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					IPv6 표준화 동향

동국대학교 컴퓨터 공학과
    안종석
           What Is IPv6?
IPv6 comes from current IPv4
– Keep the useful functions but remove no used
  functions
Easy to transit to IPv6 without interruption
Meets the requirements of various
emerging applications in today’s market
Is not compatible to IPv4 but still supports
other protocols such as TCP, UDP, ICMP,
IGMP, OSPF, BGP, and DNS

                                             2/40
               IPv6 History
For a new IP, IETF issued a call for proposals in RFC1550
By December 1992, seven serious proposals arrived
– CNAT, IP Encaps, Nimrod, Simple CLNP, PIP, SIP, and TP/IX
IPng(Next Generation Internet Protocol) was
recommended by the IPng Area Directors of IETF at the
Toronto IETF meeting on July 25, 1994 in RFC1752
RFC1752 was made a proposed standard on November
17, 1994
The core set (RFC2460) of IPv6 protocols were made an
IETF Draft standard on August 10, 1998
– IPv5 was already in use for an experimental real-time
  stream protocol

                                                          3/40
            Why IPv6?
Enough large address space
Small routing tables
Simple protocol for high-speed routers
Better security
QoS guarantee
Multicast scope specification
One IP address for roaming hosts
Easy transition to the new IP protocol
                                         4/40
Enough Large Address Space
The IPv4 32-bit address space has been nearly
consumed
– Inefficient address utilization due to the IPv4 address
  class (A, B, C)
– Up to 1995, 34% of the total address space(3.8 billion)
  has been consumed
– More serious to Asia and Europe comparing to US
Enormous number of next-generation devices are
emerging
– Mobile phones, home electronic devices, specially TV
– Introduction of CIDR(classless inter domain routing) and
  NAT(network address translator) just slows down running-
  out of IPv4 addresses
                                                        5/40
        Small Routing Table
Random distribution of IP addresses without any
systematic allocation scheme, allowing not much
aggregation (topology and addressing are
orthogonal)
Requires huge search time due to BPM (best prefix
matching) problem
– Mae-east: 50,000, Mae-west:30,000, PacBell:25,000,
  DongGuk Univ.:7,000 in December 1999
– Big enough not to be held in cache
A variety of data structures for expediting forwarding
process at the Giga-bit speed are proposed
– Small forwarding table, LC-trie, multiway&multicolumn, etc.
                                                       6/40
            Simple Protocol
13 fields in IPv4 header
Causes the performance degradation of routers
– Variable header size
– All routers are required to process all IPv4 option field
– Should deal with the fragmentation when two neighboring
  networks have different MTU size
– Generate new checksum for every datagram due to the
  decrement of the hop count
Due to the limit on the maximum datagram size
(216 bytes), inappropriate to high-speed networks
Due to the limit on the header size (4*24 bytes),
the number of options are limited
                                                       7/40
             Better Security
Currently provides no security mechanisms
– Authentication by a combination of IP address, TCP port,
  and TCP sequence number
– Easy to hack (Most datagrams carry plain text)
– Currently application layer (PGP, SSH, SSL) provides the
  security mechanisms for each application purpose
Security becomes a common function to be
implemented for each packet
– IP layer needs to provide mechanisms for secrecy
  (DES,IDEA, RSA), authentication (Diffie-Hellman, Key
  Distribution Center Public-key cryptography),
  nonrepudiation (Digital Signature), and integrity control
  (MD5, SHA)
Scalable Key Distribution Algorithms
– Iolus, GKMP, Scalable Multicast Key Distribution       8/40
          QoS Guarantee
A representative protocol for QoS:
RSVP(ReSerVation Protocol)
– No scalability due to the requirement of
  maintaining per-flow state in routers
– For better scalability, needs to introduce CoS
No connection-oriented service
– Each datagram can take different paths
No agreement on traffic descriptors,
scheduling mechanisms, policing,
admission control algorithms
                                               9/40
Multicast Scope Specification
No multicast scope specification in IPv4
– Simply use TTL field to specify the multicast
  scope
No provision for searching the nearest
server of the same group
– Applications can find the nearest one by
  incrementing TTL field
No DNS(Domain Name Service) for
multicast groups
– Need to memorize each multicast group
  address
                                                  10/40
One IP Address for Roaming
          Hosts
In IPv4, the logical address specifies the
physical location
– Needs to change the IP address when a host
  moves to other networks
– Routers need to map the old IP address with
  the newly allocated IP address
No plug-n-play
– Needs IP allocation stateful servers (DHCP)
– Zero configuration networking

                                                11/40
 IPv6 Standardization Organization
                              ISOC(Internet Society)

                         IAB(Internet Architecture Board)

                     IESG(Internet Engineering Steering Group)

                                       IETF

                               IETF Functional Area

Application      General          Operation and        Routing     Transport
                                  Management
                                                                            User
          Internet                                           Security      Servic
                                                                             e
           IPNG                        NGT
         (ipngwg)                    (ngtrans)                          12/40
Organization for IPv6 Address
          Allocation




                            13/40
                IPv6 Forum
Non-profit industry forum (www.ipv6forum.com)
Established in March 14th, 1999 at IETF in
Minneapolis
To promote IPv6
– Establish an open, international Forum of IPv6 expertise
– Share IPv6 knowledge and experience among members
– Promote new IPv6-based applications and global
  solutions
– Promote interoperable implementations of IPv6 standards
– Cooperate to achieve an end-to-end quality of service
– Resolve issues that create barriers to IPv6 deployment
About 75 IPv6 forum members
– AT&T, MCI, Sprint, Sun, Cisco, IBM, MS, 3Com        14/40
         Status of Protocol
           Specifications
Refer to www.ietf.org or playground.sun.com/ipng
Up to 2000, IPNG WG has around 60 documents in
progress
Well established specifications
– IPv6 base spec., ICMPv6, Neighbor Discovery, Multicast
  Listener Discovery, PMTU Discovery, IPv6-over-Ethernet
Other specifications behind on the standards track
– Mobile IPv6, Header Compression, DNS A6 support, IPv6-
  over-NBMA (Non Broadcast Multiple Access:ATM, SMDS,
  X.25, etc), etc


                                                    15/40
      Current Issues in IPv6
Almost done with basic standardization
Some implementation issues are still remained
– How to renumber with little cost when switching to other
  ISPs ?
– How to efficiently aggregate IPv6 addresses in routers ?
– How to easily transit from IPv4 to IPv6 without
  interruption ?
– How to deploy IPv6 over various networks ?
– PPP(RFC2472), Ethernet(RFC2464), FDDI(RFC2467),
  Token Ring(RFC2470), ATM(RFC2492), IEEE1394(draft-
  fujisawa-ip1394-ipv6-03.txt), Frame Relay(draft-ietf-
  ion-ipv6-fr-02.txt)

                                                       16/40
       RFCs from ipngwg
  Draft    Proposed                                  Historical
                      Informational Ex perimental
Standard   Standard                                 /O bsoleted
RFC 2460   RFC 2675    RFC 1881       RFC1888        RFC 2147
RFC 2461   RFC 2492    RFC 2375       RFC 2471       RFC 1970
RFC 2462   RFC 2491    RFC 2450                      RFC 1971
RFC 2463   RFC 2373    RFC 2553                      RFC 1885
RFC 1981   RFC 2374    RFC 2292                      RFC 1972
           RFC 2464                                  RFC 1995
           RFC 1886                                  RFC 2073
           RFC 2467                                  RFC 2019
           RFC 2470                                  RFC 1897
           RFC 2452                                  RFC 2023
           RFC 2454                                  RFC 1887
           RFC 2465                                  RFC 2133
           RFC 2466
           RFC 2472
           RFC 2473        http://www.ietf.org/html.chart
           RFC 2497
           RFC 2507        ers/ipngwg-charter.html
           RFC 2508
           RFC 2509
           RFC 2526
                           Specifications for the core
           RFC 2529        IPv6 functionality
           RFC 2710
           RFC 2711
                                                                  17/40
              RFCs from ngtrans
http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ngtrans-
charter.html
Specify the tools and mechanisms used transition
to IPv6


     Draft     Proposed                                 Historical
                          Informational Experimental
   Standard    Standard                                /Obsoleted
               RFC 1933    RFC 2185
               RFC 2765    RFC 2767
               RFC 2766    RFC 2772

                                                                     18/40
               17 Drafts for ipngwg
Separating Identifiers and Locators in Addresses: An Analysis of the GSE
Proposal for IPv6
Router Renumbering for IPv6
IPv6 Node Information Queries
Site prefixes in Neighbor Discovery
DNS Extensions to Support IPv6 Address Aggregation and Renumbering
Routing of Scoped Addresses in IPv6
Initial IPv6 Sub-TLA ID Assignments
IPv6 Management Information Base for the Multicast Listener Discovery Protocol
Advanced Sockets API for IPv6
Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6
Multihomed routing domain issues for IPv6 aggregatable scheme
An Extension of Format for IPv6 scoped address
Default Address Selection for IPv6
IPv6 Multihomed with Route Aggregation
IPv6 Addressing Architecture
IPv6 Scoped Address Architecture
Basic Socket Interface Extensions for IPv6                           19/40
         12 Drafts for ngtrans
Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers
Overview of Transition Techniques for IPv6-only to Talk to
IPv4-only communication
Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds without Explicit
Tunnels
IPv6 Tunnel Broker
A Guide to the Introduction of IPv6 in the IPv4 World
A SOCKS-based IPv6/IPv4 Gateway Mechanism
6BONE Pre-Qualification for Address Prefix Allocation
(6PAPS)
Dual Stack Transition Mechanism (DSTM)
An IPv6-to-IPv4 transport relay translator
6BONE pTLA and pNLA Formats (pTLA)
IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels for home to Internet access
Survey of IPv4 Addresses in Currently Deployed IETF
Standards                                                20/40
RFCs or Drafts from other WG (1)
 Internetworking Over NBMA (ion) WG
  – draft-ietf-ion-ipv6-ind-03.txt: Extensions to IPv6
    Neighbor Discovery for Inverse Discovery Specification
  – RFC 2491: IPv6 over Non-Broadcast Multiple Access
    (NBMA) networks
  – RFC 2492: IPv6 over ATM Networks
  – RFC 2590: Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Frame Relay
    Networks Specification
 IP Routing for Wireless/Mobile Hosts (mobileip) WG
  – draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6-12.txt: Mobility Support in IPv6


                                                          21/40
    RFCs from other WG(2)
Service Location Protocol (svrloc) WG
– draft-ietf-svrloc-ipv6-08.txt: Service Location Protocol
  Modifications for IPv6
IS-IS for IP Internets (isis) WG
– draft-ietf-isis-ipv6-00.txt: Routing IPv6 with IS-IS
Inter-Domain Routing (idr) WG
– RFC 2545: Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol Extensions for
  IPv6 Inter-Domain Routing
Open Shortest Path First IGP (ospf) WG
– RFC 2740: OSPF for IPv6

                                                         22/40
   RFCs from other WG(3)
Protocol Independent Multicast (pim) WG
– draft-ietf-pim-ipv6-03.txt : Protocol
  Independent Multicast Routing in the Internet
  Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
Routing Information Protocol (rip) WG
– RFC2081 : RIPng Protocol Applicability
  Statement
– RFC2080: RIPng for IPv6


                                              23/40
              Core RFCs
RFC2460: Internet Protocol, IPv6 Specification, S.
Deering, R. Hinden, Draft standard, 1998-12-01
RFC2461: Neighbor Discovery for IPv6, T Narten, E.
Nordmark, W. Simpson, Draft standard, 1998-12-01
RFC2462: IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration,
S. Thomson, T. Narten, Draft standard, 1998-12-01
RFC2463: Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMPv6) for IPv6 Specification, A. Conta, S.
Deering, Draft standard, 1998-12-01
RFC1981: Path MTU Discovery for IPv6, J. McCann,
S. Deering, J Mogul, Proposed standard, 1996-08-
01
                                             24/40
     RFCs for IPv6 Address
RFC2373: IPv6 Addressing Archietecture, R. Hinden,
S. Deering, 1998-07-01
– 128bits:7x1023 IP addresses per square meter, anycast,
  supports NSAP, IPX, etc
RFC2374: An IPv6 Aggregatable Global Unicast
Address Format, R. Hinden, M O’Dell, S. Deering,
Proposed standard, 1998-07-01
Draft-ietf-ipngwg-esd-analysis-05.txt: 1999-10-19
– Separating Identifiers and Locators in Addresses: An
  Analysis of the GSE Proposal for IPv6
Draft-ietf-ipngwg-iana-tla-03.txt: 2000-01-14
– Initial IPv6 Sub-TLA ID Assignments
                                                         25/40
      RFCs for IPv6 Routing
RFC2080: RIPng for IPv6, G. Malkin, R. Minnear, Proposed
standard, 1997-01-01
RFC2283: Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4, T. Bates, R.
Chandra, D. Katz, Y. Rekhter, Proposed standard, 1998-02-
01
RFC2545: Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol Extensions for IPv6
Inter-Domain Routing, P. Marques, F. Dupont, Proposed
standard, 1999-03-01
RFC2740: OSPF for Ipv6, P. Coltun, D. Ferguson, J. Moy,
1999-10
Draft-ietf-ipng-scoped-routing.03.txt: 2000-03-03
– Routing of Scoped Addresses in IPv6
Draft-ietf-pim-ipv6-02.txt, 1999-11-12
– PIM in IPv6
                                                     26/40
     RFCs for IPv6 Security
RFC2402: Authentication Header
– Provides authentication and non-repudiation
  mechanisms
– Independent from security algorithms but in default MD5
– No specification on key management protocol
– SPI(Security Parameter Index) provides the coupling
  between the key management protocol and security
  protocol
RFC2406: Encapsulated Security Protocol
– Provides secrecy (DES-CBC)
RFC2094: GKMP
– Proposes a hierarchical key distribution structure for
  dynamic rekeying
                                                           27/40
         RFCs for IPv6 QoS
RFC1809
– Information for how to handle Flow Label field in the
  router such as a non-default QoS or real-time service
– No IPv6 specification but only informational
RFC2474
– Define differentiated service using DS(priority) field
– Classified into two groups(congestion-controlled, non-
  congestion-controlled traffic)
– Map the codepoint in DS field to PHB(Per-Hop Behavior)
– PHBs can be realized by the scheduling mechanisms
  (WFQ, WRR, CBQ, etc)

                                                      28/40
     RFCs for Multihoming
Draft-ietf-ipngwg-default-addr-select-
00.txt
Draft-ietf-ipngwg-ipv6multihome-with-
aggr-00.txt
– IPv6 multihoming with route aggregation
Draft-ietf-ipngwg-multi-isp-00.txt
– Multihomed routing domain issues for IPv6
  aggregatable scheme


                                              29/40
   RFCs for Moving Hosts &
      Autoconfiguration
Draft-ietf-dhc-dhcpv6-14.txt
RFC2462
– Stateless AA(Address Autoconfiguration) process for
  link-local, site-local, and global addresses
Draft-ietf-ipng-dns-lookups-06.txt
– DNS extensions to support IPv6 (A6, DNAME, binary
  labels)
Router Renumbering for IPv6, draft-ietf-ipngwg-
router-renum-09.txt M. Crawford, 1999-07-01
– Describes a mechanism for router renumbering
Draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6-10.txt
Draft-ietf-ipng-site-prefixes-04.txt
– About renumbering site local addresses                30/40
    RFCs for Transition to IPv6
RFC1933, RFC2185, RFC2546
– Transition mechanisms (use of the dual stack, etc) for
  IPv6 hosts and Routers
– Routing aspects of IPv6 transition
– 6Bone routing practice
Drafts
–   Application level gateway: SOCKS
–   Header translation: SIIT, NAT-PT(RFC2766), BIS
–   Protocol encapsulation: DSTM
–   Tunneling inside IPv4 networks: 6 to 4, Tunnel Broker
–   Tunneling for home


                                                            31/40
           TestBed for IPv6
       TestBed      Nations               Description
6Bone            World Wide        IPng test
6REN             World Wide        6TAP(USA&Canada)
WIDE             Japan             v6 network
JOIN             Germany           v6 interconnection test
DEnet            Denmark           v6 network
G6               France            v6 test
                                   v6 Training and
TICL             England
                                   education
VT               USA               IPng for campus
GRNET            Greek             v6 network
CERNET           China             v6 network
                 NLA1     ETRI, APAN-KR, events
6Bone-KR                  SSU,KAIST,HYU,INET,KT,ICU,DGU,
                 NLA2     SGU,Nitz,SMWU,KKU                  32/40
                  6Bone
http://www.6bone.net (RFC2471, RFC2545,
RFC2772, draft-ietf-ngtrans-6bone-ptla-00.txt,
draft-ietf-ngtrans-6bone-6papa-01.txt)
385 sites, 41 countries, started from 1995
To assist in the evolution and deployment of IPv6
in the Internet
Testbed for IPv6, built using a mesh of IPv6 tunnel
s over IPv4 using the current Internet.
 Allocates test addresses (3ffe::/16, RFC2471)
6Bone registery provided by Qwest
                                               33/40
   6REN(IPv6 Research and
     Education Networks)
ESnet initiative: Research and education network
using native IPv6
Need for at least one exchange point to connect
IPv6 networks together: 6TAP
– 6TAP project is jointly sponsored by Canarie and ESnet
  (Energy Service Network)
– First phase is a single router receiving all ATM IPv6 PVCs
– The 6TAP router will provide IPv6 routing information and
  transit traffic forwarding
– Tunneled IPv6 links will be serviced soon
– A dedicated server will provide IPv6 tunnels to sites that
  do not have ATM connectivity to the StarTAP later

                                                        34/40
IPv6 Implementation in Linux(1)
    번호          IPv6 헤더정보                        Linux 2.2.X 구현상태                비고
    1    Version(4bit)                                 구현완료
    2    Traffic Class(8bit)                             없음
                                                                           구현
                                          FlowLabel support in kernel
                                                                           완료
                                                                           작업
    3    Flow Label(20bit)                 FlowLabel specific routing
                                                                           중
                                        FlowLabel support on application   구현
                                                     level                 완료
    4    Payload Length(16bit)                         구현완료
    5    Next Header(8bit)                             구현완료
    6    Hop Limit(8bit)                               구현완료
    7    Source Address(128bit)                        구현완료
    8    Destination Address(128bit)                   구현완료
         Hop-by-Hop Option/                                                     Option
    9                                                  구현완료
         Jumbo payload                                                          Header
         Hop-by-Hop Option/                                                     Option
    10                                                 구현완료
         Router alert                                                           Header
                                                                                Option
    11   Routing Information                           구현완료
                                                                                Header
                                                                                Option
    12   Fragmentation Identification                  구현완료
                                                                                Header
                                          FreeS/WAN(IPSec implementation)       Option
    13   Authentication/ESP
                                                     (작업 중)                     Header
                                                                                Option
    14   ICMP                                          구현완료
                                                                                Header
    15   TCP/UDP Header                                구현완료
                                                                                         35/40
IPv6 Implementation in Linux (2)
                기타 Features                Linux 2.1.X 구현상태    비고
    16   Unicast routing                           현 료
                                                 구 완
    17   Multicast routing                    재 현 지 음
                                            현 구 되 않
    18   Multicast client                          현 료
                                                 구 완
                                                              unicast
    19   Anycast routing                        현 료
                                               구 완            routing
                                                              과유   사
    20   Router discovery                       현 료
                                               구 완
    21   Neighbour discovery                    현 료
                                               구 완
         Static tunneling
    22                                          현 료
                                               구 완
         (IPv6 encapsulated in IPv4)
         Automatic tunneling of
    23   IPv4-compatible           IPv6         현 료
                                               구 완
         addresses
    24   Packet filtering (firewall)            업
                                               작 중
    25   Stateless autoconfiguration            현 료
                                               구 완
    26   DHCPv6                                 없음
         Low      Level       transport
                                          Linux 상에서의 구현상태
         protocol
    27   PPP                                     업
                                                작 중

                                                                        36/40
    IPv6 Tools in Linux
                hostname
                netstat
Configuration
                arp/rarp
   Tools
                ifconfig
                route
                ping6
                tracepath6
   Utilities
                traceroute6
                tcpdump & lincap library



                                           37/40
  Service Schedule for IPv6
Refer to www.ipv6.or.kr
2000.03.24 NTT Europe, 공식 IPv6 주소를 이용한 차세대인터
넷 프로토콜(IPv6) 시범 서비스 발표(IPv6 Trial)
2000.03.23 KRNIC, IPv6 공식주소 할당 서비스 개시
2000.03.13 中 CERNET, Nokia와 함께 자국내 IPv6 기반 차세
대인터넷 망 구축하기로 결정
2000.03.13 NTT America, 최초 상업용 IPv6 Internet
Exchange 서비스 발표
2000.03.09 한국통신, IPv6 공식주소 서비스 시작 (KOREN 가
입자 대상)
2000.03.01 한국전자통신연구원, 국내 최초 IPv6 공식주소 서
비스 시작
2000.02 日, IIJ IPv6 서비스 시작 (Trial Service, 터널링 서비스)
                                               38/40
           IPv6 Products

2000.03.21 마이크로소프트, 윈도2000용 IPv6 키트 발표
2000.03.20 HP, HP-UX11.00용 IPv6 개발자 키트 버전 1.1 발
표
2000.03.19 FreeBSD 4.0 출시, KAME IPv6 기본내장
2000.03.15 Microsoft, 윈도우2000용 IPv6 배포 예정
2000.03.14 Cisco, IPv6 지원 소프트웨어/하드웨어 출시 예정
2000.02.20 日, 히타치 IPv6 지원 Gigabit 라우터 출시
2000.02 SUN, Solaris 8 발표, IPv6 지원
2000.02 ISC, BIND-9 beta 발표, A6,DNAME 지원


                                            39/40
 Some Useful Links on IPv6
Draft: http://www.ietf.org
Ipng wg: http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng
6Bone: http://www.6bone.net
IPv6 users site: http://www.ipv6.org
IPv6 Forum: http://www.ipv6forum.com,
http://www.ipv6.or.kr
6ren: http://www.6ren.net
6Tab: http://www.6tab.net
6Bone registery:
http://whois.6bone.net/~david/6bone/whois.html
IPv6 applications:
ftp://ftp.kame.net/pub/kame/misc
                                            40/40

				
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Description: CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) on the Internet is a way to create additional address, these addresses are provided to the service provider (ISP), and then assigned by the ISP to the customer. CIDR routing together, so that the backbone of an IP address on behalf of thousands of service providers, IP address, thereby reducing the burden on Internet routers.