The researchers said that honey containing different concentrations of polyphenols, these elements are anti-oxidants, is thought to be lower risk of heart disease and cancer, polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, tea and olive oil. While previous studies have shown that honey can lead to improved antioxidant capacity, but the researchers said, this is the first observation of long-term effects of honey research. The study is published in this year's American Chemical Society's annual meeting.
A L A B A M A A & M A N D A U B U R N U N I V E R S I T I E S Protecting Honey Bees ANR-1088 From Pesticides Pesticide Problems can be reduced by applying pes- as fumigants. Pyrethroids, ticides in the evening or early organophosphates, and carba- H oney bees and other insect pollinators play an impor- morning when the air is calm. mates vary in their toxicity to U tant role in the production of Time of Application. bees from relatively non-haz- many crops in Alabama. How- Ideally, pesticides should be ap- ardous to very hazardous, de- ever, since most crops must be plied when there is no wind and pending upon the individual ma- protected from insect pests and when bees are not visiting plants terial or combination of nd diseases, pesticide poisoning is in the area. The time and intensi- materials. Some bacteria, proto- the most serious problem for ty of bee visitation to a given crop zoans, and viruses that are cur- pollinating insects in agricultural depends on the abundance and rently recommended for biologi- areas. Protecting pollinators, es- attractiveness of the bloom. For cal control pose a serious hazard pecially honey bees, from pesti- example, apple trees or clover in to bees. cide poisoning should be part of bloom may be attractive to bees Herbicides, defoliants, and er any pesticide program. The fol- all day while cucumbers and corn desiccants such as paraquat, lowing recommendations can are usually attractive in the morn- MAA, and MSMA reportedly help minimize bee kills. ing and early afternoon hours. In were extremely toxic when fed Pesticides on Blossoms. general, evening or early night to newly emerged worker honey The blossom is usually the only applications are the least harmful bees or when sprayed onto part of a plant that bees visit. to bees. older bees in ﬁeld tests. Most R To avoid killing bees, do not Formulation of Pesticides. tests have shown other materials apply pesticides hazardous to Dusts are usually more haz- in this class to be nonhazardous bees during the blooming peri- ardous to bees than sprays. to bees, except that they kill or Wettable powders often have a damage nectar- or pollen-pro- ev od. When the treated area con- tains the only attractive plants in longer residual effect than emul- ducing plants. bloom within ﬂight range, injury siﬁable concentrates. Granular Fungicides seem to cause lit- may occur to colonies several pesticides seem to present very tle trouble for bees. Captan at miles away. Treating non- little hazard. Ultra-low volume ﬁeld dosages has caused brood blooming crops with a haz- (ULV) formulations of some pes- damage. ie ardous pesticide when cover ticides are much more toxic than Sex Lures, Attractants, and crops, weeds, or wild ﬂowers regular sprays. No effective re- other Hormones usually cause are in bloom within (or near) pellent has been developed that no problem for bees. Occas- the treated ﬁeld may also cause can be added to pesticides to ionally, a few honey bees and w heavy bee losses. keep bees from treated areas. bumblebees have been found in Drift of Pesticides. Drift Toxicity of Pesticides. Most traps containing Japanese beetle occurs from nearly all spray or agricultural pesticides have been lures. dust applications of pesticides tested for their toxicity to honey from a short distance to miles bees. However, laboratory and Precautions for Farmers downwind. Pesticide dusts drift ﬁeld results do not always coin- farther than sprays. Pesticides cide, due to peculiarities of bee and Applicators applied by plane usually drift behavior, length of residual life of • Apply pesticides only farther then those applied by the pesticide, or the effects of dif- when needed. ground equipment. Generally, it ferent formulations. • Use the recommended is less hazardous to apply pesti- Insecticides affect bees in pesticides at the lowest effective cides near apiaries with ground one or more ways: as stomach rate. equipment than by plane. Drift poisons, as contact poisons, and Visit our Web site at: www.aces.edu • Use the pesticide least haz- Bee Kill Estimations label while the common name ardous to bees that will control and chemical ingredients follow 0 - 100 dead bees per day the pest involved. If all recom- in the section called “Active Normal Die-off mended pesticides are equally Ingredients”. For example, the hazardous to bees, use the one 200 - 400 dead bees per day Chevron Chemical Company that has the shortest residual ef- Low Kill manufactures Orthonex (brand fect. name). In the “Active • Use sprays or granules in- 500 - 900 dead bees per day Ingredients” section of the label, stead of dusts. Moderate Kill the name acephate (common • Use ground equipment in- name), is followed by the chemi- 1,000 or more dead bees per cal name. stead of aerial application to day High Kill apply pesticides near bee hives. The following partial list of • Apply pesticides in late af- pesticides represents groups of ternoon or at night when bees The Insecticide materials ranked by toxicity to U are not working the blooms. Container Label honey bees and is presented for general information only. • Avoid drift of pesticides Though not a long docu- Toxicity ranking may vary de- onto plants that are attractive to ment, the insecticide label repre- pending on the formulation of a bees. sents vast amounts of research, nd pesticide. For speciﬁc informa- • Notify beekeepers several legal regulations, and instruc- tion on the effects of a speciﬁc days before applying any pesti- tions. There are thousands of pesticide on honey bees, contact cide that is hazardous to honey registered pesticide formulations. your county Extension ofﬁce. bees. This will give them a Each label clearly gives a brand chance to protect their colonies. name in bold letters across the er However, notiﬁcations are not a release of responsibility. Pesticides Grouped According to Their Relative Degree of Hazard to Honey Bees. (Common name ﬁrst, followed by a brand name example) Precautions for Group I. Beekeepers Hazardous: Generally, these materials kill bees on contact dur- • Place colonies where they R ing application and for one or more days after application. will be away from ﬁelds that are routinely treated with hazardous Highly Toxic pesticides and will not be sub- 2, 4-D (Weed-B-Gone*) ﬂucythrinate (Pay-Off*) ev jected to pesticide drifts. abamectin (Zephyr*) fonofos (Dyfonate*) • Identify your apiary. Post acephate (Orthene*) heptachlor your name, address, and phone azinphos-methyl (Guthion*) lindane (Lindane) number in a conspicuous place bifenthrin (Capture*) malathion (Malathion 50*, Malathion near your apiary. Let farmers carbaryl (Sevin*) ULV) and custom applicators in your carbosulfan (Advantage*) methamidophos (Monitor*, Tamaron*) ie area know where your apiaries chlormephos (Dotan*) methidathion (Supracide*) are located so they will not un- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban*, Dursban*) methiocarb (Mesurol*) knowingly poison them. cyﬂuthrin (Baythroid*) methyl parathion (Penncap-M*) d-phenothrin (Sumithrin*) mevinphos (tech) (Phosdrin*) • Be familiar with pesticides w demeton-s-methyl (Metasystox (i)* monocrotophos (Azodrin*) commonly used in your area and (50-% Premix)) naled (Dibrom*) what their application dates are. diazinon (Spectracide*) omethoate (Folimat*) • Relocate colonies that are dichlorvos (DDVP) oxydemethon-methyl (Metasystox-R*) exposed repeatedly to hazardous dicrotophos (Bibrin*) oxydisulfoton (Disyston S*) pesticides. Also, remember that dimethoate (Cygon*, De-Fend*) parathion (Bladan*) soon after colonies are moved to esfenvalerate (Asana* XL) permethrin (Ambush*, Pounce*) a new location, foraging bees ethion (tech) (Ethanox*) phosmet (Imidan*) etrimfos (Ekamet*) phosphamidon (Dimecron*) search for water. They may col- fenitrothion (Sumithion*) propoxur (Baygon*) lect water that has been contam- fenpropathrin (Farmatox*) pryazophos (Afugan*) inated with pesticides. To re- fensulfothion (Dasanit*) resmethrin (Chrysron*) duce the chance of bee losses, fenthion (Baytex*) tetrachlorvinphos (Gardona*) provide clean water near the fenvalerate (DSMO) (Belmark*) tralomethrin (Scout X-TRA*) hives. 2 Alabama Cooperative Extension System Group II. Moderately Hazardous: These materials can be used with limited damage to bees if not applied on bees in the ﬁeld or on hives near the ﬁeld. Correct application rate, timing, and method of ap- plication are factors that can reduce pesticide kills. Moderately Toxic acetochlor (Acenit*) ﬂuvalinate (tau-ﬂuvalinate) (Mavrik*, endosulfan (Thiodan*) aclonifen (Challenge*) Spur*) terbufos (Counter*) allethrin (Pynamin*) formetanate hydrochloride (Carzol*) endrin (Hexadrin*) alphacypermethrin (Fastac*) mancozeb (Manzate*, Dithane*, Fore*) thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate ametryn (Evik*) methanearsonic acid (MAA) (Evisect*) bromopropylate (Acarol*) neburon (Granurex*, Propuron*) ethoprop (Mocap*) cinmethylin (Argold*) pebulate (Tillam*) thiodicarb (Larvin*, Nivral*) crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Decrotox*) phorate (Geomet*, Thimet*) ﬂufenoxuron (Cascade*) DCPA (Dacthal*) pirimiphos-methyl (Acetellic*) U triforine (Denarin*, Funginex*) diphenamid (Dymid*) sethoxydim (Poast*) disulfoton (DiSyston*, Ekanon*) sulfosate (Touchdown*) Group III. nd Relatively Nonhazardous: These materials can be applied with little harm to bees. Regardless, follow label instructions. Relatively Non-Toxic chloramben (Amniben*) diﬂubenzuron (Dimilin*) chloranil (Chloranil) dikegulac sodium (Atrimmec*) er 2, 4-D butoxyethyl ester (Aqua- chlorbromuron (Maloran*) dimethirimol (Milcurb*) Kleen*) chlordimeform (Chlordimeform) diniconazole-M (Spotless*) 2, 3, 5-T (2, 3, 5-T) chlorﬂurenol (Maintain A*) dinocap (Karathane*) alachlor (Lasso*) chloridazon (Pyramin*) diquat dibromide (Reward*) aldicarb (Temik*) chlormequat chloride (Cycocel*) dithianon (Delan*) aldoxycarb (Standak*) chlorobenzilate (Benzilan*) dithiocarbamates (Metam-sodium, alloxydim sodium (Kusagard*) chlorophacinone (Caid*, Rozol*) Dithane*) R amitraz (Taktic*) chloropicrin (Chlor-O-Pic*) diuron (Seduron*) amitrole (Kytrol*) chlorothalonil (Bravo*) dodemorph acetate (E.C.) ammoniacal copper sulfate (Copac*) chlorotoluron (Dicuran*) (Meltatox*) anilazine (Dyrene*) chloroxuron (Tenoran*) dodine (Melprex*) ev anthraquinone (Corbit*) chlorpropham (Taterpex*, Bud Nip*) endothall (Entothal*) atrazine (tech) (AAtrex*) clofentezine (Apollo* SC) epoxiconazole (OPUS*) maneb (Manex*) copper oxide (Nordox*) ethephon (Cerone*) azadirachtin (Margosan-O*) copper oxychloride (form) ethidimuron (Ustilan*) azamethiphos (Alfacron*) (Recoup*) ethion (Ethiol*) azocyclotin (Peropal*) cyanazine (Bladex*) ethirimol (Ethirimol) ie Bacillus thuringiensis (Gnatrol*) cycloate (Ro-Neet*) ethofumesate (Nortron*) benomyl (Benlate*) cycloxydim (Focus*) ethylﬂuralin (Sonalan*) bantazon (Basagran*) cyhexatin (Metaran*) fenaminosulf (Lesan*) bitertanol (Baycor*) cyproconazole (Sentinel*) fenamiphos (Nemacur*) Bordeaux mixture (Nutra-Spray*) w dalapon (Dalacide*) fenarimol (Rubigan*) bromacil (Hyvar*) daminozide (B-Nine*) fenfuram (Pano-ram*) bromadiolone (Boot Hill*, Maki*) dazomet (Basamid*) fenpropimorph (Funbas*) bromofenoxim (Faneron*) (WP) DCNA (Botran*) fentin hydroxide (Brestanid*) bromoxynil (Emblem*) desmetryn (Semeron*) fenuron (Fenuron) buminafos (Trakephon*) dibromochloropropane (Nemagon*) ferbam (Carbamate*) bupirimate (Nimrod*) dicamba (Banvel*) ﬂuometuron (Cotoran*) butylate (Sutan+*) dichlobenil (Casoron*) ﬂuorodifen (Preforan*) butylate (Anelda* Plus) dichlofenthion (form) (VC-13 ﬂuoroglycofen (Complete*) captfol (Haipen*) Nemacide*) folpet (Folpan*) captan (Captanex*) dichloroprop-P (Duplosan* DP) fosamine ammonium (Krenite*) carbendazim (Delsene*) dichlorprop (Polymone*) fuberidazole (Fuberidazol) carbetamide (Carbetamex*) diclofop-methyl (Hoelon* 3EC) furalaxyl (Fongarid*) carboxin (Vitavax*) dicofol (Kelthane*) chinosol (Beltanol L*) dienochlor (Pentac*) Group III continued on p. 4 Protecting Honey Bees From Pesticides 3 Group III (continued) nitrofen (Nip*, Tok*) TCA (TCA) norﬂurazon (Evital*, Predict*) terbacil (Sinbar*) gibberellic acid (ProGibb*, Gibrel*) nuarimol (Trimdal*) terbumetron (Caragard*) glyodin (Glyodin) oryzalin (Surﬂan*) terbutryn (Terbutrex*) glyphosate (Round-Up*) ovex (Sappiran*) tetradifon (Tedion*) glyphosate (Pondmaster*) oxycarboxin (Plantvax) thiabendazole (Arbortect*, Mertect*) guazatine (Kenopel*) oxyﬂuorfen (Goal*) thiophanate-methyl (Pinnacle*) indole-3-butyric acid (Hormodin*) oxythioquinox (Morestan*) thiram (AAtack*, Chipco*) iprodione (Chipco*) paraquat (Gramoxone*, Starﬁre*) triadimefon (Bayleton*) isopropalin (Paarlan*) PCNB (Terrachlor*, Turfcide*) triadimenol (Baytan*) isoproturon (Alon*) pendimethalin (Prowl*) tribufos (Folex*, DEF*) lenacil (Venzar*) phenmedipham (spin-aid*, Betanal*) trichlamide (Hataclean*) linuron (Lorox*) picloram (Grazon*, Tordon*) trichlorfon (Dipterex*, Proxol*) MCPA (Chiptox*, Weedar*) phosalone (Asovene*, Zolone*) triclopyr (Garlon*, Pathﬁnder*, MCPB (Thistrol*) pirimicarb (Pirimor*) Remedy*) mecoprop (Propal*) PMA (Unisan*) trietrazine (Trietrazine) U mecoprop-p (Duplosan* KV) prochloraz (Abavit*, Omega*) triﬂuralin (Treﬂan*) MEMC (Bagalol*) procymidone (Sumilex*) triphenyltin hydroxide (Brestanid*) mepiquat chloride (Pix*) proﬂuralin (Tolban*) validamycin A (Validacin) metalaxyl (Ridolim*) prometon (Pramitol*) vernolate (Vernam*) nd metalaxyl (Apron*, Subdue*) pronamide (Kerb*) vinclozin (Curalan*, Ornalin*) metaldehyde (Slug N’ Snail*) propachlor (Ramrod*) warfarin (Co-Rax*, Cov-R-Tox*) methamitron (Goltix*) propam (Birgin*) WSSA (Herbisan* 5 EXD, Sulfasan*) methazole (Probe*) prometryn (Caparol*) zineb (Cuprothex*) methoxychlor (Marlate*-EC Non- propamocarb hydrochloride *Brand name of proprietary product. toxic, Dusts toxic) (Banol*, Prevex*) Information taken from: Farm er methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas*) propargite (Comite*, Omite*) Chemicals Handbook, ‘95, Meister metiram (Polyram* DF) propazine (Milo-Pro*, Primatol* P) Publishing Company. metobromuron (Patoran*) propineb (Airone*, Antracol*) Pollinator Protection, 1990. metolachlor (Dual*, Pennant*) prothiocarb (Previcur*) Johansen & Mayer, Wicwas Press, metoxuron (Dosanex*) pyrethrins (EC toxic, sprays, repel- The New Pesticide User’s Guide, metribuzin (Sencor*) lant effects) Bert L. Bohmont, Reston Publishing monalide (Potablan*) pyridate (Tough*) Company. R monolinuron (Aresin*) pyroquilon (Coratop*, Fongorene*) If you have had a serious pesticide MSMA (Diumate*, Daconate*) quinlorac (Facet*) kill and need to know the pesticide nabam (Spring-Bak*) quizalofop-ethyl (Assure*) responsible, dead bee samples must napropamide (Devrinol;*) rotenone (Prentox*, Prenﬁsh) be sent to chemical laboratories for ev neptalam acid (Alanap*) ryania (Natur-Gro R-50) analysis. This service is for hire and naptalam (Alamap*-L, Rescue*) sabdilla (Sabdilla) is not always easily obtainable. nicotine (Nicotine) sethoxydim (Poast*, Vantage*) Contact your county Extension nitralin (Planavin*) simazine (Princep*) agent for assistance. nitrapyrin (N-Serve*) sulfur (Uniﬂow*, Sulfox*, Cosan*) ie James E. Tew, Beekeeping Consultant for Auburn University, Associate Professor, Entomology, Ohio State University Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Follow all directions, precautions, w and restrictions that are listed. Do not use pesticides on plants that are not listed on the label. The pesticide rates in this publication are recommended only if they are registered with the Environmental Protection Agency or the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries. If a registration is changed or cancelled, the rate listed here is no longer recommended. Before you apply any pesticide, check with your county Extension agent for the latest information. Trade names are used only to give speciﬁc information. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System does not endorse or guarantee any product and does not recommend one product in- stead of another that might be similar. For more information, call your county Extension ofﬁce. Look in your telephone directory under your county’s name to ﬁnd the number. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work in agriculture and home economics, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, and other related acts, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System (Alabama A&M University and Auburn University) offers educational programs, materials, and equal opportunity employment to all people without regard to race, color, national origin, religion, ANR-1088 sex, age, veteran status, or disability. UPS, 7M8, New April 1998, ANR-1088
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