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					        Gender, Media and Socialization




                                                               Maria de Fátima Goulão
                                                          Universidade Aberta, Portugal




VIII International Conference on Social Representation
               Social Representations: Media & Society
           Rome, Italy August 28th – September 1st 2006
Agenda

  1. Introduction

  2. Objectives

  3. Hypotheses

  4. Methods

  5. Results

  6. Conclusion

                    Mº de Fátima Goulão
The study on how the media propagates certain groups
(family, young, old people) and certain relations
(young-old, gender) is a most valuable instrument to
understand the framing of people’s values and references.
This a privileged field for the informal education, but with
important repercussions in society, generally speaking.



                                                  Mº de Fátima Goulão
Accordingly, to Duarte (2005) the way in which women are
represented in the media, most probably, reproduces how
they are seen and perceived by the majority of those who
consume these productions.




                                             Mº de Fátima Goulão
Studies on the feminine universe have been announcing new
possibilities of being a woman, that make the traditional stereotypes
shiver and that are looking for the shaking of the traditional
dichotomy between masculine and feminine. One aims now to active
women and to the feminine power, questioning the myth of the fragile
woman, incapable and uncontrolled, unable to take the lead of her
own destiny.



   However, the fragile aspect, emotional, as well as certain
   beauty stereotypes and way of being in life, of women, keep
   being present in advertising campaigns.

                                                          Mº de Fátima Goulão
1. Introduction

2. Objectives

3. Hypotheses

4. Methods

5. Results

6. Conclusion

                  Mº de Fátima Goulão
Objectives
  • It seemed pertinent to base our
    discussion in an advertising
    campaign, aiming to perceive the
    opinion of a group of youngsters as
    to the impact of mass media,
    namely advertising, in our life, by
    contributing to make and unmake
    ideals, concepts of life and of well-
    being, by reproducing values and
    stereotypes, in short, by serving to
    perpetuate certain ideas.

                                            Mº de Fátima Goulão
1. Introduction

2. Objectives

3. Hypotheses

4. Methods

5. Results

6. Conclusion

                  Mº de Fátima Goulão
Hypotheses


     Hypothesis 1          Hypothesis 2
           There are
          significant
       differences, on    There are significant
              how         differences, on how
          to face the           to face the
      feminine figure,       feminine figure,
     in the advertising     in the advertising
          campaign        campaign between
           between            boys and girls.
         the two age
         groups.



                                                  Mº de Fátima Goulão
1. Introduction

2. Objectives

3. Hypotheses

4. Methods

5. Results

6. Conclusion

                  Mº de Fátima Goulão
Methods



          Sample             Instrument




   N = 108 subjects       The questionnaire = 2 parts
   Sex:                   1st – Identification data
       • 39% male         2nd – Group of statements
       • 61% female
                           Scale going from
   Their average age is   Total disagreement
   of 16 years old.                …
   Min = 14 years old      Total agreement.
   Max = 19 years old
                                                        Mº de Fátima Goulão
1. Introduction

2. Objectives

3. Hypotheses

4. Methods

5. Results

6. Conclusion

                  Mº de Fátima Goulão
Results
            Average values
          of the questionnaire
                (N = 108)




          Mº de Fátima Goulão
Results - Age
                 Graphic
                 representation
                 of average
                 results based in
                 age group

                the questions, assembling
                the major consense
                among subjects



                major difference of
                opinion between
                the two groups




                                  ?
                Mº de Fátima Goulão
 Results - Age

Can these differences be considered statistically significant?



   Analysis                                                        Absolute value of
                                     Absolute                      T statistic
 Statements x      Statement                       Probability     based in age
                                      value
     Age

 <-G1><+G2>            A6             1,753           5%

                                                                      G1 = (14 a 16)
                                                                      G2 = (17 a 19)
 <+G1><-G2>            A12            2,462           1%


 6. The feminine figure is more appealing to men

12. It is a well achieved campaign

                                                                 Mº de Fátima Goulão
Results - Gender

                     Graphical
                     representation
                     of average
                      results based
                     on gender


                   the questions, assembling
                   the major consense
                   among subjects


                   major difference of
                   opinion between
                   the two groups




                                     ?
                   Mº de Fátima Goulão
Results - Gender
  Can these differences be considered statistically significant?


      Analysis                        Absolute
                   Statement                         Probability α      Absolute value of
  Statements x Sex                     value                            T statistic
                                                                        based in gender
      <+ M><- F>           A4                2,945       5‰
      <- M><+ F>           A5                1,735        5%
      <+ M><- F>           A6                2,022       2,5%
      <+ M><- F>           A7                1,925       2,5%
      <+ M><- F>           A8                1,619       10%
      <+ M><- F>           A9                3,751      5‰0

 4. It is a product aiming specially women as they are the ones who
 Have more free time comparatively to men.

  9. Women have more free time to watch TV.
                                                                      Mº de Fátima Goulão
Results – Gender   and   Age
                               Graphical
                               representation
                               of average
                               results based in
                               age group x gender




                                               ?
                               Mº de Fátima Goulão
Results – Gender           and    Age
 Can these differences be considered statistically significant?


                                                                       Absolute value of
                                                                       T statistic
                   Analysis                  Absolute                  based in the subjects’
                                 Statement              Probability
              Statements x Age                value                    gender and age group


              <+ G1><- G2>          A1          1,771      5%

  Masculine   <- G1><+ G2>          A4          2,314     2,5%

              <+ G1><- G2>         A12          2,107     2,5%

               <- G1><+G2>          A6          2,472      1%
  Feminine
              <+ G1><- G2>         A11          1,811      5%




                                                                      Mº de Fátima Goulão
Results – Gender             and   Age
 Can these differences be considered statistically significant?
                                                                     Absolute value of
                                                                     T statistic based in
                Analysis                                             age group and gender
                                          Absolute    Probability
              Statements x    Statement
                                           value          α
                 gender
               <+ M><- F>          A4         3,639     5‰0

               <+ M><- F>          A6         2,675      5‰
     G1
               <+ M><- F>          A7         1,997      2,5%
  {14 a 16}
               <+ M><- F>          A8         1,963      2,5%

               <+ M><- F>          A9         3,635     5‰0


  4. It is a product aiming specially women as they are the ones
     with more free time comparatively to men.


  9. Women have more free time to watch TV.

                                                                    Mº de Fátima Goulão
1. Introduction

2. Objectives

3. Hypotheses

4. Methods

5. Results

6. Conclusion

                  Mº de Fátima Goulão
It is of a general opinion that...

women are more talkative than men
are; the woman figure is more
appealing than man figure, being this
a campaign the most accomplished,
as this is a product that is mostly aimed
to women, because they are the ones
who speak more on the phone.

                                            Mº de Fátima Goulão
Considering the gender variable
  masculine gender…

    the woman figure is more appealing than man figure,




              women are more talkative than men




        women are more easily influenced by this kind of campaign




                                                          Mº de Fátima Goulão
Considering the gender variable
  masculine gender…

women have more free time to watch TV




          for women for they have more free time
                                     compared to men


  Women …
         “because they are more concerned with
             economical aspects than men are”
                                                 Mº de Fátima Goulão
Thank you for your atention!




                Maria de Fátima Goulão
                Universidade Aberta, DCSP
                fgoulao@univ-ab.pt



                                            Mº de Fátima Goulão
 No



                                 Included            Yes                                  Excluded




                                 Statistical
                                  Analisis


                                                                           End




                           SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                                         MARCH 2007
3. DATA INTRODUTION IN SPSS




                           SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                   MARCH 2007
 • Department Atribution: when there were more than one FMUP
 authors from diferent departements, the article was atributed to the
 departement of the first FMUP author in the author rank

 • Authors From Hospital S.João: some authores did not adress their
 articles to FMUP, but to hospital S. João. When these happened, we
 considered that these authors belongued to FMUP, and therefore
 considered FMUP one of the instituitions




                                             SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                                        MARCH 2007
4. STATISTICAL ANALISIS IN SPSS

    • Statistical analisis will be conducted in SPSS 14.0


    • Factores that will be analised:
            a) Number of articles published by FMUP authors
            b) Average Citation Number
            c) Average Journal Impact Factor
            d) Number of articles/departement
            e) …


                                             SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                                        MARCH 2007
 5. PRELIMINAR RESULTS

   Year = 2005
                                 2900 publications
   Adress: Porto OR Oporto

        2900 publications
   Belonguing to Hosp São João
                                    305 publications
   Belonguing to FMUP

        305 publications
                                    179 publications
   Articles, Letters, Reviews


                                 SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                           MARCH 2007
6. PRELIMINAR SPSS STATISTICS




                            SECOND PRESENTATION
 INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                    MARCH 2007
PROTOCOL

   1. Select the channel of information
   2. Choose of the query
   3. Research at ISI the articles with the chosen query, in 2005
   4. Select the articles published by FMUP, in 2005
   5. Analyse the quality criteria of each article
   6. Organize all the information in SPSS
   7. Statistic analysis
   8. Results
   9. Discussion
   10. Conclusion



                                         SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                                   MARCH 2007
  REFERENCIES
   1. Garfield E. Citation indexes for science: a new dimension in
      documentation through association of ideas. Science
      1955,122:108-111
   2. Garfield E. How to use citation analysis for faculty
      evaluations, and when is K relevant? Pares I and 2. Essays
      of an information scientist Vol 6. Philadelphia: ISI Press,
      1984:354-72.
   3. The Impact Factor, from the Thomson ISI website
   4. Strehl L. Impact factor od ISI and evaluation of scientific
      production: conceptual and methodological aspects In: Ci.
      Inf. vol.34 no1. Brasília Jan./Apr. 2005

                                             SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                                        MARCH 2007
   5. Jacso P.; As we may search – Comparison of major
      features of the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google
      Scholar citation-based and citation-enhanced databases;
      Current science Vol 89, No 9; 10 November 2005
   6. Bakkalbasi, N; Kathleenauer B, Glover J, Wang L: Three
      options for citation tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and
      Web of Science; Biomed Digit Libr. 2006; 3:7
   7. Giustini D.; Barsky E: A look at Google Scholar, PubMed,
      and Scirus: comparisons and recommendations; JCHLA /
      JABSC, 2005 26: 85–89




                                           SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                                     MARCH 2007
                       THE END
              THANKS FOR THE ATENTION

 GROUP:
 Ana Francisca Costa      Hugo Carvalho
 Cristina Soeiro          Luís Morgado
 Joana Catarata           Tiago Tuna
 Patrícia Seabra


                                       SECOND PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINE
                                               MARCH 2007

				
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