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IPv6 TUTORIAL

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					    IPv6 TUTORIAL
      Ramón Sierra Pérez
High Performance Computing facility
                       What is IPv6?
  ●   Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation Internet
      Protocol version designated as the successor to IPv4.
  ●   The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the
      foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion.
  ●   IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet Engineering
      Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard
      specification, RFC 2460.




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                  Motivations: Why IPv6?
  ●   Foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion.
           –   Projected IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
               Unallocated Address Pool Exhaustion: 23-Sep-2011
           –   Projected RIR (Regional Internet Registry) Unallocated
               Address Pool Exhaustion: 09-Oct-2012
  ●   How much space do you have?
           –   Is that enough?
  ●   NAT will solve this problem?
           –   Can you manage a network or diagnose a problem that
               is 3 layers of NAT deep?
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                  Motivations: Why IPv6?
  ●   There are IPv6-only networks on the Internet
  ●   Do you have programs with foreign universities?
           –   If they move to IPv6, where does that leave you and
               those students?
  ●   If your website & services are only accessible via
      IPv4, will you ever know that opportunities you've
      missed?
  ●   Others

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           IPv6 Addressing



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                IPv6 Addressing Scheme
  ●   128 bit long addresses
           –   # of IP's in IPv6: 2128 =
               340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
           –   # of IP's in IPv4: 232 = 4,294,967,296
  ●   Use CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)
      principles:
           –   Prefix/prefix length
                ●   2001:0468:1300::/40
                ●   2001:0468:1300:1234:dead:beef:0f00:cafe/64
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                           Address Format
  ●   Base Format (a 128 bits Global IPv6 Address):
           –   2001:0660:3003:0001:0000:0000:6543:210F
  ●   Compact Format:
           –   2001:0660:3003:1::6543:210F
                ●   In order to avoid ambiguity, “::” can occur only once.
                ●   leading zeros in a field are optional.




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                         IPv6 Address Types
  ●   Unicast Address:
           –   Link-local:
                 ●   Can only be used between nodes of the same link
                 ●   Cannot be routed
                 ●   Format: FE80:0:0:0:<interface identifier>
           –   Site-local:
                 ●   Similar to Private Networks in IPv4
                 ●   FEC0:0:0:0:<interface identifier>
           –   Global aggregatable address:
           –   IPv4-compatible: i.e. 2201:0468:1300:000a::136.145.54.100/64

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                       IPv6 Address Types
  ●   Multicast Address:
           –   The multicast address specifies a set of interfaces, possibly at
               multiple locations.
           –   Prefix: FF00::/8
  ●   Anycast Address:
           –   Uses global unicast address.
           –   One-to-nearest. More than one device share the same address.




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           EUI-64 in IPv6
           EUI = Extended Unique Identifier


                               ●      The first step is to convert the
                                      48-bit MAC address to a 64-bit
                                      value. To do this, we break the
                                      MAC address into its two 24-bit
                                      halves: the Organizationally
                                      Unique Identifier (OUI) and the
                                      NIC specific part. The 16-bit hex
                                      value 0xFFFE is then inserted
                                      between these two halves to
                                      form a 64-bit address.




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           EUI-64 in IPv6
                         ●      The second step is to invert the
                                universal/local (U/L) flag (bit 7)
                                in the OUI portion of the
                                address. A 1 in that place
                                indicates the MAC address is
                                unique.




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           Address Scheme




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                         Address Scheme
       ●    2 0 0 1 : 0 4 6 8 : 1 3 X X : X X X X : : /64




                                                            CONNECTOR – 8 bits


                                                                                 DATA TYPE – 4 bits

                                                                                                      BUILDING – 8 bits

                                                                                                                          CLOSET – 4 bits
           28 = 256 connectors
           24 = 16 data types
           28 = 256 buildings, dept, etc.
           24 = 16 closet




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           IPv6 Features and Benefits



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               IPv6 Features and Benefits
  ●   Stateless auto-configuration
           –   no server necessary
           –   IPv4 autoconfig required DHCP server
  ●   Larger address space
           –   End-to-end transparency. No need to use address
               translation tech. (NAT).
  ●   Less operation cost in routers
           –   Path MTU discovery (PTMUD) Mandatory. No
               fragmentation in routers.
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               IPv6 Features and Benefits
           –   Efficient and Hierarchical Addressing and Routing
               Infrastructure. Meaning smaller routing tables.
  ●   Better Support for QoS
           –   IPv6 has an improved ability to prioritize packets as
               QOS instructions are built in to the IPv6 packet header.
           –   The flow label identifies packets which need special
               treatment.




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     Routing Protocols, DNS, and
               DHCP


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                       Routing Protocols
●   Numerous IPv4 routing protocols (RPs) are available
    for finding routes between networks, and almost
    every one of them has an IPv6 correspondent or
    extension:
           –   RIPng: Routing Information Protocol next-generation
           –   OSPFv3: Open Shortest Path First version 3
           –   ISIS: Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System
           –   EIGRP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
           –   BGP: Border Gateway Protocol version 4+
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                                            DNS
                              DNS Extensions for IPv6
  ●       AAAA: forward lookup (Name  IPv6 Address)
              –   Equivalent to 'A' record
              –   Example:
                  ●   foo.hpcf.upr.edu. IN A 192.168.1.1
                                        IN AAAA 2001:1234:5678:1::1
  ●       PTR: reverse lookup (IPv6 Address  Name)
      –       Example:
          ●   192.168.1.1 IN PTR foo.hpcf.upr.edu.
              1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.1.0.0.0.8.7.6.5.4.3.2.1.1.0.0.2 IN PTR foo.

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                                     DHCP
  ●   There are two basic methods defined for
      autoconfiguration of IPv6 hosts:
           –   Stateless Autoconfiguration: a host obtains its address
               without the need of an external server.
           –   Stateful Autoconfiguration: hosts obtain interface
               addresses or configuration information and parameters
               from a server (i.e. DHCP).
                ●   “In order to prevent host from doing
                    autoconfiguration, you must tell the router to either
                    not advertise the prefix or unset the
                    autoconfiguration bit in the prefix information option”.
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                                 DHCP
  ●   Network declaration:
           –   subnet6 2607:f140:800:8001::/64 {
                }
  ●   To assign a fixed IPv6 address, you need the DUID
      (DHCP Unique Identifier) of the client:
           –   host foo.hpcf.upr.edu {
                00:01:00:01:10:c6:53:b5:00:d0:b7:6f:de:4b;
                fixed-address6 2607:f140:800:8001:dddd:1:dead:beef;


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           IPv6 Transition



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                          IPv6 Transition
 ●   A wide range of techniques have been identified
     and implemented, basically falling into three
     categories:
           –   Dual Stack: to allow IPv4 and IPv6 to co-exist in the
               same devices and networks.
           –   Tunneling: to allow IPv6 hosts and routers to connect
               with other IPv6 hosts and routers over the existing IPv4
               Internet.
           –   Translation: to allow IPv6-only devices to communicate
               with IPv4-only devices
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Description: CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) on the Internet is a way to create additional address, these addresses are provided to the service provider (ISP), and then assigned by the ISP to the customer. CIDR routing together, so that the backbone of an IP address on behalf of thousands of service providers, IP address, thereby reducing the burden on Internet routers.