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					Lenin’s Russia
 Before the Revolutions
             Background
• Nicholas II
  – Many problems
    • 1905
      – Russo-Japanese War
      – Workers‟ Strike
         » October Manifesto
    • Why did he not get overthrown in „05?
    • What did most of the people want changed?
    • Why did the Duma suck?
           Background
• Strengths of Nicholas II?
  – Peter Stolypin
  – Kulaks
  – Working conditions?
  – Education?
  – Opposition?
             Background
• Weaknesses of Nicholas II?
  – Land Reforms?
  – Working conditions?
  – Gov‟t effects on populations?
    • Intelligentsia
  – Opposition?
    • Who can explain Marx‟s theory?
  Reformers & Revolutions
• Marxism – brought to Russia by
  George Plekhanov (2 stages)
  – Bourgeois Rev. – Est. a democratic rep. &
    capitalism
  – Proletarian Rev. – attain a socialist
    consciousness
George Plekhanov
  Reformers & Revolutions
• Okhrana – Tsarist police
  – Watched both radicals and separatists
  – Censorship rampant
  – Critics of the regime = Siberia
  – Terrorists and some plotters = executed


• This leads up to…
       Vladimir Ulyanov
• Lenin
  – Middle class family
    • Brother Alexander hanged for participation in
      plot against Alex. III
  – Studied law, public defense counsel
    • Bias vs. working people, met Marxists there
  – United Marxists into the Union for the
    Struggle for the Liberation of the
    Working Class
  – Arrested – sent to Siberia (3 yrs.)
    • Met other revolutionaries there and his wife
Lenin‟s Family


   Alexander




         Lenin
                    Lenin
• Munich joined Plekhanov
  – Iskra “The Spark” – Unite Marxists groups
  – Believed that socialism needed market
    system to happen
• Set up Marxist meeting in London
  – Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party
    • Divided into 2 groups
Iskra “The Spark”
Czarina Alexandra & Rasputin
           World War I
• Tsar makes a bold move in 1915…
  – Takes personal command of the army
  – Why is this risky?
• Rasputin‟s death not good for Tsar,
  Why?
• Total War – resources?
• Lenin – “transform imperialist war into
  civil war”
• Lets see if they do…
      February Revolution
• What started this?
  – Think about the Rus. Rev. in Color
• What was the end result?
  – What was kind of funny about it?
• Organized or Spontaneous?
• Who is in charge now?
  – How did they do?
   Provisional Government
• Did not last long…
• Why?
  – War?
    • Nicholas II‟s decision?
  – Sharing power?
    • Order #1
  – Elections?
  – Land Reforms?
  – Guess who‟s back?
   Provisional Government
• Did not last long…
• Why?
  – Lenin effect?
    • April Theses
  – Economy?
    • Causes of problems?
  – July Days?
    • What happened to Lenin?
  – Kornilov affair?
    • Who is now brought to the spotlight?
       October Revolution
• What were the problems the P.G.
  faced?
         October Revolution
• How do we get from Feb. to Oct. in
  1917?
  – March - Petrograd Soviet issues Order No 1
  – April - Lenin returns issues April Theses
  – June - Failure of the June Offensive
  – July - The July Days - Lenin flees
  – Aug - Kornilov Affair
  – Sept - Bolsheviks win control of the Soviet
  – Oct - Trotsky becomes chairman of Soviet &
    Lenin returns
  – Oct 24 - 26 Bolshevik Revolution
         October Revolution
• Lenin sneaks back into Russia
  – Bol. Comm. meeting
    • Vote in favor of a coup d‟etat
  – Strengthen Red Guard – Trotsky
  – October 25th – fire on the winter palace
    • No resistance
    • Next morning, all members of P.G. arrested
  – New gov‟t, Council of Peoples‟ Commissars
    • Headed by Lenin
  – Not a real revolution, but a coup
       Reasons for Success
• Conspiracy Theories
  – German plot to get Russia out of the war
  – Jewish conspiracy (Trotsky and others)
• Bol. Very organized, knew what to do
• P.G. successfully challenged by Soviets
• P.G. insisted on unpopular choices
  – Land problem & staying in the war
• Lenin was open to compromise
• Leon Trotsky was huge with the army
               Soviet State
• Bolsheviks major minority
  – What area to focus on first?
    • Land
    • Elections
       – What happened here?
  – Next on the list?
    • Why did negotiations take so long?
    • What did they lose?
    • “Give up space to gain time”
  – Food Shortages
    • What about the kulaks?
             Soviet State
• Problems from the start
  – Bol. still a minority, need more support
  – Has to act on Constituent Assembly
  – Still in WWI
• Step 1 = Economy
  – 540 million acres of land from rich &
    church w/o compensation
  – Supreme Council of the Nat‟l Economy
  – Nationalized the banks
  – Fixed wages & 8-hour workday
             Soviet State
• Lenin‟s decisions
  – How did they differ from Marx?
  – “Dictatorship of the proletariat”
  – How did this effect their supporters?
  – How did Lenin see his Rev. in respect to
    the world?
    • This would have given him…?
    • And how does Russia look?
  – Evidence of violence?
              Soviet State
• Step 1 = Economy (cont.)
  – All foreign debts repudiated
  – Comprehensive social insurance
  – Major industries nationalized
  – Mortgages abolished
• Why do these?
  – Gain popularity
  – Build up a socialist society
       Constitution of 1918
• Authority = All-Russian Congress of
  Soviets
• Capital city moved to Moscow
           War and Peace
• Lenin needs to end war
  – He promised to do so
  – Consolidate Bolshevik power
• Thought more revolutions coming
• Armistice w/ Germany
  – Russia dragging their feet
    • Defy Germans; risk conquest
    • Sign over ½ of European Russia to Germany
    • Keep stalling “neither war nor peace”
  – Germany presented harsh terms
             War and Peace
• Germany presented harsh terms
  – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    •   34% of Russian population
    •   32% farmland
    •   54% of industry
    •   89% coal mines
    •   Almost all cotton and oil
• Lenin – “giving up space to gain a little
  time”
• Revolution would spread = treaty will
  be irrelevant
        Russian Civil War
• Still a minority, lots of opposition
• Who was the opposition?
  – Why were they so pissed off?
    • Food?
    • Soviets?
  – Who were some of these people a few years
    prior?
    • Kolchak v. Trotsky
  – Who wins?
        Russian Civil War
• Opposition to the Bolsheviks
  – Counter-Revolutionaries
    • Tsar supporters
    • Pro-Western style (Republic/Const. Monarchy)
  – Bolshevik haters
    • SR (Social Revolutionaries) – Non-Marxists
    • Anarchists
• Post- WWI
  – Whites = supporters of the Tsar
  – C. A. leftovers
         Russian Civil War
• Why?
  – What about the Whites?
  – What about the Red Army?
  – What was war communism?
• Effects of the war
        Russian Civil War
• Alternative governments set up
  throughout Russia
  – “White” gov‟t in Siberia
• Allies land military forces throughout
  Russia
• Early victims of the conflict
  – Imperial family
  – Threat to be liberated
  – Taken to the cellar & shot
• Things start to get aggressive
        Russian Civil War
• Whites capture Kazan ( 400 mi. from
  Moscow)
  – Trotsky rushes in, wanted to block road to
    Moscow
    • Ends up recapturing city
  – Trotsky builds up Red Army
    • Takes on different allied groups
      – 1 by 1 are defeated
       Russian Civil War
• War Communism
 – Gov‟t makes sure towns & the army had
   weapons and food
   • Conscription
   • Forced requisitions of grain (peasants not
     thrilled with this)
   • Established the Cheka
     – Committee for fighting counter revolutionaries
        Russian Civil War
• Reasons for Success
  – #1 = Lenin‟s leadership
    • Awful economy, mobilized resources &
      sustained army and industry
    • Loyalty of the industrial class
    • Gave into peasants‟ demands
  – #2 Trotsky
    • The man of the Red Army (½ mil. – 5 ½ mil.)
           Russian Civil War
• Reasons for Success (cont‟)
  – #3 Whites
    •   Poor leadership – disorganized
    •   Fighting amongst each other
    •   Associated w/ foreigners (unpatriotic)
    •       “      w/ capitalists (no bueno)
    •       “      w/ landlords (see above)
    •   Anti-Semitic (ditto)
  – #4 Ineffective foreign intervention
    • War was a distraction
    • Soldiers very tired
    • Uncoordinated
        Russian Civil War
• Reasons for Success (cont‟)
  – #5 Confident Reds
    • Held industrial heartland (contained military
      stores)
    • Railway center


• Dodged a bullet w/ War Communism
        Russian Civil War
• Results of the Civil War
  – Conflicts led to large famine (5 mil. deaths)
  – Industry down 75%; unemployment
    doubled
  – Communists have all the power
    • Occupied all powerful posts in gov‟t


• Lenin‟s focus is still on the economy
        Russian Civil War
• Effects of the war?
  – Lives lost
  – Economically centralized
  – Politically militarized
  – Students = mesmerized
  – Not demoralized
  – But rather energized!
  – For this, I apologize(d)
        New Economic Policy
• Things get worse before better
  – Peasants upset about War Comm.
    • Why make food that someone else is going to
      take w/o compensation?
         – Led to a huge famine
  – Worker strikes and revolts
  – Sailor mutiny starts Anti-Bol. Comm.
    •   “Soviets w/o Bolsheviks”
    •   End Comm. Party‟s dictatorship
    •   Establish political freedoms and civil rights
    •   Economic liberalization
      New Economic Policy
• Trotsky to the rescue!
  – Ends uprising in 10 days
  – Mass arrests of Mensheviks
• Lenin backs off War Comm.
• NEP
  – Peasants can sell surplus crops for profit
  – Small-scale private enterprises
  – Bonuses and incentives for workers
      New Economic Policy
• Why do it?
  – Prevent rebellion
  – Allow economy to recover
  – Give Comm. breathing room before moving
    on w/ socialism
       Russian Civil War
• Economic problems
 – Peasants?
 – Kronstadt?
   • Made what very clear?
 – Solution was called?
      New Economic Policy
• Main ideas?
  – Excess products?
  – Businesses?
  – Working conditions?
• How did Lenin justify this?
  – Alt. road
  – Economic recovery
  – “Give up space to gain time”
• Problems?
      New Economic Policy
• Problems?
  – How did Lenin deal with political
    problems?
    • “fractionalism”
• Politburo?
• “Dictatorship of the proletariat”
• Lenin‟s death
                 NEP Years
• Scissors Crisis
  – Agricultural increase, not industrial
    •   Industries raise their prices
    •   Peasants had to produce much more to afford
    •   Withhold their crops for better prices
    •   Government steps in to fix prices
• Lenin‟s political repression
  – GPU (State Political Adminisration)
    replaces the Cheka
    • Deal w/ political opponents, run the Gulag
    • Spy on economic institutions
              NEP Years
• Adoption of new constitution
  – Drawn up by Stalin
  – Renamed USSR
  – Congress of Soviets indirectly elected
  – Peoples‟ Commissars stay in gov‟t
• Trotsky opposed to NEP
• Stalin noncommittal
        Lenin’s Last Years
• Greatest danger to socialism =
  degeneration of soviets
• May 1922 – Lenin‟s first stroke
  – While in recovery, a man named Stalin
    (general secretary) started to get some
    power (Lenin is surprised)
• December 1922 – Lenin‟s second stroke
  – Partially paralyzed
  – Foresaw struggle b/t Trotsky & Stalin
  – Did not trust Stalin
        Lenin’s Last Years
• Address to the Communist Party
  – Biggest threat to unity = Stalin vs. Trotsky
  – Stalin was not cautious enough
  – Trotsky was a little too self-assured
  – Proposed that Stalin be removed from
    power (bad decisions)
• Too late, Stalin already had control of
  the Central Committee. Forgotten
        Lenin’s Last Years
• March 1923 – Lenin‟s third stroke
  – Lost ability to speak
  – Stalin and others step in to prevent
    Trotsky‟s succession.
  – Died January 1924
    • Embalmed in Red Square
    • Renamed Petrograd, Leningrad
      Assessment of Lenin
• Adopted Marxism to what Russia
  needed
• Used Bolsheviks to help Russia through
  hard times
• Picked the perfect time for a coup
• Started Russia on a path to socialism
• Help the country through a civil war
• Prevented break-up of an empire
• Left legacy of organization
                However…
• Divided the Marxists
• Enormous suffering (20 million deaths)
• Production at all costs
• Bolshevik regime = totalitarian police
  state
• Left many problems:
    – Mixed economy or state control?
    – Peasants and land ownership?
    – Growth of the party vs. state bureaucracy?
    – Leadership succession?

				
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