Protecting Honey Bees From Pesticides by jlhd32


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									                                        A L A B A M A    A & M    A N D   A U B U R N   U N I V E R S I T I E S

                                        Protecting Honey Bees
                      ANR-1088          From Pesticides
Pesticide Problems                      can be reduced by applying pes-         as fumigants. Pyrethroids,
                                        ticides in the evening or early         organophosphates, and carba-
H     oney bees and other insect
      pollinators play an impor-        morning when the air is calm.           mates vary in their toxicity to
tant role in the production of                Time of Application.              bees from relatively non-haz-
many crops in Alabama. How-             Ideally, pesticides should be ap-       ardous to very hazardous, de-
ever, since most crops must be          plied when there is no wind and         pending upon the individual ma-
protected from insect pests and         when bees are not visiting plants       terial or combination of
diseases, pesticide poisoning is        in the area. The time and intensi-      materials. Some bacteria, proto-
the most serious problem for            ty of bee visitation to a given crop    zoans, and viruses that are cur-
pollinating insects in agricultural     depends on the abundance and            rently recommended for biologi-
areas. Protecting pollinators, es-      attractiveness of the bloom. For        cal control pose a serious hazard
pecially honey bees, from pesti-        example, apple trees or clover in       to bees.
cide poisoning should be part of        bloom may be attractive to bees              Herbicides, defoliants, and
any pesticide program. The fol-         all day while cucumbers and corn        desiccants such as paraquat,
lowing recommendations can              are usually attractive in the morn-     MAA, and MSMA reportedly
help minimize bee kills.                ing and early afternoon hours. In       were extremely toxic when fed
     Pesticides on Blossoms.            general, evening or early night         to newly emerged worker honey
The blossom is usually the only         applications are the least harmful      bees or when sprayed onto
part of a plant that bees visit.        to bees.                                older bees in field tests. Most
To avoid killing bees, do not                 Formulation of Pesticides.        tests have shown other materials
apply pesticides hazardous to           Dusts are usually more haz-             in this class to be nonhazardous
bees during the blooming peri-          ardous to bees than sprays.             to bees, except that they kill or
                                        Wettable powders often have a           damage nectar- or pollen-pro-
od. When the treated area con-
tains the only attractive plants in     longer residual effect than emul-       ducing plants.
bloom within flight range, injury        sifiable concentrates. Granular               Fungicides seem to cause lit-
may occur to colonies several           pesticides seem to present very         tle trouble for bees. Captan at
miles away. Treating non-               little hazard. Ultra-low volume         field dosages has caused brood
blooming crops with a haz-              (ULV) formulations of some pes-         damage.
ardous pesticide when cover             ticides are much more toxic than             Sex Lures, Attractants, and
crops, weeds, or wild flowers            regular sprays. No effective re-        other Hormones usually cause
are in bloom within (or near)           pellent has been developed that         no problem for bees. Occas-
the treated field may also cause         can be added to pesticides to           ionally, a few honey bees and
heavy bee losses.                       keep bees from treated areas.           bumblebees have been found in
     Drift of Pesticides. Drift               Toxicity of Pesticides. Most      traps containing Japanese beetle
occurs from nearly all spray or         agricultural pesticides have been       lures.
dust applications of pesticides         tested for their toxicity to honey
from a short distance to miles          bees. However, laboratory and           Precautions for Farmers
downwind. Pesticide dusts drift         field results do not always coin-
farther than sprays. Pesticides         cide, due to peculiarities of bee       and Applicators
applied by plane usually drift          behavior, length of residual life of        • Apply pesticides only
farther then those applied by           the pesticide, or the effects of dif-   when needed.
ground equipment. Generally, it         ferent formulations.                        • Use the recommended
is less hazardous to apply pesti-             Insecticides affect bees in       pesticides at the lowest effective
cides near apiaries with ground         one or more ways: as stomach            rate.
equipment than by plane. Drift          poisons, as contact poisons, and

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    • Use the pesticide least haz-   Bee Kill Estimations                    label while the common name
ardous to bees that will control                                             and chemical ingredients follow
                                     0 - 100 dead bees per day
the pest involved. If all recom-                                             in the section called “Active
                                     Normal Die-off
mended pesticides are equally                                                Ingredients”. For example, the
hazardous to bees, use the one       200 - 400 dead bees per day             Chevron Chemical Company
that has the shortest residual ef-   Low Kill                                manufactures Orthonex (brand
fect.                                                                        name). In the “Active
    • Use sprays or granules in-     500 - 900 dead bees per day             Ingredients” section of the label,
stead of dusts.                      Moderate Kill                           the name acephate (common
    • Use ground equipment in-                                               name), is followed by the chemi-
                                     1,000 or more dead bees per             cal name.
stead of aerial application to       day High Kill
apply pesticides near bee hives.                                                 The following partial list of
    • Apply pesticides in late af-                                           pesticides represents groups of
ternoon or at night when bees        The Insecticide                         materials ranked by toxicity to
are not working the blooms.          Container Label                         honey bees and is presented for
                                                                             general information only.
    • Avoid drift of pesticides          Though not a long docu-             Toxicity ranking may vary de-
onto plants that are attractive to   ment, the insecticide label repre-      pending on the formulation of a
bees.                                sents vast amounts of research,
                                                                             pesticide. For specific informa-
    • Notify beekeepers several      legal regulations, and instruc-         tion on the effects of a specific
days before applying any pesti-      tions. There are thousands of           pesticide on honey bees, contact
cide that is hazardous to honey      registered pesticide formulations.      your county Extension office.
bees. This will give them a          Each label clearly gives a brand
chance to protect their colonies.    name in bold letters across the
However, notifications are not a
release of responsibility.           Pesticides Grouped According to Their Relative Degree of Hazard to Honey
                                     Bees. (Common name first, followed by a brand name example)
Precautions for                      Group I.
Beekeepers                           Hazardous: Generally, these materials kill bees on contact dur-
    • Place colonies where they
                                     ing application and for one or more days after application.
will be away from fields that are
routinely treated with hazardous     Highly Toxic
pesticides and will not be sub-
                                     2, 4-D (Weed-B-Gone*)                flucythrinate (Pay-Off*)
jected to pesticide drifts.
                                     abamectin (Zephyr*)                  fonofos (Dyfonate*)
    • Identify your apiary. Post     acephate (Orthene*)                  heptachlor
your name, address, and phone        azinphos-methyl (Guthion*)           lindane (Lindane)
number in a conspicuous place        bifenthrin (Capture*)                malathion (Malathion 50*, Malathion
near your apiary. Let farmers        carbaryl (Sevin*)                       ULV)
and custom applicators in your       carbosulfan (Advantage*)             methamidophos (Monitor*, Tamaron*)
area know where your apiaries        chlormephos (Dotan*)                 methidathion (Supracide*)
are located so they will not un-     chlorpyrifos (Lorsban*, Dursban*)    methiocarb (Mesurol*)
knowingly poison them.               cyfluthrin (Baythroid*)               methyl parathion (Penncap-M*)
                                     d-phenothrin (Sumithrin*)            mevinphos (tech) (Phosdrin*)
    • Be familiar with pesticides
                                     demeton-s-methyl (Metasystox (i)*    monocrotophos (Azodrin*)
commonly used in your area and          (50-% Premix))                    naled (Dibrom*)
what their application dates are.    diazinon (Spectracide*)              omethoate (Folimat*)
    • Relocate colonies that are     dichlorvos (DDVP)                    oxydemethon-methyl (Metasystox-R*)
exposed repeatedly to hazardous      dicrotophos (Bibrin*)                oxydisulfoton (Disyston S*)
pesticides. Also, remember that      dimethoate (Cygon*, De-Fend*)        parathion (Bladan*)
soon after colonies are moved to     esfenvalerate (Asana* XL)            permethrin (Ambush*, Pounce*)
a new location, foraging bees        ethion (tech) (Ethanox*)             phosmet (Imidan*)
                                     etrimfos (Ekamet*)                   phosphamidon (Dimecron*)
search for water. They may col-      fenitrothion (Sumithion*)            propoxur (Baygon*)
lect water that has been contam-     fenpropathrin (Farmatox*)            pryazophos (Afugan*)
inated with pesticides. To re-       fensulfothion (Dasanit*)             resmethrin (Chrysron*)
duce the chance of bee losses,       fenthion (Baytex*)                   tetrachlorvinphos (Gardona*)
provide clean water near the         fenvalerate (DSMO) (Belmark*)        tralomethrin (Scout X-TRA*)

2 Alabama Cooperative Extension System
Group II.
Moderately Hazardous: These materials can be used with limited damage to bees if not applied
on bees in the field or on hives near the field. Correct application rate, timing, and method of ap-
plication are factors that can reduce pesticide kills.
Moderately Toxic
acetochlor (Acenit*)                 fluvalinate (tau-fluvalinate) (Mavrik*,    endosulfan (Thiodan*)
aclonifen (Challenge*)                 Spur*)                                 terbufos (Counter*)
allethrin (Pynamin*)                 formetanate hydrochloride (Carzol*)      endrin (Hexadrin*)
alphacypermethrin (Fastac*)          mancozeb (Manzate*, Dithane*, Fore*)     thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate
ametryn (Evik*)                      methanearsonic acid (MAA)                (Evisect*)
bromopropylate (Acarol*)             neburon (Granurex*, Propuron*)           ethoprop (Mocap*)
cinmethylin (Argold*)                pebulate (Tillam*)                       thiodicarb (Larvin*, Nivral*)
crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Decrotox*)     phorate (Geomet*, Thimet*)               flufenoxuron (Cascade*)
DCPA (Dacthal*)                      pirimiphos-methyl (Acetellic*)
                                                                              triforine (Denarin*, Funginex*)
diphenamid (Dymid*)                  sethoxydim (Poast*)
disulfoton (DiSyston*, Ekanon*)      sulfosate (Touchdown*)

Group III.
Relatively Nonhazardous: These materials can be applied with little harm to bees.
Regardless, follow label instructions.
Relatively Non-Toxic                     chloramben (Amniben*)                    diflubenzuron (Dimilin*)
                                         chloranil (Chloranil)                    dikegulac sodium (Atrimmec*)
2, 4-D butoxyethyl ester (Aqua-          chlorbromuron (Maloran*)                 dimethirimol (Milcurb*)
Kleen*)                                  chlordimeform (Chlordimeform)            diniconazole-M (Spotless*)
2, 3, 5-T (2, 3, 5-T)                    chlorflurenol (Maintain A*)               dinocap (Karathane*)
alachlor (Lasso*)                        chloridazon (Pyramin*)                   diquat dibromide (Reward*)
aldicarb (Temik*)                        chlormequat chloride (Cycocel*)          dithianon (Delan*)
aldoxycarb (Standak*)                    chlorobenzilate (Benzilan*)              dithiocarbamates (Metam-sodium,
alloxydim sodium (Kusagard*)             chlorophacinone (Caid*, Rozol*)          Dithane*)
amitraz (Taktic*)                        chloropicrin (Chlor-O-Pic*)              diuron (Seduron*)
amitrole (Kytrol*)                       chlorothalonil (Bravo*)                  dodemorph acetate (E.C.)
ammoniacal copper sulfate (Copac*)       chlorotoluron (Dicuran*)                 (Meltatox*)
anilazine (Dyrene*)                      chloroxuron (Tenoran*)                   dodine (Melprex*)
anthraquinone (Corbit*)                  chlorpropham (Taterpex*, Bud Nip*)       endothall (Entothal*)
atrazine (tech) (AAtrex*)                clofentezine (Apollo* SC)                epoxiconazole (OPUS*)
maneb (Manex*)                           copper oxide (Nordox*)                   ethephon (Cerone*)
azadirachtin (Margosan-O*)               copper oxychloride (form)                ethidimuron (Ustilan*)
azamethiphos (Alfacron*)                 (Recoup*)                                ethion (Ethiol*)
azocyclotin (Peropal*)                   cyanazine (Bladex*)                      ethirimol (Ethirimol)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Gnatrol*)        cycloate (Ro-Neet*)                      ethofumesate (Nortron*)
benomyl (Benlate*)                       cycloxydim (Focus*)                      ethylfluralin (Sonalan*)
bantazon (Basagran*)                     cyhexatin (Metaran*)                     fenaminosulf (Lesan*)
bitertanol (Baycor*)                     cyproconazole (Sentinel*)                fenamiphos (Nemacur*)
Bordeaux mixture (Nutra-Spray*)
                                         dalapon (Dalacide*)                      fenarimol (Rubigan*)
bromacil (Hyvar*)                        daminozide (B-Nine*)                     fenfuram (Pano-ram*)
bromadiolone (Boot Hill*, Maki*)         dazomet (Basamid*)                       fenpropimorph (Funbas*)
bromofenoxim (Faneron*) (WP)             DCNA (Botran*)                           fentin hydroxide (Brestanid*)
bromoxynil (Emblem*)                     desmetryn (Semeron*)                     fenuron (Fenuron)
buminafos (Trakephon*)                   dibromochloropropane (Nemagon*)          ferbam (Carbamate*)
bupirimate (Nimrod*)                     dicamba (Banvel*)                        fluometuron (Cotoran*)
butylate (Sutan+*)                       dichlobenil (Casoron*)                   fluorodifen (Preforan*)
butylate (Anelda* Plus)                  dichlofenthion (form) (VC-13             fluoroglycofen (Complete*)
captfol (Haipen*)                        Nemacide*)                               folpet (Folpan*)
captan (Captanex*)                       dichloroprop-P (Duplosan* DP)            fosamine ammonium (Krenite*)
carbendazim (Delsene*)                   dichlorprop (Polymone*)                  fuberidazole (Fuberidazol)
carbetamide (Carbetamex*)                diclofop-methyl (Hoelon* 3EC)            furalaxyl (Fongarid*)
carboxin (Vitavax*)                      dicofol (Kelthane*)
chinosol (Beltanol L*)                   dienochlor (Pentac*)                     Group III continued on p. 4

                                                                              Protecting Honey Bees From Pesticides   3
Group III (continued)                       nitrofen (Nip*, Tok*)                                 TCA (TCA)
                                            norflurazon (Evital*, Predict*)                        terbacil (Sinbar*)
gibberellic acid (ProGibb*, Gibrel*)        nuarimol (Trimdal*)                                   terbumetron (Caragard*)
glyodin (Glyodin)                           oryzalin (Surflan*)                                    terbutryn (Terbutrex*)
glyphosate (Round-Up*)                      ovex (Sappiran*)                                      tetradifon (Tedion*)
glyphosate (Pondmaster*)                    oxycarboxin (Plantvax)                                thiabendazole (Arbortect*, Mertect*)
guazatine (Kenopel*)                        oxyfluorfen (Goal*)                                    thiophanate-methyl (Pinnacle*)
indole-3-butyric acid (Hormodin*)           oxythioquinox (Morestan*)                             thiram (AAtack*, Chipco*)
iprodione (Chipco*)                         paraquat (Gramoxone*, Starfire*)                       triadimefon (Bayleton*)
isopropalin (Paarlan*)                      PCNB (Terrachlor*, Turfcide*)                         triadimenol (Baytan*)
isoproturon (Alon*)                         pendimethalin (Prowl*)                                tribufos (Folex*, DEF*)
lenacil (Venzar*)                           phenmedipham (spin-aid*, Betanal*)                    trichlamide (Hataclean*)
linuron (Lorox*)                            picloram (Grazon*, Tordon*)                           trichlorfon (Dipterex*, Proxol*)
MCPA (Chiptox*, Weedar*)                    phosalone (Asovene*, Zolone*)                         triclopyr (Garlon*, Pathfinder*,
MCPB (Thistrol*)                            pirimicarb (Pirimor*)                                 Remedy*)
mecoprop (Propal*)                          PMA (Unisan*)                                         trietrazine (Trietrazine)
mecoprop-p (Duplosan* KV)                   prochloraz (Abavit*, Omega*)                          trifluralin (Treflan*)
MEMC (Bagalol*)                             procymidone (Sumilex*)                                triphenyltin hydroxide (Brestanid*)
mepiquat chloride (Pix*)                    profluralin (Tolban*)                                  validamycin A (Validacin)
metalaxyl (Ridolim*)                        prometon (Pramitol*)                                  vernolate (Vernam*)
metalaxyl (Apron*, Subdue*)                 pronamide (Kerb*)                                     vinclozin (Curalan*, Ornalin*)
metaldehyde (Slug N’ Snail*)                propachlor (Ramrod*)                                  warfarin (Co-Rax*, Cov-R-Tox*)
methamitron (Goltix*)                       propam (Birgin*)                                      WSSA (Herbisan* 5 EXD, Sulfasan*)
methazole (Probe*)                          prometryn (Caparol*)                                  zineb (Cuprothex*)
methoxychlor (Marlate*-EC Non-              propamocarb hydrochloride                             *Brand name of proprietary product.
toxic, Dusts toxic)                         (Banol*, Prevex*)                                     Information taken from: Farm
methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas*)                propargite (Comite*, Omite*)                          Chemicals Handbook, ‘95, Meister
metiram (Polyram* DF)                       propazine (Milo-Pro*, Primatol* P)                    Publishing Company.
metobromuron (Patoran*)                     propineb (Airone*, Antracol*)                         Pollinator Protection, 1990.
metolachlor (Dual*, Pennant*)               prothiocarb (Previcur*)                               Johansen & Mayer, Wicwas Press,
metoxuron (Dosanex*)                        pyrethrins (EC toxic, sprays, repel-                  The New Pesticide User’s Guide,
metribuzin (Sencor*)                        lant effects)                                         Bert L. Bohmont, Reston Publishing
monalide (Potablan*)                        pyridate (Tough*)                                     Company.
monolinuron (Aresin*)                       pyroquilon (Coratop*, Fongorene*)                     If you have had a serious pesticide
MSMA (Diumate*, Daconate*)                  quinlorac (Facet*)                                    kill and need to know the pesticide
nabam (Spring-Bak*)                         quizalofop-ethyl (Assure*)                            responsible, dead bee samples must
napropamide (Devrinol;*)                    rotenone (Prentox*, Prenfish)                          be sent to chemical laboratories for
neptalam acid (Alanap*)                     ryania (Natur-Gro R-50)                               analysis. This service is for hire and
naptalam (Alamap*-L, Rescue*)               sabdilla (Sabdilla)                                   is not always easily obtainable.
nicotine (Nicotine)                         sethoxydim (Poast*, Vantage*)                         Contact your county Extension
nitralin (Planavin*)                        simazine (Princep*)                                   agent for assistance.
nitrapyrin (N-Serve*)                       sulfur (Uniflow*, Sulfox*, Cosan*)
                                James E. Tew, Beekeeping Consultant for Auburn University, Associate
                                Professor, Entomology, Ohio State University
                                Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Follow all directions, precautions,
                                and restrictions that are listed. Do not use pesticides on plants that are not listed on the label.
                                The pesticide rates in this publication are recommended only if they are registered with the
                                Environmental Protection Agency or the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries. If a
                                registration is changed or cancelled, the rate listed here is no longer recommended. Before you
                                apply any pesticide, check with your county Extension agent for the latest information.
                                Trade names are used only to give specific information. The Alabama Cooperative Extension
                                System does not endorse or guarantee any product and does not recommend one product in-
                                stead of another that might be similar.
                                For more information, call your county Extension office. Look in your telephone directory
                                under your county’s name to find the number.
                                Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work in agriculture and home economics, Acts of May 8 and June
                                30, 1914, and other related acts, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Alabama
                                Cooperative Extension System (Alabama A&M University and Auburn University) offers educational programs,
                                materials, and equal opportunity employment to all people without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
            ANR-1088            sex, age, veteran status, or disability.                               UPS, 7M8, New April 1998, ANR-1088

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