Houston.
therapeutic intervention. Sudhir Paul, Ph.D., pathology
professor in the UT Medical School, said, “Unlike the The abzymes are derived from HIV negative people with
changeable regions of its envelope, HIV needs at least the autoimmune disease lupus and a small number of HIV
one region that must remain constant to attach to cells. If positive people who do not require treatment and do not get
this region changes, HIV cannot infect cells. AIDS. Stephanie Planque, lead author and UT Medical
School at Houston graduate student, said, “We discovered
Equally important, HIV does not want this constant that disturbed immunological events in lupus patients can
region to provoke the body’s defense system. So, HIV generate abzymes to the Achilles heel of HIV. The human
uses the same constant cellular attachment site to silence genome has accumulated over millions of years of
B lymphocytes - the antibody producing cells. The result evolution a lot of viral fragments called endogenous
is that the body is fooled into making abundant antibodies retroviral sequences. These endogenous retroviral
to the changeable regions of HIV but not to its cellular sequences are overproduced in people with lupus, and an
attachment site. Immunologists call such regions immune response to such a sequence that resembles the
superantigens. HIV’s cleverness is unmatched. No other Achilles heel can explain the production of abzymes in
virus uses this trick to evade the body’s defenses.” lupus. A small minority of HIV positive people also start
Paul is the senior author on a paper about this theory in a producing the abzymes after decades of the infection. The
June issue of the journal Autoimmunity Reviews. immune system in some people can cope with HIV after
Additional data supporting the theory are to be presented all.”
at the XVII International AIDS Conference Aug. 3-8 in Carl Hanson, Ph.D., who heads the Retrovirus Diagnostic
Mexico City in two studies titled “Survivors of HIV Section of the Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory of
infection produce potent, broadly neutralizing IgAs the California Department of Public Health, has shown that
directed to the superantigenic region of the gp120 CD4 the abzymes neutralize infection of human blood cells by
binding site” and “Prospective clinical utility and diverse strains of HIV from various parts of the world.
evolutionary implication of broadly neutralizing antibody Human blood cells are the only cells that HIV infects.
fragments to HIV gp120 superantigenic epitope.”
“This is an entirely new finding. It is a novel antibody that
First reported in the early 1980s, HIV has spread across appears to be very effective in killing the HIV virus. The
the world, particularly in developing countries. In 2007, main question now is if this can be applied to developing
33 million people were living with AIDS, according to a vaccine and possibly used as a microbicide to prevent
report by the World Health Organization and the United sexual transmission,” said David C. Montefiori, Ph.D.,
Nations. director of the Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine Research &
Paul’s group has engineered antibodies with enzymatic Development at Duke University Medical Center. The
activity, also known as abzymes, which can attack the abzymes are now under development for HIV
Achilles heel of the virus in a precise way. “The abzymes immunotherapy by infusion into blood. They could also be
recognize essentially all of the diverse HIV forms found used to guard against sexual HIV transmission as topical
across the world. This solves the problem of HIV vaginal or rectal formulations.
changeability. The next step is to confirm our theory in “HIV is an international priority because we have no
human clinical trials," Paul said. defense against it,” Paul said. “Left unchecked, it will likely
Unlike regular antibodies, abzymes degrade the virus evolve into even more virulent forms. We have learned a
permanently. A single abzyme molecule inactivates lot from this research about how to induce the production of
thousands of virus particles. Regular antibodies inactivate the protective abzymes on demand. This is the Holy Grail
only one virus particle, and their anti-viral HIV effect is of HIV research -- development of a preventative HIV
“The work of Dr. Paul’s group is highly innovative. They Continued on age 11
-10- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 10 – Pathologists believe they have Because of the trillions of possible genetic combinations
pinpointed Achilles. Heel of HIV there will never be a vaccine. Even if they could develop a
Major contributors to the research from the UT Medical vaccine they would undoubtedly give us something equally
School include Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Ph.D., and Hiroaki bad as they did with the polio vaccine (cancer of the brain),
Taguchi, Ph.D., both with the Department of Pathology the swine flu vaccine (a polio-like disease), the smallpox
and Laboratory Medicine, and Miguel Escobar, M.D., of vaccine (AIDS), and the hepatitis vaccine (AIDS).
the Department of Pediatrics. Maria Salas and Hanson, There are precedents. This is not the first time the virologist
both with the Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, have brought us disaster. SV-40 virus from monkey cell
contributed. The research was funded by the National cultures contaminated polio cultures. Most people in their
Institutes of Health and the Texas Higher Education 40's are now carrying this virus through contaminated polio
Coordinating Board. inoculations given in the early 60's. It is known to cause
Journal references: brain cancer which explains the increase in this disease that
we have seen in the past ten years.
Planque et al. Catalytic antibodies to HIV: Physiological role
and potential clinical utility. Autoimmunity Reviews, 2008; 7 This is the origin of the green monkey theory. The polio
(6): 473 DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2008.04.002 vaccine was grown on green monkey kidney cells. Sixty-
Stephanie Planque et al. Catalytic antibodies to HIV: four million Americans were vaccinated with SV-40-
Physiological role and potential clinical utility. Autoimmunity contaminated vaccine in the 60's. An increase in cancer of
Reviews, 2008; 7 (6): 473 DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2008.04.002 the brain, possibly multiple sclerosis, and God only knows
Adapted from materials provided by University of Texas Health what else the tragic result is. The delay between vaccination
Science Center at Houston.
and the onset of cancer with this virus is as long as 20-30
years. 1965 plus 20 equals 1985. Get the picture?
☻☻☻☻☻☻ The final piece of the puzzle is how AIDS devastated the
Continued from page 9 – WHO Murdered Africa homosexual population in the United States. It wasn't from
smallpox vaccination as in Africa because we don't do that
laboratory, did they say it was "bad science" when that's any more. There is no smallpox in the United States and so
exactly what occurred? vaccination was discontinued.
As early as 1970 the World Health Organization was Although some AIDS has been brought to the United States
growing these deadly animal viruses in human tissue from Haiti by homosexuals, it would not be enough to
cultures. Cedric Mims, in 1981, said in a published article explain the explosion of AIDS that occurred simultaneously
that there was a bovine virus contaminating the culture with the African and Haitian epidemics.
media of the WHO. Was this an accident or a "non-
accident"? If it was an accident why did WHO continue The AIDS virus didn't exist in the United States before
to use the vaccine? 1978. You can check back in any hospital and no stored
blood samples can be found anywhere that exhibits the
This viral and genetic death bomb, AIDS, was finally AIDS virus before that date.
produced in 1974. It was given to monkeys and they died
of pneumocystis carni which is typical of AIDS. What happened in 1978 and beyond to cause AIDS to burst
upon the scene and devastate the homosexual segment of
Dr. R. J. Biggar said in Lancet. "...The AIDS agent... our population? It was the introduction of the hepatitis B
could not have originated de novo." That means in plain vaccine which exhibits the exact epidemiology of AIDS.
English that it didn't come out of thin air. AIDS was
engineered in a laboratory by virologist. It couldn't A Doctor W. Szmuness, born in Poland and educated in
engineer itself. As Doctor Strecker so colorfully puts it: Russia, came to this country in 1969-Szmuness's
"If a person has no arms or legs and shows up at a party immigration to the U.S. was probably the most fateful
in a tuxedo, how did he get dressed? Somebody dressed immigration in our history. He, by unexplained process,
him." became head of the New York City blood bank. (How does
a Russian trained doctor become head of one of the largest
There are 9,000 to the fourth power possible AIDS blood banks in the world? Doesn't that strike you as
viruses. (There are 9,000 base pairs on the genome.) So peculiar?)
the fun has just begun. Some will cause brain rot similar
to the sheep virus, some leukemia-like diseases from the He set up the rules for the hepatitis vaccine studies. Only
cow virus and some that won't do anything. So the virus males between the ages of 20 and 40, who were not
will be constantly changing and trying out new esoteric monogamous, would be allowed to participate in this study.
diseases on hapless man. We're only at the beginning. Can you think of any reason for insisting that all experi-
Continued on page 12
-11- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 11 – WHO Murdered Africa Dr. Robert Gallo, who has been mixed up in some very
mentees be promiscuous? strange scientific snafus, supports this theory. Whether the
infection of 75 million Africans was deliberate or
The Centers for Disease Control reported in 1981 that accidental can be debated but there is no room for debate
four percent of those receiving the hepatitis-vaccine about whether the smallpox shots; "awakened the
were AIDS-infected. In 1984 they admitted to 60 unsuspected virus infection." There is absolutely no
percent. Now they refuse to give out figures at all scientific evidence that this laboratory-engineered virus was
because they don't want to admit that 100 percent of present in Africa before the World Health Organization
hepatitis vaccine receivers are infected with AIDS. descended upon these hapless people in 1967 with their
Where is the data on the hepatitis vaccine studies? deadly AIDS-laced vaccine. The AIDS virus didn't come
FDA? CDC? No, the U.S Department of Justice has it from Africa. It came from Fort Detrick, Maryland, U.S.A.
buried where you will never see it. What has the The situation is extremely desperate and the medical
government told us about AIDS? profession is too frightened and cowed (as usual) to take
* It's a homosexual disease-WRONG. (The any action. Dr. Strecker attempted to mobilize the doctors
homosexuals certainly spread it but the primary through some of the most respected medical journals in the
responsibility wasn't theirs.) world. The prestigious Annals of Internal Medicine said
that his material "appears to be entirely concerned with
* It's related to anal intercourse only-WRONG. matters of virology" and so try some other publication.
* Only a small percentage of those testing positive for In his letter to The Annals, Strecker said, "If correct human
AIDS would get the disease-WRONG. experimental procedures had been followed we would not
* It came from the African green-back monkey- find half of the world stumbling off on the wrong path to
WRONG. the cure for AIDS with the other half of the world covering
up the origination of the damned disease. It appears to me
* It came from the cytomegalovirus-WRONG. that your Annals of Internal Medicine is participating in the
* It was due to popping amyl nitrate with sex- greatest fraud ever perpetrated."
WRONG. I guess they didn't like that so Strecker submitted his
* It was started 400 years ago by the Portuguese- sensational and mind-boggling letter with all of the proper
WRONG. (It started in 1972.) documentation to the British journal, Lancet. Their reply:
"Thank you for that interesting letter on AIDS. I am sorry
* You can't get it from insects-WRONG. to have to report that we will not be able to publish it. We
* The virus can't live outside the body-WRONG. have no criticism" but their letter was "overcrowded with
submissions." They're too crowded to announce the end of
The head of the Human Leukemia Research Group at western civilization and possibly all mankind? It doesn't
Harvard is a veterinarian. Dr. O. W. Judd, International seem reasonable.
Agency for Research on Cancer, the agency that
requested the production of the virus in the first place, What can we do? The first thing that should be done is
is also a veterinarian. The leukemia research he is close down all laboratories in this country that are dealing
conducting is being done under the auspices of a school with these deadly retroviruses.
of veterinary medicine. Then we must sort out the insane irresponsible and
Now there is nothing wrong with being a vet but, as we traitorous scientists involved in these experiments and try
have pointed out, the AIDS virus is a human virus. You them for murder. Then maybe, just maybe, we can re-staff
can't test viruses in animals and you can't test the laboratories with people who will work to save a
leukemias in them either. It doesn't work. So why remnant of people to repopulate and re-civilize the world.
would your government give Judd, a veterinarian, eight References:
and one-half million dollars to study leukemia in a
veterinary college? As long as we are being used as 1. Allison, et al, Bull WHO 1972. 47:257-63 and Amos, et
experimental animals, maybe it's appropriate. al. Fed Proc. 1972, 31:1087
The London Times should be congratulated for 2. Omni Magazine, March. 1986, p. 106.
uncovering the smallpox-AIDS connection. But their 3. Jan. 11, 1986. [???]
expose was very misleading. The article states that the 4. London Times Front page, May 11, 1987.
African AIDS epidemic was caused by the smallpox http://healingtools.tripod.com/who_africa.html
vaccine "triggering" AIDS in those vaccinated. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
-12 - Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 5 – Ancient African Medicine, Sources:
Egypt and the World http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-05/uomeng05090
not changed their design since the ancient Africans
first sent out this knowledge to the world. Today, http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2007/02/28/egyptiandrug_arc.html
researchers are still discovering “new” cures based on ?category=animals&guid=20070228104530
old Egyptian remedies, such as eating celery to help
curb inflammation associated with arthritis. Chronicle of the Pharaohs (The Reign-By-Reign Record of the
Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt) Clayton, Peter A. 1994
Roots of Kemitic Knowledge Thames and Hudson Ltd ISBN 0-500-05074-0.
The study further conducted genetic and chemical
analysis on plant remains and resins, with the goal of Complete Pyramids, The (Solving the Ancient Mysteries) Lehner,
identifying trade routes, which species were used and Mark 1997 Thames and Hudson, Ltd ISBN 0-500-05084-8.
how these plants might have been cultivated outside
their natural growing ranges. Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul
1995 Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers ISBN 0-8109-3225-3.
After detailed facts gathering and analysis the
scientists proposed that the African Egyptians History of Ancient Egypt, A Grimal, Nicolas 1988 Blackwell
obtained their medical knowledge from nomadic None Stated.
African tribes that united to form ancient Egypt, as
well as from neighbouring African people in Kush Monarchs of the Nile Dodson, Aidan 1995 Rubicon Press ISBN
and beyond. 0-948695-20-x.
Current medical practices by the living African Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian 2000 Oxford
societies and traditions still show similarities to University Press ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
Pharaohic medicine. http://www.africaresource.com/content/view/559/236/
The continued use by African natural Doctors of
medicinal herbs and animal products, and practices
such as cosmetic dental filing, brain trepanning,
AIDS Epidemic hits Men Hard
orthopedic procedures, known to ancient Egyptians CDC: More than half of infections among gay and bisexual
suggest sustained scientific and religious interaction men in 2006
in the past.
Alas, current studies are revealing that the knowledge September 11, 2008
of medicine was transferred from central west Africa
WASHINGTON - AIDS remains largely a disease of gay
to Egypt, just like everything else that was gifted
and bisexual men in the United States but also
from Kush to Kemet.
disproportionately infects black women, according to an
This is very significant since it is widely known that analysis published on Thursday.
the foundations of modern western medicine came
Last month, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
from Egypt. Around 50 percent of the plants used in
Prevention reported that more than 56,000 people in the
ancient Egypt remained in clinical use. Medical tools
United States become newly infected with the human
like forceps, scissors and surgical blades, were lifted
immunodeficiency virus each year, far more than previous
unchanged from ancient Egyptian medical science
estimates of about 40,000.
into modern western medicine. Medical practices,
and knowledge of human anatomy, also found their Now the CDC has further analyzed those numbers to find
way into the body of scientific knowledge underlying the fatal and incurable virus largely infects men who have
western medicine. sex with men, or MSM — a group that includes gays,
bisexuals and men who may have the occasional sexual
Since the knowledge of Egyptian medical science
encounter other men.
was from inner Africa, more precisely central and
western Africa, the world owes this continent and its "The male-to-male sexual contact transmission category
children a belated tribute, a sound recognition for represented 72 percent of new infections among males,
having bequeathed the science of healing and hygiene including 81 percent of new infections among whites, 63
to later cultures and civilizations who still owe the percent among blacks, and 72 percent among Hispanics,”
unrequited debt of appreciation for Africa’s the report said.
beneficence. Continued on page 15
-13 - Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Threat of World Aids Pandemic receiving anti-retroviral drugs in the developing world,
but this is less than a third of the estimated 9.7 million
among Heterosexuals is Over, people who need them. In all there were 33 million
Report Admits people living with HIV in 2007, 2.5 million people
became newly infected and 2.1 million died of Aids.
A 25-year health campaign was misplaced outside
Aids organisations, including the WHO, UN Aids and
the continent of Africa. But the disease still kills the Global Fund, have come under attack for inflating
more than all wars and conflicts estimates of the number of people infected, diverting
By Jeremy Laurance funds from other health needs such as malaria, spending
it on the wrong measures such as abstinence programmes
8 June 2008 rather than condoms, and failing to build up health
The Independent systems.
A quarter of a century after the outbreak of Aids, the Dr De Cock labelled these the "four malignant
World Health Organisation (WHO) has accepted that the arguments" undermining support for the global campaign
threat of a global heterosexual pandemic has disappeared. against Aids, which still faced formidable challenges,
In the first official admission that the universal despite the receding threat of a generalised epidemic
prevention strategy promoted by the major Aids beyond Africa.
organisations may have been misdirected, Kevin de Any revision of the threat was liable to be seized on by
Cock, the head of the WHO's department of HIV/Aids those who rejected HIV as the cause of the disease, or
said there will be no generalised epidemic of Aids in the who used the disease as a weapon to stigmatise high risk
heterosexual population outside Africa. groups, he said. "Aids still remain the leading infectious
Dr De Cock, an epidemiologist who has spent much of disease challenge in public health. It is an acute infection
his career leading the battle against the disease, said but a chronic disease. It is for the very, very long haul.
understanding of the threat posed by the virus had People are backing off, saying it is taking care of itself.
changed. Whereas once it was seen as a risk to It is not."
populations everywhere, it was now recognised that, Critics of the global Aids strategy complain that vast
outside sub-Saharan Africa, it was confined to high-risk sums are being spent educating people about the disease
groups including men who have sex with men, injecting who are not at risk, when a far bigger impact could be
drug users, and sex workers and their clients. achieved by targeting high-risk groups and focusing on
Dr De Cock said: "It is very unlikely there will be a interventions known to work, such as circumcision,
heterosexual epidemic in other countries. Ten years ago a which cuts the risk of infection by 60 per cent, and
lot of people were saying there would be a generalised reducing the number of sexual partners.
epidemic in Asia – China was the big worry with its huge There were "elements of truth" in the criticism, Dr De
population. That doesn't look likely. But we have to be Cock said. "You will not do much about Aids in London
careful. As an epidemiologist it is better to describe what by spending the funds in schools. You need to go where
we can measure. There could be small outbreaks in some transmission is occurring. It is true that countries have
areas." not always been good at that."
In 2006, the Global Fund for HIV, Malaria and But he rejected an argument put in The New York Times
Tuberculosis, which provides 20 per cent of all funding that only $30m (£15m) had been spent on safe water
for Aids, warned that Russia was on the cusp of a projects, far less than on Aids, despite knowledge of the
catastrophe. An estimated 1 per cent of the population risks that contaminated water pose.
was infected, mainly through injecting drug use, the same
level of infection as in South Africa in 1991 where the "It sounds a good argument. But where is the scandal?
prevalence of the infection has since risen to 25 per cent. That less than a third of Aids patients are being treated –
or that we have never resolved the safe water scandal?"
Dr De Cock said: "I think it is unlikely there will be
extensive heterosexual spread in Russia. But clearly there One of the danger areas for the Aids strategy was among
will be some spread." men who had sex with men. He said: "We face a bit of a
crisis [in this area]. In the industrialised world
Aids still kills more adults than all wars and conflicts transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men
combined, and is vastly bigger than current efforts to is not declining and in some places has increased.
address it. A joint WHO/UN Aids report published this
month showed that nearly three million people are now Continue on page 15
-14- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 14 – Threat of World HIV Pandemic especially in the black community.
Among Heterosexuals is Over
"The alarming number of new infections among young
"In the developing world, it has been neglected. We have black MSM underscores the need to ensure that each new
only recently started looking for it and when we look, we generation has the knowledge and skills to prevent HIV
find it. And when we examine HIV rates we find they are infection beginning early in their lives," the report reads.
Girls and women made up 27 percent of new infections,
"It is astonishing how badly we have done with men who with high-risk sexual contact with men causing 80
have sex with men. It is something that is going to have percent of new infections.
to be discussed much more rigorously."
"Among females, 61 percent of infections were in blacks,
The biggest puzzle was what had caused heterosexual 23 percent were in whites, and 16 percent were in
spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa – with Hispanics," the CDC report reads.
infection rates exceeding 40 per cent of adults in
Swaziland, the worst-affected country – but nowhere There is no cure for the AIDS virus, which is transmitted
else. "It is the question we are asked most often – why is in bodily fluids such as blood, semen and breast milk.
the situation so bad in sub-Saharan Africa? It is a Around the world, sexual contact is by far the most
combination of factors – more commercial sex workers, common mode of transmission although people who use
more ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases, a young contaminated needles can be infected, and blood
population and concurrent sexual partnerships." transfusions also can cause infection.
"Sexual behaviour is obviously important but it doesn't "African-Americans make up 12 percent of the total U.S.
seem to explain [all] the differences between populations. population, yet represented 45 percent of new HIV
Even if the total number of sexual partners [in sub- infections in the United States in 2006," the CDC wrote.
Saharan Africa] is no greater than in the UK, there seems Globally, 33 million people are infected with HIV and 25
to be a higher frequency of overlapping sexual million have died of it. There is no vaccine or cure
partnerships creating sexual networks that, from an although drug cocktails can help control the infection.
epidemiological point of view, are more efficient at
Low rates of circumcision, which is protective, and high
rates of genital herpes, which causes ulcers on the Common Gene makes
genitals through which the virus can enter the body, also
contributed to Africa's heterosexual epidemic. Africans more Vulnerable to
But the factors driving HIV were still not fully HIV
understood, he said. James Randerson
"The impact of HIV is so heterogeneous. In the US , the Guardian.co.uk
rate of infection among men in Washington DC is well July 17, 2008
over 100 times higher than in North Dakota, the region
with the lowest rate. That is in one country. How do you Around 11% of HIV infections in Africa may be due to a
explain such differences?" genetic variant common in people of African descent that
makes them more vulnerable to the virus. The genetic
http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health change, which is less prevalent in other ethnic groups,
increases the likelihood of infection with the most com
Continued from page 13 - Aids Epidemic Hits Men mon strain of the virus (HIV-1) by 40%. Once infection
Hard has occurred, though, the genetic variant slows the
progression of the disease, prolonging the patient's life by
Of the new infections in 2006, more than half were around two years.
among gay and bisexual men, the CDC found. Of these,
46 percent of new infections were among whites, 35 The newly discovered genetic factor may go some way to
percent among blacks and 19 percent in Hispanics. explaining why AIDS is so prevalent in sub-Saharan
Africa. According to the World Health Organisation,
But among the overall U.S. population, more blacks are there were 4.3 million people newly infected with HIV
affected — 46 percent of new infections were among worldwide in 2006 and 2.9 million deaths from AIDS-
blacks. related illnesses. Around a third of all new infections and
The CDC said it needed to redouble prevention efforts, Continued on page 17
-15- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9 NEWSLETTER October 2008
“What are Duffy Antigens?”
An antigen is a molecule that will set off the forces of In 1950, the Duffy blood group was named for the
the immune system to get rid of things that may be bad multiply transfused hemophiliac whose serum
for us. contained the first example of anti-Fya. In 1951, the
antibody to the antithetical antigen, Fyb, was discovered
Scientists are just starting to realize that the antigen
in the serum of a woman who had been pregnant three
molecules that distinguish one blood type from another
times. Using these antibodies three common
have a lot of other important jobs elsewhere in our
phenotypes were defined: Fy(a+b+), Fy(a+b-), and
Fy(a-b+). Differences in the racial distribution of the
Here's how it works. All our cells have numerous Duffy antigens were discovered four years later when it
molecules on the surface that, like little billboards, was reported that the majority of Blacks had the
announce, `This cell is part of us. It's supposed to be erythrocyte phenotype Fy(a-b-). This phenotype is
here. Do not attack!' exceedingly rare in Whites. The frequency of the Fy(a-
Immune system cells traveling around in our blood are b-) phenotype is 68 percent in American Blacks and 88-
trained to recognize self molecules and pass right by. 100 percent in African Blacks. The absence of Duffy
But if our immune system inspects a foreign cell in our antigens on erythrocytes results in their resistance to
blood and doesn't recognize a molecule on the surface, invasion by two malaria parasites, Plasmodium vivax
it treats that molecule as an antigen and attacks. That and Plasmodium knowlesi. This racial variation in
attack often involves creating a molecule called an distribution of the Duffy system antigens provides one
antibody designed specifically to fit the unique shape of of the few known examples of selective advantage
the foreign antigen. The antibody attaches to the conferred by a blood group phenotype. The Duffy
antigen and, like a chemical loudspeaker, summons genes, located on chromosome one at position 1922-23,
other components of the immune system to come have recently been cloned and sequenced. The
destroy the invader. difference between Fya and Fyb is a change in the
amino acid at position 43 from aspartic acid (Fya) to
In 1901 Karl Landsteiner of Austria noticed that some glycine (Fyb). Studies have shown that blacks whose
red blood cells had one kind of molecule on their outer erythrocytes express Fyb antigen also have the antigen
surface, which he labeled simply A, and some had a on the cells of their kidney, heart, muscle, brain and
different one that he labeled B. placenta. The Duffy gene codes for a protein known as
Some didn't have either, and he called those O (as in a chemokine receptor, which is important in the
zero, not the letter ``o''.) Those molecules turned out to inflammatory process.
be antigens. The discovery made transfusions possible Rh is another well-known red blood cell antigen.
and earned Landsteiner a Nobel prize. Since then, Rhesus monkeys experimentally transfused with human
we've discovered nearly 300 different antigens on red blood made the antibody this time, thus the Rh.
blood cells, with names like Duffy, Lutheran,
Dombrock, Kidd, Diego, P, Yt, and Kx. If you have this antigen (there are actually 40 antigens
in the Rh family) you're Rh positive. If you don't,
They're mostly named for the people whose blood you're Rh negative. Rh and ABO antigens are the most
carried unique antibodies. Like Mr. Duffy, the English important ones determining whether a transfusion will
patient who got sick after a transfusion. He received the work.
right ABO type. But there was another antigen on the
transfused blood that his immune system didn't like. It But nature didn't put antigens on our red blood cells to
made a special antibody cell nobody had ever seen make sure transfusions would work. Transfusions are
before to fit onto and attack that antigen. That antigen not a natural occurrence. So what's going on?
was named Duffy. Continued on page 17
-16- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 17 – “What are Duffy Antigens”
Scientists make Gene Link to
It turns out that these molecules are involved in many
other biological processes. African HIV Epidemic
Remember Duffy? Well, many Africans and African- Mark Henderson, Science Editor
Americans don't have a Duffy antigen. As a result, they
can survive a form of malaria that infects the cell only if From The Times
it can attach to Duffy. No Duffy antigen, no P. vivax July 17, 2008
A genetic variant peculiar to Africans substantially raises
Remember the P antigen? One species of E. coli bacteria their risk of infection with HIV, according to research
needs that molecule to attach to tissue cells in the urinary that suggests evolved susceptibility may be helping to
tracts of children. Some children have that molecule. drive the continent’s Aids epidemic.
Some don't. Those without it don't get that kind of urinary
The 90 per cent of Africans who carry the DNA variation
are 40 per cent more likely to contract HIV than those
The molecule that the bacterium H. pylori attaches to in without it, after similar exposure to the virus, scientists
the stomach lining to cause ulcers is an antigen when it's from Britain and America have found.
on red blood cells.
As the genetic change is common among people of
On some non-blood cells, antigens appear, or disappear, African ancestry but virtually unknown among other
or change, as tumors go from benign to cancerous. Some ethnic groups, it could explain in part why HIV-Aids is
antigen molecules appear to play a role in helping cancer more prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The United
spread through the body. Some help blood cell Nations estimates that 22.5 million people there are HIV-
membranes maintain their shape. Some help cells process positive, more than two thirds of the global total of
proteins. approximately 33.2 million.
Statistical associations, which don’t automatically prove The variant, known as “Duffy-negative”, is so common in
cause and effect, show that A's have more cancers than Africa that it could be responsible for about 11 per cent
O's and that O's bleed more than A's. B's defecate the of the continent’s HIV burden, or 2.5 million cases,
most. O's have the best teeth, but suffer more than other scientists said.
blood types from plague infections. A's have the worst
“It is an Africa-specific variant, which is why it’s so
interesting in the context of Aids research,” said Robin
There are wide racial, ethnic, and geographic differences Weiss, Professor of Infection and Immunity at University
in blood types around the world. There are twice as many College London, a member of the study team.
O's among native Australians as among Japanese.
“It could certainly be a contributing factor to the scale of
Eskimos in Greenland are 25 times more likely to be B's
the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It’s the first time, so
than Navajos in North America. Citizens of India are four
far as we understand, that a genetic factor that increases
times more likely to be B's than residents of England.
susceptibility to infection has come into play.”
All the findings suggest that molecules that distinguish
Sexual behaviour is also involved in the epidemic in
blood types probably developed differently in different
Africa, the only part of the world in which it
people as part of the random processes of mutation and
predominantly affects heterosexuals.
evolution. As nature tests which ones are best, some will
offer advantages, some disadvantages, in ways that The Duffy-negative gene has probably spread so widely
immuno-hematologists like Garratty are only beginning through the African population because it provides
to understand. resistance to a form of malaria called Plasmodium vivax.
Professor Weiss believes it may also once have increased
resistance against a precursor of the most deadly malaria
hy/112398.htm parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.
☻☻☻☻☻☻ These traits would have been highly advantageous in
evolutionary Africa. As HIV is a new human pathogen,
thought to have jumped from chimpanzees to people
between 1910 and 1950, the gene’s effect on the virus
would have had no negative consequences until recently.
Continued on page 18
-17- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 18 – Scientists make Gene Link to is complicated because the disease has developed
African HI Epidemic resistance to the most commonly used treatments. A sur-
“Something that protected against malaria in the past is vey comprising of Semi-Structured Interviews and a
now leaving the host more susceptible to HIV,” Professor questionnaire was undertaken in the rural villages of
Weiss said. Buseete and Busambira found in Kamuli district, Uganda,
to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of
Matthew Dolan, of the San Antonio Military Medical malaria and to document existing knowledge, attitudes
Centre in Texas, said: “After thousands of years of and practices related to malaria recognition, control and
adaptation, this Duffy variant rose to high frequency treatment.
because it helped protect against malaria. Now, with
another global pandemic on the scene, this same variant The people were knowledgeable about malaria. Malaria
renders people more susceptible to HIV. It shows the attacked individuals an average of six times a year.
complex interplay between historically important Conditions favoring the breeding of mosquitoes, such as
diseases and susceptibility in contemporary times.” dense bush, were evident in all homesteads. Preferred
malaria treatment was biased towards the Allopathic
For the study, published in the journal Cell Host & Medicine (AM) system. This preference for AM was
Microbe, scientists examined a group of US Air Force attributed to ignorance of how to exploit herbal medicines
personnel, of whom more than 1,200 are HIV-positive, for the treatment of malaria and also to the belief that
and who have been followed for nearly 22 years. The allopathic medicines were superior to herbal medicines.
Duffy-negative genotype was seen almost exclusively in
African-Americans. Some respondents stated a preference to herbal
medicines, though. This preference was motivated by the
A continent cursed free and ready accessibility to plants. Knowledge of using
— Sub-Saharan Africa is the globe’s most Aids-affected herbal medicines was average and was mainly restricted
region. In 2005, 24.5 million of its people were living to women.
with HIV and of all Aids sufferers, 64 per cent live there
Twenty seven species were reportedly used in
— In 2005, about 2.7 million people became infected antimalarial herbal preparations. The most frequently
with HIV and more than two million died mentioned species were Vernonia amygdalina,
Momordica foetida, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Lantana
— More than two million children under 15 are HIV- camara and Mangifera indica. Concoctions were prepared
positive and more than 90 per cent live in Africa as cold extracts and were administered in variable doses.
— About 12 million African children under 17 have lost It is proposed that the most frequently mentioned species
one or both parents to Aids be considered for further research to evaluate their
efficacy and safety.
— About 72 per cent of all people needing anti-retroviral
treatment live in Africa, and only one in six receives the http://www.wlbcenter.org/drawer/reports/final_report.pdf
necessary medicine ☻☻☻☻☻☻
— Swaziland has the highest HIV rate, at 33.4 per cent of
population. Botswana has 24.1 per cent and Zimbabwe
9 Million Children Worldwide
20.1 per cent Source: UNAids Died Before Age 5
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/article4 Rate of under-five mortality dipped slightly from
345263.ece 2006, UNICEF says
Herbal Medicines for the September 11, 2008
Treatment of Malaria in LONDON - More than 9 million children globally died
before their fifth birthday in 2007, down slightly from
Kamuli District, Uganda 2006, but a huge gap remains between rich and poor
countries, especially in Africa, UNICEF said on Friday.
John R.S. Tabuti
Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Efforts to promote breastfeeding, immunizations and
anti-malaria measures have helped cut child deaths to 9.2
Abstract million from 9.7 million a year ago and 12.7 million in
Malaria is the single most important cause of ill health, 1990, the figures from the United Nations Children’s
death and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its management Fund showed. Continued on page 19
-18- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 18 – 9 Million Children Worldwide
Died Before Age 5 Malaria Drug ‘Contributing to
“Since 1960, the global under-five mortality rate has Antibiotic Resistance’
declined more than 60 percent, and the new data shows
the downward trend continues,” UNICEF Executive
Director Ann Veneman said in a statement.
August 3, 2008
Improvements in Latin America and the Caribbean,
A new study shows that overuse of a drug used to
Central and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and
prevent and treat malaria may be contributing to growing
in parts of Asia drove the overall decline, but deaths
resistance to a related antibiotic.
remain high in sub-Saharan Africa where one in seven
children dies before age 5. Researchers report in the journal PloS ONE that
Escherichia coli bacteria resistant to the antibiotic
AIDS is still a major killer of children in sub-Saharan
ciprofloxacin – a type of fluroquinolone – were detected
Africa, though countries such as Eritrea, Malawi,
in the digestive tracts of villagers from remote rainforest
Mozambique, Niger and Ethiopia have made significant
communities in Guyana, despite them never having been
progress in cutting mortality rates, UNICEF said.
given the drug.
“Sub-Saharan Africa now accounts for almost half of the
Most of the villagers had been given the drug chloroquine
9.2 million deaths among children in this age group
– a drug closely related to ciprofloxacin – to prevent and
annually,” according to the UNICEF report published in
the journal Lancet.
535 villagers were sampled for resistant bacteria in the
“High levels of fertility...together with high levels of
three-year study, with 4.8 per cent found to be carrying
mortality in children aged less than 5 years have led to an
ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli.
increase in the absolute number of deaths (in this
region).” Guyana recorded over 11,000 cases of malaria last year,
the Minister of Health, Dr. Leslie Ramsammy, told
Worldwide, the death rate for children under age 5 was
SciDev.Net. He said the findings were “interesting” and
68 per 1,000 live births in 2007, down from the 93 per
that the Ministry of Health would commission its own
1,000 in 1990 and 72 per 1,000 a year ago.
study to test the accuracy of the research results.
Sierra Leone had the worst under-five mortality rate in
The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used throughout the world
the world with 262 out of every 1,000 children dying
to treat bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary
before their fifth birthday. The rate in industrialized
tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. This is
nations was 6 per 1,000.
the first study to show that resistance can emerge in
A number of countries, including Laos, Bangladesh, individuals never exposed to the antibiotic.
Bolivia and Nepal, have also made good progress toward
Drug resistant bacteria are known to arise from overuse
meeting global targets to reduce the child mortality rates
of antibiotics, which is why researchers were surprised to
by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, UNICEF said.
discover that they can develop in areas that do not have
“Recent data also indicate encouraging improvements in access to ciprofloxacin, says study co author Michael
many of the basic health interventions, such as early and Silverman, an infectious disease specialist at Lakeridge
exclusive breast feeding, measles immunization, Vitamin Health Network in Ontario, Canada.
A supplementation, the use of insecticide-treated nets to
In fact, he says, ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli were even
prevent malaria, and prevention and treatment of AIDS,”
more widespread in remote Guyanese villages than in the
United States intensive care units “where every second
“These interventions are expected to result in further person is on antibiotics”.
declines in child mortality over the coming years.”
E. coli is one of the most common causes of infection in
URL: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26665596/ humans. A decade ago it was nearly universally
☻☻☻☻☻☻ susceptible to ciprofloxacin,” says Andrew Simor, a
senior scientist at the Sunnybrooke Health sciences
Center at the University of Toronto.
Today, he says, as many as 30 per cent of hospital
patients tested have E. coli that fails to respond to
☻☻☻☻☻☻ ciprofloxacin. Continued on page 20
-19- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 19 – Malaria Drug Contributing to malaria has helped HIV infect hundreds of thousands
Antibiotic Resistance and perhaps millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.
Resistance to ciprofloxacin could be an important AIDS was first identified a quarter century ago.
public health problem in areas where malaria is At the same time, HIV fuels malaria's spread because
endemic - and therefore chloroquine use common – HIV-infected people are more susceptible to malaria as
because ciprofloxacin and other fluroquinolones could a result of HIV ravaging the immune system, the body's
be less effective, write the authors. natural defenses, the researchers said.
Silverman stressed that the study highlights the need to AIDS and malaria are concentrated in sub-Saharan
continue to try to prevent malaria through the use of Africa. Abu-Raddad said scientists were puzzled when
insecticide-treated bed nets, along with the they realized that the risky sexual behavior by people in
development of an effective vaccine. the region was not by itself sufficient to explain the
☻☻☻☻☻☻ swift spread of HIV, so other factors must be involved.
Malaria Fuels HIV/Aids They focused their work on Kisumu, a Kenyan city by
Lake Victoria where HIV and malaria are both
Spread In Africa common. They said 5 percent of HIV infections can be
blamed on the increased HIV viral load due to malaria,
By Will Dunham and 10 percent of adult malaria cases can be blamed on
December 8, 2006 HIV.
Note - What the story ISN'T saying is that mosquitoes Since 1980, 8,500 more people got HIV infections, and
are SPREADING HIV. Every time a mosquito or ANY there were 980,000 more episodes of malaria (a person
biting insect takes blood from an infected human and can get it more than once) in a city whose adult
then bites the next person, scores of viruses and population is 200,000, the study found.
bacteria are transmitted. To write a news story without
PUBLIC HEALTH EFFORTS
pointing to the obvious disease-vectoring reality of
The findings have implications for public health efforts,
mosquitoes is gross deception at the least. This is a Abu-Raddad said, showing the importance for
particularly odious statement: "Higher viral load authorities to tackle these diseases together.
causes more HIV transmission, and malaria causes
high HIV viral load.” Mosquitoes are already KNOWN Of the 39.5 million people worldwide infected with
to transmit over 70 different retroviruses. HIV is a HIV, 24.7 are in the poor countries of sub-Saharan
retrovirus...but there is no mention of any of this in the Africa. About 2.1 million of the world's 2.9 million
following story. - ed AIDS deaths in the past year were in this region.
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Malaria may be helping Malaria kills more than a million people annually,
spread the AIDS virus across Africa, the continent mostly young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
hardest hit by the incurable disease, scientists said on The researchers produced their results with a
Thursday. mathematical model using HIV and malaria infection
The way the two diseases interact greatly expands the data gathered in Malawi by James Kublin of the
prevalence of both among people in sub-Saharan Hutchinson Center. This enabled them to quantify for
Africa, a team of scientists said in a study in the journal the first time the synergy between malaria on HIV and
Science. its toll on people.
Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite, Scientists previously determined that a lack of male
greatly boosts viral load -- the amount of human circumcision and the incidence of genital herpes also
immunodeficiency virus in the blood of infected people were facilitating the spread of HIV. Abu-Raddad noted
-- making them more likely to infect a sex partner with that circumcised men are much less likely to get HIV,
HIV, they stated. and that genital herpes opens a door for HIV to infect a
"Higher viral load causes more HIV transmission, and
malaria causes high HIV viral load," said lead study Abu-Raddad said malaria now can be considered a
author Laith Abu-Raddad of the Fred Hutchinson third serious factor facilitating the spread of HIV.
Cancer Research Center in Seattle and the University of The two diseases drive one another even though they
Washington. have different modes of transmission-- malaria by mos-
Abu-Raddad, an AIDS researcher, estimated that Continued on page 21
-20- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 20 – Malaria Fuels HIV Spread in
Africa Scientists Map Genomes of
quito and HIV predominantly by sexual intercourse, Malaria Parasites
Abu-Raddad noted. Discovery will help in creating new treatments,
Abu-Raddad said once an HIV person gets malaria, his vaccines, researchers say
or her viral load goes up and stays higher for six to Reuters
eight weeks, making the person far more infectious to October 8, 2008
others. WASHINGTON - Scientists have mapped the genomes
http://www.rense.com/general74/mala.htm of the parasite that causes most cases of malaria outside
☻☻☻☻☻☻ Africa and a monkey parasite that is emerging as an
important cause of malaria in people in Southeast Asia.
Continued from page 15 - Common Gene Makes This information should help guide efforts to develop
Africans More Vulnerable to HIV new drugs and vaccines to fight the mosquito-borne
AIDS- related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, disease, two teams of researchers wrote in the journal
where there are eight countries in which adult HIV Nature on Wednesday.
prevalence exceeds 15% of the population. "It's going to be a very powerful tool," Jane Carlton of
Ironically, scientists believe that the genetic variant is New York University Langone Medical Center said.
at such high levels in Africa because it conferred A team led by Carlton worked out the complete genetic
resistance to a now extinct form of malaria. sequence of the parasite Plasmodium vivax, which
A team of British and US researchers studied a group causes malaria in Latin America and Asian countries
of 3,484 people in the US Air Force, of whom 1,266 including India, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia,
were infected with HIV. They tested each for a gene Melanesia and the Korean peninsula.
variant called Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines It accounts for up to 40 percent of malaria globally,
(DARC), which has been extensively studied in the past with an estimated 2.6 billion people threatened by the
because of its ability to confer resistance to one form of parasite.
the malaria parasite. The gene is known to be common
among people of African descent. Although the malaria it causes is only occasionally
fatal, it triggers severe symptoms such as repeated
The team report in the journal Cell, Host and Microbe episodes of high fever followed by headache, chills and
that subjects who were DARC-negative were more profuse sweating, vomiting, diarrhea and enlargement
likely to be infected with HIV. The gene variant of the spleen.
appeared to make them 40% more susceptible to
infection. The vivax parasite can remain dormant in the liver only
to re-emerge and cause relapses months or years after
By extrapolating this figure to the number of people in the initial illness. The researchers found genes that may
Africa with the same genetic variation, the researchers be responsible for this dormancy, perhaps paving the
estimate that 11% of all HIV infections in the continent way for scientists to find ways to disrupt it.
are due to this increased susceptibility.
The researchers identified genes in the parasite that
"The mystery of variable infection and progression was seem to help it invade a person's red blood cells and
originally thought to be mainly the result of viral evade the immune system. The parasite is becoming
characteristics, but in recent years it has become resistant to some antimalarial drugs.
evident that there is a strong host genetic component,"
said team member Dr Sunil Ahuja of the University of A team led by Arnab Pain of the Wellcome Trust
Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. Sanger Institute in Britain deciphered the full genetic
sequence of the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi.
"The big message of this paper is that something that
protected people against malaria in the past is now This parasite is rapidly establishing itself as the fifth
leaving them more susceptible to HIV," said Robin human-infecting malaria parasite and has emerged as a
Weiss of University College London, who also worked considerable health problem in Southeast Asia, Pain
on the study. said.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/jul/17/hiv.aids/ The researchers also found a trick used by the knowlesi
☻☻☻☻☻☻ parasite to avoid detection by the immune system.
Continued on page 32
-21- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has
Malaria Builds Resistance, supported malaria efforts, is also expected to announce
Kills Millions new funding toward malaria medicines, controls and
vaccine research this weekend.
"We hope that malaria gets some additional visibility,"
Associated Press Bill Gates, the Microsoft tycoon, said in a conference call
September 20, 2003 with journalists. "Of those million people who die,
LAGOS, Nigeria - Malaria, the ancient mosquito-borne overwhelmingly those are children. ... This is something
disease that was rolled back by medical advances in the we should demand more action on."
mid-20th century, is making a deadly comeback. Malaria campaigners complain that despite the increased
Strains of the disease are becoming increasingly focus, their efforts remain woefully underfunded.
resistant to treatment, infecting and killing more people Whereas AIDS vaccine research receives $400 million a
than ever before - sickening as many as 900 million last year, malaria research receives just $60 million.
year, according to estimates by the U.S. Agency for While donors commit an estimated $200 million each
International Development. year to treating impoverished patients and distributing
More than 1 million people - and as many as 2.7 mosquito nets and insecticides to prevent mosquito bites
million by some estimates - of those victims died. The that transmit the disease, experts say they need at least $1
vast majority of the deaths were in Africa. billion to make a dent.
Shivering and sweating feverishly, Felicia Egbuchue "Malaria has to some extent been forgotten by the
took the malaria medicine her doctor prescribed. international community," said Allan Schapira, a senior
Although it had cured her in years past, this time it official in WHO's Rollback Malaria program. "Apart
didn't. She was rushed to the hospital, and hooked up to from AIDS, it is the single worst child health problem
an intravenous drip. that we haven't got a grip on."
"I have no inner strength. I feel like I'm dying," the 30- In Nigeria, a nation of 126 million people where
year-old university student said from her hospital bed. government officials estimate up to one-quarter of the
world's malaria deaths occur, researchers at the national
After three days in a private hospital in Nigeria's Nigerian Institute of Medical Research test malaria
commercial capital of Lagos, Egbuchue recovered from treatments and other drugs on mice in a single tiny,
what doctors said was a strain that had become resistant stiflingly hot laboratory.
to many of the standard treatments.
"The resources available in Nigeria for this work are
"Malaria is something that we thought we had limited or even nonexistent," research director Philip
conquered years ago. But more and more of our people Agomo said.
are dying from it every day," said Patrick Dike, a
malaria specialist at the Lagos hospital. A major cause of malaria's alarming resurgence is the
parasite's increasing resistance to the drugs used to treat
Only AIDS kills more people worldwide. Among child and prevent the disease - including chloroquine, the
ren, malaria kills even more than AIDS. cheapest and most effective anti-malarial since the 1950s.
The economic cost of malaria is also high - in countries The number of alternatives are limited. The WHO
of Africa, Asia and Latin America where the disease is supports use of multi-drug combinations based on
endemic, the World Health Organization estimates up artemisinin, until recently an extract from the "sweet
to $12 billion are lost annually to the disease. wormwood" plant used in China for centuries but little
Americans traveling abroad also are at risk. Of the 225 known in the West.
Marines and Navy forces who went ashore to assist Yet aid agency officials say that artemisinin is not yet
West African peacekeepers in Liberia, 51 showed produced in large enough quantities to affordably treat
symptoms - an unusually high rate, U.S. officials said. the large numbers of Africans who need it most.
International efforts to contain or even eradicate the Some governments and Western donors have been
disease have received a boost in recent years with hesitant to promote the treatment widely because of a
major grants from the U.S. government and from the lack of funds - artemisinin is 10 times more expensive
$4.7 billion five-year U.N. Global Fund for Aids, than chloroquine, or between $4.50 and $9 for a three-
Tuberculosis and Malaria. day treatment.
Continued on page 23
-22- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 22 – Malaria Builds Resistance malaria drugs.
"It is definitely the future," Anne Peterson, head of A team of French and Cameroonian scientists made the
global health for USAID in Washington, said of discovery after collecting samples of Anopheles
artemisinin-based drugs. "Yet it is far more expensive mosquitoes from five localities including Oveng village
and harder to get out to the numbers of people who -- which lies between two rivers near the border with
need it." Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.
The Nobel Prize-winning international humanitarian "It is then that we discovered that the samples from
group Medecins Sans Frontieres is urging the United Oveng village were different from existing varieties in
States and other Western governments to support and terms of morphology and behaviour," Parfait Herman
fund artemisinin-based therapy regimens. It notes Awono-Ambene, one of the scientists who carried out
chloroquine and other drugs have become ineffective in the research, told Reuters on Friday.
up to 80 percent of malaria cases in some countries.
Mosquitoes from the Anopheles group transmit malaria
"Donors must stop wasting their money funding drugs -- which kills roughly 3,000 people every day -- to
that don't work," MSF said in a report. humans along rivers in Africa. The results of the study
Peterson, the USAID official, said that until it receives were published in the July issue of the Journal of
more funds, the U.S. agency will support the use of the Medical Entomology.
"cheapest, most effective drugs" in countries where "The interesting thing about Oveng Form is that it is
they still have use. hardly found inside houses though it bites human
Dike, the Lagos doctor, said in the absence of beings just like others and contains the malaria-carrying
affordable alternatives, he and some colleagues have in agent Plasmodium falciparum," Awono-Ambene said,
desperation begun exchanging information about what referring to the most life-threatening form of the
available combinations work best to treat patients. disease.
"People don't understand why their relatives are He said the mosquito found in Oveng becomes very
sometimes not recovering, or why they are not being active at dusk, feeding on people who live near or along
cured as quickly as they are used to being cured. How the banks of the two rivers.
do you explain drug resistance? When they are More research will need to be carried out to determine
suffering, the doctor is blamed." whether this variety is only present in Oveng village,
http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/6820492.htm but Awono-Ambene said the mosquito was also likely
☻☻☻☻☻☻ to exist in neighbouring Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.
Malaria costs Africa around $12 billion a year in lost
New Malaria-Carrying income.
Mosquito Found in In Cameroon, it represents 35 to 40 percent of deaths in
hospitals and is responsible for 40 percent of deaths
Cameroon among children aged between zero and five.
By Tansa Musa The country's public health authorities are promoting
24 July 2004 the use of impregnated nets to fight the disease, but
adequate nets are not always easily available and at
YAOUNDE, July 24 (Reuters) - A new form of 3,500 CFA francs ($6.5) they are often too expensive
mosquito carrying the parasite responsible for the most for the average household.
deadly form of malaria, Africa's biggest killer alongside
HIV/AIDS, has been discovered in a village in southern http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L24594997.htm
Cameroon, researchers say. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Discovery of the hitherto-unknown variety, FYI – In Uganda
provisionally dubbed "Oveng Form" after the village 25-40 Percent of outpatients visit health centres due to
where it was found, is likely to make the fight against Malaria.
the malaria in Cameroon even more difficult,
researchers say, although more research is needed. 20 Percent of hospital admissions and 15 per cent of
in-patients deaths are due to Malaria.
It joins four other species already known in the central
African country, all of them resistant to common anti- Malaria is the leading cause of death in Uganda.
-23- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
treatment in the area of enforced HIV illness. And the
Scientists say Africa Must letter has been sent to one of the prominent figure
Make Own Drugs to Fight within the African community. We will appreciate if
you can pass on this letter to other African people
AIDS, Malaria within the community.
By ELLIOTT SYLVESTER I believe that the human and health rights of Africans in
New Zealand are being severely transgressed in the
testing, diagnosis and treatment (especially when
March 20, 2003
enforced) of HIV disease. This discrimination is
STELLENBOSCH, South Africa - Scientists chal- manifest in several forms.
lenged African nations Thursday to produce their own
Simply being Black African in New Zealand is seen as
generic drugs - not just rely on pharmaceutical giants to
“high risk” compared to being tested in African
help fight AIDS, malaria and other diseases ravaging
countries. This is an important consideration in relation
to interpretation of the tests (because the interpretation
African nations lag behind countries such as Cuba and is arbitrary). The staff deciding the test results are
India that produce "homegrown" medicines, Gordon informed in their own 2000 handbook: “By mid 1999,
Dougan, a British vaccine expert, told a conference on 1,355 patients had been reported with HIV infection
the human genome initiative. since the beginning of the epidemic and 678 with
"We need to reinvent local production of high quality AIDS.
generic vaccines," Dougan said. "Countries are no Currently there are about 700 HIV infected people
longer producing their own vaccines, and this is why living in New Zealand of whom 107 have AIDS.
huge pharmaceutical companies control the industry." Homosexual males remain the biggest identifiable risk
More than 300 scientists from 16 countries are in group (63% now) but in the last 18 months infected
Stellenbosch, about 30 miles north of Cape Town, at a heterosexual immigrants, particularly from Africa, are
conference aimed at using knowledge of the human the most rapidly increasing group. After falling for
genome - a genetic blueprint that scientists are working several years, the number of newly reported HIV
to map - to help combat diseases. infected people rose in 1998, significantly contributed
to by this immigrant group,” i.e. it’s those Black
Dr. Hoosen Coovadia, HIV/AIDS researcher at South Africans who are increasing our rate of HIV disease,
Africa's University of Natal, said African governments not our racist coercion in testing. Black Africans are
should translate scientific research into policy to more than 200 times more likely to be “positive” on
overcome the most serious diseases facing Africa. these tests. Rules of privacy and confidentiality are not
The United Nations estimates there were 3.4 million adhered to; the doctors reason that hospital personnel
new HIV infections in Africa in 2001 - almost 70 have a right to know if a Black African has HIV so they
percent of the global total. don’t “catch” the AIDS disease.
British Dr. Matt Berriman told the conference human This despite the fact that not one single health care
genome research has cut the time it is taking him to worker anywhere in the world has contracted AIDS
find a vaccine for malaria - a vaccine he said may ready through accidental exposure in the 23 years since the
for use in 20 years. ‘epidemic’ began. Black Africans and their children are
being coerced into these tests, where white Europeans
The mosquito-borne disease kills about 3,000 Africans are not. A Black African presenting with any medical
a day, most of them under five years of age. condition, however unrelated to any possible HIV
☻☻☻☻☻☻ disease, to a New Zealand hospital suffers great
pressure to get an HIV test.
To all African People Living
MOH and Statistics NZ figures demonstrate that Black
in New Zealand Africans have a higher prevalence of HIV in New
Zealand than the reported rate in extremely high risk
March 1, 2008 and frequently tested prisoners in South African
This letter is to let all African people living in New prisons. The prison population comprises intravenous
Zealand about the discrimination that is happening here drug users and men who have sex with men without
in New Zealand in regard to the testing, diagnosis and condoms. Given that these prisoners are all tested every
Continued on page 36
-24- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9 NEWSLETTER October 2008
The Afrikan Traditional Herbal Research Centre
Blackherbals at the Source of the Nile, UG Ltd.
The concept of indigenous or local traditional Seldom documented, Afrikan indigenous knowledge
knowledge refers to the complete bodies of knowledge, (AIK) is passed orally from generation to generation.
expertise, practices and technology, maintained and Unfortunately, scientific awareness of the value of
developed by people with long histories of close Afrikan indigenous knowledge is growing at a time
interaction with the natural environment. These sets of when such knowledge is under tremendous threat. It is
understandings, interpretations and meanings are part in danger of disappearing, as a result of the ever-
of a cultural complex that includes language, naming growing Western influences for rapid technological
and classification systems, ways of using and recycling change and because the capacity and facilities needed
resources, rituals, spirituality and a worldview. Such to document, evaluate, validate, protect and disseminate
knowledge provides the basis for local decision-making such knowledge are lacking. For this situation to
about many fundamental aspects of day-to-day life change, infrastructures, facilities, research, and
within these societies, such as hunting and gathering financial resources are needed. More research needs to
food, fishing, agriculture and animal husbandry, food be done on AIK systems and more methods developed
production, water, health, and adaptation to for dealing with it. Afrikan claims of indigenous
environmental or social change. solutions to specific problems by indigenous
knowledge systems need to be validated and attempts
As in all traditional societies, Afrikan people have
made to improve or adapt those systems. This research
evolved sophisticated realms of knowledge, derived
should be conducted with people who possess the
from experimentation or observation to explain,
indigenous knowledge and with the local communities
predict, and control natural phenomena. This
involved. There are signs of a growing demand for
indigenous knowledge often appears to differ from-or
education systems in Afrika, tailored to local needs. It
even run counter to-the scientific principles taught by
is these efforts that are providing increased attention to
colonial powers. Evidence of Afrika's store of
knowledge systems based in local traditions and
indigenous scientific knowledge has emerged recently
cultures and the need to revitalise these systems from
in a variety of disciplines. For example, living on the
an educational point of view.
desert's edge, Afrika's nomadic pastoralists are
acknowledged to be among the world's experts on Importance of Indigenous Knowledge
famine and range management. The thousand-year-old In the past, modern science has considered methods of
cultures living south of Timbuktu along the Niger River Afrikan indigenous knowledge as primitive. Many
in Mali consult written texts that we appreciate today, traditional practices, during the colonial period, were
as a model of environmental conservation. Afrika's declared illegal by the colonial authorities. However,
traditional plant breeders cultivated tropical gardens AIK has made and continues to make significant
that contain as many as 150 intercropped species and contributions to resolving local problems. From
recognition is given to the Afrikan for the development developing countries worldwide an increasing flow of
of a remarkably productive agricultural system. The information is being transmitted and the role that
continent's materia medica of more than 7,000 animal, indigenous knowledge plays in a range of sectors.
plant, and mineral products for the treatment of illness Besides alleviating poverty, this range includes such
is a resource that western-trained scientists are avidly sectors as agriculture (intercropping techniques, animal
copying and studying. Continued on page 26
-25- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 25 –The Afrikan Traditional Herbal and fiber for thousands of years with few if any outside
Research Centre inputs. Many of these practices have been forgotten or
production, pest control, crop diversity, animal abandoned in developed countries, but have continued
healthcare, seed varieties), biology (botany, fish to be used by many traditional, subsistence, or partially
breeding techniques), human healthcare (through subsistence farmers in developing countries. Most
traditional medicine), the use and management of traditional methods of agriculture were developed
natural resources (soil conservation, irrigation and other empirically, through millennia of trial and error, natural
forms of water management), and education (oral selection, and keen observation. Some of these
traditions, local languages). practices, which often conserve energy, maintain
natural resources, and reduce chemical use, are worthy
Furthermore, through modern ethno-botanical research, of examination. Today over half of the worlds' arable
indigenous knowledge is contributing to science in land is farmed by traditional farmers. Many of their
fields relevant to natural resource management. In techniques are unknown or poorly understood, but have
particular, indigenous knowledge helps scientists allowed them to produce crops and animals with
understand the issues of biodiversity and natural forest minimal or no purchased inputs. Traditional farming
management provide insights into crop domestication, systems often resemble natural tropical
breeding and management, and gives scientists a new agroecosystems. This and their striking diversity give
appreciation of the principles and practices of 'slash- them a high degree of stability, resilience, and
and-burn' techniques in agriculture, agro-ecology, agro- efficiency.
forestry, crop rotation, pest and soil management, and
other areas of agricultural science. Traditional farming, however, is being replaced by
modern intensive farming systems in many parts of the
One of the major prerequisites for the entire process of world. This represents the loss of farming systems that
collecting, applying and disseminating indigenous are stable, sustainable and from which many valuable
knowledge is the full participation of the local people lessons can be learned. Although high yields of modern
involved. Full participation can be achieved only when intensive agriculture have made it possible to feed the
the local communities are able to participate on an ever-increasing human population, it has been
equal level. Capacity building is therefore a key issue, accomplished at the expense and to the destruction of
and vital if traditional knowledge systems are to receive the surrounding ecosystems. Traditional agricultural
the active support to sustain them. Capacity building practices must be understood and conserved, before
must include training to better equip indigenous people they are lost through the rapid advance of modern
and young scientists to carry out research on traditional agriculture in developing countries.
knowledge, and to promote and develop that research to
better appreciate traditional knowledge. This can be They are fertilizing the Earth on a global scale through
achieved through collaborations between national intensive agriculture, fossil fuel combustion and
governments and Afrikan organisations and by placing widespread cultivation of leguminous crops. Evidence
indigenous knowledge on the agenda of science for is growing that the use of huge additional quantities of
development in general. nitrogen are exacerbating acidification, causing
changes in the species composition of ecosystems. It
Afrika is a natural treasure house, endowed with also raises nitrate levels in freshwater supplies above
wonderful examples of physical and cultural diversity. acceptable limits for human consumption, producing an
Afrika is also a laboratory for studying the boundaries aquatic environment that favours plant over animal life
between modern scientific methods and technologies in many freshwater habitats. Pesticide use causes the
and traditional practices. Indigenous knowledge has a acute poisoning of 3.5 to 5 million people a year.
trans-generational, communal, spiritual and cultural Worldwide, 400 million tonnes of hazardous waste are
nature. Western science is based solely on being generated each year. About 75 per cent of
technological aspects of the physical world. Indigenous pesticide use and hazardous waste generation occurs in
knowledge and western science should be seen as two developed countries. Despite restrictions on toxic and
systems of knowledge that can supplement, rather than persistent chemicals such as DDT, PCBs and dioxin in
compete with each other. many developed countries, manufacturing of these
Traditional Agriculture chemicals continues for export and remains widely
Traditional farming is an important reserve and source used in developing countries.
of biodiversity. It is still perhaps the only sustainable Microbial food-borne illnesses are the largest class of
system. Ancient farmers developed sustainable agri- emerging infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics and
culture practices, which allowed them to produce food - Continued on page 27
-26- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 26 - The Afrikan Traditional Herbal yields per season. If problems develop, they just add
Research Centre more man-made chemicals, a poison or a stimulant, to
hormones in agriculture is growing. Their prolonged their crops. The soil on many commercially farms has
use on farm animals has resulted in cancerous tumours become so unnatural that it no longer holds water
and unmanageable bacterial and viral infections in normally and even requires more water, which contribute
animals. Of particular concern, are the antibiotics and to waste and further leeching of nutrients from the soil.
hormones fed each year to hogs, chickens, and cattle, Many farmers no longer bother to develop mulch or plow
specifically designed to reduce their bacterial old crops back into the soil. Pesticides destroy most of
populations and promote faster growth for food the living organisms in the soil, thus old crops cannot be
production. A major important fact is that the bacteria transformed into beneficial soil.
these antibiotics are designed to destroy are growing Traditional agriculture methods, such as cross-pollination
increasingly resistant to antibiotics and at a faster pace or selective breeding, are based on natural reproductive
than if these antibiotics were used only to treat animals mechanisms. These traditional methods will cross only
diagnosed with disease. This has created super-bugs one kind of plant or animal with a similar species. Fruits
and super infections in human and animals. and vegetables grown organically show significantly
Multinational corporations use genetic engineering to higher levels of cancer-fighting antioxidants than
monopolize the seed supply and raise the cost of modernly grown foods. Consumer interest in organic
farming so that the western global agricultural industry foods, produced without the use of pesticides, chemicals
can consolidate its control worldwide. Traditional or genetic engineering, has ballooned in recent years due
farmers support billions of people on the planet by to increasing concerns about health and food safety.
saving seeds from crops and replanting these seeds the Researchers are beginning to appreciate that many
following year. Most farmers cannot afford to buy new traditional farmers in the developing world are still
seeds every year, so collecting and replanting seeds is a practicing farming methods that are in balance with the
crucial part of the agricultural cycle. Food has been surrounding ecosystems, stable, sustainable and highly
grown successfully this way for thousands of years. efficient. Portrayed as ignorant and not adaptive,
The existence of genetically engineered crops goes traditional farmers have actually been utilizing very
against all the natural laws of nature, producing toxic sophisticated methods of agricultural production for
reactions as well as food allergies. The safety of their centuries. These farming systems can perhaps help the
long-term use is not established. Many research studies developed world to grow food with fewer chemical
show that genetically engineered plants can harm inputs, slow erosion, control pests, decrease our
wildlife and sensitive ecological systems, which Afrika dependence on fossil fuels and feed an expanding global
must guard against. population.
Genetically modified material contaminates more than The challenge for the future is how to increase yields in
two-thirds of conventional crops in the United States, traditional systems while retaining a certain measure of
dooming organic agriculture and posing a severe future their integrity, in other words, to finds methods of
risk to health. Because of the contamination, farmers sustainable intensification. Conversely, we need to
unknowingly plant billions of GM seeds a year, integrate biological diversity into existing modern
spreading genetic modification throughout North commercial agricultural systems in developed countries.
American agriculture. This will become even more of a There is evidence that the adoption of traditional
danger to health with the next generation of GM crops, conservation methods on large commercial farms can
bred to produce pharmaceuticals and industrial promote biological diversity (*FAO, 1996). Techniques
chemicals. Trade in genetically engineered food, crops such as crop rotation, intercropping, cover crops,
and microorganisms is dominated by a handful of integrated pest management, and green manures can be
multinational corporations, the same corporations adapted for use in larger commercial systems. These
involved in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, practices can reduce dependence on fertilizers and
nutraceuticals, pesticides, herbicides and other pesticides and promote sustainable intensification. An
chemicals. integration of farming systems, combining the
productivity of modern systems and the sustainability of
Today, most commercial farms are depleted of traditional systems, could help to preserve biological
nutrients and natural soil organisms. Due to the diversity and feed a growing population without
convenience of synthetic fertilizers, herbicides, and excessive damage to the environment.
pesticides, farmers no longer need to rotate their crops,
which now grow faster and are accompanied by greater
Continued on page 37
-27- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
for enhancing Research and Development in traditional
Traditional Medicine Playing medicine.
Important Role - Nduhura The Ministry of Health pledges its total support to all
The Republic of Uganda Scientists and Natural Chemotherapeutics Research
Laboratory in particular for their effort in Research and
Daily Monitor Development of traditional medicine. A number of
November 6, 2007 herbal formulations are being standardized to ensure
Uganda joins other African countries to commemorate that they are safe and efficacious. The Natural
the 5th African Traditional Medicine ay. The theme for Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory has managed
this year is ‘Research & Development of Traditional to identify the research priorities in traditional medicine
Medicine in WHO African Region’. which is inline with Health Sector Strategic Plan.
In Uganda and the rest of Africa, traditional medicine As we commemorate this day therefore I call upon all
continues to play a very important role in health care scientists to embrace Research and Development of
delivery for primary health care. A large number of the traditional medicine. This will add value to our natural
population in Uganda tends to rely on traditional products and herbal medicines for fulfilling the
medicine and this has resulted in the tremendous rise in growing needs in quality and safety in natural products.
number of people using traditional medicine country- We also need to ensure that our natural resources are
wide. conserved as we develop traditional medicine.
Therefore, pharmaceutical companies, traditional health The World Health Organization (WHO) observes this
practitioners, conventional health practitioners have a lot day on every 31 of August. However, in Uganda, this
to benefit in traditional medicine (herbal medicine) if day for this year will be observed in November 2007.
Research and Development is embraced. This is an area I wish all Ugandans joyous celebration of the 5th
Uganda has a competitive advantage. The government of African Traditional Medicine Day.
Uganda is encouraging investment in this sector in order
to create employment for scientific innovators. FOR GOD AND MY COUNTRY
The role of research and development in traditional Minister of State for Health General Duties,
medicine in Uganda is very important. There is great Honorable Richard Nduhura
need for scientists and researchers to carry out
comprehensive research and development of traditional
medicine to ensure that validated and standardized
Enhancing Research in the
products are used in health delivery systems. Most of our WHO African Region
herbal formulations are not standardized to meet the
minimum national requirement for registration with Research and Development of Traditional
National Drug Authority. Medicine in the WHO African Region
Public and private collaboration is crucial in the Daily Monitor
development of traditional medicine in Uganda. The November 6, 2007
Government of Uganda has come out strongly to support
In Africa, close to 80% of the population continue to
science based courses at the universities and science
rely on traditional medicine for health delivery. In most
based researches. The millennium science initiative under
cases traditional medicines has been found within
Uganda National Science Council for Science and
reach, easy access and with minimal side effects.
Technology is one among the many examples of
However this is not to say it’s free from unwanted side
Government initiatives to support research and
effects. Lack of proper standards for herbal medicines
development. This is an opportunity for all the
has affected its integration into the National health care
stakeholders in traditional medicine to encourage our
delivery systems for African countries including
young scientists to get involved in research and
Uganda. The Natural Chemotherapeutics Research
Laboratory (NCRL) is faced with challenges of
The Ministry of Health public private partnership policy evaluating large numbers of herbal medicines locally
for Health is intended to streamline research and used in order to justify their therapeutic claims as well
development of traditional medicine. The National policy as demonstrate their clinical efficacy.
on Traditional and Complimentary Medicine (TCM) is
While herbal medicine is useful, it poses lots of chal-
due to be tabled to cabinet. This Policy forms background Continued on page 29
-28- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 28 – Enhancing Research in the WHO and 26th July 2007 was a great land mark in the history
Africa Region of NAPRECA, Uganda.
lenges for example, safety and efficacy before it can The NCRL was privileged to be treated to a pre-
sustainably be integrated into the health care delivery symposium activity that revived research and
systems. This is the reason the World Health development in the light of hinging on
Organisation (WHO) has strongly come out to support a ethnopharmacology and the need to be proactive to
number of countries with Research and Development environmental issues. All these are to ensure a
guidelines in traditional medicine. successful future in research and development in
There is also added financial support from WHO for natural products.
institutions to develop policies on traditional medicine Through the above theme, NCRL will strengthen
and clinically validate herbal therapies. Research and Development of herbal medicines in the
Despite the challenges, NCRL has been at the forefront of country though wider institutional collaborations with
Research and Development of herbal medicine in other institutions e.g., Uganda Industrial Research
Uganda. A number of herbal formulations are being Institute, National Drug Authority, Uganda National
standardized to ensure that they are safe and efficacious Council for Science and Technology, Uganda National
and thereafter be considered for registration with Bureau of Standards, Uganda Export Promotion Board,
National Drug Authority (NDA). Uganda Investment Authority and a number of
academic Research Institutions.
The Network on Medicinal Plants and Traditional
Medicine Project with a Secretariat at NCRL, supported Currently with collaboration with National Drug
by International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Authority, some of the herbal formulae are to be
Ottawa, Canada has also assessed current research registered and these products will be able to be sold in
activities on medicinal plants and traditional medicine in pharmacies and drug shops around the country. In
E. Africa, identified the research priorities in medicinal addition, a number of private investors have started to
plants and traditional medicine, enhanced research invest in herbal pharmaceutical processing of local
capacities and harmonized research approaches and herbal products which range from decoction, infusions,
methodologies for sustainable management of medicinal syrups , cosmetics and many others,
plants. The project has promoted collaborative research The former National Enterprise Corporation now NEC-
projects in medicinal plants and traditional medicine Healthworld Ltd is due to commence manufacture of
within the E. African countries and strengthened the some of the herbal products in Uganda.
capacity of traditional health practitioners in Research
and Development in traditional medicine. Many local and international private investors have
contacted NCRL and Ministry of Health to discuss
A meeting on the institutionalization of the Network issues of partnership in research and development of
within the Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) of herbal medicine. These among other include Republic
the East Africa Community was held in Kampala in of North Korea, China, Egypt, Iran and countries within
September 2007. It was attended by representatives from the East African region.
the LBVC, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
The Government is currently in the final stages of
It was recommended that the Network evolves into a developing the National Policy on Traditional and
partnership in order to carry out activities identified in the Complimentary Medicine (TCM) and soon to discuss
strategic framework of Network of Medicinal Plants and the traditional medicine practice Bill as developed by
Traditional Medicine (EA). The LVBC is ready to Law Reform Commission in 2002 that will regulate
embrace the Network if it evolved into a partnership and practice of traditional medicine and bring it to national
this will also bring in Rwanda and Burundi as they are and internationally acceptable standards. The policy
now members of the East African Community. The and bill are waiting input from stakeholders before the
recently conclude Natural Product Research in East and bill is tabled to cabinet. The Ministry of Health through
Central Africa (NAPRECA) Conference threw light on support from World Health Organization and
recent advancement in Natural Product Research and collaboration with stakeholders is also developing code
Development. This conference was able to revive hope of ethics for the tradition healing practice. The TCM
about the possible cures of the forgotten or neglected Policy, Traditional Medicine Practice Bill and Code of
tropical diseases for example, trypanosomiasis, Ethics for Traditional Medicine will stream-line
onchorcirciasis, etc from our biodiversity. The meeting of Research and Development in Traditional medicine.
great renowned scientists in such a high profile
Continued on page 30
conference hosted by Makerere University between 22nd
-29- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from age 29 – Enhancing Research in the WHO Wasswa is a traditional herbalist.
In Uganda, herbalists are frequently confused with
As a constituent sector of the proposed Uganda National traditional healers commonly known as witchdoctors.
Health Research Organization (UNHRO), NCRL is to Herbalists are often criticized because of the negativity
become a Research Institute for Traditional and the latter portray. They on the other hand insist that their
Complimentary Medicine (RITCOM). It will therefore approach to disease treatment is scientific with no
have a wider mandate to encompass; agronomy, product mystical power to their medicine.
development, legal and social aspects as a holistic
approach to research and development in traditional According to Mr Elijah Ntege, they like in modern
medicine and healing practices. science, have laboratories where they carry out tests to
ascertain the nutrient content of leaves, animal bones,
With this year’s theme for the 5th ATM celebrations, ash, soil and their curative powers in relation to the
stakeholders in traditional medicine will be able to do disease.
research and development in traditional medicine by;
Traditional medicine is at the core of the matter. In many
• Adding value to natural products (herbal places in the country are structures with posts reading
medicines) as well as promote investment in this Herbal Research Clinic. These have been on the rise
sector thus support the Poverty Eradication lately; you are often lost for choice in places like Katwe
Action Plan (PEAP) and Plan for Modernization where every shop has this label.
of agriculture (PMA) policies
And like it is said, necessity is the mother of invention;
• Improving conservation of natural resources for the initiator of al this research seems to have been the
their sustainable utilization. HIV/Aids epidemic in the early 90s.
• Improving livelihood of the poor people by Dr. Abubakar Rasid Lukwago of the Dr. Yakubu
ensuring that they are healthy. Lukwago Herbal Research clinic in Kasubi says that his
late father, Dr Rashid Lukwago who focused on HIV
• Strengthen the capacity of individuals and local
treatment, founded the clinic in 1990 on William Street.
enterprises in research and development in her
medicines. “It begun in 1990 with the onset of the HIV epidemic,”
he explains, adding that “our father was mainly handling
• Ensuring that herbal medicines are standardized people living with the virus mainly.”
to meet the minimum requirement for
registration and acceptability in the National These doctors are true medical personnel as per the
health care delivery system. public eye. They wear white clinical coats, examine
patients, and prescribe doses; the clinics are jammed with
Natural Chemotherapeutic Research Laboratory is very patients seeking healing for their ailments. They are even
grateful to WHO, IDRC and other donor partners for the referred to as “doctor”; you do not have to swear by the
financial support to te government of Uganda for Resarch ‘Hippocratic oath’ after all to earn the title.
and development of traditional medicine in Uganda.
Nonetheless, what is traditional medicine all about and
Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory would why is the herbal research sector suddenly mushrooming?
like to wish everybody a successful celebration to mark
the 5th African Traditional Medicine Day. Based on Research
☻☻☻☻☻☻ Dr Yakubu Lukwago explains that theirs is treatment and
research that has grown over the years. “We have moved
More Herbal Medicines Flood on from HIV/Aids treatment we can now handle all
disease apart from cancer and sickle cells where we can
the Ugandan Market only offer tranquilizers since these have no cure.”
Stella Nakakande “We even check for UTI, which is by far the commonest
Daily Monitor infection in women,” he as.
March 22, 2008 When it comes to HIV, Dr. Lukwago says, they have the
Armed with the art of psychology, witchdoctors devised right medicine to boost the immunity and get rid of
ways to ensure that the secret of their non-possession of unwanted symptoms like lip ulcers commonly called “red
supernatural powers would be known only to a few lips”, loss of appetite, chronic diarrhoea, Herpes Zoster
trusted practitioners,” writes Br. Anatoli Wasswa of the (kisippi) and cough among others. For the lip ulcers and
Continued on page 31
Banakaloli Brothers in his book Unveiling Witchcraft. Br.
-30- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 30 – More Herbal Medicines Flood the
Ugandan Market Have You Tried Something
Herpes Zoster, the clinic has a powder and medicated Herbal?
Vaseline applied on the infected area.
“It takes five to seven days for these to disappear,” he
July 12, 2008
“They even have antibiotics for cough infection as a
More people are turning their attention to alternative
result of Tuberculosis.
medicine, herbal or natural beauty products,
The authenticity of all this of course can only be proved supplements, and home remedies because they have
by the user although one wonders why these medicines been discovered to be an effective means of curbing
have no names. In Kamengo Herbal Research Clinic in ailments and barely have side effects.
Katwe, every bottle has a label of the diseases treated
When it comes to beauty solutions, herbal alternatives
apart from that containing medicine for HIV/Aids. The
are made from natural products. These products are
attendant knows it by the liquid’s colour perhaps and its
always less or unprocessed hence making them suitable
positioning on the shelves. Like ARVs, one should never
for all skin types. For ages, our great grandparents lived
run out of stock of this, the doctors tell me.
on such products and they were healthy and looked
Mysterious good like the Egyptians for instance and used herbs like
They are also hesitant to reveal the contents of their fenugreek and roses to prevent wrinkles.
medicine. “We mix a couple of things,” they say. For
Then processed cosmetics became popular only for
each disease, there is a complex set of ingredients. The
table to turn again to herbal solutions hence the boom
contents are given names like “red liquid” or “black
of both international and local industries manufacturing
powder”. The source of these is also mysterious.
herbal jellies like Samona and Movit herbal jellies,
“We get trees from Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Somalia, soaps creams, massage and aromatherapy oils, beauty
Tanzania and so many other countries,” Dr. Lukwago spas, reflexology, bath gels, moisturizers and herbal
says when asked to explain their origin and names. “We powder containing natural combination of neem tree,
name the species ourselves so they have no definite basil flowers, aloe Vera, oregano, lavender and other
naming.” naturals. Studies have found that aloe Vera which is a
To an onlooker, it is as if they are reluctant to reveal their popular ingredient in herbal products has antimicrobial,
“magic mixtures”; they want to stay around much longer anti-inflammatory, an immune-stimulating actions as
and no kind of coercion is enough to make them name well as large quantities of vitamins E and C, zinc, and
these species. amino acids.
Thus the healing properties of this traditional plant
They will only restrict themselves to the ingredients have finally been isolated. Dr Liu Zheng of Natural
noting that the main composition of red liquid is Chinese Herbal and Acupuncture Clinic Kira road says
magnesium, zinc and potassium required to boost one’s that herbal products are also cost friendly and don’t
immunity. The explanation ends there. have animal products hence causing less or no
More interestingly, these herbalists have scientific labs irritations to the skin.
not only for research but also for analysis of one’s health. Herbal beauty products also come with advantages like
They, like with modern medicine, diagnose and check for being easy to prepare, are readily available even in your
the disease, before any prescription is made. home compounds. They have no known side effects
Prices range from Shs4,000 to Shs70,000 for the CD4 and (with some exception) are absolutely safe even for
count performed for people living with HIV. They also prolonged use, and they can bring long lasting results
have pregnancy tests. and even complete healing according to
www.theherbalbeauty.com. The biggest known
Interestingly though, only one of these herbalists, Elijah disadvantage is that some treatments may take months,
Ntege of the Babakaloli Brothers said they do not offer even years, depending on the problem, for complete
HIV/Aids treatment. “What should we treat in HIV?’ he healing. However, the first results usually show after
wondered. 10-14 days, which gives sufferers a reason to continue
Well, that begs the question, what do others treat? with the treatment.
-31- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
This growth has been mainly attributed to good policies
Ugandans Now Live Up to 50 and governance, which the report says “matter a great
Years – Report deal.”
Peter Nyanzi Ms Obiageli Ezekwesili, the World Bank Vice
President for Africa Region said over the past 10 years
Daily Monitor Africa has recorded an average growth rate of 5.4 per
November 20, 2007 cent “which is at par with the rest of the world” but that
Uganda is one of only two countries that have made the the ability to support, sustain and diversify the sources
greatest gains in improving life expectancy in the last 10 of these growth indicators “would be critical not only to
years, a new World Bank report has shown. Africa’s capacity to meet the MDGs but also to
becoming an exciting investment destination for global
According to the African Development Indicators (ADI) capital.”
2007 that was released last week, the life expectancy of
Ugandans has now climbed by seven years to 50, up from The report says Africa now enjoys better growth
just 43 in 200l. prospects because the leaders have under taken major
reforms over the past decade. But it decries the
With Tanzania behind at 46.3 and Kenya at 49.0, Uganda negligible role the private sector has played in
is now the only country above the 50 mark in the Great improving the living conditions of the citizen.
Lakes region and therefore the best country for those who
want to live a bit longer. It says accelerating and sustaining growth requires
improving Africa’s investment climate, spurring
Ugandan mothers also have a better chance to survive innovation, and building institutional capacity to
during pregnancy with a maternal mortality ratio of govern well.
880:100,000 live births compared to Tanzania’s ☻☻☻☻☻☻
1,500:100,000 and Kenya’s 1,000:100,000.
Continued from page 21 - Scientists Map
But the situation is not as good for children under-five Genomes of Malaria Parasites
with a mortality rate of 136:1,000 live births compared to
Kenya’s 120:1,000 and Tanzania’s 122:1,000. Some of its genes closely resemble a human gene
involved in regulation of the immune system.
Generally, the report says because of HIV/Aids, TB,
malaria, and other diseases, improvements in life The World Health Organization said malaria killed
expectancy have stalled in some countries and retreated 881,000 people and infected 247 million people
in a few others. worldwide in 2006, the latest year for which figures
were available. Some malaria experts say those
Uganda is also largely lagging behind in adult literacy numbers underestimate the problem.
rates with only 57 per cent of females able to read and
write compared to Tanzania’s 62.2 per cent and Kenya’s Most deaths occur in Africa and are caused by the
70 per cent. Plasmodium falciparum parasite, whose genome was
mapped in 2002.
The report says poor health and poor schooling hold back
improvements in people’s productivity and the chances of The researchers found the vivax genome was similar in
meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). many ways to the falciparum parasite, meaning that
certain vaccine approaches being tried against the
Malaria is still a big concern in the region with African parasite may be worth trying against this one.
152/100,000 Ugandans dying of the disease compared to
Kenya’s 63/100,000 and Tanzania’s 130/100,000 people. "During the course of evolution, malaria parasites have
devised different tricks to avoid being detected and
But the report is generally positive about growth dampen the host immune responses," Pain said by e-
prospects for Africa where about 41 per cent of the mail.
people still live on less than $1 (Shs1,700) a day. On the
continent, Uganda is listed as second among the countries "Thus, it has been rather difficult to find a single
with the largest proportion of people living in the rural parasite protein that could be used as an effective
areas (87.4 per cent) next to Burundi (90 per cent). vaccine candidate which would provide effective and
long-term protection against all parasite strains
The report says after years of stop-and-start results, many circulating within a given population at a given time,"
African economies “appear to be growing at the fast and he said.
steady rates needed to put a dent in the region’s high URL: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27088500/
poverty rate and attract global investment.” ☻☻☻☻☻☻
-32- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
African Traditional Herbal Research Clinic
Volume 3, Issue 9 NEWSLETTER October 2008
Unified Field Theory of Disease and Nutritional Causation or
Professor Charles Ssali
Mariandina Nutritional Health Products
Disease is any type of disorder or body function which develops. When these nutrients are supplied to the
is a result of: person with diabetes, the situation improves rapidly
back to normal.
1. Bacterial, viral, fungal infection.
All body cells develop from what are called stem cells
2. Degenerative change in cells.
in the embryonic stage. A stem cell requires proper
3. Congenital and Hereditary. nutrition as found in vegetable foods in their original
All can be traced back to some nutritional deficit. All unprocessed state in order to develop with the adult
diseases would be eliminated from man if the victim specialised cells as you find in various body organs like
were to be fed on a properly balanced diet right from the brain, liver, glands, skin, muscle, bones, intestinal
the moment of conception. The development of a and respiratory tracts. The lack of liberal supplies of
fertilised egg into a fetus depends on the availability of these nutrients we find in fruits and vegetables creates a
nutrients to power and nourish the developing fetus. deficiency in the availability of vitamins like A, B, C
etc, minerals like iron, zinc, selenium etc, besides plant
These nutrients act as free radical scavengers to protect hormones, enzymes and chlorophyll all of which play
the body cells from the harmful effects of free radicals an important role in the proper development and
that come out of body metabolism. The free radicals are specialisation of body cells. Examples of congenital
capable of disrupting fetal development. The invasion defects that can be traced back to nutrition include,
of body tissues by bacteria, viruses and fungus is heart defects, spina bifida, missing limbs,
dependent on the absence of enough nutrients to hydrocephalus and many others. A liberal supply of
strengthen the immune system, which mops up the vitamins and minerals are vital in this respect.
organisms. The free radicals are the ones which Infections of the mother during pregnancy include
promote the reproduction of all the invading organisms viruses like rubella which only occur where antiviral
and in turn the organisms promote the production of nutrients like vitamin A, C and E are in short supply.
free radicals. The virus disrupts the proper cell divisions required to
It is obvious that even congenital or developmental complete some body organs like the heart etc.
abnormalities can be traced back to nutrition. Nutrition The immune system which protects us from all
may be affected by the use of toxic substances or drugs infections depends on nutrition to produce antibodies
that affect cell division leading to abnormalities and and the necessary defence cells like macrophages and
congenital defects. One such chemical is thalidomide lymphocytes. Any deficiency in the necessary nutrients
and the virus called rubella. All these lead to birth results in weakening of the immune system which is
degenerative diseases like diabetes, asthma, followed by an invasion of the body of bacteria viruses,
vascular/heart diseases are all traceable to some fungus and even degeneration of body cells. Nutrients
nutritional deficit, which causes the cell death in the help the body to clean itself by mopping up free
organs concerned. The pancreas loses the ability to radicals that we produce during cellular metabolism.
secrete insulin as a result of the degeneration of the These free radicals include hydrogen peroxide, which
cells in the islets of langerhans. These specialist cells attacks cell structures if left in position for too long. It
die as a result of a nutrition lacking in vitamins and can attack vital structures like the cell membrane, the
minerals. Taking white sugar from which molasses nucleus and mitochondria. The damage they inflict on
containing vitamins and minerals are removed during the cells is what can cause conditions like diabetes
processing leads to one such ways by which diabetes Continued on page 34
-33- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 33– Unified Theory of Disease… the increased need for detoxification. This is the reason
when insulin secreting cells (islets of langerhans ) die in why those who indulge in such practices develop cancer
increasing numbers till it results in insulin deficiency of the breast, lungs, uterus and prostate. Others develop
called diabetes. When nutrients are replenished, the cells diabetes, Asthma and blood pressure because of the
regenerate and diabetes can be cured. The same occurs in nutritional deficit created by the increase in the demand
other body cells where cancer occurs because of the for nutrients for the detoxification of free radicals.
destruction of mitochondria making metabolism using
A disease state like AIDS is a complex manifestation of
oxidation of glucose impossible for lack of the necessary
nutritional deficiencies that include vitamins, minerals,
enzymes in the mitochondria (KREB’S cycle) which
plant hormones, amino acids and enzymes. The body
power the process. This leads the cells to generate heat
needs plant ingredients found in leafy vegetables e.g.
energy using fermentation processes and the production
chlorophyll, lecithin and many others. The HIV invades
of lactic acid. This is the way cancer occurs in body
the body by penetrating its cells which are deficient in
tissues like in the breasts, uterus, lungs, glands and other
nutrients and abounding in free radicals. This window of
opportunity occurs in all people who indulge in junk
The cure for cancer must therefore address this anomaly foods, drug abuse, over use of antibiotics, fizzy drinks
by reconstructing the damaged cell structures and with artificial sweeteners. These factors depress the
restoring normal body metabolism. Powerful immune system allowing the virus to successfully
antioxidants, which act as free radical scavengers in the establish itself in the body. If the free radicals are
affected parts of the body help the tissues to detoxify regularly mopped up using the free radical scavengers
itself and prevent further cell, damage from free radicals. called antioxidants as found in fresh fruit and vegetables,
The oxygen that is released by hydrogen peroxide can then the virus and cancer cells are eliminated by the
attack cell structures and cause the equivalent of iron rust power of the immune system.
in the body. In situations like these, one requires to drink
During sexual union the male partner ejaculates about 2
a lot of water in order to enable the kidneys to excrete
mls of semen which carry the male spermatozoa. This
those impurities from the blood circulation where they
semen also carries with it nutrients to be used by the
may continue causing traumatic effects on tissues. Water
is an essential part of our nutritional requirements. If the sperm and the early embryo. To collect these nutrients in
body is denied water supply, it deteriorates rapidly the semen, one pint of the male partner’s blood is
stripped of all these elements which include vitamins,
because of dehydration and accumulation of toxic
minerals, enzymes, hormones etc, etc. Repeated
impurities. These impurities which accumulate in tissues
ejaculations can deplete the male partner’s blood of
cause body damage by depleting the supplies of nutrients
from the food taken in daily. The ageing process is essential elements required by his immune system. The
perpetuated by this growing nutritional deficit. As we result of such a situation is to make him vulnerable to
infections like viruses and STDs including HIV. This is
grow we cut down on our intake of the essential nutrients
the reason why promiscuous males may easily develop
of vitamins and minerals. The sum total of the nutritional
AIDS which means Acquired Immune Deficiency
deficiency and chronic dehydration is the progressive
Syndrome. Semen is rich in zinc and selenium both of
ageing process we observe in everyday life. In such a
situation the body cells fail to reproduce themselves as which are very important for strengthening immunity by
providing it with specialised cells called T helper
they should by replacing themselves with identical
lymphocytes. These T helper lymphocytes go through the
copies. This is why the hair begins to lose pigmentation
thymus gland which prepares them for the battlefield
and becomes gray and the skin loses its elasticity,
capability against virus invaders. The thymus gland
eventually becoming rough and wrinkled. This is the
reason why cancer incidence increases with age or requires a lot of zinc to do the job. Selenium is needed to
make the body’s antioxidant called glutathione
pollution in the internal and external environment. If we
peroxidase. This natural antioxidant is very important in
look after ourselves properly by taking a well balanced
clearing out hydrogen peroxide from the body cells. A
diet consisting of unprocessed fresh vegetables and fruits,
diet rich in these nutrients will play an important role in
then drink the required amounts of water, then we would
be able to maintain our health status close to ideal for protecting us against all infections and cancer. The
prostrate gland in the male is the equivalent of the uterus
in the female. Both these organs are prone to developing
Medicinal herbs are no more than foods with the required cancer if nutrition is deficient in these essential elements
nutrients to correct the cellular nutritional deficiency that among others.
led to the diseased state. The use of Contraceptive pills,
On the other hand, female partners stand to gain nutrients
over use of antibiotics and smoking are some of the forms
Continued on page 35
of drug abuse which drain heavily on nutrients because of
-34- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 34 – Unified Theory of Disease…… which contain the necessary ingredients to do the job.
which are drained out of the male partner’s blood. Most This has been achieved in cases of breast cancer, cancer
of the semen’s essential ingredients are absorbed into the of uterus, melanoma and other cancers.
female circulation through the birth canal. This provides Hormone dependent disorders like diabetes, thyroid gland
her with the elements mentioned above for added dysfunction, menopause, libido and many others can be
protection against nutritional deficiency diseases that eliminated by providing these necessary nutrients by
come as a result of a weakened immune system. This using diet and where required, food supplements.
explanation could account for the survival phenomenon Menopause and loss of virility comes because of the
observed among professional female sex workers in progressive reduction in our food intake as we grow
Kenya and Uganda. These prostitutes have been found to older. As a result of eating processed foods like white
survive HIV infection despite their risk factors. It has also sugar, white flour and processed grain where the nutrients
been observed that these sex workers begin to succumb to are removed and fed to lower animals, we develop
HIV/AIDS when they retire from their profession. This deficiency diseases like diabetes, scurvy, eczema, lupus
would eliminate the original theory that they have a and asthma. These come about because our body’s
special genetic make up that protects them against HIV. I immune systems have been programmed wrongly
am of the opinion that it is the constant liberal supply of because of introducing adverse antigens into the body
essential nutrients that boosts their immunity to the through vaccinations and inoculations. All these
optimum levels capable to resisting STDs. immunity or autoimmune disorders could be corrected by
Herpes Zoster which is a result of chickenpox virus providing the body with the nutrients the body needs to
manifesting itself as blisters on the skin is another reprogramme the immunity. By providing these
example of the power of the immune system. This virus supplements we have been successful in eliminating all
only surfaces when the body is malnourished and symptoms and signs of lupus, asthma, eczema, thyroid
immune deficient. The development of cancer cells starts gland problems and so on.
when the natural killer cells that hunt and destroy them Stroke which is a result of the blocking of blood clotting
are weakened by poor nutrition. This poor nutrition may could be eliminated. The underlying disorder is in the
be a result of ingesting overwhelming amounts of toxic metabolism of cholesterol leading to partial or complete
substances that require large amounts of nutrients to blockage of a blood vessel. Where there is a blood clot or
excrete through the kidneys. If such nutrients are not a ruptured blood vessel and bleeding, you find an
available then the immune system is weakened and the accumulation of free radicals, white blood cells in the
natural killer cells fail to cope with the cancer cell clot. This pathology needs nutrients to put it right. The
development in the tissues. This if kept up for long cholesterol needs nutrients to facilitate its breakdown into
enough, then the particular site develops cancer. These energy. The blood clot and the repair of the damaged
toxic substances like aspartame (Nutrasweet), contracep- blood vessel will be completed by the white blood cells.
tive pills, radioactive materials, alcohol, hydrocarbons, We have seen this happen in many cases of stroke where
asbestos etc, etc. These elements cause the production of paralysis disappeared within weeks or months when the
free radicals to rise and stagnate in tissues. This necessary nutrients were provided to the patient. Brain
stagnation leads to the damage of cell wall, DNA cross and nerve disorders may develop because of using too
links and mitochondria structural damage. This DNA much alcohol or a diet deficient in vitamins and minerals.
damage leads to genetic mutation and cancer changes. Even psychiatric disorders are a result of the body’s
The damage to mitochondria structure leads to the failure failure to make the right nerve transmitters for lack of the
of the cell to metabolise glucose using oxygen. As a proper nutrients. Where these mental problems existed,
result of this failure, the cell turns to fermentation to we provided the patients with nutritional supplements and
produce heat energy with the production of a toxic lactic an improved diet. The result was an improvement or
acid. This is what cancer cells do. They multiply recovery from the dementia of a psychiatric problem.
uncontrollably and destroy normal tissues in the
As a result of the above observations as summarised, the
neighbourhood. Some of these uncontrollable cells break
following conclusion was inevitable. The Unified Field
off and carry their characteristics to other parts of the
Theory of Disease and Nutrition (establishes) postulates
body as metastasis that spread destruction and death. This
that all disease states have their origin in some form of
process can be halted by providing the tissues with the
malnutrition at one stage or another. Even those arising
required nutrients to repair the cellular damage in DNA
from genetic defects could be attributed to the influence
and mitochondria. These nutrients must also strengthen
of a mutation that occurred because of a nutritional defect
the immune cells to be capable of destroying the cancer
in the diet of the individual or alternatively the mutation
cells. This is possible through the use of herbal nutrients
Continued on page 36
-35- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 35– Unified Theory of Disease… lighting these concerns is in the process of being written
persisted because of lack of proper nutrition. All disease and will be published on the scoop.co.nz website, but it
states whether they are congenital, infective, and isn’t enough. I am hoping that as a prominent African in
degenerative have a nutritional factor in their causation, NZ you can help bring to light these terrible injustices.
promotion or elimination. We have been working with 2 excellent human rights
http://www.blackherbals.com/mariandian_nutritional_health_pr lawyers on one individual case, and the lawyers would be
oducts.htm happy to instigate a class-action lawsuit on behalf of all
☻☻☻☻☻☻ Black Africans who may have been harmed, or whose
rights have been infringed by the racist medical system in
Continued from page 24– To All African People New Zealand.
Living in New Zealand
6 months, how can it be that clean-living, monogamous
Africans in New Zealand are more likely to have HIV Felix Mwashomah & Cathy van Miert
disease? There is something very wrong with this picture. Tel: 09-5277257, or 09-5261954.
Black Africans are much more likely to have a false ☻☻☻☻☻☻
positive test result due to exposure to TB, malaria,
leprosy, and inherited blood disorders like sickle cell Africa: Researchers Record
anaemia, malnutrition and many other factors. MOH 'Major Breakthrough' Against
statistics also demonstrate that over 300 Black Africans
in New Zealand at this time have HIV disease. Many if Malaria
not most of these likely represent false positives, but
people are instructed to take anti-HIV medicines that are
Abimbola Akosile With Agency Report
extremely harmful (and more so to Black people). In the Lagos
case of Black African children, the parents are being
ordered by the courts to give their children the anti-HIV This Day (Lagos)
medicine. 15 July 2008
Almost every person taking these drugs experiences Australian scientists yesterday identified a potential
severe and life-threatening side effects. Most adults treatment to combat malaria, a global scourge, which kills
decide the treatment is worse than the disease and stop about 300,000 Nigerians, mostly children below five
taking the drugs. Black African children do not have this years, annually.
right according to the doctors. Doctors are lying to the
courts by stating that HIV-infected Africans pose a risk to According to a report on the British Broadcasting
the wider community if they refuse anti-HIV drugs; even Corporation (BBC) website, researchers in Melbourne
the manufacturers drug prescribing sheets state that believe their discovery could be a major breakthrough in
taking the drugs does not prevent transmission to others. the fight against the disease; where the malaria parasite
produces a glue-like substance which makes the cells it
In any event, HIV appears to have extremely low trans- infects sticky, so they cannot be flushed through the
missibility; a study in the US followed hundreds of body.
couples where one partner was positive and the other
negative for 10 years. Twenty five percent of the couples The researchers, according to the report, have shown how
did not use condoms regularly, and 47 couples reported removing a protein responsible for the glue can destroy
having unsafe sex, but not one single negative person its stickiness, and undermine the parasite's defence.
became positive. It is certain that many Africans have The malaria parasite, named Plasmodium falciparum,
died from taking the anti-HIV drugs. More than 20% of effectively hijacks the red blood cells it invades,
Black Americans have a genetic difference in the way changing their shape and physical properties
their body processes the drugs, which can result in blood dramatically.
drug levels three times higher than they should be – a
potentially lethal dose. In Black Africans this genetic Among the changes it triggers is the production of the
difference is likely to be higher than 20%. When the glue-like substance, which enables the infected cells to
African person dies from these drugs, the doctors write stick to the walls of the blood vessels. This stops them
“AIDS” on the death certificate. being passed through the spleen, where the parasites
would usually be destroyed by the immune system.
We feel these issues need to be raised publicly; Black
Continued on page 42
Africans have a right to know these facts. An article high-
-36- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 27 – The Afrikan Traditional Herbal stimulate new ties with business and avoid damage
Research Centre to the environment
Food Science • Coordinate food and agricultural programs with
The food production and delivery chain is a complex actions to combat poverty, and;
intersection of several sectors of the economy. The
farmer produces raw agricultural commodities. The • Increase food production for intra and inter-
commodities are purchased by food processors that in continental trade with other Afrikans/Blacks
turn sell or distribute the product to wholesalers. The throughout the Continent and the Diaspora.
wholesalers market the products to retailers who sell In Uganda, for example, the use of natural spices and
the raw or modified agricultural products to consumers. preservatives such as bird peppers, pimento, cloves,
Throughout this chain there are opportunities for and cinnamon was discouraged by colonial powers and
product loss through spoilage and spillage. the medical community. African bird pepper is one
Obviously post-harvest losses can be reduced if there is such spice that grows wild all over Uganda and is
a value-added post-harvest system in the country that extremely beneficial to health. For 10,000 years, the
properly stabilizes food for the food delivery system. chili pepper has been used as a natural preservative and
Such a value-added sector is dependent on several for such physical ailments as poor circulation,
factors including a dependable supply of indigenous regulating blood pressure, digestion, and respiratory
raw agricultural commodities, an economy that problems. In Jamaica, bird pepper was used by the
supports investment in hardware and industry, a Maroons (Africans), to naturally preserve meat and
regulatory system that fosters a fair and competitive food. Obtaining informational access to Western
market structure, and a well-trained, educated work research libraries and computer databases could go far
force. It is this last item, a well-trained and educated in providing much needed information on such topics
work force that is addressed in this proposal. not readily available on the Afrikan continent.
Uganda represents a large area, capable of producing a Afrikan Traditional Medicine (ATM)
wide variety of agricultural commodities. The majority In all countries of the world, there exists traditional
of the current food needs are produced locally, with the knowledge related to the health of humans and animals.
remainder being imported. Much of the imported foods Presently, eighty percent of the world’s populations
are fully processed and packaged when they arrive and still depend upon traditional and indigenous knowledge
inserted immediately into the distribution and in medicine and herbal practices. In Afrika, traditional
marketing systems. One obvious mechanism to enhance healers and the herbal remedies made from plants play
the local economy is to convert raw commodities into an important role in the health of millions of people.
consumer ready products locally. The transfer of Afrika has a long and impressive list of medicinal
knowledge and technology enhances opportunities to plants based on local knowledge. Based upon holistic
process indigenous products to local tastes and principles, this science pre-dates Egyptian medical
customs, providing jobs, leading to economic stability. science and is between 20,000 and 100,000 years old.
Exporting these products also generates much-needed In fact, it is the oldest medical science on the planet.
foreign exchange and brings real development to the Afrikan health practitioners are devoted to teaching
country and the region. In this way, developing individuals how to improve their physical, mental, and
countries are able to claim a share in global markets, spiritual health through preventative lifestyles. Doctors
thereby bringing prosperity to their people. and health personnel have continued to shun traditional
medical practitioners despite their contribution to
Moreover, the benefits of knowledge and technology meeting the basic health needs of the population,
transfer with respect to traditional agriculture and food especially the rural people in developing countries.
science can help to: Developing countries have begun to realise that their
• Develop programs and policies that strengthen current health systems are dependent upon western
farmers, businesses, and markets technologies and upon western medicines that are
expensive and whose medicinal supply is toxic, erratic
• Increase rural education and training and build at best or non-existent.
The ancient Afrikans believed that a healthy immune
• Expand traditional agricultural research and system is responsible for the health and healing of the
outreach to exploit existing and new technologies, human body. From this premise, health problems occur
such as food science (processing, preservation and as the result of “something lacking” in our nutrition,
packaging), and information technologies, to Continued on page 38
-37- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 37 - The Afrikan Traditional Herbal vaccinations and pharmaceutical drugs, these diseases are
Research Centre devastating the continent's Black population. The
leaving the human body vulnerable to disease. Afrikan AIDS/Malaria genocide, taking place in Afrika, is
medicine is a nutrient based system. A diet and lifestyle painting a clear pattern of death, of cultural, economic
deficient in vital nutrients makes us susceptible to and agricultural destruction which will be followed by
opportunistic infections, and cellular disorganisation encroaching Western political, economic and military
(cancer). Western doctors believe that the body destroys control.
itself with disease and that harmful bacteria and viruses Control over the world’s natural plant resources are also
are trying to kill good bacteria and viruses. Therefore, at risk. For the very same economic reasons mentioned
they must give toxic, poisonous drugs and vaccines to above, the pharmaceutical industry has formed an
stop the body from killing itself. international cartel by the code name "Codex
The Afrikan system of health disagrees with the idea of Alimentarius" with the aim to outlaw any health
germs being the sole source of disease. Their philosophy information in connection with vitamins and to limit free
is consistent with the laws of nature, based upon an access to natural therapies on a worldwide scale. The
ancient belief in the body’s natural ability to heal itself multinational drug companies are helping to place a ban
when given the appropriate herbs, seeds, and foods. on natural herbal products as well to monopolize the
Moreover, our African biochemistry requires a type of vitamin and herbal remedies as their limitless source of
nutritional support (African Dietetics) that is not readily revenue. In fact, what is already occurring in many
available in western cultures or through western developing countries is "biopiracy", where corporations
medicine. The science of African biochemistry is based use the folk wisdom of indigenous peoples to locate and
on the biochemical molecule, melanin. The lack of understand the use of medicinal plants and then exploit
melanin-sustaining foods (which can be found in plant them commercially through patents. From such an act of
phyto-nutrients) is one of the major causes of our biopiracy, two drugs derived from the rosy periwinkle
nutritional deficiencies leading to disease. (vincristine and vinblastine), earn $100 million annually
for Eli Lilly. The plant is indigenous to the rainforest of
Currently, we are witnessing a breakdown of western Madagascar and Madagascar has received nothing in
European systems to cure diseases, derived from both return.
natural and unnatural causes. Most pharmaceutical drugs,
developed primarily to relieve symptoms, do not cure These same multinational companies have introduced
diseases. Vaccines were developed to immunize against diseases that can destroy the plants and herbs we use as
disease, but can also be use to spread disease. For natural sources of nutrients, so that we can become more
example, immunization by vaccination has been the dependent on their products. These are the same
means of spreading some of the most fatal and infectious multinational corporations that have a monopoly on the
diseases, such as leprosy, syphilis, tetanus, tuberculosis, development and production of genetically modified
smallpox and presently AIDS, polio and meningitis. organisms, pesticides and herbicides, which poison the
Economic interest is the main reason why no medical environment and produce metabolic changes in our foods
breakthroughs exist for the control or elimination of the and in our bodies.
most common diseases and why these diseases continue Biodiversity is Afrika's richest asset. Traditional know-
like epidemics on a worldwide scale. The pharmaceutical ledge on the properties of plants, seeds, algae and other
industry withholds public information about the effects biological resources is being sought by western scientists
and risks of their prescription drugs and vaccines and for medicinal, agricultural and other purposes. Trade in
life-threatening side-effects are omitted or openly denied. biological resources is big business today, but the terms
Many Blacks in the U.S., like their counterparts are tipped in favour of the multinational corporations and
throughout Africa and the Diaspora, cannot even afford are not in Afrika’s benefit, undermining the collective
pharmaceutical drugs to alleviate the symptoms of rights of communities to biodiversity. Since time
disease. immemorial, Afrikan people have depended upon free
In healthcare, intellectual property rights have increased and open access to a rich diversity of biological resources
the price of pharmaceutical drugs. Generally, the chronic for food, fuel, medicine, shelter, economic security, and
ailments and diseases that affect Afrikans in the the exchange and trade of such resources among
Diaspora, i.e. cancer, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, etc. themselves. In agriculture, the commercialisation of the
are based on improper diet and lifestyles. By design, seed market, patents on seed, and the introduction of
Afrika is plagued with natural and unnatural occurrences genetic engineering have serious implications for
of communicable, parasitic and infectious diseases, such Afrika’s farmers and food security.
as AIDS, malaria, polio, etc. With their corresponding Continued on page 39
-38- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 38 – The Afrikan Traditional Herbal foods known by the enslaved Africans in the Diaspora,
Research Centre such as in the United States, was discouraged and hence,
Much of the knowledge on Afrika’s indigenous plant most of that knowledge was lost. Many Afrikan societies
population and their curative powers are from studies throughout the Diaspora however, retained some of their
mapped and funded by western countries and stored in Afrikan traditions, such as the Jamaican Maroons.
western information depositories such as PROTA in the What we had learned from a previous trip to Uganda in
Netherlands or from the Medical Research Council in 2004 was that many Ugandans were also in danger of
South Africa. There exist over 7000 medicinal plants in losing their indigenous knowledge and the ability to heal
Tropical Africa. Although these studies are far from themselves using traditional Afrikan healing methods.
complete, 76 plants indigenous to Uganda and 208 Ugandans were told by practitioners of Western medicine
indigenous to East Afrika are listed. Information on that traditional herbal solutions do not work and is
indigenous medicinal plants in Uganda needs to be considered witchcraft. As a result, there is ample
gathered and assembled in a centralised location for use evidence that Ugandans are beginning to suffer the same
by herbalists and other medical professionals. This will fate as their brothers and sisters in the Diaspora. What is
allow local indigenous knowledge to be published and even more surprising was that many of the herbs which
protected and its plant uses, standardised. could be used to correct some of the most common
This rather long introduction, written in 2005 is the ailments of many Ugandans could be found in their own
introduction text of a proposal Blackherbals presented compounds! Meanwhile, multinational pharmaceutical
to several Ugandan government agencies and NGOs companies were and are documenting Afrikan herbs and
such as MPAMBO Multiversity, National plants with the intent of commercially developing and
Chemotherapeutics Laboratory (NCRL), National patenting expensive new drugs.
Council of Traditional Herbalists Associations As Afrikans, we should take ownership of our ancient
(NACOTHA), etc. to establish a school of African knowledge and resources and exercise our intellectual
Traditional Herbal Medicine. The aim and objectives of property rights to pass our indigenous knowledge to our
our proposal are: descendents for their descendents. The Afrikan’s
• To recapture indigenous Afrikan thought, history, knowledge of herbal medicine, both on the continent and
herbal, medicinal and agricultural traditions and all in the Diaspora, is far older, than any indigenous group
other indigenous knowledge to reeducate our on the planet. But, there are not many books for the world
people to Afrikan culture. to see on Afrikan Traditional Medicine (ATM). We
suggested that Uganda can become a world model by
• To use and integrate this knowledge with taking the initiative and developing an independent and
technology to develop our nation of people, alternative health care system based primarily but not
alleviate poverty and achieve higher levels of self- solely upon their indigenous knowledge of herbs, food
sufficiency, dignity and self-determination. and plants.
• To take responsibility for Afrika’s health, wealth At that time, however, we were told by everyone that
and education using Afrikan indigenous knowledge Uganda lacked the capacity, the infrastructure and the
as the foundation for understanding the complex resources for these types of endeavors. So we elected to
world we live in today. start our own clinic - The African Traditional Herbal
Research Clinic/Centre - to learn first-hand about African
Who we are
We are Kiwanuka and Nakato Lewis, husband (retired herbal-based medicine, traditional herbs and their uses, to
engineer) and wife (retired research chemist), partners, conduct clinical research on herbal plants for use in our
born in Jamaica and the United States, respectively, herbal formulations that could positively impact the
descendants of enslaved Afrikans from the Diaspora, health of Afrikan people everywhere and finally to learn
standing on the shoulders of our Ancestors. about African Spirituality and its integration in holistic
Initially, as RGL Enterprises International Inc.,
(registered in New York and Toronto, Canada), we RGL Enterprises Intl/Blackherbals at the Source of the
created www.Blackherbals.com to address the lack of Nile UG Ltd. is registered in Uganda since November
herbal/nutritional knowledge among Afrikans/Blacks in 2005. In February 2006, The African Traditional Herbal
the Diaspora. Research Clinic/Centre was established with the initial
help of NACOTHA, of which Kiwanuka Lewis is a
With the growth of Western medicine, we discovered member and the clinic is registered as a traditional herbal
that the use of Afrikan herbal medicine and traditional association. Both Kiwanuka and Nakato are registered
Continued on page 40
-39- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 37 – The Afrikan Traditional Herbal diseases, symptoms and conditions with varying degrees
Research Centre of success. Our present patient load is over 300 people
with the Ugandan Government as traditional herbalists. and new patients are arriving everyday. Most of our
patients have multiple health problems. As required by
Our first two years was devoted to the research and our protocol, none of our patients take western
development of herbal formulas, in a clinical setting, to pharmaceuticals. Some of the services we offer are non-
address the health problems of continental Afrikans invasive treatments for:
suffering from traditional African diseases and chronic
diseases acquired from the adoption of Western culture. 1. AIDS (Herbal Antiviral)
Many of the local herbs have been tested in the treatment 3. Diarrhea/Constipation
of various symptoms at our research centre. The results 4. Heart problems (pressure, circulation, strokes)
are very, very encouraging. Our BHSN formulas contain 5. Diabetes
selected wild-crafted herbs gathered and collected from 6. Sexual Transmitted diseases
historically traditional sites throughout Uganda. The 7. Respiratory ailments (asthma, colds and TB)
herbs we collect and use are traditional organic, free of 8. Ulcers and other Digestive disorders
all pesticides, herbicides, chemical inputs and when 9. Skin diseases and rashes
necessary produced using traditional agricultural 10. Arthritis and Rheumatism
methods. 11. Reproductive problems -Fertility (Men and
We have established good working contacts with other Women)
traditional herbal groups in Central Uganda (Walussi 12. Tumours and Growths
Mountain, PROMETRA) and with Kasese/Rwenzori area 13. Sickle Cell Anemia
in western Uganda, (KADDENTHCA), enabling us to 14. Central Nervous System (Epilepsy)
learn from them as they are learning from us. Recently, 15. Cancer
our contacts have extended to groups in eastern Uganda 16. Paralysis
as well as to groups in the war-torn north. 17. Gout
18. Weight Loss
We have attended various workshops and symposia, such 19. Urinary Tract Infections
as NCRL, Malaria Consortium, NAPRECA, Uganda 20. Hepatitis
Industrial Research Institute, Uganda Historical Memory 21. Detoxification
and Reconciliation Council, Inter Cultural Union of 22. Energy Tonics
Uganda, Makerere University and Marcus Garvey Pan 23. Muscle Pain
Afrikan Institute in Mbale. At MPAI, Kiwanuka is a 24. Feminine Problems
research fellow and Nakato is on the Board of Directors. 25. Addictions
Kiwanuka is also an executive Board Member of the
Walussi Spiritualists Committee. Walussi Mountain in Over 35% of our patients were presented to us with
central Uganda is our village. malaria symptoms. Many were previously diagnosed with
recurring malaria and laboratory tests continue to show
ATHR Clinic parasites in their blood even after taking western
With information gathered from a community needs prescription medicines. Our treatment consists of only
survey conducted by BHSN in Bukoto Parish, Kampala three bottles of Blackherbals’ Malaria Mix (without
in October 2005, we identified 12 immediate diseases artemesia) taken over a period of 4-6 weeks. Laboratory
affecting area residents. Therefore, our efforts were testing of our patients have confirmed the absence of
concentrated on herbal medicines for these disorders. Our these parasites after treatment and many of our patients
research uncovered many existing traditional African have remained parasite-free for nearly two years and still
herbal formulas. With respect to usage, standardization, counting. Our formula has been effective in the treatment
quality control and dosage, we have sought to refined of malaria even during the onset of symptoms as well as
them and to created and develop new ones as well. Our in the prevention of disease. Therefore, it is very puzzling
aim is to use this concept throughout various for us and difficult to accept that there can be a malaria
communities in Uganda to effectively fight diseases at epidemic in Uganda when herbal medicine is equally if
home, the natural way. We have been asked to take our not more effective than western pharmaceuticals.
concept abroad to other parts of the African continent and
to the Diaspora where our people are suffering from the Moreover, we have able to increase the CD-4 count of
same diseases, only in larger numbers. HIV/Aids patients using herbal detoxification and herbal
antiviral formulas. Thus we have been able to effectively
Since then, we have provided treatment for over 60
Continued on page 39
-40- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 38 – The Afrikan Traditional conditions. We believe that an informed patient is one who
Herbal Research Centre will begin to take responsibility for his or her health,
treat both malaria and HIV patients while reducing the because ultimately that is where it belongs.
side effects associated with taking western
pharmaceuticals for HIV/Aids and malaria. In addition, We train our employees to develop proper work ethics, to
there is no shortage of the herbal medicine since we display honesty, integrity and accountability and
only use local herbs. transparency in all endeavors as well as pride in themselves
and the work they do. This is our biggest challenge.
Fifty-four percent of our patients present themselves
with digestive problems, namely ulcers, gastritis and The Way Forward
gout. These disorders are generally associated with For the past six months we have been standardizing our
Ugandan diet, the love for milk, meat and alcohol. We formulations to determine dosage, shelf life and efficacy in
have been able to completely eliminate gout, heal concordance with the standards set forth by the National
ulcers and gastrointestinal problems even in patients Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory, the National Drug
with advanced symptoms. Authority and the Uganda National Bureau of Standards. In
the coming months, our formulas will be presented to these
Our herbal formula for diabetes, ‘DIA-B’ has been government agencies for formal registration and approval.
effective in controlling blood sugar levels to the point We are proud and happy to say we have made some
that one only has to monitor oneself and make the significant achievements and contributions. Our new
necessary corrections through diet and exercise to product line at BHSN reflect many Afrikan traditional plant
maintain control, thus eliminating the need for constant materials whose uses are documented throughout the
medication. Afrikan continent, but have never been actively promoted.
Thirty-one per cent of our patients suffer from high In conjunction with MPAI, we are helping to establish a
blood pressure and other pressure-related problems. School of African Traditional Medicine over the next
One of the major causes is the Ugandan love for salt several years.
and salty food. This is a common problem not just for Blackherbals has introduced a new service to link our clinic
Ugandans but Black people worldwide. Along with operations with our internet storefront. We do custom made
dietary changes, Blackherbals ‘BP’ has been very formulations for off-site patients in health crisis who do not
successful in maintaining normal blood pressure levels have access to herbal practitioners. What we require is a
without the side effects usually experience with letter or email stating the problem, your symptoms, your
pharmaceuticals. Incorporating the use of spices in diet, current prescriptions and any diagnostic data provided
one’s food has gone far to help our patients alleviate by doctors, hospitals, etc. This information is used to set up
the salt from their diet. Some of our patients, who have your patient chart and to determine the individual efficacy
been on blood pressure medication for years, use only and effectiveness of our formulas. We formulate herbal
herbal medicine to control their blood pressure. solutions for various health problems and symptoms, that in
Forty percent of our clients have some type of many cases can be just as effective in treating the illness as
respiratory disorders. In the dry season, Uganda can be prescription medicines, which in many cases can become
very dusty and many people are affected, developing resistant to the disease, will only address one issue of the
flu-like symptoms and cough. Patients suffering from problem, or may be too toxic. A custom-made diet is
asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia have found detailed for the patient because the Afrikan diet is essential
substantial relief taking our respiratory mixes. to our good health and recuperation. The cost of our
formulations is dependent upon the type of medical
Thirty-five per cent of patients are women complaining problems, quantity and availability of required herbs,
of female problems to include painful menstruation number of formulations needed and duration of treatment.
fibroid tumours and blocked tubes, some requiring Our prices are very affordable. Please email us
surgery. We have been successful in reducing the size firstname.lastname@example.org for more details. We look
of the tumours, saving many from surgery. We have forward to hearing from you soon. We invite you also to
had 100% success rate with goiters and some hernias. visit us online at www.blackherbals.com to learn more
All of our patients are detoxified prior to or during about us and our concerns on the survival of Black people.
treatment. For some, detoxification is all that is In our own small way, we are helping to bring about a
required for the symptoms to disappear. We also “Black Awakening” not just with words but through active
provide patient counseling on their dietary habits and participation in this historical process.
what they can do to improve their health naturally. We ☻☻☻☻☻☻
provide information in the form of newsletters and
articles to educate and enlighten our patients on their
-41- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 36 - Africa: Researchers Record The Kano State Commissioner for Health, Malama Aisha
Major Breakthrough Ishiaku, recently stated that the malaria scourge accounts
The Australian team developed mutant strains of P. for an annual economic burden of about N132 billion in
falciparum, each lacking one of 83 genes known or Nigeria.
predicted to play a role in the red cell remodeling Reports also revealed that in Africa, malaria accounts for
process. Systematically testing each one, they were able 10 per cent of the continent's disease burden as well as the
to show that eight proteins were involved in the $12 billion yearly lost in productivity.
production of the key glue-like substance.
Globally, about 40 per cent of world population (2.4
Removing just one of these proteins stopped the billion) is known to be at risk. An estimated 300-500
infected cells from attaching themselves to the walls of million cases of malaria occur globally every year.
blood vessels, the report revealed.
Professor Alan Cowman, a member of the research ☻☻☻☻☻☻
team at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical
Research, said targeting the protein with drugs, or HIV ‘Hides from Drugs for
possibly a vaccine, could be key to fighting malaria.
"If we block the stickiness, we essentially block the
virulence or the capacity of the parasite to cause BBC
disease," he said. March 16, 2008
Malaria is preventable and curable, but can be fatal if HIV can survive the apparently effective onslaught of
not treated promptly. The disease kills more than a antiretroviral drugs for years by hiding away in the body’s
million people each year. Many of the victims are cells, research shows.
young children in sub-Saharan Africa. The US National Cancer Institute found low levels of
Available statistics indicate that one out of every five dormant HIV in patients seven years after they started – and
Nigerian children will die before their fifth birthday, responded well to - standard therapy.
with malaria alone being responsible for one quarter of The finding confirms patients must take drugs indefinitely,
these deaths. and that any break runs the risk of rekindling infection.
Malaria is said to be responsible for an estimated 30 per The study features in Proceedings of the National Academy
cent of deaths among children, 11 per cent among of sciences.
pregnant women and 80 per cent of diseases in reported
cases in health facilities. It is certainly the leading People with HIV need to take treatment indefinitely
cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. because current drugs cannot reach this pool of dormant
virus. The researchers followed 40 patients infected with
Records also show that 50 per cent of Nigeria's HIV for seven years.
population suffers from, at least, one episode of malaria
attack each year. The disease accounts for over 45 per Doctors do not usually record infection levels once the
cent of all outpatient visits. number of HIV particles falls below 50 per milliliters of
The Federal Government spends millions annually on
awareness campaigns and provides malaria control However, the NCI team used highly sensitive equipment to
measures, which involves programmes such as the Roll measure infection levels below this threshold. They found
Back Malaria Initiative, where special insecticide- that the virus was still present at low levels in 77% of the
treated bed-nets are produced and distributed to the patients.
people, especially nursing mothers. The research suggests that although potent antiretroviral
Various countries and international organisations such therapy can suppress HIV infection to almost undetectable
as Japan and the World Health Organisation (WHO) levels, it cannot eradicate the virus.
are also collaborating with the country in the fight The researchers said that even though levels of the virus
against her 'biggest' killer. that remain are low, they are high enough to rekindle
In the country, malaria is directly or remotely infection if treatment is interrupted.
responsible for the loss of millions of productive hours, The risk of infecting others is low, but cannot be ruled out.
resulting in colossal reduction in individual and They believe HIV may be harboured by CD-4+ cells, which
collective productivity. parlay a role in the immune system. Continued on page 43
-42- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 44- HIV hides from Drugs for Years provide services for the children visited in eastern Uganda,
These cells are most likely infected before therapy was less than one per cent of the children access ARVs.
initiated and the amount of virus they produce is small. Dr Elyanu said in Budadiri health centre IV in Sironko
Researcher Dr Sarah Palmer said: “It is extremely District and Amuria health centre IV in Amuria District,
important that new drugs are developed to eradicate although 85 and 94 children infected with HIV/Aids
HIV infection as the side effects associated with long respectively have been registered to get ARVs, only one is
term HIV treatment can be severe. accessing it at each of the centres.
She also warned that failing to take prescribed Dr Elyanu said at Budaka health centre IV and Pallisa
medication raised the risk that HIV could begin to Hospital, only four children are accessing ARVs.
develop resistance, rendering future treatment less He said les than three children are accessing ARVs in
effective. Kumi, Bukedea, Bukwo, Kapchorwa, Kaberamaido,
☻☻☻☻☻☻ Katakwi, Butaleja, Bududa and Manafwa.
Only 5% Rural Children
Access ARVs – Study ARVs can double Patients’
Lives - Study
Daily Monitor Kakaire Kirunda
March 26, 2008 Daily Monitor
Only 17 per cent of the children infected with July 31, 2008
HIV/Aids in Uganda access anti-retroviral drugs. People using antiretroviral (ARV) drugs can now expect to
Of these, less than five per cent are from rural areas, live into their 60s and beyond, if finds from an international
according to research done by Baylor College of study are anything to go by.
Medicine Children’s Foundation-Uganda A report published in the Lancet medical journal indicates
Most of the 83 per cent infected children in rural areas people living with HIV/Aids could have ARVs prolong
do not access treatment and usually die, Baylor College their lives by anywhere between 30 and 50 years, meaning
of Medicine Children’s Foundation Uganda [BCMCF- a person that embarks on ARV therapy at 20 could live up
U] regional coordinator Dr Peter Elyanu says. to 70 years.
BCMCF-U is an indigenous, child focused NGO Analysing 18,587 (1996-99), 13,914 (2000-02) and 10,584
specialized in child HIV/Aids and affiliated to the (2003-05) patients on combination antiretroviral therapy
Baylor International Paediatric Aids Initiative (Bipai). (ART), researchers from Canada and the United Kingdom
sought to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy
Dr Elyanu, a paediatrician, was last Wednesday among HIV-positive individuals.
addressing medical staff, district leaders, and
representatives of NGOs involved in the fight against Results from 14 studies in that period show that Aids-
HIV/Aids in Pallisa town during a conference to seek related deaths decreased progressively through the years,
ways of increasing child HIV/aids services in the accounting for a 40 percent reduction by 2005.
region. Published in the July 26 edition of the Lancet medical
He said due to lack of access to ARVs, about 75 per journal, the study showed that an individual starting
cent of children infected with HIV/Aids die before the successful HIV treatment aged 20 would be expected to
age of five. live to be 63, and that a patient initiating an anti-HIV drugs
regimen aged 35 could live to the age of 67.
Dr Elyanu said whereas currently Uganda has close to
140,000 children living with HIV/Aids and another Since the 1966 introduction of antiretroviral therapy,
25,000 continue to be infected annually, access to combination therapy regimen have become more effective,
paediatric HIV/Aids services and ARTs have remained better tolerated and have been simplified in terms of dosing.
limited to the central region thereby leaving many of The researchers also found that starting treatment with a
the infected children in rural areas dying within the CD4 cell count above 200 would mean that a person aged
fifth year. 20 could expect to live to be 70, and that a 35-year-old
He said, in most government health centres meant to could survive into their 72nd year.
Continued on page 44
-43- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 45 – ARVs Can Double Patient Lives record the production process," said the report. It also noted
A CD4 count is used to assess the immune status of that half the companies did not have internal audit systems
HIV infected persons. and there was little input from the managers in the
In Uganda, there are currently about 132,000 people on
antiretroviral therapy, yet nearly 300,000 require the Despite the shortcomings, the companies had hand washing
drugs. facilities, ongoing installations of air-conditioning systems
and quality control labs.
However, the government recently allocated Shs60
billion to the health sector for the procurement of Mbaziira said the firms would be graded in five categories
ARVs, a move likely to bring another 150,000 persons depending on their performance. "The worst ones with
living with HIV on treatment. critical working conditions will have their certificates and
licenses withdrawn. They will also be instantly closed."
Uganda has set a target of putting 263,000 people on
treatment by 2012, and 342,000 by 2020. Copies of the survey's highlights, which were given to the
participants, were later withdrawn after complaints from
But this raises questions on sustainability, as 95 per some manufacturers who wanted the results to remain
cent of the ARV programme is currently donor confidential.
supported, mainly by the American-funded President’s
Emergency Plan for Aids Relief (Pepfar) initiative. "This is unfair to us. How are we going to convince
☻☻☻☻☻☻ exporters that our products are of good quality? You should
have addressed the press, exporters and manufacturers
Drug Factories Sub- differently," retorted one as several participants nodded in
Standard However, the authority's chief inspector, Kate Kikule, said:
By Conan Businge "There is nothing to hide. In this way we can build our local
producers by improving their products' quality. All drugs
are inspected before getting to the market.
New Vision (Kampala)
18 July 2008 "Only those that meet the standard are distributed to the
THE majority of drug manufacturing companies in
Uganda do not meet operational standards, according to NDA chief Apollo Muhairwe stressed that the "inspections
a new survey. A survey by the National Drug Authority were done to develop the local drug manufacturing
revealed that several companies will be closed soon, industry."
after their grading is completed. The companies were http://allafrica.com/stories/200807210123.html
not named. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
The report was presented at the authority's annual
general meeting at Protea Hotel in Kampala on CDC: 1.1 million Americans
Thursday. It noted that most companies do not meet
required minimum production standards. It also found
have AIDS Virus
unsanitary protective uniforms, change rooms, Population living with HIV grows as more become infected,
production rooms, stores, corridors and wash areas for survive longer
manufacturing vessels." October 2, 2008
"Half of the manufacturing companies had problems WASHINGTON - A new estimate of how many Americans
with cleaning sanitary premises," said Nasser Mbaziira, have the AIDS virus puts the number at about 1.1 million,
the eastern regional drug inspector, "A number of them the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said on
have procedure guidelines, but no records; and the Thursday.
reverse was true for others." He added that there were
also anomalies in the flow of the production process. The CDC numbers, based on 2006 data, show the
population living with HIV is growing as people become
The inspectors explained that there should be a specific newly infected and as more patients survive thanks to HIV
flow of the production process to avoid contamination drugs.
and back flows.
The report also suggests that past estimates that more than 1
"Much as there is improvement in documentation of million Americans were living with HIV overstated the
manufacturers' activities, the majority of them do not Continued on page 45
-44- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 44 – CC: 1.1 M Americans have (510,100 people). About 35 percent of those with HIV
AIDS Virus were white and 18 percent were Hispanic, according to the
actual total number of people with HIV infections at the CDC.
time. Black women were nearly 18 times more likely than white
The agency used different methods than it has in the women to be infected with HIV, while black men were six
past to calculate the number. Its most recent nationwide times more likely than white men, the CDC said. Hispanics
estimate of 1 million had been given for 2003, and were 2.6 times more likely than whites to be infected.
using the new methods the CDC figured that 994,000 In 2006, about 14,000 Americans died of AIDS. At the end
were living with HIV that year. of 2006, the disease had killed nearly 546,000 Americans
"These data really show the continued impact that the since being first recognized in the early 1980s.
epidemic is having on Americans, and they really To make the new estimates, the CDC used information on
reinforce the severe toll that is experienced in multiple new HIV diagnoses taken from 40 states with the best data
communities," the CDC's Richard Wolitski said in a and AIDS diagnoses and deaths taken from all 50 states, as
telephone interview. well as a statistical method called "back-calculation."
The CDC report reinforced previous findings that the Globally, 33 million people have HIV and 25 million have
epidemic disproportionately affects blacks of both died of it.
sexes as well as gay and bisexual men.
As the number of people living with HIV grows, so ☻☻☻☻☻☻
does the cost of providing medical services to this
population and the burden on the U.S. health care HIV Spread Still High Despite
system, Wolitski said.
Fall in Infection
The CDC estimated that about one in five — 232,700
of the 1.1 million people infected with the human Evelyn Lirriin
immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS — did not Saturday Monitor
know they were infected. The total U.S. population is August 2, 2008
Uganda is one of the countries where a significant
"We're not going to be able to treat our way out of this prevention of new infections of HIV has been registered,
epidemic. We need to have strong prevention programs the latest report by the Joint United Nations Programme on
so we can prevent these infections from occurring in HIV indicates.
the first place," said Wolitski, acting chief of the CDC's
HIV/AIDS prevention division. The report released on July 29 says that much of the
dramatic declines have been as a result of change in sexual
Men made up three quarters of people with HIV behaviour.
“In a number of heavily affected countries such as Kenya,
The CDC previously reported that more people are Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe, dramatic changes in
becoming infected each year than previously estimated, sexual behaviour have been accompanied by declines in the
with 56,300 new HIV infections in the United States in number of new infections,” the report says.
2006. Previous estimates put the number of new
infections at about 40,000 a year. It says that a decline in new infections in these countries
has contributed to the global stabilization of people infected
Of all the people infected with HIV, 48 percent were by the virus since the late 1990s.
men who have sex with men, the CDC said. While
male-to-male sexual contact was the leading cause of According to the report, some of the factors contributing to
HIV infections, heterosexual sex — mostly women the decline in sexual behaviour are the increased use of
having sex with men who are injection drug users — condoms and abstinence from [sex] until later years.
accounted for 28 percent of HIV-infected people. The report warns that even with the registered prevention of
Injection drug use, which spreads the blood-borne virus new infections, there is still a long way before the promise
via contaminated needles, contributed 19 percent of the of an Aids free generation is fulfilled. It says that progress
HIV cases. is still uneven across countries, and the epidemics future
Blacks make up 12 percent of the overall population
but accounted for 46 percent of those infected with HIV Continued on page 46
-45- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 45 – HIV Spread Still High Despite
Fall in Infection HIV Infection Rate High
Uganda has been promoting the ABC – Abstinence, Be Among Forces
Faithful and use a Condom approach for HIV
prevention. This enabled the country to reduce its
By Rehema Aanyu
national HIV prevalence from about 30 per cent in the New Vision (Kampala)
early years of the epidemic to about 6.4 per cent to 17 July 2008
date. However, recent trends indicate that since 2000,
The rate of new HIV infection is high among the armed
the prevalence has stagnated.
forces compared to the civilian population, the director
This latest comprehensive report published by Unaids general of the Uganda AIDS Commission has said.
is based on progress review reports from 147 countries
Dr. Kihumuro Apuuli noted that the infection rates were
globally as part of efforts to implement the 2001
two to five times higher among the forces than in the
declaration of commitments on HIV.
The report also says that increased financing for HIV
"For every two people put on anti-retroviral (ARV)
programmes, especially in low income countries
treatment, five more are infected. It is like chasing a
including Uganda has contributed to lowering
prevalence and preventing new infections.
He observed that the armed forces were also at increased
The Director General of the Uganda Aids Commission,
risk of contracting and spreading HIV due to their
Dr Kihumuro Apuuli, said in Uganda’s Progress
Report that some of the factors driving the epidemic
Apuuli was on Tuesday addressing the army, the Police
include behavioural, social, cultural, economic and
and Prisons Service chiefs at the Kampala Protea Hotel.
geographic factors like poverty and early marriage.
He attributed the new infections to increased interaction
Dr Apuuli said that new infections are found highest
between combatants and civilians, and rise in commercial
among cohabiting married or widowed people. This
group category, he said contribute to 42 per cent of the
new infections, conventional sex contributes 22 per Apuuli also cited decreased availability of health services
cent, mother to child transmission 21 per cent, while related to sexually transmitted infections and the lack of
casual sex contribute to 14 per cent of new infections. adequate knowledge and means to prevent transmission.
According to Dr Apuuli, currently the HIV prevalence The armed forces should incorporate HIV/AIDS
rate is 6.4 percent, with percentages higher in the urban interventions in their programmes and counter
areas at 10.1 per cent while in the rural areas stigmatisation of victims, Apuuli suggested.
prevalence stands at 5.7 per cent.
"The armed forces must help in building bridges between
In a press statement, the executive Director of Unaids, communities and vulnerable groups to make their lives
Dr Peter Piot said the positive progress should be easier."
sustained. “Gains in saving lives by preventing new
He also called for more funding to expand access to anti-
infections and providing treatment to people living with
retroviral therapy as well as medicines to treat
HIV must be sustained over the long term,” he said.
opportunistic infections and other sexually transmitted
“Short term gains should serve as a platform for diseases.
reinvigorating combination HIV prevention and
The director of HIV/AIDS interventions in the army, Lt.
treatment efforts and not spur complacency,” Dr Piot
Col. Stephen Kusasira, said the disease was the main
cause of death in the force.
Daily Monitor Brief - May 8, 2008 He said they were incorporating sensitisation on the
pandemic in all command duties and training.
At least 27,000 babies in Uganda are born with
HIV/Aids every year, according to new statistics The meeting was organised by the Community Health
released by the Parliamentary Committee on HIV/Aids. and Information Network.
Less than 20% of HIV positive pregnant women have
access interventions to prevent mother to child
-46- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
cision as a strategy for men who have sex with men in the
Circumcision may not United States," Millett said.
reduce gay male HIV risk The CDC's Dr. Peter Kilmarx, who was not involved in
Study: No clear proof procedure protects men who the research, said the agency is preparing formal
recommendations on circumcision in the United States,
are intimate with guys
with a draft due to be made public early next year.
October 7, 2008
Millett said there are signs circumcision might protect
WASHINGTON - There is not enough evidence to say certain gay and bisexual men depending on sexual
circumcision protects men from getting the AIDS virus practices. The virus can be transmitted through blood or
during sex with other men even as studies show it semen.
protects them when having sex with women, U.S.
Studies in Australia and Peru showed that men who
researchers said on Tuesday.
engaged in insertive anal sex only and were not being
A review of 15 studies involving 53,567 gay and penetrated by male sex partners got a significant
bisexual men in the United States, Britain, Canada, protective effect from HIV infection from being
Australia, India, Taiwan, Peru and the Netherlands circumcised, Millett said.
failed to show a clear benefit for those who were
"Of course, if you're being penetrated by a partner during
circumcised, researchers from the U.S. government's
sex, you being circumcised is not going to protect you
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.
from HIV infection," Millett said.
Circumcised men were 14 percent less likely to be
Millett said two U.S. studies and one in Peru conducted
infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or
before the introduction in 1996 of combination drug
HIV, than those who were uncircumcised, but the
treatment for HIV infections, called highly active
finding was not statistically significant, the CDC
antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, showed that
circumcised men were 53 percent less likely to be
"You can't necessarily say with confidence that we're infected with HIV than uncircumcised men.
seeing a true effect there," said the CDC's Gregorio
He said it is possible that since the advent of HAART,
Millett, who led the study that appeared in the Journal
which helped turn HIV infection into a chronic disease
of the American Medical Association.
rather than a death sentence for many people, some gay
"Overall, we're not finding a protective effect and bisexual men may have felt freer to engage in risky
associated with circumcision for gay and bisexual sexual practices.
men," Millett said in a telephone interview.
Studies involving men in Africa, where the AIDS ☻☻☻☻☻☻
epidemic is primarily spread by sex between men and
women, showed that male circumcision halved the risk The Other Face of
of female-to-male HIV infection.
Circumcision in HIV War
Experts say this reduced HIV risk may be because cells
on the inside of the foreskin, the part of the penis cut Michael Bahinyoza
off in circumcision, are especially susceptible to HIV HIV Prevention
infection. The virus also may survive better in a warm, Daily Monitor
wet environment like that found beneath the foreskin. August 1, 2008
But whether circumcision might lower the risk of HIV The Geneva-based World Health Organisation has
infection in sex between men had remained unclear. reportedly, over the last couple of months been leading
Gay and bisexual men play a much larger role in AIDS UN Agencies (UNAIDS), UNICEF, UNFPA) to support
in many countries outside of Africa, the epidemic's particularly African countries to develop male
epicenter. circumcision policies and strategies in the
broader/comprehensive HIV prevention strategy.
For example, the CDC last week said 48 percent of the
1.1 million Americans infected with HIV are men who The follows results from the three Randomised
have sex with men. More than three-quarters of U.S. Controlled Trials (RCTs) undertaken in Kisumu (Kenya),
men are circumcised. Rakai (Uganda), and Orange Farm (South Africa) show-
ing that male circumcision could reduce the risk of heter-
"We really cannot recommend overall male circum- Continued on page 48
-47- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 47 – The Other Face of Circumcision viral load and thus infectivity to the female partner.
osexually acquired HIV infection in men by about 60 For now, it may be wise for our own Ministry of Health,
per cent. the medical fraternity and the public to be cautious and
According to media reports, Rwanda has already rolled not to be overwhelmed by the hyperbolic’ promotion of
out male circumcision in the military, a country where male circumcision in HIV prevention.
ironically, circumcised men have a higher rate of HIV Pre-marital chastity and fidelity, nurtured and supported
than ‘intact’ men. (www.circumcisionandHIV.com) by needed life skills within viable and dynamic support
A colleague told me last week, seven of his friends (all groups, remain time-tested HIV/AID preventive
of them single) had been circumcised in this ended weaponry as the infected and affected are given needed
month of July and that the RCT findings had majorly care and support.
influenced their decision. It is worth noting that
because of information deficiency and other challenges,
there have been a number of exaggerated claims made
Breakthrough Reported in
for the reported efficacy of male circumcision in Malaria Drug Trial
preventing HIV infection.
Many people are not even aware that the results from
the above mentioned randomized Controlled Trials are Daily Monitor
about prevention of female-to-male HIV infection. May 1, 2008
Secondly, not many young people (and probably adults Canadian scientists working with Ugandans at Makerere
as well) seem aware that the trial results clearly University have reported that their novel drug candidates
indicated that male circumcision reduces the risk to treat malaria have demonstrated good safety in their
infection. Unfortunately, many young male adolescents first toxicity tests in animals.
and some men prefer reading or hearing reducing the This was announced on Monay in a press release by the
risk as eliminating the risk. Undoubtedly, there is ‘a Canada-based Upstream Biosciences Inc. The Institute
heaven of difference’ between risk reduction and risk was founded in 2004 in the Canadian province of British
elimination and hopefully, this can be well grasped in Columbia.
the preventive campaign against HIV/Aids.
“Researchers reported that Upstream’s anti-malarial
Reputable senior research fellows, Garry Dowsett and candidates were well tolerated, with no signs of serious
Murray Coach, from Australia suggest in their findings; toxicity at likely healing dosages,” the release reads in
“The use of male circumcision in preventing HIV part.
infection” that the results of the three RCTs contain
exaggerated claims. In his work; “The Demonisation of According to the researchers, activity in this range in a
the Foreskin and the Rise of Circumcision in Britain.” new class of anti-malarial drugs has the potential to
Darby RJL, too brings to the fore what he considers represent an important advance in the treatment of a
information that the respective supervisors of the three resistant form of the disease.
RCTs should not have ignored. The release said the new data represents the third set of
Apparently it turns out that all the three RCTs were positive toxicity results in animals obtained by
terminated early, arguably before the incidence of HIV researchers at Makerere University for Upstream’s drug
infection in the circumcised males caught up with the candidates for malaria, trypanosomiasis and
incidence of infection in the non-circumcised males. It leishmaniasis, all diseases caused by related parasites.
is therefore highly probably that non-circumcised got “These first positive toxicity results in animals for our
infected more quickly than their circumcised friends anti-malarial candidates mark an important step in our
because the circumcised males required a period of programmed to develop safe and effective drugs to fight
abstinence after circumcision, suggesting, among other this pervasive condition,” Mr. Joel Bellenson, CEO
things, likely that if the studies had continued as Upstream was quoted as saying.
initially scheduled, the difference in infection incidence
between the two groups males would have been small. However, in a follow-up interview with Daily Monitor,
Mr Bellenson said researchers can now move on to
As has been noted by our own Ministry of Health, male testing the drugs in sick animals,” and we know how high
circumcision does not protect women. Since viral load a dosage ceiling we can use for this testing.”
is the cardinal predictor of the risk of HIV
transmission, male circumcision would not reduce the Continued on page 49
-48- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 47 – Breakthrough Reported in considering replacing of traditional food crops with the
Malaria Drug Trial quick maturing artemesia, a crop used in the production
Asked how soon human trials would begin, he said it of artemesinin - an ingredient in the manufacture of anti-
was hard to make precise predictions about the timing malaria drugs such as Coartem, and Artemether.
of trials. “I have so far given up on growing sorghum, a traditional
He added: “Drug development has several stages and crop regarded highly in the area. “I prefer Artemesia
sometimes requires taking one step back to make two because it matures faster [3 months] and gives higher
steps forward. When we get the animal efficacy data, it returns compared to sorghum that takes seven months,”
will tell us whether we need to use our artificial he said.
intelligence software to make the drugs more potent or Two years ago, farmers like Mr. Tabaro were hard to
less toxic.” find. “People were at first reluctant to take on the crop
Mr. Bellenson explained that the current malarial drugs because of the bad experience they had had with the now
have a similar mode of action and the parasites become defunct Agro Management [a company that introduced
resistant to chemicals related to these older drugs quite pyrethrum growing in the area],” Mr Cleth Rugwiza, the
easily. extension officer of Aflo Alpine Pharma Ltd (AAPL),
“Our compounds are a completely different chemical
structure and are therefore likely to work by blocking Introduced in 2005, artemesia was not well received as
different proteins activities,” he added. farmers remained reluctant to hurriedly replace their food
crops with the untested cash crop on fragmented pieces of
“In addition, our compounds may have another land.
advantage to work against sleeping sickness, Nagana
and kala azar as well as malaria. This would simplify When the pioneers registered successes, Mr Rugwiza
drug stocking logistics and administration to sick said, more farmers then clamoured for more seedlings
patients.” from extension agents. Outgrowers have since grown
from 350 farmers when the crop was first introduced to
Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in more than 12,000 farmers to date.
Uganda, accounting for 25-40 per cent of all outpatient
visits at healthcare facilities. “We did a lot of work to diminish the negative experience
through sensitization in churches, and public gatherings,”
Up to 20 per cent of all hospital admissions and 15 per he said.
cent of in-patient deaths are due to malaria.
☻☻☻☻☻☻ Mr. Aggrey Bitungukye, another farmer, said:” At first, I
thought a kilogramme of dried leaves was difficult to
Farmers Reap Fortunes of raise but when I managed to raise about 220 kilograms
from my piece of land, I picked up even more interest.”
Malaria Treatment Income Boost
Godwin Muhwezi-Bonge Persuaded by the need to diversify incomes of
subsistence farmers in Kabale, Aflo Alpine Pharma
Limited, introduced the cultivation of a locally grown,
March 4, 2008
affordable anti-malarial treatments, for distribution in
Mr. John Tabaro, an elderly farmer in Kabale District local, regional, and international markets.
who has tilled the land for years growing mainly
“Kabale was chosen for its alpine climate akin to that of
sorghum made his first Shs2 million last year thanks to
Vietnam and India where the plant is mainly grown,” Mr
a “little-known” crop Sweet Wormwood whose
scientific name is Artemsia annua.
Chloroquine and quinine-based derivatives have long
“I made about Shs2 million after three months of
been used in the treatment of malaria in sub-Saharan
growing [it], I had never made so much money before
Africa, where the disease kills about 3,000 per day.
[and now] I managed to take my children to school and
all I think of is more and more artemesia,” he said However, patients’ increasing resistance to traditional
gleefully. anti-malarial drugs, and the need to stem off malarial
deaths has given birth to a new line of treatment in
Such is the reception the alien crop has received in an
Artemesinin Combination Therapy, of which artemesinia
area with no tradition of growing cash crops that after
extracted from Artemesia annua forms a vital component.
three seasons of uninterrupted cash flow, farmers are
Continued on page 51
-49- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Kayinga said he had reported to the resident district
NDA to Licence Herbalists, commissioner. He noted that half of the healers in
Regulate Food Masaka were from Tanzania, Burundi and the DR Congo.
Herbert Mugagga "We are planning a major operation against illegal
Daily Monitor healers. We expelled the Maasai from Kenya, who had
November 19, 2007 flocked the region, because of their dubious characters,"
The National Drug Authority will start licensing
herbalists in the country to ease monitoring. This was "But we still have a problem with the Tanzanians. These
disclosed by Dr Josephine Nanyanzi, the Authority’s illegal healers sexually exploit women clients, exposing
Inspector of Drugs in an interview with Daily Monitor them to HIV/AIDS."
last week. The southern regional Police chief, Andrew Sorowen,
Dr. Nanyanzi said the institution is currently holding urged immigration officials to stop foreign healers from
consultative meetings with herbalists and at the same entering the country illegally. He noted that local leaders
time sensitizing them to come up with appropriate were no longer crosschecking the documents of new
guidelines. He said the move aims to ensure that people coming to reside in their areas.
premises where herbal medicines are stored or sold are "The LCs should check for stamped letters from their
suitable for the purpose. “We are mandated to ensure counterparts where the new residents originate because
that the available drugs are of good quality and best of we may end up harbouring criminals." Sorowen blamed
the public. child sacrifice on illegal traditional healers.
Policy to Regulate Tanzanians kill Albinos for
Herbalists in Offing Luck
Daily Monitor BBC, Tanzania
November 11, 2007 April 4, 2008
Government has drafted a policy to regulate operations Tanzania’s President Jakaya Kikwete has ordered a
of traditional healers. “If passed, the policy would crackdown on witchdoctors who use body parts from
create an enabling environment for the full and suitable albinos in magic potions to allegedly bring people good
utilization of traditional and complementary medicine luck or fortune.
in addressing some of the challenges facing the natural
healthcare system,” said Mr. Franklin Nsubuga “This is senseless cruelty. It must stop forthwith,” Jakaya
Muyonjo, a ministry of health consultant. Kikwete said on television, AFP news agency reports.
☻☻☻☻☻☻ “I am told that people kill albinos and chop their body
parts, including fingers, believing they can get rich when
Uganda: 23,000 Illegal mining or fishing,” he said. The order comes after the
murder of 19 albinos in the last year.
Healers in Masaka The BBC’s Vicky Ntetema in Dar es Salaam says there is
Dismus Buregyeya a widespread belief in Tanzania that the condition is the
result of a curse put on the family.
New Vision (Kampala)
16 July 2008 Old women with red eyes have been killed in parts of
Tanzania, after being accused of witchcraft, she says.
A total of 23,115 traditional healers in Masaka are not
registered, according to the district traditional healers In the past, Tanzania’s Albino Society has accused the
and herbalists' association. government of turning a blind eye to the killing of
The chairman, Ssalongo Kayinga, told The New Vision
on Tuesday that Nyendo Division alone had 343 illegal There are some 270,000 albinos among Tanzania’s
healers. "We have only 38 registered healers in Nyendo population of some 35 million, the highest population in
yet the division has 381 practicing. The situation is East Africa.
worse at the district level where out of the 24,000 ☻☻☻☻☻☻
traditional healers only 885 are registered," he said.
-50- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 49 - – Farmers reap Fortunes slowed down on buying as a way of storing the stock
“We extract up to 98.6 per cent of Artemesinin from with the farmers. Currently we have more stock than the
dried leaves of artemesia annua,” Mr. Robert available warehouse space,” he said. “As soon as we
Tumushabe, the factory supervisor of AAPl, said. The dispose of the stock in our stores, we will begin buying.”
factory processes 12 tonnes of dried artemesia leaves He said buying on credit is part of the company’s new
per day. One tonne of dried Artemesia leaves produces system of “streamlining field payment.” The company
six kilogrammes of crude artemesinin crystals. discarded the “on-spot payment system”, though popular
The Artemesin is then sold to the world’s renowned with farmers, had its own shortfalls.
pharmaceutical companies such as Cipla “Farmers would bring to buying centres more or less
Pharmaceutical of India from where Artemesinin-based produce than anticipated, which disorganised our
drugs are manufactured. accounting system” Mr Zagyenda said. “We later adopted
“Our market is worldwide but we sell most of our bulk an organized way of buying where we issue holder
in India,” Mr Freedie Zagyeda, the chief executive certificates to farmers for whatever we have bought.”
officer of AAPL, said. Speculators
There is growing demand for Artemesinin as leading He believes the current discontent among farmers is
pharmaceuticals on manufacture of Artemesinin-based mainly fuelled by speculators who were caught off guard
drugs after World Health Organisation authorized by the company’s change of heart.
Artemesinin combination therapy as the new line of “They buy quantities in the hope of cashing in on the
malaria treatment. stock during the time of scarcity. They are now getting
Unfortunately, this demand has not translated into impatient,” he said. “Genuine farmers stay put because
higher Artemesinin prices on the world market instead we will begin buying in two months time.”
prices have been falling. World market prices fell from AAPL operates an out-grower scheme supported by the
$350 per Kg in 2005 to $200 per Kg in 2007, a thing company’s nucleus farms. Farmers receive technical
that has negatively impacted on the company’s bottom advice from the company’s extension who have basic
line. training in the agronomy and management of Artemesia
Although Mr Zagyenda maintains that the falling annua.
Artemesinin prices on the world market will not affect “We train extension workers to assist farmers with the
the company’s relationship with the farmers, growing of Artemesia,” Mr Rugwiza said. It is these
testimonies show that the farmers are already feeling agents that also determine the quality of the leaf. The
the pinch. Out-growers are complaining that their agents mainly operate in the five regions of Kabale
produce is rotting away in their stores as the company District.
remains reluctant to collect.
Farmers receive free seedlings from extension agents.
“I have sacks of dry leafs stuck here,” Mr Bitungukye Farmers then plant the seedlings, which take about 3 to 4
said. “Much as I would like to keep growing artemesia, months to mature before harvest.
I cannot because of lack of market.”
The leaves are dried for 2 to 3 days and later sold at
Mr Tabaro said: “Nowadays these people [AAPL] buy collection centres before it is transported to the factory
on credit. They are not treating us as they did for processing. A kilogramme of dried artemesia annua
previously.” He added: ‘I have stop planting because I leaves cost Shs1,000 per kg. The plant is best suited to
cannot sell.” the alpine climate present in Kabale.
Growing Stock And as such, the plant has not encountered diseases,
Mr Zagyenda said the company cannot abandon which makes it easier for farmers. Trials are also going
farmers and will stick to its promise of buying whatever on in the surrounding district of Mbabara and
stock the farmers have. Ntunogamo. “There are dry leaves waiting to be collected
“We provide free seedlings to farmers through our in Mbarara,” Mr Rugwiza said.
extension agents; it is a joint investment. That is As the world prices of Artemesinin continue to tumble,
assurance enough that we have interest in their stock,” the company is planning to diversify its product range.
Mr Zagyhenda said. “We conducting trials for new crops,” Mr Zagyenda said.
According to him, the company slowed down on The company has hired services of an Indian Agronomist,
buying as a way to contain the growing stock. “We Dr S.K. Natarajan to carry out the trials.
-51- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
“When you are infected, you have to increase on the food
‘Malnutrition Increases intake. An additional mug of nutritious porridge, Katogo
Resistance to ARVs’ [beans with cassava or matooke (banana) or groundnuts
or greens], and other snacks must be taken between meals
A quarter of people on ARVs are malnourished. These so that the body gets the required amount of energy to
deter the drugs from acting as required. fight the virus,” Dr Mwadime said. “When the virus is in
Jane Nafula its advanced stage, at least two mugs of nutritious
porridge are recommended.”
Daily Monitor ☻☻☻☻☻☻
July 21. 2008
Severe malnutrition among people living with 9 Million Ugandans Starving
HIV/Aids is one of the factors forcing the HIV virus to – Museveni
become resistant to antiretroviral drugs.
213,000 Million People Starving in Sub-Saharan
The Regional Nutrition and HIV/Aids Advisor for the
Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA)
Africa. Food is exported to neighbouring countries.
Project, Dr Robert Mwadime, said malnourished John Augustine Emojong
patients have thin muscles and weak bodies that deter
the drugs from acting as required. Daily Monitor
October 20, 2008
“Patients who are thin lack the muscles and nutrients
needed to support the process of absorbing, President Yoweri Museveni has revealed that close to
metabolizing and distributing the drugs in the body,” nine million Ugandans are starving due to food shortage
Dr Mwadime said. caused by the effects of climate changes.
Dr Mwadime told a workshop on nutrition and HIV In a speech read for him by the Third Deputy Prime
monitoring and evaluation at Entebbe last week. Minister and Minister for Information and National
Guidance, Mr Kirunda Kivejinja during celebrations to
He said even a deficiency of one specific nutrient can mark the World Food Day in Tororo on Thursday, Mr.
affect this process. Museveni said at least 213 million people in Sub-Saharan
Participants were drawn from Kenya, Tanzania, Africa are starving due on food shortage.
Rwanda, Zambia, Namibia, Malawi and Ethiopia. He said the climate change, which is affecting food
Dr Mwadime said malnutrition may lead to excessive production, is a big threat to Uganda’s economy.
interaction of the drugs with the nutrients and affect its He said the government is improving the meteorological
effectiveness. He said the HIV virus can also become department to enhance climate change forecasts that
resistant if a patient does not take the drugs as would give farmers better guidance.
“We need to strengthen our meteorological departments
The resistance of HIV to ARVs is one of the major so as to be able to give our farmers accurate information
challenges facing the government’s programme of on climate change. We have been relying on guesswork
prolonging the lives of its patients. Dr Mwadime said most of the time,” Mr Museveni said.
the number of malnourished people living with
HIV/Aids is increasing. Mr Museveni said the government has increased funding
to the National Agricultural Advisory Services
“It is estimated that one of every four people starting to programmes to help farmers diversify food production.
take ARVs, is malnourished,” he said. About 30,000 of
170,000 people who are on antiretroviral therapy are World Food Programme (WFP) representative Hakan
likely to be malnourished. Tongul revealed that 700,000 people are facing starvation
in Karamoja sub-region.
Dr Mwadime also said that between 30 and 40 per cent
of malnourished children who are admitted at Mr Tongul blamed the ever increasing food prices across
Mwanamujimu clinics have HIV/Aids. Mwanamujimu the world on bio-energy production which has been on
are nutrition centres where malnourished children are the rise in the past few years.
put on special diet to regain lost body nutrients. He said He, however, noted that though Uganda is not very much
the World Health Organisation requires people who are affect by the effects of bio-energy production, much of
HIV positive to eat more food than they were eating the food produced is exported to neighbouring
before they became infected. Continued on page 53
-52- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Continued from page 53 – 9 M Ugandans Starving “Uganda’s population grew from 4.8 million people in
countries. 1950 to 24.3 million in 2002. It is estimate to be about 30
million today.” It says that a high population will
“It is the neighbouring countries such as Kenya and undermine the country’s efforts to achieve social-
Sudan that are causing food shortages for Uganda economic transformation and development.”
because much of the food produced is taken there,”
Mr Tongul said. The Population Secretariat which falls under the Ministry
of Finance, Planning and Economic Development,
He said the WP was now changing its strategy from observes that the high population has a bearing on the
food aid to food existence by supporting food current rising food prices and food shortages both in
production programmes rather than keep buying Uganda and globally.
and donating it, except in special circumstances.
Although the availability and use of effective
He revealed that last year, the WP spent $55 contraception is a key to slowing population growth, only
million to purchase food in Uganda, adding that 24 percent of married women in Uganda reportedly use
WP expects to spend close to $100 million next contraceptives.
year if the situation continues to worsen. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
Briefly - Condom Shortage by
October – MP
Growth at 1.2 M Annually
Evelyn Lirri June 27, 2008
Daily Monitor Uganda is likely to face a shortage of reproductive health
June 27, 2008 commodities by October this Network for African
A fertility rate of 6.7 per cent among Ugandan Women Ministers and Parliamentarians members said.
women is contributing to the country’s high “We are likely to have a severe shortage of condoms by
population which experts say is now growing by October, Mityana MP Sylivia Namabidde said. “It will be
1.2 million people annually. very severe if the Ministry of Health does not prioritise
these commodities.” Members of NAWMP said the
This surge in population growth, which is budget had not addressed the issue of reproductive health
reportedly among the highest worldwide threatens yet the country is among those committed to attaining
to put enormous pressure on the government’s Millennium Development goals and especially the fifth
ability to provide social services like health, MDG. The fifth MDG aims at reducing of maternal
education and housing. deaths to three quarters by the year 2015. However, the
“Every year the population of Uganda increases by members said the country was unlikely to achieve this
over 1.2 million people, and at this rate, the country since the budget never mentioned anything about
will have 130 million people by 2050,” the maternal health.
Population Secretariat said in a statement to
announce this years’
Only 38% Ugandans Know
Population Day set for July 11.
Their HIV Status
Uganda will celebrate the day in Mbarara District
under the theme “Promote and Invest in family Daily Monitor
Planning for National Development’. April 19, 2008
The day focuses on the right to access to family The Minister of Health, Steven Mallinga has said 38 per
planning information and services to help people cent Ugandans know their HIV status and said this
make informed choices about reproductive health number is still low if HIV/Aids is to be controlled and
issues. prevented from spreading further. Dr Mallinga disclosed
this on Thursday while launching the Routine HIV
“This theme is timely because Uganda’s population Counseling and Testing at Hoima Regional Referral
is growing at a high rate and there are few Hospital. The Minister called upon the entire population
measures in place to check this, “the statement to go for free HIV/Aids counseling and testing.
reads in part. ☻☻☻☻☻☻
-53- Traditional African Clinic October 2008
Mission Statement Herb of the Month
KATAZAMITI (Bridelia micrantha)
Our aim at The African Traditional Herbal
Research Clinic is to propagate and promote the Despite intensive efforts to control malaria and HIV/AIDS,
these diseases continue to be the greatest health problems
awareness in Afrikan peoples at home and abroad of
facing Africa. It is estimated that there are at least 300
their health, biodiversity, history and cultural million clinical cases (worldwide) of malaria per annum,
richness. We gather pertinent information on these making it and HIV/AIDS (33-36 million worldwide) two of
issues and disseminate these freely to our people in the top three killers among diseases in Africa.
Uganda, the rest of the continent, and anywhere in
Katazamiti, native to sub-Saharan Africa is a semi-
the Diaspora where Afrikans are located…. One of
deciduous to deciduous tree up to 20 m tall with a dense
the main ingredients for increasing poverty, sickness, rounded crown and tall, bare stem. All parts of the plant are
exploitation and domination is ignorance of one's used in traditional medicine. Bridelia micrantha, as it is
self, and the environment in which we live. formerly called, is traditionally used in the treatment of
Knowledge is power and the forces that control our stomach ailments and diseases such as gastritis,
lives don't want to lose control, so they won't stop at salmonellosis, gastro-enteritis, diarrhea and constipation,
anything to keep certain knowledge from the people. tapeworms and as an emetic for poisons (causes vomiting).
Therefore, we are expecting a fight and opposition to Scientific studies have shown that extracts of the whole
our mission. However, we will endeavor to carry stem demonstrate antimicrobial activity by inhibiting the
growth of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and
forward this work in grace and perfect ways.
campylobacter jejuni/coli. It is used as a treatment for skin
problems such as ulcers, boils and rashes; for respiratory
“Where there is no God, there is no culture.
problems such as persistent cough, TB, pneumonia,
Where there is no culture, there is no
bronchitis and pleurisy; as an analgesic (pain reliever); as
indigenous knowledge. Where there is no
an antimalarial; for toothache and gum diseases; for painful
indigenous knowledge, there is no history.
menstruation; to prevent abortion; as a stimulate and
Where there is no history, there is no science
restorative tonic (alternative) for fortifying pregnant
or technology. The existing nature is made
women; for sickle cell anemia, HIV/AIDS; and anemia in
by our past. Let us protect and conserve our
general. Preliminary research on medical properties of
Katazamiti has shown this herb to be beneficial in treating
☻☻☻☻☻☻ HIV/AIDS as it cures diarrhea and stomach discomfort and
has anti-cancer properties, which are common illnesses in
CALENDAR OF EVENTS AIDS and contributes to the well-being of the patient. It has
also been shown to be a possible principle inhibitor to HIV-
SPECIAL EVENT: 1 reverse transcriptase. Katazamiti is also traditionally used
PLACE: AFRIKAN TRADITIONAL HERBAL RESEARCH CLINIC in treating psychological problems such as neurosis and
TIME: psychosis and for protection against one’s enemies.
Afrikan Traditional Herbal Research Clinic BULK RATE
1175A Mukalazi Road, P.O. Box 29974 US POSTAGE
Bukoto, Kampala, Uganda East Africa PAID
Phone: +256 (0) 782 917 902 PERMIT NO.
Email: email@example.com 00000
ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED Mailing Address
Street Number and Name
City, Country, etc.
-54- Traditional African Clinic October 2008