The Wellcome Trust Eighteenth Report by LondonGlobal


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                    O   EIGHTEENTH
                                REPORT   O



Fiirtlicr copies ofthis report are availnhlc from:

I’iiblicatiotis Oficer
The \Veilconic Trust
1 Park Sqiinrc West
London N\VI 4LJ
Tel: 0711184 4tX2

First piiblislicd lV!O

@The Triisrecsofdic Wcllconte Trust I9‘N)

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I’riiitcd hy Stcwkley Press Ltd, Milton Keynes.

ISUN 1 869835O 7
                                 BOARD OFTRUSTEES                               CHAIRMAN’S INTRODUCTION

Chairman               Sir David Steel, IXO, MC, TI1                                                     Srccl. retired last
                                                                        !vly prcdcccsçiir. Sir I J ~ v i d
                                                                        Octiibcr nircr nlniost iiinc yc3ri as Cli.iiriiian
Ilepiity Cliairiiian   C E Gordon Sniitli, CU. MI). FIICP. FRCl’atli    of IIK Wellcome ï r w . Tlic I?iROs ~ 3 as

Trustees               17 G Gibbs (Cliairiiian Ihignare)
                                                                                        . .
                                                                        ticriocl of n i d eYmiiçioii tir flic Triiçi. with
                                                                        annual research expenditure rising five-fold
                       Tlic Rt Hoii tlie Lord Swanii, FRS               fromS12in in 1980toS60inin theycarcnduig
                        Professor Sir Stnnley I’enrt, MI), FIICP, FRS   30 September 1990. Over tlie past decade, Sir
                       I Hcleii Miiir,CUE. MA, DPhil, IJSc, Fl7S        David lias iiiade a trenieiidous contribution
                       J J U Jack. UM. l’h13                            to tlie Trust’s aE%, but there were IWO
                                                                        events of particular note during his
Secrerary ro           I’ O Williams. DSc(Hoii), MU, FRCI’              Cliairriiaiisliip, both in 198G the 50th
the Trustees                                                            Anniversary of the Trust and the Tnistecs’
                                                                        decision to rcdiice their holding in Wellcoine
                                                                        Foundation Limited from 100 per cent to 75
                                                                        per cent. resulting in the flotation of
                                                                        Wcllconie plc in February ofthar year. It is
                                                                        this diversification. along with the grcat
                                                                        SUCCL‘SS of the Wellcome Group, that has led
                                                                        to the substantial incrase in the Trust’s
                                                                        income; further considerable growth is               RqaCibbs.
                                                                        expected in the coming years. The ïnistces
                                                                        plan to use these additional funds to build on what Sir David, his fellow Tmsten and the snffof
                                                                        the Trust have achieved by broadening the Trust‘s exisring prognmmc and creating new
                                                                           Sir David has clcady IefttheTrusr iiiastrong financial position, which willenableit to niakean
                                                                        even   niore significant contribution to medical research in the 1990s. I would like to nke tbk
                                                                        opportunity of thanking him for the highly effective way he lias led the TNS~ for his     and
                                                                        contribution to medical research.
                                                                           l n tlic past, the Trustees have reported biennially on their activitin but w e now believe the
                                                                        greatly increased volume and nnge of tlie Trust‘s work justifies an annual report. W have rakcn
                                                                        this opportunity to update our traditional forniat.
                                                                           III March 1990, Wellcome plc nioved their head office from tlie Wellcome Building in London’s
                                                                        Euston Road. Sir Henry Wcllcomccreatedthis building in 1931. wirhtheintcntionofntablishing
                                                                        a “niedical research institution”. The Trusrees are now in a position to fulfil that wish. Over the
                                                                        next two years tlic Wellconie Building will be extensively refurbishcd to l~uusc Centre for
                                                                        Medical Science and History. This will include a rnourcc centre. meeting rooms and thc’Scicna
                                                                        for Life’cxliibition. TIieTrust’s ofices and the Wellcome Institute fortheHistoryofMcdicinewill
                                                                        also be located in the building. We hope that in time this Centre will be seen as a national focus for
                                                                        the provision ofresources and facilities for all aspects of medical rcsearch.
                                                                           Tlic 1990s will be an exciting time for the WellcomeTrust and theTrustces look forward, in the
                                                                        final decade of tliis century, to niaking an even niore telling contribution to the funhering of
                                                                        niedical research and niedical history.

                                                                        Roger Gibbs
                                                                        May 19<M

I          INTRODUCTION AND POLICY                                                9

II         FINANCE                                                               19


                                           SPECIAL FELLOWSHIPS
           AND LECTURESHIPSINTHEUK                                               29


           D          SENIOR BASIC BIOMEDICALSCIENCE FELLOWSNIPS                 4¶



           H          WELLCOMEPRlZESTUDEN~HIPS

           I          VACATION SCHOLARSWIPS


           A          M N AH A H
                       ETLEI  T           ANDTHERELATEDNEUROSCIENCES


           C          VETERINARY MEDICINE                                        81

           D          VISION RESEARCH

           E          CLINICALRESEARCH



           A           EUROPEAN PROGRAMME
           B           OTHEROVERSEASAWARDS
           c           TRAVELGRANTS



           B           WELLCOME I S I U E
                                N TT T        FORTHE HIsToRVOFMEOICINE


    IX         WELLCOME F I L M U N I T


    XI         APPENDIX

    XII        INDEXES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ,-.-       ..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               -    - .
      cent rejection rate. Furtlicriiiorc. tlierc arc a number of bodies to \vliich research workers can
      apply. The tendency of tlic M I K is to\vards longer-terni siipport and the reduction of project
      grants tolessthan IJpcrcciitoftlicir budget. icS23iii iiiabiidgctofC1(>31ii.              Chariticstciidtogivc
      a higher proportion as project grmts: the \Vellcoiiie Trust policy is that two-thirds of the funds
      awilalilc should be spent on shorter-tertii siipport. Uiilcss a coniprclieiirive pictiirc ofshort-terni
      h i d i n g is iiiaiiitaiiied rlierc will be a tciidaiicy to draw fnlsc coiicliisioiis about tlie rcqiiirciiieiits.
         As h a s tlic \VellcoiiicTriist is concenicd rlie tiinds arc iiscd according to the perceived iiccds of
      thcrcsearcli coniniiiiiity. not the cniotioiial respoiiscoftlic piiblic to appeals. Iris therefore not tlie
      Icvcl of siipport from govcriiiiieiit so niiidi as tlie effect of legislation that modifies the Trust’s
      activities. If, for instance, overlieads slioitld bc charged on project grants to universities, the
                                    rcli from rlie Triist woiild be greatly reduced. in tlic sanie way, if research
                                     are relatively poorly paid and cannot see a reasonable career prospect aftcra
      long training and appreiiticcsliip. then it mill bccoiiic very dificuit for the charities to sustain the
      cotintry’s nccdr in ternis ofeLctivc research.

      News ofrcccnt awards

      Tlic Iiiist iiiakcs ni:iiiy awards each year aiid these are dcscribcd in later sections of tlic report.               The histitiite ofMolccular Medicine in Oxford- headed by Profcssor Sir David Weatherall-who
      Howcvcr, certain of tlicsc arc either lnrgcr or have iiiorc general signifinncc than flic rest aiid arc               will beconie a Tnistcc from 1 March 1 W - was opened by Her Royal Highnnr ï h e Princess
                                                                                                                            itoyai in June 1989. TlieTriistliad madca contribution to this project which wasjointly funded by
      \\.orthy ofnorc iii a i i introduction.
                                                                                                                            flic MRC, the Wolfsoii Foiiiidatioii aiid the Iiiiperial Cancer Research Fund.
         Tlic first is tlie cstablisliiiieiit of I-litcliiiigs-ElioiiTravelling Fellowships from the United States
      to Britain. Tlicse awards, which will be administered tliroiigli tlic Burroughs WcllcoiiieFund aiid
                                                                                                                               Finally. Sjü WO was awarded to the Royal Socirty of Edinburgh towards the purchase ofits
                                                                                                                            preniiscs in George Street. Edinburgh.
      the Fogarty Foiiiidatioii. will enable senior and postdoctonl scientists to spend iip to two years
      engagedin research in the UK and one year back in the USA. The iiaiiiiiigoftliesc awards after Dr
      Gcorge Hitcliiiigs aiid 13r Ccrtriidc Elion is tlic Triistccs way to shmv tlicir appreciation of tlieir
                                                                                                                            Visits overseas
      work for :lie iVcIlcoiiicCoiiipaiiy in the USA, mliicli led to tlicir being awarded tlic Nobel Prize
      for Mcdiciiic aiid I’liysiology in I9RX.
                                                                                                                            The Chairman aiid Director niade a tour ofTrust aiid Wellcome Foundation ceiitrcs ofactivity
         The biiildiiig of the iVcllconic TriistlCanccr Ilcsearcli Canipaigii liisritutc of Cancer arid
                                                                                                                            ~verseds.Th Trust activities in Janiaica, New Zealand. Austnlia, Thailand and tlic Foundation
      I3cvclopiiiciital Biology in Cnnibridge is no\v well advanced and will be offically opened in 1991.
                                                                                                                            offices aiid fnctorics in Sydney. Singapore aiid Bangkok were visited. This tour was in furtherance
      This is n major initiative and will haven significant iiiipacr in this field.
                                                                                                                            oft& ‘Tnist’s overseas prograniiiies aiid ro niairirain rhc interest of company personnel iii the
         111 recognition of rlic need for better coiiiiiiiinic&ii          in medical rcscarcli the Trust provided          acrivities of tlie Trust. III addition. diiriiig tlic year Sir Stanley k a r t and the Director made their
      funds for a \Vdlcoiiic iVcmiiiiiisrcr Fello~vsliipin rhc Pnrliaiiieiirary OWcc of Science aiid
                                                                                                                            aiiiiiial visit to Sydney roselcctsciiior Aiistraliaii fellows. FiveTrusrees took part in rlieannual visit
      Tcclinology (POST). in thc Hoiises of l’arlianiciit to assist Mcnibcrs of I’arliaiiiciit with                         to tlic Burroughs Wellconic Coiiipaiiy at Ilescarch T~aiigle         Park, North Carolina. Other visits
      inforniarion relating to iiicdical rcsmrdi. Tlic Triist lias also giveii fiirthcr siipport to tlic British            were iiiadc by rlie Director and senior staff to tropical units, tlie United S ~ M Europe inand
      Association for clic Advaiiccineiit of Science for the extension of the fundiiig of four Science aiid                 connection either with specific pro~rminies ro develop ncw schcn1cs.
      Technology Medin Fellowships.
         Abroad iris pleasing to report that the initial devclopiiient oftlie Malaria Unit ar Kilifi on the
       CO^ of Kenya is progressing well aiid tlie research conducted in dose collaboration with the
                                                                                                                            H o m e visits
      Kenya Medical Itcsearcli Iiistitutchas started. ln Haiigkok diiriiig the visit oftlieCliairniaii oftlie
      Trust, an aiiihiilaiicc \vas prescntcd to the Maliidol University 7iopical Medical School.                            Tlic Tnist scientific staff coiitiiiiicto make frequent visits to Trust supported projects in all pans of
                                                                                                                            the UK. Indeed, w e consider this close liaison with thcsciciitists we support to bccsscntialfor the
                                                                                                                            SLICCCSS of the type of progranime the Trust thinks appropriate for niedicd research.

12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       13

     Air coliditioniiig aiid protective services Iiave becn installed which will ensure the                             Publications
     collection is looked aftcr cscelleiitly into the fittirre. The process of emptying the building,
     storing tlie niaterhl teniporarily at Enfield and rlieii replacing if in Bentley House lias                        Tlic Trust produces a number of publicatioiis giving details ofawards and about thc work ofthe
     been a gargantuan task.                                                                                            Trusr. Tlicsc are available from tlie I’ublinrioiis Ofiicer.
                                                                                                                          The booklet Grniifs niid Siip~ionforRt~sr.nrrlt     contains details of all thc Trust’s cum[ lundiiig
                                                                                                                        programmes and how to apply for theni.
                                                                                                                          Pliysic n i d Pliiln~ril~ropy: Hisfou]~ofihc IMllroriic Tnisr by A Rupert Hall and II A Bcnibndgc
                                                                                                                        was published by Cambridge Univcrsity l’ras in 1986.
                                                                                                                          The Trust, in conjunction rvitli The Royal Society, ha5 produced 1 booklet entiticd Pofidoctoral
                                                                                                                        Rlloiialiip Awards iiiBioirredirnl niid 14frrirrnry Sciciicr.. Ir includes derailsofover 35 types ofawards
                                                                                                                        availablc froiii a nuniber ofdifferent organisations.


     Unit for Policy Research in Science and Medicine (PRISM)

     For iiiany years tlicrc lias been a liiiiitcd aniotllir of research into scientific endeavour aiid ifs
     impact niid inrcraction with industry, public services aiid govcrnnienr. Recently there lias been a
     dnniatic increase in sucli activity wirh rlie founding ofa iiiiiiibcr ofgroups, partly in response to
     tlic need for public iiioticy to be wisely spent but also bccause of the requirement for factual
     iiiforiiiatioii so that die scieiiriticconiniunity can monitor its o\vn activity aiid argue its case in tiie
     publicarena. Curiously, alrliougli niost ofrhc rcsearcli councils now have policy research groups,
     tlicre is no siich group niiywlierc in Europe mainly concemcd with niedical scicncc. Tlic Trustees
     llave now agreed toestablisli tlicir own policy studies group and DrJ Andcrsoii, prcviously Head
     of die Science Policy Studin Unit at rlic Ciba Foiindation. lias been appointed Head of the Unit
     for I’oiicy Ilescarcl! in Scienccaiid Medicine (I’RISM).
         Ir is hoped rliar this Unit will Iielp tlic Trust to establish a sound organisation for the
     development of its fiitiirc prognnimcs for tile support of rcsenrcii.

16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   17
b   7             T



                                        S T A F F OFTHETRUST
                                                                                               Centre for Medical Science and History
                                                                                               S E Embcrtoii, MBIM, I’ublic Activitics I)evclopnieiit Manager
 I’ O \Villiaiiis. llSc(Hoii), MU, FIICI’. Director. Cliairiiiaii of Llonrd of Maiiagcniciit   S McDonagh, USc. Assistant Ceiitre Manager (froniJanuary 1989)
 Alisoii Grove, UA, Assistaiit to the 1Jirector
 Maiira Jiilïkiiis, BSc. I’iiblicntioie Officer                                                Unit for Policy Research in Scicntific Medicine (PRISM)
                                                                                               J Aiidersoii. Plil>, Head of Unit (froniJune 1990)
  Bridger M Ogilvic, I’h13. Sc13, FlUiol. I3irccror (Science I’rograiiinics)                   Information systems
 Ji11 Stcivard. I’crsoiial Assistaiit                                                          H T Gleavc, UA, Maiiagcr
  I) Gordon. M A , MU. FIICI’. I’rograiiiiiic Director (Nciiroscieiiccs)                       Property
 M J iMorgnii, UA(Mod). I’li13, I’rogniiinic Director (Molcciilarand Cell)                     1 C Richardsoii, CEiig. MiProdE. Ma~iagcr
 J G Howard. MI), IWJ, FIUiol, FIG. I’rograiiinic Director (Iiifccrioii aiid Iiiiiiiiiiiity)
  L H Siiiaje, MU. 1’1i13, I’rograiiiiiic Director (I’liysioloçy aiid 1’liarni;icology)
  Mary l’hillips, 1’1i13. Sciciitific Officer                                                  The followiiig staff hold lioiiorary appoiiitniciits;
  I G Scott. l ’ h l ~ ,Scieiitific Oficer
 History of Medicine                                                                           Ur Bridger M Ogilvie
 EJ Frceiiiaii, UA, AL A, Director (History of Mcdiciiic)                                      I’rnidcnt ofthe üritisll Society ofl’araritology
 13 E Alleii. MA. lJh13,Co-ordiiiator oftlic History ofMedicine l’mgraiiiiiie                  Visitiiig Professor, IJepartiiieiit of Bioiogy. Inipcrial Collcgc of Scicnce, Technology and
                                                                                               Medicine. London
 Financc and administration
 I Macgregor. FCA. l3ircctor (Fiiiaiice aiid Adiiiiiiisrntioii)                                Ur 13 Gordon
 IJcirdrc Carry. I’ersoiid Assistaiit                                                          Hoiiorary Seiiior Lecturer in Medicine, St Mary‘s Hospiml Medical School, London
                                                                                               Honorary Coiisultaiit l’liysiciaii, St Mary’s Hospital, Loiidoii
 I’ McNclly, FCA, FCT, Fiii:iiicial Coiitrollcr
 I3 L Freciiiaii, CliicfAccoiiiitaiit                                                          131 M J Morgaii
 Sylvia Ling. Finance Adiiiiiiistrntor                                                         Hoiiorary Senior Lcctiircr, United Mcdical and Dental Schools of Guy’s and St Thomas’s
                                                                                               Hospitals, London
 1 G Mctnlfc. Cliief Adiiiiiiistratire Officer
  3                                                                                            Meniber of the Uiocliciiiical Society Coiiiiiiittee
 E \V T Laiigridgc, Office Services Manager                                                    Menibcr oftlic Hordeii Coniiiiittcc oftlie Uiocliciiiinl Society
 I3 G Hooker. Adiiiiiiistntive Officcr
                                                                                               I3r J G Howard
 Grantsadministration                                                                          Visitiiig I’rofcssor at die Loiidon School of Hygiciicand Tropical Medicine
  Liiida Artcr. Head ofGraiits Adiiiiiiistrarioii(fmni Aiigiist 1989)
 Ji11 Saiiiiders, MA, I’riiicipal Graiits Officer (froiii Aiigiist 1989)                       13r L H Sniajc
  Saiidra Carpeiiter, Graiits Oficcr                                                           Visitiiig Professor i r i I’liysiology and Biophysics, Sr Mary’s Hospital Mcdinl Scliool
  Laiira Chaiiibïrs, Graiits Oficcr                                                            Geiieral Sccretary niid Vice I’resideiit of tlic European Society for Microcirciilarioii
  Aiiiie Edwards, Graiits Officcr
  S A Hcrsr, IiSc. Graiira Oficcr                                                              The 13irecror of the Trust, Ur I’ O Williaiiis. was awarded an Honorary Doctorate ofScincc
  S Mcl)oiiagli. USc. CraintsOfficer (toJaiiuary 1989)                                         I3cgrce by clic University of Uiriiiiiigliaiii.
  G A F Itadford. BA, Grains Officer
  C DJ Saiiity. BA(Ecoii). Cniits Oficcr
  Elimbetli Shaw, USc. Graiits Oficcr
  Siaii Spry. Graiits Oficcr
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ANDTHEIR STAFF

     Sir David Steel
                                                                                                                        Management of administration
     Sir      David Stccl retired from tlic
     Clmirniaiisliip of the \Vcllcoiiic Trusr on                                                                        Ovcr tlic past year the Trustccs decided that the nianageninit of the adniitiisrntioii of the TNst
     30 Scprciiibcr I‘IX‘I. He w a s qipoiiitcd ;I                                                                      should be niadilied. This significant dcvclopnicnt is ainicd atcnsuring a ntional policy aiidsound
     Triistcc aiid Cliairiiiaii on 1 Ilccciiibcr I9XI.                                                                  organisation structure.
     ï ï i c period of Iiis Cliairiiiaiisliip covcrcd a                                                                    The Board of Trustees is now adviscd by tlircc coniniittcn responsible for scinice. history of
     number ofiiiajor dcsclopiiiciits in tlic history                                                                   iiicdicinc and financc on each of which sonic Tnistces scrvc.
     of the Trust. iii particular tlic disposal of                                                                         Tlic Board of Tnistces niccting is largely concerned with policy aiid the co-ordination of tlic
     5 per m i t of tlic Trustees’ slinreliolding in                                                                    fields of responsibility covered by these three coiiiiiiittces and any other matters, either of more
     \Vcllcoiiic plc wit11 tlic conscqiiciit expansion                                                                  general interest or that arc outside the coverage of tlic specialist coniminccs. IIIaddition. a
     of the Trust’s iiicoiiic aiid tlicrcforc its                                                                       Maiiageiiieiit Uoard lias bceii crcatcd iiiidcr the Cliairnianship of the üirector on which the
     prograiiiiiics for support of research aiid                                                                        Ilirccton for Sciciicc, History. Fiiiaiice aiid Adiiiiiiistratioii. the I’rognmnic Directors and the
     Iiistory.                                                                                                          Fiiiaiicial Controller serve. The overall adniiiiistraiioii of the Trust is the responsibility of this
          Iluriiig the period of rlic flotation the                                                                     Uoard.
     Trustees bccaiiic iiiitcli iiiorc closely iiivol\~cd
     witli tlic company’s affairs. and siibseqiiciitly
     over the siicccssioii to tlie Cliairniansliip aiid                                                                 Administration of the scientif%programme
     Managing Ilircctorsliip of \Vcllcomc plc.
     Thus, Sir Ilavid Stcel lcfr flic Tnisr a very                                                                      The ovenll prograniiiie for the support ofscientific research is die responsibility of the Director
     diKcreiit place frein the one lic took over                                                                        (Sciciice I’rograiiiiiics), Ilr Uridgct Ogilvie. She is in charge oftlic co-ordination ofthe scientific
     from his predecessor. Lord Franks. Lord                                                                            aiid adiiiinistrativc aspects of science funding by the Tnist. Slic is assisted by tlic Head ofGrants
     Franks’ time nt rhc Triist had Icd to its gradual                                                                  Administration. Mrs Liiida Artcr. who is responsible to lier for the co-ordination of grants
     cromth xid devcloriiiieiit. the COliiDaliV                                                                         adiiiiiiistrarioii.
                                                   .    I

     retaining the lion’s share of the profits aiid investing strongly for growth. Uy 1983 it had bccooic                  Witliiii rlic scientificdivision the progniiiiiie directors take rcsponsibilitg forrlicirsubjccrarcs
     strong eiioiigli to beconic piiblic. Tlic story of rliis proccss is rccordcd in the Trust’s Sixteenth              and are assisted in tlic adniiiiisrratioii ofthese prognmnies by scientific o f f ~ c cgnnrs officers
     Report 19X4/8fi.                                                                                                   aiid secretaries.
          Sir David Steel’s part in all this was to give tlic Trustees steady leadership wlicn fnccd with a                Sincc 1085, all applications to tlie Tnist have bcni assessed by an espcrt panel chaired by a
     wide variety ofproblciiis that go wirli such a cliaiigc. H e car= about people aiid so was able ro                 Trustee. Ueforc that dare. the SciciitificTrustees. sitting as a coriiniittcc. niadc dccisioiis on grants
     convcy to tlieTriisr’s staffaiid iiiaiiy gnntliuldcrs at Iioiiicand overseasa fccliiig ofuiiderstaiidiiig
                                                                                                                        cxcepr in veterinary niedicine, iiieiit;il liealrli, tropical niedicine aiid tlie history ofniedicine which
                                                                                                                        had special advisory coiiiiiiittccs for the purpose. This panel structurc was remnsidercd at the
     and apprcciatioii of tlieir purpose aiid problems. He \vas also aii cxccllciir delegator aiid was qiiitc
     willing to leave the planning of die Trust’s sciciitific aiid historical prograiiinics to liis fellow
                                                                                                                        Trustee’s aniiual policy iiicetiiig in Jiiiic 1989. Ir was felt that thc paiicls tliat work best are those
                                                                                                                        which cover an area ofrciciicc from tlic most basic to tlic niost applied aiid have a membership
     scientific Triistccs, staff aiid tlicir advisors.
                                                                                                                        consisting ofboth basic and clinicalscientists. It was tliercforc agreed with effect from 1 October
          Hc is a quiet. iiiodest m a n wlio cnjoycd tlie talk oftlic Trust, altliougli lie iiiiist sonictiiiics have
                                                                                                                        1989to rcducc the previow seven piiels, in the sciencearea. to four:
     tlioiiglit back to tlielcss academic nrgiiiiieiits ofliis foriiicr post as Chairman of Bririsli I’ctroleiiiii.
      He is succccdcd by Mr Roger Gibbs.
                                                                                                                        Infection aiid iiiiniiiiiity
     Two new Trustees have been selected during the past year:-                                                         Cliairiiiaii Dr C E Gordon Smith
        Sir Peter Cazalct. iiiitil June 1989 Ilcpiity Chairman of BI’. siiccccds to tlic vacancy crcatcd by             Scientific Secretary 13rJ C Howard
     Sir I>nvid Srccl’s retireninit. He brings to tlic Trust special cspcriciicc as Chairman of the Arnicd
     Forces Pay ltcvic\v Body aiid as a iiiciiiber oftlic Top Salaries Ilcvicw Body, niid will be ofgrcat                Molecular and Cell
     value diiring the reorganisation aiid cliaiigc consequent upon tlic projected growth oftlie Tnlst.                  Cliairmaii Dr I Hclcii Miiir
        I’rofcssor Sir Ilavid \Vcathcrall, NiiBield I’rofessor of Clinical Medicine a t the University of                Scientific Secretary Dr M J Morgan
     Osford, is mcll known to tlic Triist in coinlecrion with its tropical aiid orlier prograniiiics. He
     served on tlie Tropical Medicine aiid Infectious Iliscascs I’aiicl between October 1979 and July                    I’liysiology aiid I’hariiiacology
     1984. Hc lias vcry wide iiiedical iiiterests aiid especially in the field of the genetic diseases of tlie           Cliairniaii VrJ J U Jack
     blood. Sir Ilavid will succeed Lord Swann who retires in Fcbriiary 1990.                                            SciciitificSccretary Vr L H Sniajc
        As this report goes to press tlic Trust aiinouiiced flic appoiiitiiicnt of Sir Ham Kornbcrg                -     Ncuroscicticcs
     IJrokssor of Uiochciiiistry at die University of Cnnibridgc - as a Trustee to succeed Dr Hclcii
     Miiir. who will retire in Scprciiibcr 199i1.                                                                        Chairnian Professor Sir Stanley I’cart
                                                                                                                         Scientific Secretary Ilr 13 Gordon
26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    27

         For the purpose of iiiakiiiç awards, tlic Neuroscieiiccs l’aiicl divides into two sub-cominittces,                                                                IV
         Visioii Research and Mcntal Health. All these ne\\. pancls will nieet four times a year csccpt                   S U P P O R T OF MEDICAL RESEARCH. S P E C I A L FELLOWSHIPS LECTURESHIPS INTHEUK
         Moleciilar and Cell for which tlie dciiiaiid is siicli that it will incct six times.
            In addition to tlicsc pniicls, \vhicli will adjudicate on hoth short-terni project grains and
         longer-terni (iisually fire year) awards, a iiuniher of special interest groups have bccii created.
         Their principal fiiiictioii iviil bc to advise the Trustces on the special prohlciiis of the area within
         their remit and iiiake decisions on eariiiarkcd scholarships and fellowship awards.                              A WELLCOME S E N I O R LECTURESHIPS

         Clininl t1iterest Group                                                                                          B   PRINCIPAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS
         Chairiiian I’rofessor Sir Stanley k a r t
         Scientific Secretary Dr I) Gordon                                                                                C   S E N I O R RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS
                                                                                                                                                           I N CLINICALSCIENCE

         Vctcrinary Iiitercst Group                                                                                       D   SENiDR   BASIC BIOMEDICALSCIENCE FELLOWSHIPS
         Cliairnian Lord Swaiiri illitil28 Fchrvary lW0. thereafrcrD r C E Gordon Smith
         Scietitific Secretary Dr Bridger M Ogilvic                                                                       E RESEARCHT R A I N I N G    FELLOWSHIPS IN CLINICAL EPIDEMIIOLOGY

         Tropical Mcdiciiic Ititcrest Group                                                                                        FELLOWSHIPS IN HEALTH S E R V I C E S RESEARCH
                                                                                                                          F TRAINING
         Cliairmaii Dr C E Gordon Sniitli
         Scientific Secretary DrJ G Howard                                                                                0   R E S E A R C H T R A I N I N DFELLOWSHIPS FOR MEDICAL AND D E N T A L O R A D U A T E S

         Scc Appendis for details ofiiew paiiel nieiiibcrs (page 169).                                                    H   WELLCORE P R I Z E STUDENTSHIPS

                                                                                                                          I   VACATION SCHOLARSHIPS

         ThcTnisrccs Iinve recently hcgiiii to provide limited feedback from rdcrecs to applicants. This is
         done aiioiiynioiisly through the Trust’s senior scientific staff and with rhc permission of the
         rcfcrec. While time consiiiiiiiig this scr\ricc appears to he appreciated by applicants.


         ï h e Trustees aiid staff would like to çxpress their thanks to tlie iiunicrous expert advisers who
         assist the work oftlie Trust by refereeing applications, serving on coniniittecs aiid paiicls and
         advising on policy. The adniinistration of the Trust woiild be very difficult without their
         uiistinting support.


I                                                                                                                   .i&
                                                                                                                   SUPPORT FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH

                               SUPPORT FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH

 Tlic Trll5reCs ll5C clic iiicoiiie nt their disposal to n r r y out tlic objectives described in Sir Henry
 \Vcllcoiiic’s mill. iii siiiiiiiinry. this coiiipriscs flic support ofiiicdical research niid tlic Iiistory o f
 iiiediciiic. The followingsections give il dernilcd description ofrlic iiuincrous prograiiiitics both in
 tbe UK niid O\’CFSÇnS tlint Iinac been Iiclped diiringdie period iiiidcr rcvicw. The coiiiiiiitmciir to
 research diiriiig 1988/89 rotrllcd U3.Jiii. coiiiprisiiig C40.0iii for iiicdical rcsenrcli niid C3.Jiii for
 the history of iiicdicilic.
    The diagrniiis oii siiùscqucnr pngys illiisrrnte the breakdown ofexpcnditiirc.
    Ar tlic riiiic ofwririiiç over 1700inùividiinls %re rccciviiig their inconic through TT1151 sclienics,
 nii iiicreasc of?(] per cent 011the previous year.


                                     WELLCOME SENIOR LECTURESHIPS                                                      B   PRINCIPAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS

 T i i i s sciiciiic b c p i i n 197‘) niid 6fl :ippoiiiriiiwts liavc bccii iiiadc. The last appoiiitiiiciits were
 miùc iii I986. Sciciitisrs who woiilù prcvioiisly Iiasc becii eligible for support iindcr tlic Sciiior
 Lccriiresliip scliciiic caii iiow apply for Sciiior Cliiiical o r Basic üioiiicdical Fellowships or
 I’riiicip.d IIcscnrcli Fcllon*sliips. n nc\v category tviiicli caiiie into effect duriiig the period oftliis
      i>r I’M Dcaii 11.1s bccii .ippuiiircd to a \Vellcoiiic I’riiicipd Ilesearcli Fellowship (sec page 36).
      ï ï i c Triirtccs \rere plc.ired to iicar o f tiic followiiig nppoiotiiiciits aiid awards:-
      Ilr ] K Aroiisoti w t s .iwnrtled flic Siiiitli. Kliiic a i i d Frciich Gold M d a l of flic Cliiiical Section
 o f rlic ünrirli l’ii;iriii.ic,,l[,sic~,l  Society for distiiigiiislicd w o r k iii ciiiiical pliariiiacoloçy.
      IhI S \V.ilri> m.i( .ippoiiitcd to rlic Sir \Viiliaiii lliiiiii Cliair ofEsperiiiiciital I’atliology at tlie
 Unircil Mcdical .iiiilI) Sciiools of Giiy’s aiid St Tlioiiias‘s Hospitals with effect f r o i i i I
 Ocrolicr llJWJ,
      I>r T J \Viikiii WJS clccrcd O a pcrsoii:il Ilcadcrsliip in Eiidocriiiology a t the Uiiivcrsity of
   Tlir .iiiiiii:iIiiicctiiig of \Vdlcoiiic Sctiior Lcctiircrs \\’as Iield oii I 6 March 1989. Tlie foilowiiig
 spoke rboiir tlicir work:

 Ilr M A I-l.iiisoii
 i k y r t t i i c i i t of l’liysioi<igy:iii<I
 Uiiivcrsiry oïl<cndii+
 ‘’l‘lie rcixivc cwtrihiitioii of pcriplicrd iiiccli:iiiisiiis iii tlic coiitrol of &tal brcntiiiiig iiioveiiiciits’

 i>rJ C I JrlEcys
 Ilcprrriiiciir o f l’liysiology niid Uiopliysics
 Sr Mary’s Hospital M c d i c d Scliool. Loiidoii
 ‘Seizures. syiiciir«iiisatii>ii aiid circuits iii clic corrcx’

 Dr I> Eisiicr
 I>cp.iriiiiciit o f I’liysiology
 Uiiircrsiry Collcgc Loiitloii
 lIiirr.icclIiiiilr cdciiiiii r c i c w niid c<ititmctiou iii cardiac iiiiisclc’

 UrJ I l ü m y
 liisritutc o f Gciicrics
 Uiiircrsiry ofGlasgov
 ’Siirfncc niirigcii csprcrsioii by parasitic rryp:iiiosoiiics i ithe t s c r s ~

 D r C M Lock\iooil
 IJrparriiiczit of Mcdiciiic
 Scii<rvlof Cliiiicd hlciliciiie
 Aùùciihrookc’\ Uospitd. Criiibri<lqc
 ‘Aiitoiriiiiiiiiic rcrpuiico in ayrtciiii‘c vdsciiiitia’

                                        PRINCIPAL RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS
                                                                                                                                       C   SENIOR RESEARCH F E U O W S H I P S I N CL1N1CAlSCIENCE

     The piirposc of this iiew scliciiic of fcllowsliips is to fund individuals who arc judged to be of
     rcndersliip or profcssorinl ~r;itiis. who do not hold ail csrablislicd post at the time ofaward.
     They will hare an csceptional record ofsiiccess in research which is siibstantiatcd by international
     pccr review.
       I'riiicipal Rcscarcli Fcllowsliips iiiny hcatvardcd to those who have previoiisly Iicld a Wcllcoiiic
     Senior I~cscarcliFellowship in Cliiiical or Basic Scicncc, a Wellconic Senior Lcctiircship or an
     cqiiivalciit nward fiiiided by other UK bodies.
       Siiicc thc sclicnie began in 1989, two appoiiitiiicnts have been iiiadc.
       Tlic following prograiiiiiics ofrcsearcli arc being uiidcrtakcn by I'riiicipal Ilacarcli Fellows:-

     DRPMDEAN,                                                        PaorssoxB G SP~ATX.
     Drprtnimt of Pharmacology, University of                         Dcpartmcnt of Biological Scicncs, Univcnity OC
     Cambridge: for 3 %tidy ibicmolwular iiilcrn111~113
                                  <if                    atid         Suuex. Brighton: fiir J study o f tlic tii<iltCLdar hrris and
     ~l"cnad',,g,,.a,,d~,I~!~,,nr.~ li'Cn!l~h ~ I ~ W ~ ~ L I W I L I nimlmtbr cpidcsririiirgy if pcnitiliin r e i w x c in
                                                                      B r q " ~ W " t J ,""""'i"l"'C, Ll,ldcr I l , F I'    li?inl<*

       The Tntstccs wcrc pleased to hear that 13r I' M l3caii has hceii awarded tlic Astra Prizc for
     iMcdical Writing.

     WELLCOME TRUST                                                                                                                                                    SENIOR RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS IN CLINICALSCIENCE

                             SENIOR RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS I N C L I N I C A L SCIENCE

         Tlic \Vcllcoiiie Trustees continiic to attach grcnt iiiiportmcc to tlicsc senior cliiiicd fcllowsliips.              Two oftlie iicw fcllows arc sriidying allergic discnsc oftliï respiratory tract: Ilr W O C Cooksoii
         Fello\\~s  sclccrcd iii tlic coiiipctirioii arc offered siipport for five ycnrs, togctlicr witli tlie cspeiiscs      artlie Uiiiversity ofOxford is coiitinuiiig his studies oil the gaietic basis tliatheaiid his c o l l c q p ~
         f i : their progrmiiiic of rcscnrch, aiid arc free to concentrate on iii-depth research iiiro problciiis
                                                                                                                              Iiavc dcscribed for ntopy, niid 131 Ilobyii E OHcliir at tlic Royal I'ostgnduatc Medical Scliool is
         rclated to cliiiical sciciicc. This ~cliciiic    coiiiiiieiiccd i i i 1962, niid Figure 7 sliows tlic iiiiniber of   working on tlic iiiiiiiiiiioclieiiiistryoftlie T cell rcsponsc to coninion respintory allcrgciis.
         awards iiindc cacli y c u since tlicii. Froiii modest bcgiiiiiiiigs. it is iiom possible to find five or six
         individii:ils c.icii year of siiniciciit iiicrir to justify nii award. This is all tlic iiiorc rcniarkable
         considering die iiiniiy pressiires on yooiig cliiiical sciciitists iii the prcseiir cliiiiarc, iiicliidiiig the
         iiicrc:ising,ly striiigcnt rcqnirciiiciirs of liiglicr clinical tniiiiiig niid accreditation.
              ïlic opportunity \vns tnkeii this y c x to rcvicm tlic progress of tlic scliciiic o w r the last ten
         years. As \\-ell :is increasing iiiiiiibcrs of nppoiiitiiiciits. there lias bceii n change iii tlic profile of
         iiidividiials iioldiiig tlicse fellowsliips. Iii 1979. most fellows iii post wïrc pliysiciaiis, often
         sastnstrociitrrologists. with : few patliologists. Siiicc tlicii clic rniigc of cliiiicnl iiitercsrs lias
         broadoicd. as problciiis iii s~iclisubjects as allergy, rlieiiiiiatology aiid psycliiatry becoiiic
         niiiciinblc10the iieiv biology (Tigiirc 9).The ciiaiige in scieiitificespcrtise is sliowii iii Figure 8.Iii
          1979, clic bioiiicdical ùiscipliiics of biocliciiiistry and pliysiology doiiiinnrcd tlic scliciiic. I n the
         ciirrciit year, iucli subjects coiitiiiiic to be of iiiiportaiicc. but relatively less so coiiipnred with
         iiioleciilar ùiology. iiioleculnr gciicrics niid iiiiiiiiiiiogeiietics.
              Fcllo\vs nppoiiircd to this scliciiic Iinvc coiitiniicd to iiiovc to sciiior acadciiiic positions iii tlic
         UK aiid elsc\\4icrc. This year. four felloms moved to positioiis iiiidcr the i i c nppoiiitiiiciit  ~
                                     deiiiicstaff: IJrJ 1 Uellniid DrKCGnttcratOsford. IJrJayiicA Frniiklyiiat
         Biriiiiiigliaiii. niid IJr I'J Ciclitirn a t tlic Uiiitcd Medical and I h i t n l Schools. IJr A C Cliu also
         iiiorcd to a position Iicldjoiiitly berwecii tlie Royal I'osrgndiintc Medical Scliool aiid its rehted
             Six IICW fclloivs were appointed, aiid tlicsc awnrds nie iioted below. With the nppoiiitiiiciit of
         D r I) M St Clair, oftlie IJcparriiiciit of I'sychintry in the Uiiivcrsity ofEdiiibiirgli. the Trust is
         iiow siipportiiig ns sciiior fellows leaders of two of die iiiaiii grotips making progress towards
         iiiidcrstntidiiig of tlic iiiolcciilar geiictics of scliizoplireiiin aiid otlier iii:qor psychiatric disease.

I   38

                                                     I N CLINICALSCIENCE   D   SENIOR BASIC BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE FELLOWSHIPS

                                                                                                                                                                 SENIOR BASIC BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE FELLOWSHIPS

                                                                                                                     Sccoiid roiiiid. 1987
     ln 19X.i. the Triistccs rcspoiidcd to rcprcsciitatioiis froin tlic iiiiivcrsitics coiiccriiing tlic serious
                                                                                                                     I l r C II M ihiiigliaiii   Nuliicld Il~paRiii'iitofCliiiical Mcdiciiic
     dccliiic in tlic iiiiiiibcr of research posts available to youiig investigators by rciiitrodiiciiig a                                       University ofOsford
     fcllowsliip sdiciiic, with flic purpose of supporting outstanding yoiiiig basic scientists with ai1
     cstnblislicd record in bioiiiedical rcsearcli.
                                                                                                                     I3r A E Bianco
        Tlic fellowliips arc tciiablc for five years iii tlic first instance, with aii esrciisioii to ciglir years
     follo\viiig a siicccssful review. Tlic Trust provides [lie fellow's salary arid subsraiitial funds to
     cover rlic COSI of aii associatd research prograniiiic.Tlie following table indicates thc lcvcl of              I3r I'J Haiii
     applintioiis against awards over the past four years.

     i        111                                                                                                    l l r MJ Hiiiiipliries      IJcpartiiietit of Uiocliciiiisrryaiid Molcciilnr lliology
                                                                                                                                                 Ulii\~eisity M:iiiClicsrcr
                                                                1985186        1986187   1987188      1988189
           Total number of applicants                                59          95        96           97           IIr A Marriiicz Arias       IJep~rtiiiciitofZoology
                                                                                                                                                 University ofcaiiibridge
           Grgrapliiral disisrriliitrioii ofqplirmis
           UK                                                        53          73        71            74          Third rouiid, 19x8
           North Anierica                                             3          16        71            16          IlrJaiic C Havercroft       Ilepnrriiieiit ofl'atliology
           Eiiropc                                                    3           5         4              3
           Orlier couiirrics                                          -           I          -            4
                                                                                                                                                 Uiiiversity of Canibridgc

                                                                                                                     13r 11 Rcyiiolds            Dcpartiiient ofUiocIicniistry
           Number ofawards                                            7           5          7             9                                     Imperial Collegc ofScieiice, Tccliiiology aiid Medicine
                                                                                                                     TlicTriisrccs wcre plcascd to hear rliat Ilr M Ilomcliasbeenawarded a prolcpticlcctrinuliipattlic
                                                                                                                     Uiiivcrsity ofDiriiiiiigliniii froin Ocrober 1991.
                                                                                                                                       AWARDS O F SENIOR BASIC BIOMEDICALSCIENCE FELLOWSHIPS

     The following arc ~ i ~ r r e Iioldcrs oftliesc awards:
     First round. 1986
     131 C 13 A Urowii                  Ilepartniciit of Mediciiic
                                        Uiiivcrsity of Maiiclicstcr

     IIrJ M Craiiiptoii                 13cpartnicnt of Mcdinl Entomology
                                        Liverpool School ofTroyical Medicine

     IlrTII Hirst                       Ilcpartiiieiit of Generics
                                        University of Leicester
     IIr Lyntic V Mayne                 Ilepartineiit of Uiological Sciences
                                        University ofSiisscs

     Ilr V H Perry                      Ilcparrnieiit of Espcrinieiird I'sycliology
                                        University of Oxford

     131 M llowc                        Ilcpartiiiciit of Caiiccr Studies
                                        Uiiivcrsit y of Uirniiiigliaiii
     Ilr II Williaiiisoii               Labontory of Mariiic Biological Associatioii

42                                                                                                                                                                                                                       43

                RESEARCH TRAININGFELLOWSHIPS I N CLINICAL EP~DEMIOLOGY                                               F                    IN HEALTH
                                                                                                                         TRAININGFELLOWSHIPS      SERVICES RESEARCH

                                                          iiitciidcd to provide niedicnl grndiintes. wider flic
                                                          , with flic opportiiiiity to iiiidcrtnkc n progrniiiiiic
                                                          iologicnl priiiciplcs niid tcdiiiiqucs to problciiis of
 cliiiicnl iiicdiciiic. A kiriiinl coiirsc of trniiiiiig iii cpiclciiiiology is gciicrnlly n prcrcqiiisitc niid
 aivnrds tiiay iiicliidc provision for tlic pnyiiieiit of fccs aiid trnvclliiig cspciiscs iiiciirrcù iii
 piirsiiaiicc <if coiirsc.
    Since i l i c iiitrodiictioii ofrlic sclieiiie in 1979, the Triistccs Itnvc iiindc nwnrds nt n torn1 cost of
 about SI.7jiii. 1)iiriiig flic year 12 iioiiiiii:itioiis were r         d niid die Triisrccs iiindc 3 nwnrùs.
    I-loidcrs oftlierc Icllowsliips coiitiiiiic to l i w c nil esccllciit record iii iiioviiig iiito cstnblislieù
 posirioiis. niid die ~ c l i c ~ i i s iiow an iiiiportaiit soiirce of trniiicd iiicdicnl research workers iii
 cpjùciiiiolog y.
     I-lic Triisrccs wcrc plcised to licnr tliit I l r Kny-Tcc Kliaw, \\ho Iicld n Wcllcoiiic Iiescnrcli
 'Eaiiiiiiii Allowsliii> iiiCliiiicnl Euiclciiiiolosy at St Mnrv's Hospitnl Mcdicnl Scliool. Loiirioii. 11:is
                                                                    .       .
 hccii nppoiiird to tlic I'rofcssorsliip iiiCliiiicnl Ccroiitology .it Cniiibridgc Uiiivcrsity.


                                                                                                                       U   RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS FOR MEDICAL A N D D E N T A L G R A D U A T E S

     Henirli scrviccs rese~ircliis a siibjcct ofincrensiiiy iiiiportaticc at a tiiiic \vliai iiic<iiwlpractice is
                              inry diatige. aiid tiic orçmisatioii of iieaitii scrviccs is iitidcr apparctitiy
                                                                                                          I tiie
                              ticeptioii oftiiis triai sciictiic was tiotcd iii the Tis' 13% rcpon. I I year
                              tile wasadvcrtiscd iiiorc widely tlinii foriiicrly. aiid xi diieradvisory p.iiicl
     rccoiiiiiiciidcd tiic awards listed helow. Tiic Triistecs Iiavc decided to coiitiiiiic tiic scliciiie, wiiilc
     kcepiiig tlie siiùjecr itiider cluse scnitiiiy. Tlic success of r~~cnrcii       rrniiiiiig fcilowsiiips in this
     subject wiil depend iii p:irt OII tlic Ciciliticr aiid fiiiids dint becoiiic ainilahie for Iicaith services
     research ~eticr.iliy.Tlic lack of3 tiinjorsourcë offiiiidiiig for this siibjcct, atid for a clearly dcfiiicd
               hcAtii services rcscnrcii \\+tliiii riic iicaltii care systeiii, is n iiiattcr of conccrti to tlic

       Tiic foliowiiig taùic (figtin. II) iiidic:itcs tire iiiiii>bcrof ~ioitiiiintiotis c n i i awards sitice the
                                                                                       ~         s
     scliciiir \vas iiitrodiiccd.

                                                                        1987/88                      1988189

          Number ofnominations

          Number of awards

WCLLCOMETRUST                                                                                                        RESEARCH T R A I N I N G FELLOWSHIPS FOR MEDICAL AND DENTALGRADUATES

                T                        FOR

 Tlic'liust provides llcscarcli T?niiiiiig Fcllowsliips for Mcdicnl niid Ilcoral Grndtiatcs \\'howish to
 ptirsiic nii acndeiiiic cnrccr iiitlic UK.This general scliciiic CVI'CIS all cliiiicnl siihjccrs iiicliidiiig the
 Trusi's foriiicr rescnrch rrniiiiiig fclloivsliip scliciiics iii siirgcry niid pntlioloçy. Sepnrare
 arrniigeiiiciits :ire iiiadc Cor certniii selected whjects, n5 iiotcd elsewhere iithis report.
    The ï k t c c s werc nhlc IV iiicrcnsc rlir fuiidiiis nnilahlc for rliis s d i c i i i ~ rlic year iiiidcr
 rcvicw. i n rc.rpviisc to n ~itiiiibcro~cscclleiir  npplicarioiis. A ùisap
 flic rclntivc denrtli olrequcsts iiisoilie
 iiow proposed for rc\e.ircli rraiiiiiig fil
 trniiiiiig prograiiii~ics sihjiccrs siicli
                              iii cxccr oficii express rlic fcnr tliai tiiiic spciit i n research
 rlicir cnrccr.
     Iltiritig the ).car tiiidcr review. I3 IICW fell~\\~sliipnmnrds linvc liccii iiindc.


WELLCOME TRUST                                                                                                                                             WELLCOME P R I Z E STUDENTSHIPS

                                       WELLCOME PRIZE STUDENTSHIPS                                                                AWAROSOF WELLCOMEPRIZE STUDENTSHIPS

 ï i i c 3iisrccs iiavc bccii coiiccriicd by riie progressive retiiictioii iil tlic iiiiiiiùer of Ilcscxcii
 Coiiiicii Sriidciiisiiips rlint lias occurrrd iii rcccnr            iid c\~ciiiiiore worried by the rccciit
 ùcciiiic iii rnkc-iip rnrcs of first choice nliocatioiis.           lierefore decided to set aside C l i i i per
 ;iiiiiiiiii for tiirce ycm. hcgiriiiiiig in I'IX7/XR, to provide siipport for posrgradiiztc rcscarcli
 tr.iiiiiiiy. Tlic new sciiciiic of \Vcllcoiiic P r i x Sriidciitsliips a i m , by iiic.iiis o f a Iiigiier level of
                                          ort costs. to ciicoiirnge tiic best yoiiiig scieiitisrs to ciiibnrk

     iii i9XX/X'i. tlic sccoiid rouiid. die qi~nliry   ofapplications \vas agaiii very Iiigii aiid tlie Trostccs
 ngrrcd roscrasiùc ïl.3iii to tiiiid filstiidciits. Uiifortiiiiarciy. i X wiriidrc\\~ rcnsoiis tiiat varied
                                                                                           A io~~.
 froiii offcrs froiii iiinrc prcstigioiis iiistitiitioiis to çrcatcr r c ~ ~ ~ i ~ i i c r a r fciv coiiiiiiciited oil tlic
 iatciicss of iiic dccisioiis aboiit :iwarils biir sonic acndciiiic staff c«iiiplaiiicil tiiat rlic npplicatioii
 dcnùiiiic is too cnriy to rccoçiiisc tlic qiidiry ofsriidciits! Siiicc tlic a\\.ards arc iiindc iii p x t oil rlic
 quality nf stiidciits. it \vns origiiially felt iiiapproprintc to iii.ikc tlic nwnrds trniisfcraùlc. This
 rciiiniiis rlic Triist's policy biit riie sciiciiic is diic for rrvicw a t i d this fc:itiire will iiccd cnrctiil
     Atiorlicr re:is»ii h r flic ~~itiidrn\vai  ufstiidciits is probaùiy thnt rlic ciiiiriiced sripciid paid to
 \Vcllcoiiic i'rizc Stiidciits was less tlinii rliiir enriicd by a iicw gndiintc iii iiidiistr                                i
 rtwarcii :issistnnt iii tiic iiiii\wsiti~s.Tlic Triirtccs iiavc ngrccd. tiicreforc, to ri
 \viiicii is ras frcc. to n IcwI cqiiivniciir to tiiat ofn rcscarcli nsristaiir ofcqiiai
 inburnrory cspciiscs iiavc :also brcii iiicrcascd to reiiccr iiiorc iieariy tlic rcni CO
    Tlic niiioiiiit of rraiiiiiig tliat I'iiD stiidciits arc giveii iii prcseiiriiig tiieir sciciitific work varies
 widely. Accordiiigly, it was decided tlint tiie \Vclicoiiic i'rizc Stiideiits siioiiid be offered trniiiiiig
 iii botii written niid orai coiiiiiiiiiiic~tioii niid :I series of m a l l oiic day sciiiiiiars lias bceii
 cstnbiisiicd for stiidciits iii tiicir sccoiid ycnr. The proçrniiiiiic is iint yct caiiipletcd aiid aiiy
 ~ o ~ i i i t i e oii ~ siicccss woiild be preiiintiirc.
                   i i i its
     It slioiild periiaps be eiiipiiasiscd tliat tlic awards nre not opcii to iiidividiiai applicntioiis froiii
 caiiilidntcsor potciirini supervisors. Iiiste:id iii~titiitioiis iiivitcd to iioniiiiatc a specific iiiiiiiùer
 ofcaiididntcs. FiIII rletails arc' scilr to iiiiiversity registrars or tiiay be obrniticd froiii rile Wcllcoiiic
    ilccipioits o f the I'IXY/X'I awards arc derailcd oii tlic foiloiviiig pages.










                                                                                                                                                          M E N T A L H E A L T HA N D T H E R E L A T E D N E U R O S C I E W B

                                                                                                                            MENTAL HEALTH ANDTHE RELATED NEUROSCIENCES

Professor Sir Stanlcy I’enrt, MI), FIICI’. F I 6 (Cliairiiiaii, \Vcllconic Triistcc)             This w a s the Mental Health I’ancl’s last year in its establislicd forni. Tlie sticc~ss     oftlik group.
                                                                                                 where clinical and basic sciciitists work together to coiisidcr applications for support across tlie
Professor C; Fiiik. MI). l3l’Iiil. MlIC I5rniii Metabolisiii Research Unit, Edinhiirgli          whoIc range ofsiibjccts relevaiif to iiiciital liealtli, \vas one oftlic factors wliicli led tiicTrustecs ro
                                                                                                 change their advisory panel striictute. aiid Riton!reports fmni thcTrust will descnbe the workings
Professor M FI Ladcr. DSc. lJIiD, MI). FI<Cl’sych. Iiistitiirî ofl’sychiatry. Loiidoii           ofriew panels on all ofwliicli both clinical aiid basic science arc now rcpreseirtcd.
                                                                                                    ’Flic Mciital Health I’aiicl concluded its nctiviries with thesupportofa wide raiigcofprojcnaiid
I’rokssor S I7 Naliorski. 1’1i11. Uiiiversity of Leicester                                       longer-terni grants. graiits parriciilarly to develop non-invasive studies oftlic brain, and awards
                                                                                                 for researcli training aiid acadeiiiic devclopiiieiit.
I’rofessor E S I’aykel, MI). FRCI’. FIICl’sydi. University ofCanibridge                            The I’aiicl awarded grants to a total ofE1.92ni, csciiiding loiiger-tain support, for 1988/FJ
                                                                                                 (coiiipnrcd with C2.?9iii for 1987/88). This rcprcseiircd 22 per min oftlic total rcqucsrs.
13r T \V Robbiiis. 1’1113. Uiiivcrsity ofcaiiibridgc                                                Tlic total iiiiiiibcr of applicarioiis for grants diiriiig l988/89 (l‘lR7/88 iii pancith& for
                                                                                                 coiiiparisoii) \?’as I26 ( I 22). ofmliicli * (53) were aivarded in part or iii fiill.
I’rokssor M L Iliitter. CUE. MIX FIICI’. FI1CI’sych. FIIS. Institute ofl’syclii:itry, Loiidoii      Tlie Trust’s interest iii non-iiivasivc studies of tlie brain using tlic many techniqiics now
                                                                                                 available in this area \vas noted in the lasr report. A furtheresanipleofsucli work supported by the
                                                                                                 Trust is tlie prograiunie ofresearch led by I’rofessor 13 G Gndiaii, ofthe üepartmcnt ofl’hysia at
Staff members rcsponriblc                                                                        the Hiiiitcnaii Institute of tlie Royal College ofSurgeons of England. I’rofcssor Gadiaii is iiiakuig
                                                                                                 studies ofrhc fuiidaiiieiital propertics ofneiiral tissue using iiuclear iiiagiictic rcsonancc (NMR)
l3r 1 Gordon. MA, MU. FIICI’. (Scientific Sccrctary)
     3                                                                                           spectroscopy. aiid his prograniinc iiicliidn further dcvelopiiieiiu of the schniqucs of proton
                                                                                                 NMR spectroscopy. This research on fuiidaiitciitai methodology increascs the niigc O ~ T N S ~
Anne Edm.irds, (Adzninisrratire Secrct;iry)                                                      support in this area: in the period of tlic last report, a nunibcr of grants tvcrc awarded niorc
                                                                                                 directly related to iitiriicdiate problenis in the physiology and patliopliysiology ofthe bnin.
                                                                                                    Excellent niididarcs coiitiiiae to be noiniiiatcd for Research Training Fcllowships in Mcntd
                                                                                                 Health, arid holders of these awards inow on to established acadeniic positions at the ciid ofthc
                                                                                                 period of Trust support. Tlie Trust no loiigcr provides Lecturcsliips and Sciiior Lccturnhips in
                                                                                                 Mental Health, aiid support of this type has tiecii subsumed into tlic fcllowship and senior
                                                                                                 fellowship sclicnics.

                                                                                                 L ~ N       rivardcd          WYI


                                                                                                 DnCGFlunuui~                                              fmc9        PAOÎEESOUJSKELLY                                  U16426
                                                                                                 Dp rm n
                                                                                                  - af m r       of Psychiatry, Univcrdty ofoxford fur                 Depanment of Phamiacologl. Univmity of
                                                                                                 116 m«nt11~,  kir rdditiolinlmarrh a s s i s t a m rnd E X ~ W K %    Edinburgh: fur firr y s lu r5ublirh a pyhunic
                                                                                                 ïoi rtu&s of flic roi«li>sy.tlilr.mT. picrclaimm and COUIR            rirumittugiiigïrdit y i t chi. l t v p l fdhbtigh Hospiml witit
                                                                                                 “fL?iiiig diri>r<lrn                                           A).    Dri\’lfOlr.mi,~~iiiiiiinl?njnrorCi:lsl.           ~Um~u”uz)

                                                                                     M E N T A L H E A L T HANDTHE RELATEDNEUROSCIENCES

                                                               University ofOxford            London

                            RESEARCH AS515rANCE AND EXPENSES

66                                                                                                                                        67
WELLCOMETRUST                                                          MENTAL HEALTH
                                                                                   ANDTHE RELATED NEUROSCIENCES

                                                                      U N I V E R S I N AWARD

                                                                  RESEARCH LEAVE FELLOWSHIP

                                                               FELLOWSHIP IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

                                                              SENIOR LECTURERSHIP- MENTAL HEALTH


                                                                                                                                                                      TROPICAL MEDICINE AND 1NFECTIOUSDISEASES

                          TROPICAL MEDICINE AND         INFECTIOUS
                                                               DISEASES PANEL                                                                 TROPICAL MEDICINE A N 0 INFECTIOUSDISEASES

      I)r C E Gordon Siiiirli. CIL blD,I’IICI’. FIICl’nth (Clisiriixni. \Vcllcoiiie Triistcc)                     Ilecoiiiiiiciidntioiis for awards in tropical nicdicinc and iiifectioiisdiseasesare niadeto tlicTmsten
                                                                                                                  by aii advisory panel consisting of ciglit scientists. representing the niaiiy aiid diverse subjects
      I’rofcrsor II M A t i d c r ~ ~ i1’1i13, FIIS. Iiiipcrinl Callcge of Science, Tcclinology and Mediciiic,
                                       i.                                                                         covcred by this scctioii of the Trust. I n addition to their csscntinl role in the assessment of grant
      Londoil                                                                                                     requests, p:iiicl iiiciiibers provide valiiablc advice on policy issues and rescarcli fields requiring
                                                                                                                  special nttciirioii. Diiriiig tlie period of this report, jj per cent of grant applintioiis received
      I’rofcssor II E tloa~clls.I’lill. FIUiol. Liverpool Scliool Mcdiciiic                           iiipport at l e w in part, rcpreseiitiiig 34 per cent of tlie total suni applied for. Funds available for
                                                                                                                  tlircc-year project grants were rcduccd by I5 per cent to provide increased support for longer-
      Dr II I’ Lnnc, IJ1i13.ARCS. IXC. London Scliool ofliygieiic aiid Tropical Mcdiciiic                         teriii awards in coiiforiiiity with Trust policy. TlicTiist’sovcrylns rcsearcliunits accounted for26
                                                                                                                  per cc~it tlic hinds distribiircd.
 #I’rofessor K I’ \V J McAd:iiii. MU. UCliir. FIICI’.               Loiidoii   Scliool of Hygiene aiid Tropicnl       I>aiicl iiieiiibcrs continue to eiiipliasise four areas wliicli need greater research effort or
   Mrdiciiic                                                                                                      recruitinciit. These are:
      I’rofcssor E II Moson. MU. FIICP. University ofOxford                                                       I      Uiocliciiiicalaspects of parasites rclevniit to possible cliciiiotlierapeiiriccontrol.
                                                                                                                  2 Medical bacrcriology. in particiilnr, iiioleciilarnpproaclics to pathogenicity.
      I’rofcssor E H O Parry, OUE. b D FIICI’, \Vcllconic’rropical Iiisiitiitc. London
                                    1 .
                                                                                                                  3 Eiiroiiiologyiiivolviiig new tccliiiologicalconsiderations.
 #I>r I> A J Tyrrcll. CUE. MI). FIICI’. FIICl’arli. H I S . MRC Coiiiiiiriii Cold Unit. Salisbiiry                4 Tlic continuing iiccd for cliniciansto iiiidcrtake research careers in tropical niedicinc.
      Ilr \V E Giitteridgc. 1Jh1). \Vcllcoiiic plc. Ucckciiliaiii                                                 Tlie Trust w a s awarded a plaque by the Iiitcniational Societies of 13crniatology and
                                                                                                                  Ilcrniatopatliology to iiiark tlic Trust’s continued support iii tlic field of niedical and scientific
                                                                                                                  research aiid its iiiinieiisc coiirribiitioii IO t h coiitrol of tropical diseases worldwide.
      Staffmembers responsible                                                                                       Tlic Trustces were pleased to Iiear tliar Ilr I V I) Wcller. wliu is currently in receipt offuiidiiig
                                                                                                                  for Iiis Sciiior Lectureship in Iiifecrioiis Discases, was awarded a Ilcadcrsliip in Gcnito-Urinary
      IlrJ C How;ird, MI). I’lill. FIUiol. FlIS (Scientific Sccrcrary)                                            Mrdiciiic at the Middlesex Hospital. London.
      C DJSaint?. UA(Ecoii). (Adiiiinistntire Secretary)
     +Elizabeth Shaw, USc. (Adiiiiiiisrratirc Secretary)

      # Until Scprcnibcr WW
       l?om I Jaiiiiaiy IOW
                                                                                                                      Wellcome Trust Unit, Kenya

                                                                                                                      Tlic Trust iiiaintaiiis its own Iaborarories in Nairobi as \vcllas running collaborative prograninin
                                                                                                                      ,vitIl [ I I ~Kciiya Medin) IIcsearch Iiistitutc(KEMRI) in Nairobi and at Kilifi on thecoast. Ilr W M
                                                                                                                      Watkiiis lias OYCT.~IJ  adiiiiiiisrntive responsibility for all die Tmst’s r~scarcli  activities in Kctiya.
                                                                                                                      ~i~ owil research progrniiinic concertis drug pliariiiacokiiierics and parasite rcsistance in the
                                                                                                                      clieniotlicrapy arid propliylasis of I?jIripnniiii iiialaria. This involves close collabontion with
                                                                                                                      I’rofcssors A M Ureckciiridge and Il E Howclls (Liverpool Scliool ofliopical Mediciiic).
                                                                                                                           A IICW collaborative progniiiiiie on iiialaria was init~arcdat tlie bqiiiiiizig of 1%‘) 3t Kilifi
                                                                                                                      mllere coa51a1 rcscarcli liiiit is bciiig expanded. ï l i i s is a study ofscvcrc i‘jifriynnirn nialana ill
                                                                                                                      cliildrcii led by a groiip from Oxford (Profcssor I3 A ivarrcll, I3r K Manli and Dr G I’asvol) in
                                                                                                                       collaboratioii with KEMIII.
                                                                                                                           T~~~ ~ 1 1 prograiiiiiies arc now iiiidcrway in Nairobi. The first is ai1 indcptli clinical
                                                                                                                                              ) ~
                                                                                                                      dcliiieatioii oftlie disease (I)r C F Gilks aiid I’rofcssor 1 A Warrell). nie second concerns the
                                                                                                                       itlipact of HIV ~lifcction tuhcrculosis (Dr I’ Nuiiii. I3r II J Brindle and I’rofesror K I’ W J

72                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73
 WELLCOMETRUST                                                                                                                                                            TROPICAL MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

     Unidade d e Estudos Espcciais da Wcllcome, Belem, Brazil                                                           Trace Element Research Group (TERG), Tropid Metabolism Research Unit
     This Unit was cstablislicd in IV65 by I'rofcssor 11 Lainson, FIIS. to stiidy the ecology aiid
     cpideiiiiology of liiiiiiaii l~ishiiiaiii:isis in the Aiiiazoiiiaii region of Brazil. in long-terni                Tlic Uiiit is associntcd with tlie University oftlic \Ver Indics on the Moiia Campus. Jamaica. Vr
     collnborntioii witli IIrJ J Shaw, iiiaiiy niajor coiirrihiitioiis have bccii iiiade on the ideiitificatioii        M H N Golden is Vircctor of both the Trust-finidcd TEl1G aiid of thc TMRU. This latter
     aiid tasoiioiiiy of lcishiiianiai parasites. sniidfly vectors aiid a i i i i i i a l rcscrvoirs as well as the     appoiiitiiieiit is supported jointly by the Triist aiid tlic University as arc w o other scientists there,
     dcliiicatioii of foiir distinct cliiiicd types of liiiiiiaii disease. Snidics in various field sites are           Vr Sally Graiirliaiii-McCregor niid V t T E Fortester.
     supported by a conipreliwsirc nnge oflaboratory studies in Bciciii. A iiiiiiiber ofiiew species are                   The TERG investigates rhc role of dcfcctivï aiitiosidaiit defence i n the genesis of nialiiumtioii
     being characterised, soiiic oftliciii associated with liiiniaii disease.                                           syiidronics. nie work of tlic T M l l U includes invcsrigatioiisinto the cause ofstuiircd height and
        Visceral Icislininiiiasis dite to Lcishiiriiirio rliqosi is a niajor iiitcresr of tlie Unit aiid is being       retarded iiiciital developinetit in iiiainiitritioii states, rlie role of iiircstiiial iichiiinths in retarded
     stiidicd oil tlic island of Marajo. investigations on the fos Crrdoïiirpoii rlioia as a likely priiiiary           growth, aiid iiietabolic abiiornialitics Icadiiig to Iiypcrtciision in pregnancy. l l i c Unir opcntcs an
              oir arc being coiidiicrcd iii collaboratioii with IIr 1 \V Macdonald (University ofOsford),
                                                                        3                                               iiitcgntcd prognniine of clinical laboratory aiid field studies. It has been riotably successful in
              is ciirrciirly coiicciirrariiig on the ecology of the fox aiid flic saiidfly vector-fos intc              developing srratcgics for identifying aiid treating nialiioiirislied children at the coiniiiuiiiry level.
        Ciirmcoiis Icis1iiii:iiiiasis diic to Lcidtiiimiidbiuzilinisis is beiiig stiidied in the Serra dos                  Sir Vavid Steel aiid Dr P O Williaiiis visited the Uiiit in March 1989 and VrJ G Howard iii
     region of l'ara. Tlic Uiiit lins a field station i n a iicwly opcncd area of priiiiary forcst mlie                 April 1989.
     arc ninjor iron orc niid Iiydroelccrric dani dcvclopiiients. Tlic aninial reservoir for L.hrozi
     still iiiikiiown aiid its ideiitity reiiiaiiis a iiiajor objective.
        IIrJ G Howard visircd üclciii iii Octobcr IO88to sec rile work oftlic Unit niid its field activities,
     as melias rlic iiistinito Evaiidro Clingas whicli acconiniodates aiid collaborates with the \Vellcoiiie                                                     LONGER-TERM SUPPORT
     group. Thc Agrccnieiit mith tlie Braziliaii Ministry of HCillth lins bccii estciidcd to IW7 when
     i'rofcsror Laiirsoii is duc to rcrirc.

     WellcomelMahidol UniversitylOxford Tropical Rescarch Programmc, Bangkok

     Vr N J Wliirc lias been Virector since August 1986. Tlic niajor c~iipliasisof tlic Uiiir's work
     coiitiiiiics 10 hc on tlic pathophysiology and clinical pliarniacoloçy ofscvcrc I%ininrifi,i>i~,fnlril>nilii.
          Work is orpmiscd prcdoiiiiiiaiitly as a co-ordiiimd series ofsiiorr dcfiiiccl projects. Laboratory                                                            PUBLICATION

     s r i i d i e iiicliidc iiietnbolic. Iincin:itological aiid iiiiiniiiiological aspccts associated wirh cliiiicai
     inwstigarioiis. Field stations nt Kaiicliniiabiiri niid Mac Sot fiiiiction it1 areas of Iiigli disease
     iiicidciicc. Ciirrciit ciiiplinsis is oii fnlcipariiiii nialaria in prcgiiaiicy and iii cliildrcii aiid doiiblc
     infections with I ? i ~ i i ~ n s .
          A cliiiicnl stiidy on scpricncniic iiielioidosis involves another field statio11 at Uboii IIarcliataiii
     with inbornrory sriidics on aiiribioric sciisiti\+ics of Ps.l>s~il<l"i,,ollri.          ilescarcli oii scsiinlly
     ir.iiisniittcd diseases now coiicciitrms 011 the bacrcriology of iiiguiiinl bobocs.
          Sir Ilavid Stecl arid 131 1 ' 0 iVilliaiiis visited the Uiiit in March 1089.

     Wellcome ltust Research Unit, Vcllorc

     The Utiit. dircctcd by I'rofcssor V I Mathan. \\'as origiiially cstablislicd to iii\rcstigatc tropical
     spriic. Irs rciiiit \\'as siibscqiiciiriy csreiided IO ciicoiiipass dinrrliocal diseases of locnl itiiporraiicc.
     The ~ s o r kiiiidertnkcii iiivolvcs pnrliologicnl. iiiicrobiological. bioclicniical niid pliysiological
     approrclics. Field studies in nearby villngcs have csrahlislicd the striking prcvaiciicc ofiiitcstiiial
     pnrliogciis (bnctcrin. virti'ics aiid parasites) iii aii apparently healthy rural poptilatioii. The basis of
     this disease rcsistancc. kiio\vii to be associated with niticosal clia~igesiii tlic iiitestiiial tract, is a
     major objccrivc ofrlic Unir's research. Long-rcriii cpidcriiiologicalstudies 011 tlie prcvnleiicc aiid
     dtiratioii of the pliciioiiieiion are iii progress.
        The Triist is phxiiig oiit its direct financial responsibility for tlic Uiiir progressively over tlie
     nest iiiiic years. The tiiiiiilg fits in with the Unit being fiiiidcd substaiitially by tlie Iiidiaii Coiiilcil
     for Mcdicnl iIcsc.ircli aiid coiiipeting for intcriiatiotiai awards 011a broader buis.

74                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       75

                                              Umtata Hmpital,Tranrkei. South Africa

                                              University ofSt Andrews

                                              Mshidol University, Bangkok. Thailand

                     Univcaity ofOxford

76                                                                                    77

                     RESEARCH LEAVE FELLOWSHIP



                                                    c   VETERINARY   MEDICINE


                                                                                                                                                                                      VETERINARV M L D I C I N L

                                         VETERINARY M E D I C I N E PANEL
                                                                                                                                               VETERINARY MEDICINE
        The Ilt Hoii rlic Lord Swaiiii. FRS. (Chairman, Wcllco~iic
                                                                                                        The Trust has supported research into veterinary niedicine for nimy years. aiid a special
        Professor 13 \V Brocklesby, IlrMedVet, FIICl’ath, FRCVS, Centre for Tropical Veterinary         Veterinary 1’ancI was ser up in October I‘KiHto advisctheTrustccs. At prneiit, about five per cent
        Medicine. University of Edinburgh                                                               oftlie budget for scientific research goes inro this programme. For 1988/89this repmcnted a total
                                                                                                        ofC1.88iii in awards (S1.78ni for l987/88). Thus, 48 per ceiitofrequnrs were fuiidcd in parrcr iii
     # I’rofcssorJ OJarrçtt, l’hl3, UMVS. MRCVS, Uiiiversiry ofGlasgow                                  full. The panel considered 78 (84) grant applications during tlie period (1987/88 in parenrhesis for
                                                                                                        coiiiparkon) of rhcse 50 (58) were approved for funding.
       I’rofcssor 1) Lodge. UV%, I N A . I’hD, MIICVS. Royal Veterinary Collcgc. London                    A review coiiducred in June 1989 could find no evidence that vereriiiary problems arc so
                                                                                                        different in nature or quality that only a speciallyconstituted veterinary panel is able ro assns them
       Ilr H It I’ Miller, 1’1i13. UVMS, MIICVS, Morediin Institute, Edinburgh                          for funding. Following this review. it \\’as decided to disband the Veterinary Panel. G n m
                                                                                                        applicarions coiicerning vcreriiiary work will in future go to the appropriare subject related panel
       I3r M Elaiiic Ilosc. Sc13. 1’1113, MIICIJarli. FRCVS, Iiistitim for Aiiimal Hcalrh, Houglitoii   for assessment and decision aiid niost of these panels will have one or niore veterinary
       Labontory                                                                                        representatives.
                                                                                                           Ir is recognised, however, that it is important that rniniiig and fellowship awards forvcrcrinary
       Staff memben responsible                                                                         gradiiatn be assnsed by individuals with a veterinary background.
                                                                                                           Tlie re\siew also showed rhat the nuniber of Veterinary gnnts held in veterinary schools
 ## Ilr K U Sinclair, IJVSc, 1’1113, FIICVS, (Scientific Secretary)                                     decliiicdfrorii84pcr cent in 1980/82to54pcr centin 1986188aiidthat mostoftlieworkclassified
                                                                                                        as veterinary research is iniderraken by basicsciciirists.The veterinary sclioolsaiid, even more, rlie
     * 13r Uridgct M Ogilvic, 1’1113. Sc13, FIUiol. (Scientific Secretary)                              Agriculture aiid Food Research Council (AFRC) succeed in recruiring few vcreriiiary gnduatn
                                                                                                        into research.
     # Laim Clinnibers. (Adiiiiriistrativc Secretary)                                                      Since 1068, rlie Trust Iias awarded 106 Ilescarch Training Scholarships and 37 Postdoctod
                                                                                                        Fellowships iii Veterinary Research, but the decade l<178/1988showed a sliarp decline in rhc
        #Until October 1989                                                                             number of fellowships awarded.
       ## Uiiril April 1989                                                                                For completeness, tlie devcloptiieiits for tlic support ofrhe veterinary field are described below
        * From April 1089                                                                               altliougli they were not finalised until after the period ofthis report.
                                                                                                           A Veterinary Interest Group Iias now been ser up ro advisc on thespecial problems ofveterinary
                                                                                                        mearch and to adjudicate on scholarship and fellowship awards. I membership will largely
                                                                                                        consist oftlie veterinary reprcsciirarivesoii the n e w panels. It Iiasbeni agreed rliarSJ85 CCQshould
                                                                                                        be set aside for a Ihject Development Grant in Veterinary Medinec, to be awarded by thc
                                                                                                        Veterinary Interest Group. A special study of rlie problem ofartncririg vererinnry graduates into
                                                                                                        rcscarcli was carried out. Tlie results of the study highlighrcd the problems of r n n r c h in the
                                                                                                        veterinary schools, especially in clinicalveterinary medicine, and suggested that iiierhods should
                                                                                                        be esrablislied to encourage rlie veterinary schools to develop links wirli centres of research
                                                                                                        excelleiicc outside the schools.
                                                                                                           Ar its first meeting in November 1989, tlic Veterinary lnteresr Croup decided that the Project
                                                                                                        Ilcvclopnient Grant iii Veterinary Medicine should be awarded to a veterinary school and thit in
                                                                                                        1980190 it should be used to fund project(s) to develop reagnits for identifying lymphocyte
                                                                                                        subsets aitd cytokines iii rhe dog. A workshop to discuss the implementation ofthis propowi will
                                                                                                        be held iti Fcbruary 1990. The Groupalso endorsed a proposal ro modify theTiust’s longstariding
                                                                                                        Research Training Scholarships i n n number ofways. designed ro attract veterinary graduate into
                                                                                                           it is                            sc~ien~es research rniniiig should be available and that rogerher
                                                                                                        they sliould aiin provide a framework which can be adaprcd to suit tlie individual and his/her
                                                                                                        research interests on an nd hoiltitrerit basis.
                                                                                                           ~h~ existiiig rhrec-year R ~ ~ ~Training c ~ ~
                                                                                                                                                       , I ~ Scholarship scheme which essenrially provida
                                                                                                        grailts that     the salile as a phl) award for basic sciencebut wirli an enhanced stipciid, should be
                                                                                                        retailled as ill many          it is perfectly suitable. I r is not proposed to alter these awards, but to
                                                                                                        create two new types ofscheme as follows:-

82                                                                                                                                                                                                                   83

     Five-year awards for exceptional individuals who wish to do a l'hD outside the vctcriiiary
     schools. Usually. thc first tlirec years will be spent iii a non-veterinary school laboratory,
     then two years in a departnient iii a veterinary school. Awards will be held jointly by the
     Iinds ofthe two laboratories concemcd. The stipend will be at the Plil> level until the thesis
     has been submirtcd. thcn ar die fcllo~vsliip   level.
     The purpose ofthcse awards is to create stronger links between the vcry best laborarorics in
     tlie UK and tlie vctcriilary scltools and to attnct csceptioiially able and well-nrotivated
     veterinan. anduarec.~ ~ -
                ,         -
   e Four-year awards for veterinary graduates who wish to m a i n arid develop their clinical
     interests whilst they obtain a I'hD. Recipients will itiidert~kctlicir tnining in a vetcririary
     schooland will bccspcctedrospeiidatleasr70percciitofrlicirtinieinresearch,        butbeableto
     devore3üpcr cent toclinical work. Thcwaytlicseindividualsdividerlieir time will bcagreed
     at tlie time oftlie award. to ensure tlie feasibility ofthe programrnc.
   The Veterinary Interest Group also reconiinciided that the Trust should increase its stipport to
students wishing to intercalate a year ofresearch training during rhcir vcteriitary course. U p to 20
awards for studetits wisliiiig to do this mill be availablc froiii Janiiary 1990.


D n B m u r m i M QW U \ Y E ~ ,                 10
Deprnmrnt of Verefinrry Surgery, University of
Bristol: for 3 rrudy of ronipi,tcririd inonitoGig 11x1
"'""'gcmai,   urmm,i,e,,                 li<U"Zl,L."*,)rZ].

                                  RESEARCU ASSISTANCE AND EXPENSES

                                                              Rap1   (Dick)Schoolofveterinary, UniverGry of

Trinity Collegc Dublin


                 R E S E A R C H TRAINING S C H O L A R S H I P S

                                                                    M E D A L S AND PRSIES

86                                                                                           87
                                                                                                                                                                                           VISION RESCARCM

                                  VISION RESEARCH WORKING PARTY
                                                                                                                                                   VISION RESEARCH
      I'rofessor S M Zeki, I'liD, FRS, (Chairnian), University Collcge. London
                                                                                                   The Vision Research Working Party is now well esrablished as the Trustees' advisory body on all
      Professor Sir Statilcy I'eart, MI), FIICI'. FRS, Wellcome Tmstce                             aspects of the clinical and basic sciences relating to the visual system. During this year. a large
                                                                                                   number of applicatioiis were considered. and the range of work being supported on tlie
      Professor N Asliron. CUE, 13Sc. FRCI', FRCS, FRCPatli, FRS, Institute of Oplitlialniology,   recomniendation of the Working Party is shown in the list ofgnnts awarded.
      London                                                                                           The Working Party awarded a total of Sl.l9ni, excluding longer-term support, during the
                                                                                                   period under review, Sl50 O00 more than for 1987/88 (figures in parenthais for comparison).
      Professor A C Bird. MI). FRCS, Institute of Oplitlialii~ology,Lotidoil                       About38per cent ofthe total requests wercrhereforefunded. Inall. 54 (51) applications forgnnts
                                                                                                   were considered and 29 (26) were awarded in part or in full.
      131 II F Hess. MSc, l'li13, University of Cambridge                                              There lias been a growing intercst in thc application of new nietliods of molecular biology to
                                                                                                   study normal aiid abnormal visual funcrion. Dr D M Hunt and Dr J K Uowniaker, of Q u m
      Professor ï II Jolies. MU. FRCI'. FRCS. Institute ofOplithalmology, Loiidoii
                3                                                                                  Mary College. London, in collaboration with DrJ D Mollon ofthe University ofcambridge, arc
                                                                                                   applying niolccular biological methods to elucidate the underlying biochemical faults in
     1)r T I) Lamb. l'hi). University ofCanibridge                                                 abnormalities of tlie cone pigniciits subserving colour vision. Dr S S Uliattacliarya and his
                                                                                                   colleagues. of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. have support for a nuuibcr of projects
     Professor K H Riiddock. PIID, DIC. ARCS, Imperial College of Science, Technology and          studying rhc molecular genetic basis ofthosc disorders of vision where a gnictic basis has long
     Medicine. London                                                                              been recognised using classical methods ofgeiietics. such as some fornis ofretinitis pigmentosa.
                                                                                                       11ii~iig period of tlie last report, three grants for longer-term support of programmc; of
     Staff members responsible                                                                     research in vision were awarded. in tlic year under review, tlieoiily grant oftliis type wasawarded
                                                                                                   to Professor R W Giiillery. ofthe Department ofHunian Anatomy in Osford. Profasor Guillery
     I)r I) Gordon, MA, MU, FRCI', (Scientific Secretary)                                          aiid his teani arc studying the derailed connections of the visual pathway through the iatcral
                                                                                                   geniculatc body, using the most modern nmhods ofncuromatoniy.
     Anne Edwards. (Administrative Secretary)                                                          The Trustces are parricnlarly concerned to stiniolatc research in vision by providing
                                                                                                   opportunities for research training. in the last report, a disappointitig fall in applicatioiis for Vision
                                                                                                    IIescarcli Fellowsliips was noted. This ims rcvcrscd in the current year whm 21 applications for
                                                                                                   thçsc fellowships were received, aiid a nuniber of outstanding fellowship appointments were
                                                                                                   made, as noted on pages 92 and 93. The Trust has capcrience of providing support for r n n r c h
                                                                                                   training schenics for registrars on clinical rotations. the purpose being to allow six nionth sccond-
                                                                                                   inetits for ~ e s e ~ r exprrience. Support of rhis type bcgaii in the Depanmerit ofPsychiarry in the
                                                                                                    University ofOsford. and earlier reports have described the success ofthis sclieme in stimulating
                                                                                                    young psycliiatrists of high ability to apply for extended research training fellowships. Some of
                                                                                                    tliose supported are now in senior academic positions in university departments of psychiatry.
                                                                                                    Tlic Workiiig Party considered aiid warnily rccomniendcd an application to support a similar
                                                                                                   sclieme for oplithalniologists in tniiiiiig at the Institute ofOphthalniology in London.


                                                                                                                                                  LONGER-TERM SUPPORT

                                                                                                   P ~ o ~ c s s R n GULLER=,                       E604395
                                                                                                   Dryartmeni of Human Anatomy. UniveZSitY Of
                                                                                                   Oxford: fur (ive yL3m. Cira study ofiiuniiri i n d i b m n d
                                                                                                   visu4 piiliwqs                               l~,X*~,,*~"~'LJ

                                                                                                                                         RESEARCH A551STANtE AND EXPENSES

                                                                                                   University ofAberdeen                                          University aïCambridge

90                                                                                                                                                                                                              91
     WELLCOME TRUST                    VISION RUEARCH

                      FELLOVISH IP 5

                                                                                                                                                                                              CLINICAL RESEARCH
                                        CLINICAL RESEARCHPANEL
                                                                                                                                                 CLINICAL     RESEARCH
      I’rofcssor Sir Stanley l’cart, MI), ïRCl’, FRS. (Cliairmaii, Wellconie Trustee)                 Most of tlie Trust’s research expenditure is on tlie sciences basic to riiediciiie. However, the
                                                                                                      Trustces coiitiiiuc to \ ~ C ~ C O I I Iapplicatioiis for support of cliiiicai research ofiiigli quality. iii tlic
      I’rofessor C II \V Edwards. MI). FRCI’. University of Edinburgh                                 year iiiidcr review, a iiiorc generous provision \vas ninde for tlic budget of rlic Clitiinl Research
                                                                                                      I’aiicl tliaii for flic biidgcrs ofotlier advisory panels. As well as die expenditure on clinical research
      I’rofessor M A Fcrgiisoii-Sinitli, FIIS, FIISE. FRCI’Glas, FRCl’atli, University ofCanibridge   noted iii this S C C ~ ~ O I Itlic Trust coiitiiiiics to proiiiore tliç siibject tlirougli research tniiiiiig
                                                                                                      fellowsliipsaiid senior clinical felloissliips. detailed clsewliere in this report.
      I’rofcssor L Liizzaro, MI). FRCl’atli. Royal l’ostgraduateMedica1 Scliool. Loiidoii                Iluriiig i!J88/RI) (1987/88 iii pareiithcsis for coiiiparisoii) the lJaiiclwas able to award a total of
                                                                                                      c3.85111   (C3.54ni).except loiigcr-term support, where the requcsts totalled E11.66ni (S11.Oûni).
      I>rofcsnorAJ McMicliacl. MU. I’hD. FIICI’, University of Oxford                                 Hence. 30 per cciit (24 per cent) ofrequests were funded. in all, the I’aiiel dnlt with I95 (197)
                                                                                                      applicatioiis for grants, of these R I (82) were fiiiided.
      I’rofcssor E O It Reyiiolda. MI). FIICI’, University Coll~xe Middlesex Scliool of Medicine
                                                                 aiid                                    Tlie details of iiidividunl grants given below shoiv the wide range of clininl researcli coniiiig
                                                                                                      within the rciiiit of rlic I’ancl. Clinical researcli workers &ce dificulries bcyoiid tliose of their
      I’rofcssorJ I l Srnales, MI), FRCI’, University of Leicester                                    colleagues in basic scieiice departiiiciits. As wcll as the iiievitablc frustrations aiid cballenges of
                                                                                                      scieiicc. tlic cliiiical sciciitist is ficcd witb tlie pressing dciiiaiids oftlie care ofbis or lier patients. A
      Staff members responsible                                                                       programme of research iiiay depciid on a \vide raiigcofscieiitific skills being brought to bearon a
                                                                                                      particular cliiiicalproblciii, aiid exaniples oftlie cliiiical problciii in question may only beavailablc
      I k I) Gordon. MA, MU, FIICP, (Scieiitific Secretary)                                           sporadically aiid certainly never predictably. Clinical science is rlicrefore particularly suiwblc for
                                                                                                      longer-rcriii support, to allow stability to build tearits of the ran$ aiid skill necessary for a
     Sandn Carpenter. (Adsiiinistntive Secretary)                                                     siistaiiicd attack on probleiiis ofscieiitific and niedical iiiipiirtaiice.
                                                                                                          Tlirec longer-terni grants Iiavc been recoiiinieiided for support by tlie Panel during 1988/R9.
                                                                                                      it lias been particiilarly pleased to be able to n~oriinmid                siipporr for n e w clinical academic
                                                                                                      staff appointed to strciigtlicii tlic Cliiiical Scliool at the University of Cambridge. For
                                                                                                      esaiiiple. Profcssor T M C o s lias mceiitiy bceii appointed to one oftlie Cliairr of Medicine in
                                                                                                      Cambridge. He was formerly a WellconieTriisr Scnior llesearcli Fclloiv iii Cliiiical Scietice. and a
                                                                                                      Wellcoiiic Senior Lecturer at the Royal Postgraduate Medical Scliool. Professor Cox aiid bis team
                                                                                                      work on tlie iiioleciilar genetic aiid biocbeniical defects uiidcrlyiiig a iiunibcr of nieubolic
                                                                                                      disorders, aiid Iiavercceritly made progrcss in defining rlir dcfcctiii Iierediwry aldolascdeficiency.
                                                                                                      Their work has even attracted interest hi the popiilar press.
                                                                                                          Not all longer-terni grants recomiiieiidcd by rlie i’aacl Iiave becii to clitiiciaiisIioldiiig purely
                                                                                                       acadeiiiic appoiiitnici~rs.D r J M Hopkiii is a Corisultaiir I’liysiciaii iii Oxford, aiid with his
                                                                                                       colleagiicslias recently defined tlie likely sire ofdie gciictic defect underlying atopicdisorden such
                                                                                                       as astliiiia aiid allergic iliiiiitis. A longer-term grant from tlie Trust lias been awarded to allow tlie
                                                                                                       tcaiii m pirrsric tlic precise definition oftliegciicric defier, and rliis grant lias iiicluded some partial
                                                                                                       personal siipport for l l r Hopkiii. to relieve Iiini ofsoiiie ofliis clinical duties aiid to allow him to
                                                                                                       coii~entrate Iiis research progniiiiiie.Establislicd researcl>workers such as I’rofasor COS
                                                                                                                       011                                                                                         and
                                                                                                       Ilr Hopkin rely 011 a sound scientific traiiiiiig to underpin tlieir clinical rescarcli ititerests. Tile
                                                                                                       Trust has received a iiiiliiber of rcprçsenrotioiisabout ways iii wliicli it might provide support to
                                                                                                       streiigrlieii the scieiitific trainiiig of clinical acadeiiiics.
                                                                                                          IIescarclr Eaiiiirig Fcllowsliips for medical aiid dental gndiiares protride SUPPOK for
                                                                                                       outstaiidiiig iiidividuals to work iii any siiitnble place. Tlic Tnist Ilas coiisidered a nuniber of
                                                                                                       reqiiLSfs to provide fe!lo\rrsliips eariiiarked for 3 particuiar iiistinitiori, to aiiow that university to
                                                                                                       sclcct froni its owii cliiiical scientists those wlio, in die iiistinitioii’s own view, will best benefit
                                                                                                       froiii scieiitific trainiiig. Tlic I?~iieland tlic Tisrecs liave dçcliiied to provide support tied to a
                                                                                                       partinilar iiistitutioii, prcferriiig that fellows already iiicdicilly qualified should each be proposed
                                                                                                       for filloissliips iii rlicir own riglit. However, different circomstniices apply before medical
                                                                                                       qualificatioii. Tlie Iiistory ofcoiiibiiied MI) arid Pliil degree prograiiinies iithe United Sutci has
                                                                                                       bccii vari;ible, biit ofien ciicoiiraging. aiid the ïhistces Iiave ngrccd to provide funds for a n
                                                                                                       esperiiiieliral MB-phl) Scl~ellle rlie Uiiiversity of Caiiibridge. The coune will be opcll to
                                                                                                       ~ipplicaiirs liaSc coriipl~ted           their prc-clinical traiiiiiig either in Cambridge or elscwherc aiid

96                                                                                                                                                                                                                         97
        TRUST                                                                                                      CLINICALRESEARCH

     tliosc selected for rlic course will iiitcrcalatc study for the i'hil dcgxc parr-way through their
     ciiiiical training. The rcsuirs of this support arc awaited wirii itircrcst, :iitliougii a proper
     a~sessiiiciitwill iiot be possible for inaiiy years.
        This smioii rcprcsciitcd tlic Iasr year of tlic Trust's Cliiiical llcsearcli Advisory I1aiicl in irs
     esrablishcd foriii. iii :he finiire. appiicatioiis for cliiiinl research will be revicwcd by other pniicls
     where ciiiiinl and basic sciriitists mill sit togctlicr to sclect applications of rlic Iiiglicst nicrir.
     Meiiibcrs of the i'aiiel arc coiiriiiuiiig to advise rlic Triistccs wiriiin flic itcw strlicfllrc. and have
     esprcsscd rlicir iiitcrcst aiid eiitiiLisiasili iii eiisirriiig the siiccess ofrlic tic\\' arrnrigcnieix.

                                            LONGER-TERM SUPPORT

                                     RESEARCH ASSISTANCE AND EXPENSES

WELLCOMETRUST                                          CLINItZAL RESEARCH


                                                                                                                                                                         BIOCHEMISTRY AND C E L L B l O U m

                             EIOCHEMISTRY AND C E L L BIOLOGY P n N E L
                                                                                                                                    BIOCHEMISTRY AND CELL BIOLOGY

 Ilr I I-lcleii Miiir. CBE. lll’liil, DSc. H I S (Cliairniaii. \Vcllcoiiie Trusrec)
                                                                                                   Support oftlie basic bioiiicdical scieiiccs remains a cornerstone ofTrust policy. Tlic bulk offunds
 Kenncd y Iiistitiitï i>flIlieiiiii.itology. Loiidoii                                              arc still provided as project grants awarded in response to uiisolicitcù requests. but the availability
                                                                                                   of larger sums for loiiçer-term support is beginning to have 3 slow. biit important inipact.Tlie
 I’roleisorJJ T V\\w. (I1cpiity Cliairiiiaii). MA. USc, MI), FRS, Uiiiversity OfUiriiiiligliaiii   Triisrccs’ provision for tlie I’aiiel for tile period under review was s3.6111.Q i K i OMI less tlian for
                                                                                                   1~1X7/HX.   This reflects tlie policy decision to reduce siiort-tertii fuiidiiig in order to increase the
 I’roikor I l J Clierry. MA. 1’1i11. University of Esses                                           fuiids available for tlic support oflonger-terni research programmes, wliicli am centrally funded.
                                                                                                      The Uiocliciiiistry atid Cell Biology I’aiicl lias not seen fit to define areas ofspcial interest but
 I’roleaïor A C«Im.iii. MA. IWIiil. Uiiivcrsity of Uiriiiiiigliaiii
                                                                                                   coiitiiiiics to h i d applications oii tliç basis of tlieir perceived iiitriiisic scientific nierit. The peer
                                                                                                   review systciii lias been subject to scrutiny in the scientific press and it will be iiirernting to
‘I’r«LssiirJ N Hwtliorne. PliIl. FIUiol. University afNottiligliaiii                               iiioiiitor grant :ipplicaiirs’ rcactioiis to tlie Tntsrees’ agrceiiient to perniit die tnnsmission of
                                                                                                             ’ coiiiiiiçiits a t the discretion of panels aiid tlieir cliairiiien. It is liearteniiig to be able to
 Professor 7’F Slater. Plil>. 1%.    FIISCliciii. FIUiol. Unincl University. Middlesex             report that the I’ancl lias still been nblc to fund a11 die grants judged to merit an award.
                                                                                                      The total number of applications for grants, escludiiig longer-terni support. during 1988/89
*I’rolessor E M Soutlierii, 1’1111,FRS. Uiiiversity ofVsford                                       (19H7/H8in pareiirlicsisfor comparison) w a s 148 (173). ofwliicIi72(89) wcrcawardcd in partorin
                                                                                                   full. The Panel was able to niect 3 per cent (29 per cent) oftlic CI 1.2iii (5l2.9111) rcqunt for
 DrJ II T.ita. IlSc. F I 6 National Institute for Mrdicil Ilesearcli. Loiidoii                     clic year. Tlic avenge award per successfulapplication wasjust over C5OiXXJ (just under CJIOOO).
 I1rJcui O ï ï i o n i a s . MA. 1’111). Sel), FIIS. University ofCaiiibri<lgc
                                                                                                   Longer-term awards
 Staffmcinbcrs rnponsiblc                                                                          During tlie year the IJaiicl invited five fiil1 applicatioiis for longer-terni aivardr. Four wcre
                                                                                                   subsequently rccoiiiiiiendcd to tlie Tnistces, all ofwliicli were approved. Tliesc awards received.
 1)r M J Morç:iii. BA(Mod). 1’1i11 (Scientific Secretary)
                                                                                                   on average, 77 per cçm of tliç funds requested, tliercby esccediiig the average funding r3te per
                                                                                                   successful grant application (63pcr cent).
 11r I G Scott. 1’1i11. (Sciemific Oficcr)
                                                                                                      Two oftlic longer-term awards wen.fornrsistaiiceiri the provision ofequipmeiit and r s o u r m
 Sian Spry. (Adiiiinistrative Secretary)                                                           at tlie cutting edge ofiiew tecliiiical iimovatioiis. l’rofessor H II Morris received funds for a new
 S A liersr. USc. (Atiministrative Secretary)                                                                                                                                             t ~ule~
                                                                                                   and advanced-design mass specrroiiieter with sensitivity for n i a ~ r ~ n i ~ la~ the piconiolc
                                                                                                   level, wliilc l+ofessor G C K Roberts rcceivcd funds for his prograniniccsploitiiig the npabilitis
 * U n d June I%iX                                                                                 ofliis new 600 Mtlz nuclear magnetic resonance specrroiiieter.

                                                                                                   Develnpmcntal biology

                                                                                                    In die last report attentioii w a s dnwn to tlic provision offuiids to the Uiiiversity ofCatiibridge for
                                                                                                    an Institute ofcancer aiid I1cvclopniciital Biology, jointly funded by tlie Trust aiid tlic Cancer
                                                                                                    Ilesearcli Campaign. Good progress has been niadeon the building worksand it is ariticipatedthat
                                                                                                    tile Iiistirute will open officially in 1YJI. Ansictics that the Tnist niiglit igiiorc rcqusts for
                                                                                                    fuiidiiig dcwlopiiiennl biology prograiiiiiics elsewhere may be rssuaged by noting tliar tlie IWO
                                                                                                    otlier loiig-term progniiiriies fiinded this year both had a strong content of developmaid
                                                                                                    biology (Professor A Coliiiaii and I>r M J Wliitakcr) and that a furtlier CJ.1OooO \vas awarded for
                                                                                                    this subject in tile form ofproject gnots.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      f O5

     Human Gcnome Projcct

     T l i c 'ïnisr coiisidcrcd liow it slioiild rcspoiid to flic interest raised by tlic efforts to map niid
     scqiiciicc rlic l i i i i i i a i i gcrioiiic (the Iiiiiiinii Gciioiiic l'rojccr) niid dccidcd iiot to iiiakc n specific
     nllocntioii of fiiiids. Good npplicnriolis iii tliis field will bc \ \ ~ c I ~ o i niid will bc sobjcm to tlic
     iioriiinl peer rcvicw process niid fiiiidcd in coiiipctitioii wirli orlicr nrl lier rcqiicsts. Tlic Trustees
     1inw :igrccd to coiisidcr : request to Iiclp csrnblisli a Eiiropclii office for tiic tliiiiinii Geiioiiie
     Orgniiisntioii (IiUÇO). Ali il\\-ard of Ci76 OIHJ \\us niiiioiiiiced while this report wns ùeiiiç
     prcp.ircd for piihiicxioii,

     Tlicsc ;ire w r y csciriiig tiiiics: tlic rapid dcidoptiiciit o f iicw tccliiiiqiics. .~pplicnblcto iiiniiy
     problciiis iiibiology aiid iiicùiciiic. is breakiiig ùowii tr:idirioiial siibjccr ùciiiarcarioiis aiid forciiig
     3 rc-.isswiiictit oftlic orgailisatioii 3iid fiiiidiiig of biology it1 the iiiiivcrsitics. Tlic Trust is it1 tile
     f o r i i i i i m position of Iir\.iiig siifficieiir fiiiids to coiiteiiiplntr iio\v it iiiigiir piay a creative aiid
     Iiclpiiii role i it l i i s soiiirriiiics pniiifiil rciiiiissaiicc.
        Tlic Triistccs were plcdscd to licnr tlint I l r Evn I Hyde. n foriiicr Senior Basic Bioiiiedicnl
     Science Rllo\i~ i i d projcct gniit Iioldcr. lias bccii nufardcd il lectiircsiiip nt rlie University of

                                                  LONGER-TERM SUPPORT



108                                                  109
                                                                                                                                                                              PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

                                  PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY P A N E L
                                                                                                                                         PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

      13rJJ U Jack, UM, l’lill, (Cliairiiiaii, \VellcoiiicTnistcc)                                    III tlic iiiiieteeiitli ceiitiiry coiicerii witli uiidcrstniidiiig tlic fiiiictioii oftlic Iiuiiiaii body Icd to tliç
                                                                                                      crcntioii of separate departiiiciia of pliysiology. As iiiidrrstaiidiiig developed, subdivisioiis
      I’rofessorT B Uoltoii, UVetMcd. 1’1i1>. MIICVS, St George’s Hospital Medial Scliool. Loiidoii   occiirrcdniid separate dcpartiiienrsof biocliciiiisrry. p1iarni:icology aiid ùiopliysics eiiicrged. The
                                                                                                      process coiiti~~iics      apace \vit11 iiiodcni pliariiiacology aiid biocliciiiistry producing their own
      I’rokwor A IV Ciitlibcrr, i j l J I i ~ r ~ 1’1i13. FI<& Uiiivcrsity ofCaiiibndge
                                                  n,                                                  un‘spriiiy iisoally rclatcd to cell or i~iolecularbiology. This reflects tiie rcductioiiist approach
                                                                                                      \vliic% po\vcrfiil tliougli it is, sooiier or later lias to be put back into the wliolc orgniiisiii.
      I’roksor I)S I>avics. I’lil). CClicni. FIISC. Royal l’osrgradiiate Medical Scliool. Loiidoii         ln dcteriiiiiiiiig its priorities for fuiidiiig. the I’liysiolosy and I’liariiiacoloçy I’aiicl is tliercfore
                                                                                                      coiiccriicd to ciis~irc iiiiportaiit qiicstioiis are bciiig asked that arc rclevaiit to ovcnll systcni
      Professor C; J Dockray. i’lii>. Uiiivcrsity of Liverpool                                        fuiictioii. Tlic tecliiiiqucs may involve cell or molecular biology, iiiiiiiiiiiocytoclic~tiistry o r
                                                                                                      elcctropliysiology for ex:iiiiple. but tliesc arc iiicrcly tlie iiicaiis to tlic eiid of uiiderstaiidiiig
 * I’rofissor HI’ Ilniiç. I~l’liil. FIIS, Saiidoz Iristiriircfor Medical ILscarch                      fiiiicrioii or pliarniacologicnlcmtrol of tlic system as a \vliole.
                                                                                                           Tlic I’aiicl dealt with 186 applicatioiis iii pliysiology and pliariiiacologyaiid 21 in tosicoloçy,
 * I’rofcssor K M Spyer. 1’1i13.     IXc. lloynl Free Hospital Scliool ofMediciiie                    tlic requcsts totalliiig CIOTiiii. Tlic budget nvailnble \vas S h i , suEciciit to fiiiid about 37 per CCIIC
                                                                                                       wliicli is n sotiic\vlint lower proportion tliaii tlie Trustecs would wisli to approve (thcse figor~s
      Staffmembers responsible                                                                        excludr loiiger-tcriii support).
                                                                                                           As iiiiglit be cspccted, graiits awarded covered a wide range from studies 011 iiitact 1iia11
      Dr L H Simjc. MU. US. I’M>. (ScietititicSecretary)                                               tliroiigli to tlic iiioleculnr basis of force generation in niiisclc. Tlic time doniaiiis varied widely
                                                                                                       too. froiii stiidics 011 agciiig aiid on çrowtli aiid developiiieotthrough to conccm~                with fnctioiis
 **Dr Mary l’liillips, I’IiD, (ScientificOficer)                                                       ofa iiiillisccoiid opciiiiig of iiieiiil>raiic   cliaiiiicls.
 # Jili Siiiiidcrs. MA, (Adiiiiiiistrativc Secretary)                                                      .flic policy oftlic Trustees is to devote oiic tliirù o f their fiiiids to loiigcr-terni grants aiid the
    Elizabctli Sliaw. USc, (Adiiiiiiistrati\.c Secretary)                                              I’liysiology niid I>li;irriiacologyl’aiicl iiivircd S C V ~ I fiill applicarioiis for longer-terni awards. Of
                                                                                                       tliesc. two were approved niid one rciiiaiiis iiiider coiisideratioii while rlie rciiiaiiider \vcre
      *From 1 Jniiiiary IOU‘)                                                                          icfiised.
      **Froiii May 1980                                                                                    Toxicology Iiavirig bccii identified by tlie Triisrees as ait xcii rliey mislied to dcvclop. a ocw
      # Uiitii IJaiiiiary IO89                                                                         scliciiicof Advanced Traiiiiiig Fcllowsliips\vas iiistinitcd iii 1987. Oiicniiiioftliesc fello\\*ships             is
                                                                                                       to attract iiicn aiid woiiicii \vliosc previous experience Iias not bceii iii toxicology but who now
                                                                                                       wish to tniisfer to this area ofrescarch. It \vas reported last year that rltcTriisteeshad been pleased
                                                                                                        with tlic rcspoiirc in the first two years aiid tiic prograinirie coiitiiiucs to attract çood appliniin.
                                                                                                        .flic quality of applicatioiis for project grant support is also iniproviiig but tlic pressure 011 the
                                                                                                        toxicology biidgct is evcii greater tliaii tliatoii clic physiologyaiid plrartiincology budget aiid oiily
                                                                                                       2 1 per celit of reqlic5ts could be iiict. I n IL)89/90. the fellowships prograiiiiiic will Iiavc becii
                                                                                                        ruiiiiiiig for tliree years aiid will be duc for review. TIEopportuiiity will be taken to csaiiiiiie the
                                                                                                        toxicology prograriiiiic as a ivliole, both iii ternis oftlie direction it Ius tnken aiid the rcsourccs
                                                                                                        that l i n v ~
                                                                                                                     bccii dcvorcd to it.
                                                                                                       Lkl <if&.“Cl           - I
                                                                                                                 nmrd‘Tlavcr cW

114                                                                                                                                                                                                                        115
  WELLCOMETRUST                                                            PHYSIOLOGY AND P H A R W A W L W I


                                                     University ofExeter

                                                                                    PHYS1OLOUY AND PHARMACOLDiV

      University Coiiegc and Middicrcx School of                    SYMPOSIA

                                                          RESEARCH TRAININO SCHOLARSHIPS

                                                                UNIVERSITY AWARDS

      United M e d i a l nnd Dental Sdtooir ofGuy's and
      St Thomas's Hospitals

                                                            RESEhRCH LEAVE FELLOWSHIPS

120                                                                                                               121









                                                                                              WELLCOME CARLSBERG FELLOWSHIP


                                                                                            WELLCOME SIGRID JUSELIUS FELLOWSHIPS

128                                                                                                                                129
  WELLCOMETRUST                                                      EURÔPEAN PROGRAMML






                                         WELLCOME JAHRE FELLOWSHIP




130                                                                                       131
                                           EUROPEAN PROGRAMME








                                                                                                                                                                            OTHER OVERSEAS AWARDS

                                                OTHER O V E R S E A SA W A R D S

        Scientists froiii parts oftlic world not covered by the Triistces'tropical aiid Eiiropeaii prograniriies
        iiiay apply to flic liitsr forsiipporr. biit oiily in circ~iiiist~~iccs.  in geiicrnl, the ïriistces oiily              AUSTRALIAN SENIOR RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS
       consider applications froiii sciciirists iii developed c o ~ i i t r i (orlier tliaii Aostralia. New Zcalniid
       and Japan for wliicli special scliciiics csist) if they arc nlrcndy ill flic UK, fiiiidcd by anorlier
       ngciicy, niid wish to cstciid their stay to coiiiplctc a research project. Esccptioiinlly, tlie Triistccs
       iiiay be willing to accept a n applicatioii from a fellow clseivlicrc, but oiily iflielslic is iioiiiiiiared
       by niid is well kiio\\w ton spoiisor iii the UK.
            Tlic special fcllo\vsliip scliciiic opcratiiig jointly with die Ncw Zcnlniid Medical Ilcscarcli
       Coiiiicil still attracts well qiialified candidates. biit tlicre is ~ o i i i coi~ccrii it iio losiger fiilfilstllc
                                                                                     e        tliat
      essrtitial role it oiicc had. Triist support for iiicdical aiid vctcriiiary rescarcl1 iii New Zealaiid is                  CHlNA
       being rcricwcd.
           ï ï i c \VcllcoiiicJapaiicscFclio\vsliip scliciiic, operated iiiider tlie aiispiccs ofriic Uritisli Coiiilcil,
       is soiiicwliat niioiiialoiis siiicc it oiily provides for visits from Japan to tile UK.Tlicrc is 110 doubt
      tli:it it lins becii a succcssfiil dicnic aiid the fellows siipported liavc Lieen ofn very Iiigli statidard.
      Ncrcrtliclcss, flic Triistccs Iiavc agreed tliat tlic operation of this s c h c i ~ ~ c       slioiild be reviewed
      diiriiig flic iiest ycnr to see if it is still iiccdcd.
           Tlic Triisrccs' special sclienic of Wellcoiiic Aiistraliari Senior Ilcscarcli Fcllowsliips wliicli
      proridc for tlic clecrioii ofAiistrnlhii scieiitists IO fcllowsliips teiinblc iii Aiistrnliariiiiiivcrsitics lins
      bccti a grcar siicccss aiid iiiay provide a Iiclpfiil niodcl for the devclopiiieiit of siriiilnr sclicriics
           Tlic ïriistccs Iiad bccii prepared to consider a proposal to cstablisli a Wcllcoiiic Cliiiia
      Fello\vsliip scliciiie. Ho\vevcr. the rcprcssivc cvciits in China earlier this yenr proiiiptcd tlieiii to
      postpoiiecoiisidcrntioi~                                 coiidirions tlicre rctiini IO iioriiial. iii tlic iiicaiirinie.
                                    ofsiicli a scIiciiic ~iiitil
      applications from Cliiiicsc fellows to vizir the UK iiiidcr tlic aiispiccs of tlie Tnist will be
      coiisiùcrcd on their iiierits ns csccptioiial awards.
           It slioiild becnipliasiscd that tlic Triisr oiily siipportr working visits froiii forcigii sciciirists \vlio
      arc already cspcriciiccd. postdoctoral rcscnrcli workers and \vho have posirioiis to retiirii to iii
      their own coiiiitrics.                                                                                                                           FELLOWSHIP
           TIic torn1 siini> cspciided for rlic support of ovcrscns awards (cscliidiiig tile Eiiropcaii niid
      Tropical progrniiiiiics) :iinoiiiitrd to C612 ~JIIU.

                                                                                                                                              WELLCOMEJAPANESE FELLOWSHIPS

130                                                                                                                                                                                                 137
                                       C TRAVEL GRANTS



                                                                                                                                             HISTORY    OF MEDICINE

  Tlic \Vcllcoiiic ilescarch Travel Grniit Çchcnie is iiitciidcd to provide support for postdoctoral
  scicntists ntid cliiiicnlly qiialificd workers wlio wisli to make a short visit ro an overseas centre iii
  order to fiirtlicr tlieir reswrcli or attend a worksliop or syniposiuiii in a relevant subject area. Tlic
  sciicnic also provides for coiitriùiitions toivards tlic travclliiigcspeliscs of yoiiiiger workers wlio     A   SUPPORTFORTHE HISTORY     OF MEDICINE
  Iinw becii o f ï ~ r c rcscarcii fcllowsliips tciinble for a t least n year iii iiistitiitioiis overseas.
     lliiriiig tlie pcriod iindcr rcvicw tlicre lias been n siibstaiirial increase in the iiunihcr of         B   WELLCOME INSTITUTE   FOR T H E HISTORY OF M E D I C I N E
  applications. niid clic Triistccs iiiade 438 awards (769 iii the previous bieniiiuni) at a total cosr of
  C 196 IKKJ.
      Special Travel Grants (CANZUSA)

  Tlic Trust operates five special schciiies rchtiiig to rcsrarcli workers iii Canada, Aiistnlia. New
  Zcalniid, Soiirli Africa niid tlic USA. The sclienics arc joiiirly sponsored by tlic Trust aiid
  collnhorntiiig agencies overseas. to provide for rliort-teriil (iip to tlircc months) working visits by
  cspcriciiced rmcarcli workers. The Triistccs niade awards totalling C 5 O00 during the pcriod
  iiiidcr review.

  WELLCOMETRUST                                                                                                                                                 SUPPORT CORTHE HISTORYOFIVIEDICINE

                                        HISTORVF MEDICINE COMMITTEE
                                              O                                                                                                LIERARYA N E L

       Sir 13avid Stccl. 13SO. MC. TI>. (Clixiriiim), (Chairnian ofthc WcllcoiiicTriistees)               13r P W Ratcliffe, MA, lM>,JI’, (Chairman), Uiivcrsicy afCan1bfidgc
       I l r C E Gordon Siiiitli, CU. MI). FIICI’. FRCl’nrli. (llepiity Cliniriiiaii of clic Wcllcoiiic   C J Iiuiit, UA, MLitt. Londoii Scliool of Economics
                                                                                                          professor J U Trapp, CUE. MA, FUA, Warburg Iiistitiirc
       I’rofcssor M Aiidcrsoii, I’lill. PUA, Uiiiversity ofEdiiibiirgli
                                                                                                          D~1, 0 w ill inn is, IXc(Hon), MB. FRCI’, llircctor, The Wellmnie TmSr
       Ilr G H UricScr. MI]. TIicJoliiis Hopkins Uiiiversity. Udriiiiore, USA

       Ilr \V H Urock. 1’1iIl. Uiii\~rsity Lcicesrcr
                                         of                                                               Staff members responsible
       llr F \V Ilnrcliifc, iMA. PliIl, JI’. Uiii\wsiry ofCainbridge                                      E J Frecinan. BA, ALA, (SecrcrarY)
       Ilr I’O \Villimiis, I)Sc(Hoii), MU, FIICI’, Dirccror, Tlie Wellcoinc Triist

       StaBmembcrs responsible
                                                                                                           * Until Jaiiuary 1989
       EJ   Frceiiinii. UA,   ALA. (Sccrctary)                                                             # From January 1989
  * 5 McDoiiagli. USc. (Adiiiiiiistrarirc Secretary)
 # Ji11 Sniiiidcrs. MA. (Adiiiiiiistrariuc Secretary)

                                      GRANTS AND UNITS ADVISORY PANEL

       Ilr \V tl Urock, I’lill. University ofLeicester (Cliairiiiaii)

       Professor M Aiiderroii. IJIill.
                                     FBA. Uiiiversity oiEdiiibiirgli

                                        Hopkins University. Udtiiiiorc. USA
       I>r G I i Uriescr. MI. ’rlicJoIi~is

       I>r \V F Uyiiiiiii. MI). PliIl, University Collcge Loiidori

       Ilr A It Ciiiiiiiiigliniii, I’IiD. Uiii\wsiry ofCanibridge

       I l 1 I S L Loiidoii. MA. MI). FICGI’. Uiiivcrsity ofOxford

       13r 1’ O \Villiaiiis. llSc(lHoti), MU. FIICP. Ilirccror. Tlic Wcllcoiiir Triist

       Staffmembers responsible

       Ilr I l E Allcii. MA. PliIl, (Srcretary)

    S Mclloiiaçli. USc. (Adiiiioistrativc Scccetxy)
  # Jill Saiiiidcrs. h.1 A. (A‘liiiiIiistr~iti~,e


  WELLCOMETRUST                                                                                                                                                                       SUPPORT FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE

                                      SUPPORT FORTHEHISTORY MEDICINE
                                                                                                                                I>eiidiiigtliesï nppoiiitiiients and tlie possibility of niajor prograni~iiccliaiigcs followirig 011
                                                                                                                            froiii rliciii, rlic year has iiicvitably bcen :I dificiilr one for tlie Osford and Glasgow Units.
       I9XX/X9 sa\vtlie coiisolidatioii oftlicriew.tripartite striictiirciiitrodiiccd iii 19X71XX to oversee rlic           Ncvenlicless, they have coiitiiiiicd to press ahead with their existing researcli.
      history of iiicdiciiic prograiiiiiic w i t h the Triisr. This consists of a History of Mcdiciiie                          For tlie Maiicliestcr Unit (Director DrJ V Pickstone) tlic year bas k n chiefly nowble for plaiis
      Coniiiiirrec aiid two siibordiiiarc p:iiicls. tlie one ovcrscciiig the work oftlie Wellconic Itistitutc                                                                                                        idcl
                                                                                                                            to iiitrodiicc a n Intcrcalatcd BSc course in die History of Medicine for n ~ i a students,
      Library. flic orlicr advising oii die a\vardiiig ofresearch grants aiid o \ ~ r ~ . c i tiic work ofthc five
                                                                                                    ng                      ~iinlogoiis tlic coiirst which lias beeiitai!$it for iiiaiiy yurs at die Wellconic InstituteinLondon
      Wellconic Units for tlie IHistory of Medicine. Uy gcricral coiisciit. this iiiiiovatioii lias worked                  ,iiid wliicli is proving ever more popular. Given the crowdcd state of medical ciirncula.
      w l l , not least by enabling a wider spread ofprofcssioiial espertisc to he broiiglit to hear 011 tlicse             iiitcrcalatcd courses Iiavc conic to seem the most practicable way for the Units to make an input
      nrcas ofrlic Triisr's activities.                                                                                     iiito iiicdical schools. The Trust lias therefore ivarnily wclconied this iriirian~c assured it of
          IJiiring tlic year tlie aiiioiiiit :illoc:ired by tlie Triisrecs for tlie siipport oftlie history ofiiicdiciiic    siipport. llatlier than sec iiiorc aiid niore iinivcrsitics iiitroduciiig coursçs of this type, Iiowcvcr.
      ovcnli \va5 C l 5 X l ( X I 0 (coinparcd \vitli C2JXi (XI0 in 19H7iRX). 62 per cciit mas espeiided                     tile Triisrccs feel it would be better for tliosc in London aiid Maiiclicster to serve a national roic.
      iiitcriiallg. in inaiiitaiiiiiig tlic work of the Trust's principal iiwcstiiiein iii this field, tlie Wellconic        taking sriidents froiii iinivcrsitics tliroiiglioiit the UK.
      Iiistitiitc for tlic History ofMedicine. Ofrlic C988 UlOespcndcd estcriially, î375 000 (38 per cciit)                      A iiew horizon lias also opened up during rlie year for tlic Canibndge Unit (Dimctor Ur It I        (
      w a s devoted to siipporriiig the five History of Medicine Units a rather siiiallcr share rliaii iisiial               Frciicli), wirli the start of a programnie of collaborarioii with the Coiiscjo Superior de
      for the re:ison esplaincd below aiid C613 OM1 (62 per cent) miis awarded to applicniits for tlic                                          ~             ~ ~ ~ i The i ~ ~ ~
                                                                                                                              ~livesr~gacioiies i ~ ill ~arccloiia. f niost conspicuous form this took \vas the Iioldiiig of
      various forms of nil hor graiits: Ilescarch Scliolarsliips (for postgradiiatc training). Itescarcli                    a joiiir coliferciicc it, ~ a r c e h i a April on Medieval Medicine in the Latin Mcditcrraiieari. In
      Fcllomsliips (it] rlie main for postdocronl work). Rcscarch Leave Fcllowsliips (for UK tciiiircd                                   soiiicjoint rescar& projects are under way aiid an csclinri~eofpersoliiic~ begun. The
      acadcmics), siipport for rcscarch projects, triivel grants aiid coiirnbiitioiis towards researcli                       possibility of reciprocal studentships is now being explored.
      cspciisca. An innovation in tlic course oftlic year was the provisioii ofaii cstrn Cl00 O00 for tlic                       ~l~~ fifili uiiit, at University Collcgc London (Ilircctor Dr W F Byiiurii). is effectively
      siipport of rcse:ircIi oii tlie history of twvciitictli-cciiriiry iiiedical science, nii area wliicli the               cotcrlilinous ilrirli Andciiiic Unit oftlie Wcllconie Iiistitiitc and its activities nrccovcrcd iiithe
      Triistccs are kecri to dcvelop.                                                                                         report on the latter (see pagc 153).
                                                                                                                                 'rile Triistccs were plcascd to hear tlint Professor M Anderson, a iiieinber of the History of
          The first of tliesc was tlic fiiiaiisiiig of plans for a groiip for die history of t\\,elitictli-cciitiiry          Medicine Committee, lias ùceii elected a Fellow of tlic British Acadniiy.
      iiicdical  science to be bnscd at least iiiitinlly at tlie Royal College of I'hysiciaiis. Sir Cliristoplier
       Uootli. recently appoiiited by the Collcgc as its Harvciaii Librarian, \vil1 be acting as its I3irccror.
       ï h e groiip will be niorc or Icss analogous to the ltoyal institinion's Cciitrc for die History of
       Sciciicc aiid Tcchiiology aiid. like that. mill be csscntially a sdiolnrly base. with tlic iieccssary
       rcscarch facilitics, for those imdcrtakiiig work iii tlic field. A prograiiiriic of sciiiitiars and
       symposia is ciivisagcd, aiid iiicrc will be close links with the Wellconic Institute. III additio~i this
       initiative tlic Trust expects to continiic to rcccivc proposals for research projects on tlic history of
       mcdical scieiice iii this most rcceiit period based in university dcpartiiiciits or in its o\vii Units -
      aiid, indecd. Iiascvery hopetlint tlieiiiiiiibcr oftliescmill goon increasing. Aiiioiigtlioscitwill be
       looking to iii this coiiiiccrioii arc the iioi inconsiderable iionibcr of profcssiotial Iiistoriaiis of
      science\vho have nor Iiithcrto been accustomcd to think ortheir area ofexpertise as falliiig ivitliiii
       tlie Trust's field of interest.
          Tlic second Iiigliliglit of clic year \vas flic qirinqiieiiiiinl review of the University College
      Loiidoiii\Vcllcoiiic Iiistiriitc Academic Unit. Support for each ofthc Units is IIOIV oii a "rolliiig"
      basis mid siibjcct to rigoroiis, periodic scriitiiiy (iiicliiding a day-long visit) by : paiiel specially
      appoiiited fix the purpose. In 19HXiX9 it was the mni of tlic University Collcgc Loiidori Uiiit
      (diich is iiitegral with the \Vellcoinc Iiisritiite) to bc asscssed on this new basis. The report proved
      to be highly coiiiniaidatory. wliilc coniiiig up with n iiimibcr ofsiiggcstioiis wliicli have iiow
      bccn iiiiplcnic~ited.Aiiioiig the latter is an alrcrarioii in title, to Wellconic Unit for tlic History of
      Medicine. to conform with the other foiir Units.
          Thc third fcariirc of198B/X9\\'ai the appoiiitiiieiit ofncw Directors for two ofthc Uiiits. Front
      Jaiiuary 1990 13r Ilicliard Siiiitli, at present a Ilescarch Fellow of All Soiils College aiid oiic of
       Britain's foreiiiosr scholars in the field ofliistorinl dciiiography. will be takiiig o ~ ethe dircctiori
      oftlic Unit at Osford University in siiccession to I3r Cliarles Webster. Froni 1 Marcli 1990 Dr
      Johamia Geycr-Kordcscli. 3 specialist in eiglitceiirli-ceiiriiry medical history wlio lias spciit niiicli
      oflier academic career in the Federal Rcpiiblic ofCcrniany, will be traiisfcrriiig froni hcr prescrit
      post in the Canibridgc Unit to head the Ui 31 Glasgow University. This is still at 311early stage
      in its dcvelopniciit and now gives proinise ofespnndiiig in various interesting 1icw directions.
WELLCOMETRUST                                      SUPPORT FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE



                                   RESEARCH LEAVE FELLOWSHIPS



                                                                                                                                                     INSTITUTE FORTHE HISTORY OFMEDICINC

                                                     STAFF                                                                    WELLCOME INSTITUTEFORTHB HISTORY O F M E D I C I N E

       Management C o m m i t t e e
                                                                                                           Thc daily affairs of the Institute arc currently the rcspoiisibility of a Manageiiiciit Committee
       EJ Frcciiiaii, UA, ALA, (Cliairiiiaii)                                                              consisting of EJ Frccniaii, Ur W F Byiiuni aiid S E Eiiibertoii.
       W FUyiiiiiii, Mi). 1’111)
       S E Eiiibcrtoii. MUIM
                                                                                                           The Library
       Academic Unit
                                                                                                           lmplciiiciir~tioiiof the Autoniatcd Library Systcni proceedcd tlirougliour the year, but at a
       W F Uyiiiiiii. MII. I’hD, Head of Academic Unit                                                     disappointingly slow pace. By rlic end of September 1989 only limited miiiing fadiries wen:
       13 E Allcti. MA, l’hi). Hoiiorary Lcctiircr (part-time), History ofUiology                          availablc oii a system still lacking irs dataùasc and major coniniiiriicanoii fadirics.
       EJaiiet Urowiic. MA, I’lii), Hoiiorary Lcctiircr (parr-tiiiic), History of Uiology                  Major accessions to the Libnry included a fiftceiitli century inaiii~scriptmedical conipmdium
      L i Cowad, i’hl), Medical Hiatoriaii (Ar.ibic Mcdiciiic)                                             iti Middlc English and Latin compiled in Wcstniorlaiid. This was purchased with the help of the
      Liiids-ly I’ Graiisliaiv, MA, 1’1i11. Medical Historian (Tivciitictli-cciiriiry Mcdiciiie)           Victoria e< Albcrt Museuiii Purchase Grant Fund. An iiitercstiiig group of early pniited books
      CJ Lawrence, MU, i’lill. Medical Hisroriaii (Clinical Mcdiciiic aiid WcllcorticMiiseuni)              was acquircd from Cliariiig Cross Hospital Medical School Libnry, while thc Icoiiognphic
      M I< Ncve, MA, I’hll, Mcdical Historian (Hiiniaii Biology)                                            Collectjotis were enhanced by 27 anatomical drawings made by Charles Laiidsecr in 1815for Sir
      V Niiitoii. MA, I’lil). Mcdical Historiaii (Classiral Medicine)                                       Charles Uell. the iieuro-aiiatoniisr. This acquisition was rcuiiircd wirh an nrlier collection of
      II J l’aliiier. UA, 1’1i11, ALA, Medial Historian (Rciiaissaiicc Medicine aiid Ciirator of Western    Laiidsccr-Bell drawiiigs piirchascd by Sir Hcnry Wcllconic in 1910. The most notablcaccnsion to
                                                                                                            clle Contcninorary Medical Archivcs Centre was the .. . - the Research Defence SOC&’
                                                                                                                                                                      archive of ,
      II Porter, MA, l’hi). Medical Historian (Social History)
      A Wcar, MA. l’hi>, Medical Historian (Early Moderii Medicine)


      EJ Frceoiaii, UA, ALA, Librarian
      11 M Price, MA, ALA, i)cpory Librarian
      N M W T Allaii. MA, lJhll, ALA, Ciirator (Oriciiral Manitscripts and Printed Books)
       I) Undy. UA, Assistaiit Curator (Icoiiognpliic Collections)
       Lcslcy Hall, UA. Sciiior Assistant Archivist (Coiiteniporary Mcdical Archivn Ccntrc)
       Karlicrinc Hoopcr, MA, DipLib. Assistaiir Ciinror (Early PrintedBooks)
       I’micia Hiilly, UA. FLA, Ediror. Currciir Work in the History ofMedicine
      Jcaiiiictte Lakc, UA. ALA, Head (Modern Mcdiciiic aiid Uibliograpliical Servica)
       II) I’aIiiier. BA. 1’1iD. ALA. Curator (Westcrii Manuscripts)
       W M Scliiipbach. MA (Caiirab). MA (Loiid), Curator (IconographicCollccrions)
      Jiilia Slicppard. UA, Archivist (Coiirciiiporary Medical Archives Centre)
      Urciida Siirtoii. UA, DipLib, Head (Rcader Services)
      H J M Syiiioiis. MA, ALA. Ciirator (Early Printed Books)
      I) \Viyastyk. USc. iX’hil, Associate Ciirator (South Asia - Oriental Manuscripts and Printed


      S E Eiiibcrroii. MUIM

154                                                                                                                                                                                                             155
                                                                                                                                                                           WELLCOME I N S T I T U T E FOR THE H l C I O R Y OF MEDICINE

   Criiisrriicrioii work bcg:iii to coiivcrt iiiiiiibcr ?lHl Eustoii Iload (Uciirlcy Hciiise) iiito tile
 Librq‘s pcriiiniiciir bookslorc. Tiiis biiildiiig will be liiitc<i by n tiiiiiiçl to clic rcfiirbislicd                         .flic Iiiiririite’s bron<ily-h.tscd progciiiiiiie ofsyiiiposio. sciiiiiinrsaiid public lecriires continued
 \Vcllcoinc Ihiil~liiig the soiitli side of Eiisroii I h i d . Iletailcd pliiiis \\*ereiiindc for tlie Lihrary’s
                       oii                                                                                                     to sritiiiiiarc piiùlic iiitcrcst iii die discipliiic. Sis oiic-day syiiiposia wcrc Iield oii tlic folIo\\%
           :iiid estciidcd Ilicilirics in the iic\v \Vcllcoiiic Uuildiiig. \\~iicrcit \ \ r i i l prolridc n iiinjor
 c~iIiniiccù                                                                                                                   tliciiics: Aiiglo-lliircli Medical Coiiiicctioiis; Woiiicii niid Mcdiciiic; History of I’iiysio~oyy
 rcmircc ill die iiew Cctirrc for Mrdicnl Sciciicc niid History.                                                               ‘ïc.icliitig; Mcdiciiie aiid die Freiicli Itcvoliitioli: History of Aiiiiiial Mediciiie; aiid the History of
                                                                                                                               Tlicrnpeiirics. Tlic \Vcdiiesrhy Ilescnrcli Sciiiilix co~iiiiicdfor a sccond y c x \vir11 clic thciiic
                                                                                                                               Iliscnscs iil History. niid the series on Science, MediOiic xid Tccliiiology iiiIsl;iiiiicCivilimtio~i
                                                                                                                               :ittrnctcd its owii spcci.ilisr :iiidieiicc. A fortiiiglitly disciissioiisroiip was devotedto classics in tlw
 The Andcmic Unit                                                                                                              Iiistory of psycliintry and the seiiiiiiar iii tlie history of sciciice aird iiiediciiic, which IIILWS at
                                                                                                                               Uiiiversitv Collcqc, mai plctcd its sisteciirh year. As p.irt ofilic in forinnl hculty cscli~iige       scheme
  Thc srrengli ofrlic Iiistiriitc’s Acndciiiic Uiiir n’as ciiliniiced wirli flic arrixral. 011 I October 1888.
                                                                                                                               bctwccii tile \Vcl~oiiicIiistitiite :iiid tlic Iiistirureofrlic History ofMedicine ar~ieJoIiiis       Hopkitis
  of Ilr Atiilrcw \Vex to :I Uiii\scrsirics Fiiiidiiig Couilcil-firticled Icctiircsliip iii flic History of                                                                                                           i
                                                                                                                                                                                liiic Hnniinw.iy spent n niontli i i Loiidoii, wliere she
  Mediciiic. i l r \Vex rr,iiisfcrrcd to Uiiivcrsiry Colleqc Loiidori fraiil tlic Uriircrsiry ofhbcrdecii,                                                                       ;I disciissioii groiip on Mcdiciiic diiriiis t h Frciich
  m liic interest iii iiiediciiic diiriiig flic EarlgMorlcrii IJcriod tieatly c«iiiplciiiciits tlioscof
     d                                                                                                                                                                          liwred n public Iectiirc iii the Iiistiriitc’sLibrary.
  vtlicr iiiciiibcrs oftlic Uiiit. I3iiriiiS I 9XXIX9 lie tniiglit r l i iiiidcrqrGtdiiatc
                                                                          ~                 coiirscs o f l l r il I>orrcr,                                                      btoy Prize oftlie Ainericati Historic3l Associlrioii for his
  \ Y b 0 n’as 0 1 1 ic.ivc .IS Clark Library i’rofcssor iif tile Uiiiircrsityo?Cnliforliia. Los Aiigclcs.                                                                      diiig boot piiblislied duriils I‘)XX by n Eiiropcsi d i o r .
      Tlic Uziit‘s tc.icIiiti~:   progrmiiiic coiiriiiiwd r» tlirivc. .ïweiir\.-f<iiir iIicclic;iI ~ t i t d e i ~iiiaiiy of
 t l i ~ i i in.irIi \Vcllcoiiir biirsarics. piirsiicd the Iiitcrcdntr<l USc coiirsc iii tlic I-iisrory of Mcdiciiic.
 Tlicrc w r ç fivc first cI:iss Iioiioiirç <lc.arccs       aiif:ir<lcd.?oral c~iroliiieiitfor coiirscs :isnilnblc to            Publications *ciciicc.iiid arts iiiiilcrgrndiintcs rcnclicd alniost .100.’ïlie MSc iii tlic History of Sciciicc,
 Mcdiciiic mi1 Tccliiiology ofl?rcd f<irrlic first riiiir ill October IOHX tiiiclcr die niispiccs oftlic
 L«iiùoii Ceiirrc for flic History of Sciciicc. Tccli~iology             ml Mcdiciiic. More tlidii 20 stiidciirs
eiirollcd for tlic course. wl~icli available ovcr otic or two years. oii n kill- or part-tiiiic basis. It
proikks ai: csceIIeiir iiitrodiicrioii to rlic disciplilic niid cqiiips sriideiirs to carry o i ~postgrndiintc
rescnrcli in die field.
     Ti\sciity Ml’liil, l’lill niid iM13 cniidirlnrcs wcrc siipcrviscd by iiiciiibcrs ofstaffniid tlirec 1’1i1)
Ihcscs coiiipleïcd. Two I’lilYs were araardcd. clic third oiie :i\vnirs csniiiiii:itioii. Tlic Iiistitiirc also
pro\.idcd n stiiiiiil:itiiig ciiviroiiiiiciit for I? postdoctornl fcllo\vs. iiiosr oftliciii siipporred by tlic
\Vcllcoiiic Trust. as well as scvcrnl visitiiig ncndciiiics 011 snbbnticnl I ~ a v e .Ileceiit rcscnrcli fclloms
\\’ci11 to ports iii tlic United Stares. The Nctlicrlniids. Aiisrnlia aiid New Zcnlaiid.Mciiihcrs oftlie
Unir ncrircly coiiriiiiicd rlicir historical rcse:ircIi prodiiciiig se~eii       hooks niid aliiiost 70 articles iri
I9XXIX‘). Tlicsc iiicliiùcd 7%<,           Huspild ;I Hisfory, a coIIcctio!i of essays edited b!, Ilr Liiidsav
GrmIiaw mù i)r II i>ortcrniid ùased 011 otic oftlie rcsearci] sciiii~i:irscrics iieié earlier at tile
Instiriirc. ’ïliis voliiiiic is one of flic \Vcllcoiiie Iiistitiirc Series iii tlie History c>fMcdiciiie.
piiblisliril hy IIoiirlcùgc. Eight otlicr ritlcs Ii:ivc .ilrcady appeared.


 WELLCOMETRUST                                                                                                                                                                              WELLc0METRUPiCALINffSTUTE

                                        W E L L C O M ETROPICAL


      The csliihitioii of tropical disenses miitiiiiicd to attract iiiaiiy sriidiints. A spccinl csliiùition,            Tlic potential for field rcsc~rcli generated tlirougli the prosraninia developed during the year.
      ciititlcd .lhilnri<i (ripened iii March 1‘1x7). h;is prorcd w r y popiilar ;ind \vns publislied as ;        I      I IGliaiin for esniiiple, repeated nieetiiigs were held \vitIl students ro refine and devdop tit&
      iiionocrauli i -t i IYX‘J.-
               - ,
                 ,         --                                                                                            protocols’for tlicir field project work. Such fieldreseirch should provide most valuabledata ifthe
          III I‘JSS. a h i d b o o k ciititled Lipro.i). was piiblislicd mith a set of ten posters. .The Iia~idbook      siipcrvisors arc able to help students forniulatc a good project aiid develop a good protoml for
      c.irrics detailcd iiiforiii:ition oii leprosy and is iiitciidcd to provide aii overview of tiic siibjcct for       tlieir studies. Tlic Trustccs coiifidcntlv espect riiriil rcscardi to grow as 3 rcsulr of the ditfercnr
      postgrndiiatc doctors. l l i c postcrs provide a pictorial prcsciitarioii ofleprosy witli cssciitini key           Icnrniiig progrniiiiiics. Ilcscarcli into nietliods and in particular into die usefulness ofthc learning
      poiiirs. Tlic Iiaiidhook niid posters Iiavc hccn on sale and Iiave proved to be popiilar with ordcis               iiioduln lins continued. Mcnihcrs of tlie Institute have continued to work in association with
      coining froni all ovcr the world.                                                                                  overseas coiiiitries in niedicd education. proniotion of research, and the general affairs ofnopial
         Diic to tlic rcfiirbishnicnt of tlic \Vcllcoiiic üuildiiig. the Miisetim of the Wcllcoiiic Tropical              iiicdicinc.
      Iiisritiitc lins iiiifi~rtiiiiatcly to close. Tlic Xriistccr took this opportunity to rcvicw riie activities           Tlic Trust-bascd distance leaniing prognmniç \vas reviçwcd by rlie Trustees during the year.
      of tlic Iiistitiitc. They dccidcd to crcarc in place oftlic niuseuni a n iiitcrnctivc video prograniiiic            Wliilst it is considered to ben tiseful adjunct 10 teaching in Africa, tlic Trustccs considered ir to be
      using the esistiiig \~aluahlccollection of pictorial iiiatcrinl. The intcractive video will Iiavc tlic              too pcriplicral to their general interests to justify continued funding after the initial trial petiod of
      dvaiitfigc of being iisablc in nll parts of rlic world. This project slioiild be coiiiplctc for the                 five years. It is to beIiopcdt~iattlicstiiiiultiscrcatedwillcoiiriiiueaftcrt~icprogr~mineiscloscd.     A
      openins oftlic Ccntrc in I99) niid \vil1 be contiiiiioiisly updated.                                                 run-down period ofTrust funding lias bcen provided.

      Distance Learning Programme

                                                             by I’rohsor E H O Parry niid his collcngiics
                                                             I’lans for rlic C;iribbcaii arc still being niadc. 111
                                                             worksliop aiid iii~icli Icanied abolit ~ l i a t ~ a s

                                                             k aiid n ne\\*prograiiiliic \vas developed in Volta
                                                             gion were fnrndvaliced. Ethiopia devoted a day of
                                                             i to distance Icnniiiig. at which p:qxrs were given
      by Ethiopinn. GIi:iiiainii aiid Zinibnl>\vcnii fcllo\vs wlio had bccii trniiicd in Loadoii. The
      Etliiopinii progrminie rtartcd in Sbcwa i’roviricc, and Zinibabivc also started its owii
      progrniiinic iii three provinces. Ilisciissions Iiavc continued mitli rcprcsciitativcs of otlier
      cotintric5anil gwcriiiiiciirs         linvc secil wliat disrancc Icmniiig iiiiglit do for tlie district or rural
      iiicdicnl oficcr. district Iicaltli cnrc aiid rurnl research.
         Tlic philosophy lins ùccii to dwclop tlic skills of collcagiies from overseas so that they can
      crtnblisli their O\VII prugraiiinics. de\dop iiintcrials niid sriiiiiilatc their stiidcnrs’ field rcscarcli.
      Tliiis. tliroiigliout the year :I siicccssion of iip to sis visiting fellows at any one rinie Iiavc bccii nt
      die Inrtitwc. Uy this iiictliod a critical innss of trained, interested people lm h e n developed in
      e d i coiiiitry. Tests or iiiodiiles rdc\.aiit to rural iiicdicnl probleiiis have coiitiiiiicd to he
      produced. but a proùlciii-solving forni wiiicli is apparently niore popular riinri the cnriicr
      prograinnicd learning forni is bcitig developed. A trial lins bcgiiii to coiiiparc flic two versions.
      Tlic Trust is workins with clic M.iinria Action I’rograiiiiiic of the World Healtii 0rgaiiis;itioii
      (WHO) to produce a iiiodiilc on nialaria. Learning niodiilcs hnve bccii coiisrructed in
      collaboratioil with collcagucr froni tlie UK aiid ovcrscas, 2nd the first iiiodiilc was coinplcicd
      froiii Africa -Surgical Eiiicrgcncics, by I)r I’ Nynrango, a foriiier fcllow froiii Keiiya.


                                             WELLCOME F I L M UNIT


  Parasitology Films

  13r L Gaodwiii. C M C . FIICI: FliS
  I Fisher. FIII’S

 Historical Films

  IJr iiillic I \Villiniiis. MU, I’IiD
  A I)lliiicr
  Ilusciiinry ’ïildeii

 Ihriiig rlic past ycnr flic\Vcllc«iiie ï i i i r r Filiii U n i t lias coiiiplrted a scricsoffiliiisdcnliiig with the
 historical. sciciirificatid iiicdicnl aspects of tropicalù i s c m s .

      5 Tlic Il?llroiirc ïiiüi iii 7%<iil<iti,l- .lL/iiri<i. Il<ibin~O
                                                                     II   Sudc,hitr.
      6 .\liwpiira.soiid Alnhiii<i
      7 O i l L<y”’”)’

 Tlic fullo\viiigfiliiis arc mi flic Iiistory ofSlccpiiig Sickticss:-

      8  Tlrc Ziibrhtrid ,\/ysiuy
      9 Tlw Goirtbinrt Gai.
      10 cti<~ldrc      Bmrlitirri.
      11 ’ I b C .?/l‘C/J O(&tl/l

  The Blriis. F«r teaching tropical iiicdiciiic. linvc becti WCII r              d by varioll~   atidjclices :liid llave
 jiistificd tlie bclicf tlint filiiis cnii bc iiacii to propoglte kiiowlcdgc of clic Iiistor): sciciice aiid
  prnctice of niedicitic to ividcly dispcrscd aiidicticcs.
     The filiiis iiinclc to dnrc 1i;ivc bccii sctit to rlic Iiends of various pnr:isitology dcpnrtniciits
  tlirotiplioiit tlie coiiiirry to obmiii opiiiioiis 011 tlieir iiscfi,lticss for stiidciirs. Tlic rcspoiisc lias bccii
  favoiirnblc niid iiimy of tlic filiiir lin\.c bceii sold. A coloiir brochiirc inscrrctl iti varioiis scientific
 jounmis 113s also Icù to coiisidcrnble deiiiniid. ï‘hc filiiis on salearc very rcasoiiably priced bccniisc
 prvdiiciioii costs Imvc not bceii iiicluiicd.
    l l i c 60 iiiiiiiitc draina ctititlcd T/IC SIwp i!fD<wili-oii thc hi
 lias bcrii nivarilcd i1 silver iiicilnl at r l ~ c
                                                  Iiitcriintioiinl Filiii aiid
    Iltic CO rclurbisliiiieiit tlic Unit lias iiio\.cd froiii its ofiïcc niid studio i t tlic \Vcilco~iicUiiildiiig,
 niid w i l l cviiriiiiic its work nt I I’d Sqiinrc \Vcsr. Loiidoii. NWI 4LJ.
    Tlic Trust is plaiiiiing to ninkr 3 liliii nboiit it’s activities as wcll as n series af fiiiiis oii tlie
 rcieiitific haais ofiiicdiciiic.

                                           MEDALS AND PRIZES

 Association ofMilitary Surgeons of the United States of America

 l l i c Sir I-leiiry \Vcllcoine Med:ii aiid Prize, iiisririited by Sir Henry \Wellconic iii 1916, is awarded
 niiiiiidly by rlic Coiiiicil ofriic Association of Miliciry Siirgeoiis oftlie United Stares of Aiiicrica,
 iVadiiiigroii, IX.ï l i c rccipiciirs are Medic:il Oficers oftlie Ariiicd Forces oftlie Uiiitcd Snrcs of
 Ariicrica or flic US i’ublic I-icalriiScrvicc. The iiiedal niid prize are nwnrùcd for aii essay or report
 oil origiilnl rcs~>.ircIi dealing wirli iiiiiirnry applicnrioiisof iiicdiciiie.
      Tiie iiiednl aiid prize for I‘M i i x s aivarded IO M:gor K J I-loffiiiaii. Mi), MI’H, Assistant
 I’rofessor iii flic dcpnrt~iiciitn I’rci.eiitivc Mcdicirie niid i’sycliiairy nr die Uiiiformcd Services
 Uiii\w$ity of die I-lcilrli Scieiiccs, Uctiirsdn. Marylniid. USA, for liis cssny ciiritlcd ‘Mandatory
 tllV ïestiits :itid tlic 1 ) q IO Scrcei>’.
i     WELLCOMETRUST                                                                                                                                                    APPENDIX

                                                                                                Professor G J Dockray, PhIl.
        Infection and Immunity Panel                                                            University of Liverpool

        D r C E Gordon Smith, CU, MI), FRCIO FIICl’ath. (Cliairi~iaii,WellcoiscTrustee),        l’rofessor C R W Edwards. MI). FRCP,
        Tlic \Vellconic Triist                                                                  Universiry of Edinburgh

        Professor II M Anderson, I’hIJ, FIIS.                                                   Professor A Guz, MV. FRCI>.
        Iniperial College of Sciriicc. Teclinology and Mcdiciiie                                Charing Cross and Wcstniinster Medical School, London

        l h G E Grifin, I’IiD, FRCI’.                                                           Professor D J Jcnkiiison. UA, I’hIJ,
        St George’sHospital Medical School, Loiidoii                                            University Collegc London

        13r W E Giittcridgc. IJ1i13.                                                            Dr H R 1 Miller, I’hD. UVMS. MRCVS,
        \vcllconic PIC. Ucck~nlialii                                                            Moreduii Institute. Editiburgli

       I’rofcssor II E Howclls, PhIl. FIUiol,                                                    Professor K M Spyer, 1’IiD. VSC.
       Liverpool School ofTropicnl Medicinc                                                      Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine. London

       l à II I’ Latic. 1’1113, ARCS, IJIC,                                                                D
                                                                                                 I>rofessorJ Swales. MI>, FRCl’,
       London Sdiool ofHygieneaiid Tropical Medicitic                                            University ofLeicester

       I’rofesSor I McCoiinell. M A , I’IilJ, IiVMS, MRCl’atli. FIISE,                           Vr L H Sniaje, MU, PhV, (SciciitificSecretary)
       University of Edinburgli                                                                  The Wellcomc Trust

       I’rofcssor E II Mosoii, MU, FIICp,
       University ofOsford                                                                       Molecular and Cell Panel

       hofcssor E H O Parry. OBE. Mil, FRCI>.                                                    vr I Helcn Muir, CUE, DPhil, IlSc, FRS. (Chairman. WckOnie Tmstcc).
       1Jistaiicc Learning I’rograninie. \veiico~iie%opicai iiistitilte                                                             London
                                                                                                 Kennedy Institute of Rheutiiato~ogy.

        M Elaine Rose, SclJ, MIICllltli, FRCVS,                                                   ProfessorJ J T Owen, MA, MD, FRS, (Deputy ChairnlatQ
      AFRC hstiriw for Aiiiiiial Health. I-looglitoil Laboratory                                  University of Uirininghani

      DrJ J Skclicl, I’IiI1.FIIS.                                                                 Professor R J Cherry, MA, I’IiD.
      Narional Institute for Medical Rcscarcli, Loiidoii                                          Uiiivcisity of Essex

                                                                                                  Professor A Colnian. MA, Dl’ld.
                                                                                                  University of Birniitighani

                                                                                                  Dr Kay E Davies. UA, I’hD,
      Physiology and Pharmacology Panel                                                           university of Oxford

                                                                                                  professor M A Fcrguson-Sinith. FRS, FRSE,
                                                                                                  University of Cambridge

                                                   Wellconic Tnistce), Tlic ~ e ~ ~ c o T~~~~
      1)rJJ UJack. UM. 1’1i13, (Ilcpiity Cli~~irinaii,                                  llle

      I’rofessorT U Bolton. UVctMcd, 1JIi13,MIICVS,
      St George’s Hospital Medical School. Lo&ii                                                   I’rofessor 1) C Liiicli. MB. FRCI’.
                                                                                                   ~                      ~        i       ~
                                                                                                               ~college and Middlesex School of Medicine. London
                                                                                                                                                     ~         ~   ~   i     ~          ~

170                                                                                                                                                                               171
      WELLCOMETRUST                                                                                                                                       APPIENDIX

       Professor A J McMicliael, MU. 1’1i13. FIICI’,                         Professor H I Rang, DPIiiI. BM. F I 6
       University ofOsford                                                   Salidor Institute for Medical Rcsearcii, London

       I’rofcssor T F Slater, 1’1113, 13Sc. FIISClicni, FIUiol,              Professor E O R Reynolds, MD, FRCI’,
       Uriiiicl Uiiivcrsity, Middlescs                                       University College London

       VrJ II Tata, IlSc, FIIS,                                              D r T W Robbms. I’hD,
       National Institiitcfor Medial Ilescnrcli                              University of Canibridge
       I3rJcnii OTlioiiias, MA. 1’1i13. ScD. FIIS
       University ofCaiiibridgc                                              Vision Research Group
      Dr M J Morgnii. UA(Mod), 1’1113. (Scieiitific Sccretaryj,              I>rofessor M Zeki, PIID, FRS, (Chairinail).
      ï ï i c \Vellcoiiic Trust                                              University College London
      Ncuroscicnces Panel                                                     Professor A C Bird, MI], FRCS
                                                                              Institute of Ophthnlniology, London

                                                                              ProfcssorJ V Forrester. MD, FRCSEd,
                                                                              University ofAberdeen
      DrJJ UJack. UM. IJh13,(\Vcllcoriie?iiistec). The \V~llcoiiie
                                                                              I’rofcssor R W Guillcry, F I S
      Dr 1) Cordoli. MA. MU, FRCP. (Scieiitific Secretary),The Mellcoiiie     University of Oxford
      This paiicl lias been divided iiiro IWO groups ns follo\vs:             Dr I l F Hess, PiiV.
                                                                              University of Cambridge
         Mental Health and Neurosciences Group
                                                                              V r T 13 Lanih. I’IiV,
         I’roiessor U H Aiiderroii, lJIi13,                                   Univcrsiry ofCanibridge
         Institiitc of I’sychiitry, London
                                                                              l>rofcssorK H Riiddock, PIiV, DIC, AIICS,
         I’rolksor I3 I’ U Coldbcrg. 13M. FIICI’, FRClJsycli,                 llnpcrial cokge Science, Tcciiiiology and Medicine. London
         University of iMaiiciicsrcr
                                                                            Clinical Interest Group
         IJr A E Harding, MI). FIICI’,
         Instiriitc of Nciiroiogy, Loiidori                                 professor sir~        ~       ~
                                                                                                  I%arr, MD. FRCI’. FIIS, (Cliairni311.~
                                                                                                                ~       ,       l           ~
                                                                            Thc Wellconic Trust
         I’rofessor M !-I Ladcr. VSc, MI], FIICl’sydi,
         Institiitc of l’sycliimy, Luiidoii                                 professor M A Fcrgusoii-Sniitii. FRS. FRSE
                                                                            University ofCrnibridge
         I’rofessor 13 Lodge. UVSc, I N A . IJlilI,
         Royal Veterinary College, Loiidoii                                 Professor A Guz, MV. FRCI’.
                                                                            Cliariiig Cross aiid Westminster Medical Sciiool, Loiidoii
        I’rofessorJ I)MçCiillocli. I’IiI~,
        Uiiiwrsit y of Clrsgo:o\v                                           i’rofessor M H Lnder, DSc. MI>, F1ICI’~ydi.
                                                                            institute of 1’s ychiatry, London
        Prolessor S II Naliorski, I’lil~.
        Uiiivcrsity of Lciccsrcr                                            I2rofessor I) C Liiicli. MU. MRCI’,
                                                                            University College. Loiidon

177                                                                                                                                                                   il3
      WELLCOMETRUST                                                                                                                         APPENDIX

        I’rokssor E II Mosori, MU, FIICI>,                                  IJrofessorII E Hoivelis. I’IiD. FIUiol.
        University of Oxford                                                Liverpool School ofTropia1 Medicine
        I’rofcssorJ 1 S\mlcs. MI), FIICIJ.
                     3                                                      Dr II P Lmc, I’IiD. ARCS, DIC,
        Uuivcrsity of Leicester                                             London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
        Dr I Gordon. MA, MU, FIICI’. (ScientificSccreciry),
           l                                                                Professor E H O Parry. OBE, MD, FIICI’.
        The Wcllconic Trust                                                               cc
                                                                            ~ i s t a ~ i Learning Programnie, WellcomeTropical Institute

                                                                            DrJ G Howard, MI). PIID, FIBiol, FRS. (ScientificSecretary).
        Veterinary Interest Group                                           Thc Wellcome Trust
        The Rt Hon Lord Swaiiii, FRS. (Chainiino. Mllcoiiie Trustee)
                                                                            History of Medicine ConUIIittee
        I’rofcssor I’ M Biggs, CUE. FRCVS. FIIS, Fornierly Director, AFRC
        Iiistitutc for Aiiiiiial Hcaltli. Hoiigliroii Laboratory            II G Gibbs, (Chairniaii),
                                                                            Chairman ofTrusrces. The WcllconicTrust
       i>rofcssor l \Y, Brocklcsby, 1)MedVct. FRCPadi.
       Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. University of Edinburgh      Dr C E Gordon Sinith. CU. MD, FRCP. FIICWth,
                                                                             The Wellconic Trust
       Professor I l Lodge, UVSc. I N A . PhIl, MRCVÇ.
       lloyal Vcrcrinary College. London                                     Professor M Anderson, I’IiD. FBA.
                                                                             University of Edinburgh
       l’rufcssor I McConiiell. UVMS, MA, I’IiD, MltCl’ath. FRSE.
       University of Ediiibiirgli
                                                                             Ur G H Uricgcr, MI).
       Ilr H II l’Miller, l’lil). UVMS. MRCVS,
                                                                             The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
       Morcdiiii Iiisrirorc. Edinburgh
                                                                             Dr W H Urock, PliD,
                                                                             University of Leicester
       I l r M Elainc Ilosc. Sell. MIIClJatli. FRCVS,
       AFRC Iiistinite for Aiiiiiial Hcaltli, Hoiigliroii Laboratory
                                                                             Dr l’O Williams. DSc(Hoi1). MU. FIICI’.
                                                                             Director, The WeIlcomcTnst
      Dr Uridgct M Ogihie. l’IiD,SclJ, FIBiol, (Scientific Sccrctary),
      Tlic \VcllconieTrust                                                   E J Frccnian, UA, ALA, (Director, History of Mediciiic)
                                                                             The Wellconic Trust

                                                                                 Library Panel
                                                                                 D r F W RatclifTc, MA, PhD, JI’, (Chaiman).
                                                                                 University of Cambridge
      Professor II M Anderson. 1’1iD. FIIS.
      Iiiipcrid College of Science. Techiioiogy aiid Mcdiciiie
                                                                                 C J Hunt, UA, MLitt,
                                                                                 London School of Economics
      13r G E Grifiii. lJ1iD, FRCI’.
      St Ceorgc’s Hospital Medial School. Loiidon
                                                                                 M Roper
      13r \V E Ciittcridgc. P h l ~
                                                                                  per of Public Records, Lotidon
      wcllconic PIC. Ucckeliliaiii
                                                                                  ProfcssorJ B Trapp. CBE. MA, FU
                                                                                  Warburg Institute. Loiidon

174                                                                                                                                                    175

       I l r l’O \Villimiis, IJSc(Hoii), MU,FIICI’.
       Director. The \Vcllcoiiic Trust

      EJ Frccriinn. UA, ALA. (Sccretnrl,).
      The \Vcllcoiiic ’Eiist

      Grantsand Units Panel

      131\V H Urock. IWJ, (Cliniriiinri),
      Lciccstcr Uiiivcrsity

      I’rofnsor M Aiideno~i.I’IilJ. FIIA.
      Uiiivcrsity of Ediiibiirgli

      111G 1-1 ürieger. MO.
      TheJnl~iis Hopkins Uiiivcrsity Baliimorc, USA

      D r iV F üyiiiiiii, MI), I’IilJ,
      Uriiwrsity Collcpc. London

      IJr A It Cuiiiiiiigimiii, Plil).
      Uriixmity of Cnriibridpc

      IJr IS L Loirdoii, M A . MI), FIICCI’.
      Uiiivcrsity ofOsriirù

      U r I’O \Willinnis. DSc(Hoii). MB. RICI’,
      IJircctor. Tlic \VcllcoiiieTriisr

      1)r I3 E Allen, MA, I’liIJ. (Secretary).
      The \Vcllcoiiic Tnist

                                    SUBJECT INDEX



                                                             SUBJECT INDEX


                          ciidopcpiidrrï I(l7
                          .iilatlidialcïllr56,~7.'rJ. IIYI

: t i c l i i m l 57


                SUQJECT INDEX


WELLCOMETRUST                                                      SUBJESTINDEX'

                Uiiivïrity 75
                vrncclli-zoster vinir riidiicrpcr siniplrr vinis


               INDE   : 0;

                                    , I55, 157, 176

                     K I ' i L I '96

9 3 Y V N 1VNOSUXd
                                                INDEX OF PE-AL   NAM-

                  KiirprdA V7J
                  Lîchmmn 11/76.
                  LaderM H(A. 172,173
                  Liiirnn il74
                  LakerM F50
                  L m b J IIIlXl
                  LarnbT l>43,W, 91.173
                  LmbcrrJJ IIX
                  Lampcl) 56
                  LanciibiiryJ IIXI
                  Liiidoii M66
                   LmcR1'72.7X.7'J. 1711. 175
                   Ll,>gdo!, w Y 137
                   LariglordCM 14'1
                   Liiigridgç E W T 24
                   LniigRdgeJ 156
                   LwsiiitAi llre 14'J
                   L,"rc,iccC 151
                   LiwmimCJ 1 3 , I54
                   LawronSallyN 116
                   Lcclilerll140. 11x1
                   Lce» LX5
                   L ~ iw F
                   LceWR 148.I40
                   LeihowirzJO I47
                   Lcigli PN67
                   Leiitoii E ASP>
                   L'JIiCll n C40
                   Levi AJ 121
                   Lcvy II @J
                    LCWVL 117
                    LewirLord 150
                    Lq-ilioii Karcm 131
                    Liaii Lii-Ytm 108
                    licbcrnim A I I19 I
                    LipliriiiinS L 51
                    Liglmnari Siirm~~Jl
                    Lillicti Laim IW
                    LitidiliCjO, 171. 173
                     Little I-IilaryJ69
                     Liviirgrtaii AH6
                     Lloyd I> 86 H
                     Locklirrr U I 130
                     Loekwooil C M3i
                     Lockwood IJirna NJ7J
                     LoJgcIlK?,II'J. 172.174
                     LokcY w 131
                     Loiiiar MAX5
                     LopczJ A 132

.     . ..--
LEIv w swn

               Wl 'EL

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