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					Chapter 2


Getting Started




            This chapter gives an overview of the installation procedures and the
            System Administrator’s responsibilities and procedures as they relate to
            the installation and maintenance of BASIS.



Installing BASIS
            The BASIS software is accompanied by Release Notes and an Installation
            Guide pertaining to the version of the BASIS software being distributed.
            Please read this chapter, the Release Notes, and the Installation Guide
            before attempting installation.
            The BASIS Installation Guide, included in the Release Kit, gives step-by-
            step instructions for installing BASIS.

            Reserved Database Names
            The following reserved database names are included as entries in the
            default Authority Database as shipped. Do not use any of these database
            names for databases you develop (lowercase database names are databases
            comprising the Corporate Information Centre).




                                                                      Getting Started  47
                   BOLD         cic         cicci         ciccmnt

                   cickb        cicpp       cicrims       DTDEMO

                   FRTOUR       SYSRES      TFRTOUR       TLP

                   TLPDDE       TLPDEM      TLPDENG       TLPDESP
                   U            O

                   TLPDEU       TLPDFR      TLPENG        TLPESP
                                A

                   TLPFRA       TOUR        TTLPDEM       TTOUR
                                            O

                  Default User IDs
                  After the Kernel is running, you can run DMSA and enter the following
                  command to display information about user IDs authorized for BASIS
                  databases:
                       DMSA> show/users *

                  You can run the following DMSA command to display information about
                  user registrations for users currently logged in to BASIS:
                       DMSA> show/signons kernel=dmka1

                  For more information on using DMSA, see “DMSA Module.”

                  Default User/Database Registrations
                  You can run the following DMSA command to display information about
                  database models and privileges assigned to the dba1 user name:
                       DMSA> show/authorization uid=dba1,db=*

                  You can run the following DMSA command to display information about
                  database models and privileges assigned to the user1 user name:



48  Getting Started
DMSA> show/authorization uid=user1,db=*




                                          Getting Started  49
                  Post-Installation Considerations on Windows
                  Windows

                  The Service created during the installation to allow remote connections is
                  associated by default with the Administrator group. That is, in the Control
                  Panel, from the Service utility, on the Service dialog, “Log On As” by
                  default is set to “System Account.” If you decide to modify the Service so
                  that “Log On As” is set to a user account, make sure that user account is
                  associated with a group that has the Advanced User Right “Act as Part of
                  the Operating System.”

                  For users to be able to log on to the Windows server from a BASIS client
                  application, their user IDs must be associated with a group that has the
                  Advanced User Right “Log on as batch job.” BASIS client applications
                  include BASIS Webtop, BASIS WEBserver Gateway (the remote version,
                  not the server version), and custom OpenAPI and ODBC applications.

                  To specify the Right of a group, use the Windows User Manager utility.



Defining BASIS Commands
                  Windows

                  Once installed, BASIS on Windows has a program group icon in the
                  Program Manager. You can access the most commonly used BASIS
                  modules by double clicking this icon.

                  Those modules that do not appear as icons in the program group can be
                  accessed by double-clicking the BASIS Command Prompt icon and
                  entering the module name at the prompt. In fact, you can access any
                  BASIS module through the Command Prompt, even if it has an icon in the
                  BASIS program group.

                  When a BASIS module icon or the BASIS Command Prompt icon is
                  double-clicked, the file dm\bin\dmcmds.bat is run. This file sets
                  environment variables for subsequent execution. You can make changes


50  Getting Started
to a user module's environment variables by editing the dmcmds.bat file in
the xx\dm\bin subdirectory, where xx is the BASIS release identifier (for
example, V9). Or you can set the environment variables manually from
the BASIS Command Prompt.




                                                          Getting Started  51
                  IMPORTANT:      Unless you are an experienced BASIS and Windows system
                  administrator, we do not recommend customizing environment variables.
                  Incorrect path settings can keep BASIS from locating its own tools,
                  thereby disrupting your access to the database.
                  UNIX

                  Once the installation process is complete, the BASIS modules are assigned
                  global symbols. A shell script is copied from the tape and assigned the
                  environment variable, DM_COMMANDS. For more information, see
                  BASIS Reference, “Environment Variables.” To assign each of the global
                  symbols for the BASIS modules, enter the following command:
                       DM_COMMANDS

                  To make it convenient for your users to access the BASIS software, you
                  should modify each user’s profile file (for Bourne shell users) or .login file
                  (for C shell users) so that it executes the shell procedure pointed to by the
                  DM_COMMANDS environment variable. For Bourne/Korn shell users,
                  add the following lines to each user’s .profile file:
                       DM_COMMANDS=pathname/dm/bin/dmcmds.sh; export DM_COMMANDS
                       . $DM_COMMANDS

                  where pathname is the full path for the directory into which the release
                  was installed. For C shell users, add the following lines to each user’s
                  .login file:
                       setenv DM_COMMANDS pathname/dm/bin/dmcmds.csh
                       source $DM_COMMANDS

                  where pathname is the full path for the directory into which the release
                  was installed.

                  Additional notes:
                      Users will need to log out and log back in to execute their .profile or
                       .login script for these changes to take effect.
                      The shell procedure pointed to by $DM_COMMANDS will set several
                       environment variables including PATH. PATH is modified to search
                       the BASIS directories before any others. If this is acceptable, be sure


52  Getting Started
to enter the line that executes $DM_COMMANDS below the line that
sets PATH in the .login or .profile file. If you wish to make use of any
BASIS environment variables in the PATH and therefore need to set
its value after executing $DM_COMMANDS, be sure to search the bin
directories under the product set directories under $DM_ROOT first.
Failure to insert these bin directories at the front of PATH can cause
BASIS to function incorrectly.




                                                       Getting Started  53
                      Because of incompatibilities between System V and BSD utilities, it is
                       important to note that BASIS was designed to operate in the System V
                       environment. If your system supports both System V and BSD
                       utilities, you must make sure that BASIS users have their PATH set so
                       that the System V bin directories precede the BSD bin directories.
                       Users who wish to have their PATH set to reference the BSD utilities
                       first can set the environment variable DM_PATH to PATH after
                       DM_COMMANDS is executed and then PATH can be changed to
                       place the BSD bin directories first.

                  DM_COMMANDS references the BASIS modules installed as the default
                  release. To reference BASIS modules from a previous release or a new
                  release (not installed as the default release), you can use the setdmrel
                  command as shown here:
                       setdmrel xx

                  Substitute the appropriate BASIS release identifier (e.g., L1) for the “xx”.
                  If a BASIS command (such as DMSA) results in an error message
                  indicating that it is an “unrecognized command”, it is likely that the
                  DM_COMMANDS shell script has not been executed, or is not contained
                  in the user login shell script. To correct this problem, enter the
                  DM_COMMANDS command.
                  VMS

                  Once the installation process is complete, the BASIS modules are assigned
                  global symbols. A command procedure is copied from the tape and
                  assigned the logical name DM$COMMANDS. To assign each of the
                  global symbols for the BASIS modules, enter the following command:
                       $ @DM$COMMANDS

                  You should include this command in each BASIS user’s LOGIN.COM
                  file.

                  The DM$COMMANDS command procedure references the BASIS
                  modules installed as the default release. To reference BASIS modules
                  from a previous release or a new release (not installed as the default
                  release), you can enter the following command:


54  Getting Started
   $ SETDMREL xx

Substitute the appropriate BASIS release identifier (e.g., L1 or L1G) for
the “xx”. If a BASIS command (such as DMSA) results in an error
message indicating that it is an “unrecognized command,” it is likely that
the DM$COMMANDS command procedure has not been executed (or is
not contained in the user login command procedure). To correct this
problem, enter the @DM$COMMANDS command.




                                                           Getting Started  55
Registering Users
                  The System Administrator (SA) maintains the Authority Database (ADB)
                  with the System Administrator’s module, DMSA. The Authority Database
                  contains information about the BASIS users and databases. The
                  information stored in this database controls the use of BASIS and the
                  access to BASIS databases. The original ADB contains one username,
                  SAUID. Since the SAUID username is provided to all BASIS sites, you
                  should change its password during or shortly after the installation
                  procedures. This username has all BASIS signon privileges and has a
                  default signon quota of 10.

                  The SA is responsible for registering each BASIS user. The SA uses the
                  DMSA module, to register a username, password, default terminal type,
                  signon privileges and the number of times that username can be
                  simultaneously connected to a Kernel. A user is also granted signon
                  privileges according to the database responsibilities expected of the user.
                  The following chart identifies the types of tasks a user may perform if
                  granted the corresponding signon privilege.


                  Signon Privileges      Tasks

                  SA                     Allows the BASIS user to use DMSA to
                                         register other users, backup, reorder, restore
                                         and salvage the ADB, set System
                                         Generation parameters, and control the
                                         Kernel(s).

                  OP                     Allows the user to control the Kernel(s).

                  REG                    Allows the user to use DMSA to
                                         REGISTER, REREGISTER, and
                                         UNREGISTER other users.




56  Getting Started
Signon Privileges   Tasks

CREATE              Allows the user to use DMDBA to create
                    new databases.

WIZ                 Allows BASIS system programmers to
                    perform special functions.




                                                    Getting Started  57
                  Although you should change the password for the SAUID username, be
                  careful. If you forget the new UPW for the SAUID username and no other
                  UID at your site has REG or SA signon privilege, your site will not be able
                  to change BASIS registrations or perform certain ADB maintenance tasks.
                  However, if this problem occurs, there is a workaround—as long as you
                  know the UPW for at least one UID. For example, assuming you know
                  the UPW for UID=FRED, follow these steps:
                  1. Use DMG ACTION=ADB to create a new skeleton ADB. SAUID and
                     SAUPW will be the REGSA UID and UPW in the skeleton ADB.
                  2. Stop DMK.
                  3. Copy the old ADB off to OLD_ADB.SAVE.
                  4. Copy the skeleton ADB to where the old ADB was.
                  5. Restart DMK.
                  6. In DMSA, issue the command
                       REORDER/ADB OLD='OLD_ADB.SAVE', NEW='OLD_ADB.REORD', REGSA=FRED

                       This gives UID=FRED REGSA privilege in OLD_ADB.REORD.
                  7. Stop DMK.
                  8. Copy OLD_ADB.REORD over the current ADB.
                  9. Start DMK.
                  10. In DMSA, using UID=FRED with its UPW, change the UPW of the
                      old SAUID to something you can remember:
                       REREGISTER UID=SAUID, UPW=new_sauid_pw
                       REREGISTER UID=FRED, PRIV=freds_old_privs

                  For more information about the DMSA module and its parameters, see
                  “DMSA Module.”

                  Securing the User Password
                  The user password can be placed within a command procedure or stored in
                  a separate file. The following examples show a set of statements where
                  the user identifier and password are used as input to the DMR module.



58  Getting Started
The user password is not echoed on the screen, whether the script or
command procedure are executed interactively or in batch mode. To
further secure the user password, the script or command procedure file
must be protected exclusively for the owner.
Windows, VMS

   DMR DB=TOUR, ACTION=CHECKSPACE, FILES=ALL INPUT=INPUT




                                                         Getting Started  59
                  The INPUT file contains the user identifier and password.

                  On the VMS system, the user identifier and password can alternatively be
                  placed in the same executable file with the DMR command.
                  UNIX

                       dmr db=tour, action=checkspace, files=all <input

                  The dmr command is redirected to the input file containing the user
                  identifier and password.



Defining and Accessing a Database
                  Each BASIS database has two databases associated with it. The Definition
                  Database (DDB) contains the database definition; that is, the definitions
                  for the records, views, fields, etc. contained within the Record Database
                  (RDB). The RDB contains the data.

                  The Database Administrator uses the DMDBA module to create and
                  maintain the database definition and to perform other DBA tasks such as
                  changing the definition and authorizing users. Several steps are involved
                  in creating and providing access to a database:
                  1. A user with the CREATE signon privilege uses DMDBA to create the
                     Definition Database (defines the database and applies the definition).
                  2. DMDBA is used to initialize (create) the Record Database file.
                  3. DMDBA or DMSA is used to authorize other already-registered
                     BASIS users to access the database.
                  4. Data can now be loaded with application programs of other BASIS
                     modules.

                  When a user is granted the CREATE signon privilege, he can use the
                  DMDBA module to enter the definition for a new database. DMDBA
                  prompts for the name of the database and checks the response against the
                  information stored in the Authority Database. If the database name is not
                  found in the ADB, DMDBA prompts for the name of the files to be used


60  Getting Started
as the Definition Database file and its two journal files. These file names
are stored with the database name in the ADB. The user who establishes
this information in the ADB is considered to be the database owner.




                                                           Getting Started  61
                  The definition of the database can be entered by using the DMDBA
                  module in one of two modes:

                  1. In statement mode, the input to DMDBA consists of definition
                     statements stored in a sequential file.

                  2. In screen mode, DMDBA displays screens that prompt for information
                     about the database. (Screen mode is not available on Windows.)

                  Each of these modes creates statement records in the DDB. Next,
                  DMDBA is used to apply the statement records and produce the internal
                  system records.

                  The database creator who has all of the available database privileges (such
                  as GET, ADD, MODify, and DELete) is considered a DBA for that
                  database. Other BASIS users (who have already been registered by the
                  SA) are then authorized by the DBA, to access the database. The
                  DMDBA module is used for this purpose. A user who is granted the DBA
                  database privilege can also authorize users to access the database. Having
                  the DBA privilege alone, does not automatically imply other privileges,
                  however a new DBA can give himself more privileges.

                  With the internal system records created and stored in the Definition
                  Database, DMDBA is used to initialize (create) the Record Database.
                  Data can then be loaded using an application program, the Fundamental
                  Query and Manipulation (FQM) module, or the High Volume Update
                  (HVU) utility.

                  For details about database administration, see Database Definition and
                  Development. For details about loading data, see Database Loading and
                  Maintenance.



BASIS Operator Procedures
                  The BASIS Operator (or SA) is responsible for controlling BASIS
                  Kernels. This includes starting and stopping the Kernel as well as
                  restarting the Kernel after a system crash (if the System startup does not


62  Getting Started
restart the Kernel automatically). The procedures for performing these
tasks are given below.

For Single Machines
This section discusses the operator’s procedures to be used when BASIS is
running on a single machine and is not in a network or cluster
environment.




                                                         Getting Started  63
                  Starting the Kernel
                  To start the Kernel, run the DMSA module and execute the BEGIN
                  command. Note that in this case the DMSA password is not required
                  (since it is not possible to sign on to a Kernel which is not yet running).
                  But (except on Windows) a special Kernel password is required to start
                  the Kernel. Also note that although the DMSA prompt is returned quickly
                  in response to the BEGIN command, it may take additional time for the
                  Kernel to begin execution.

                  To start the Kernel enter:
                       DMSA>   BEGIN KERNEL=kernel
                       PW=   ________________________

                  where kernel is the number or name of the Kernel to be started and the
                  Kernel password is supplied in response to the PW= prompt. (This
                  password is not required on BASIS on Windows.)

                  Stopping the Kernel
                  To stop the Kernel, enter DMSA and execute the TERMINATE command.
                  This command stops the execution of the Kernel module. The command
                  requests a Kernel shutdown, prevents additional signons, and waits for all
                  users to sign off. Although the DMSA> prompt is issued quickly in
                  response to the TERMINATE command, the terminate process is not
                  complete until active users sign off from the Kernel and the Kernel stops.
                  This normally takes additional time.

                  To stop the Kernel enter:
                       DMSA>   TERMINATE KERNEL=kernel

                  where kernel is the number or name of the Kernel to be stopped.

                  Restarting the Kernel
                  Should there be a system halt that causes abnormal termination of the
                  Kernel, any open database will be left in an invalid, or at least suspect,
                  state. Such databases must be recovered and returned to a valid state.
                  BASIS provides automatic recovery from such occurrences. Every time


64  Getting Started
the Kernel is started, it examines its System Log to determine whether any
transactions were active when the Kernel terminated. Transactions would
be active only if the Kernel had terminated abnormally (due to a system
crash). If the Kernel determines that recovery needs to be performed, it
performs the recovery automatically. Note that the Kernel needs its “work
files” in order to perform the recovery. These work files are
SYSLOGn.DML and KUn000xxx.DAT. If these files have been deleted
by a user, the recovery must be treated as a media recovery (see Database
Loading and Maintenance, “Recovery.”)




                                                          Getting Started  65
                  To restart the Kernel after a system crash enter:
                       DMSA>   BEGIN KERNEL=kernel
                       PW=   ________________________

                  where kernel is the number or name of the Kernel to be restarted and the
                  Kernel password is supplied in response to the PW= prompt (except on
                  Windows). The Kernel performs the recovery automatically after it is
                  restarted. If your system automatically restarts the Kernel upon system
                  restart, you won’t need to perform this step.

                  For Multiple Machines Using DMNAM
                  This section discusses the operator’s procedures to be used when BASIS is
                  running on multiple machines in a network or cluster.

                  Starting the Kernel
                  The procedure for starting the Kernel is the same as for the single-machine
                  case discussed above. However, the DMSA module that is used to start
                  the Kernel, must be running on the same network node as the Kernel.

                  Stopping the Kernel
                  The procedure for stopping the Kernel is the same as for the single-
                  machine case discussed above. Note that if multiple Kernel Sets are being
                  used and a Kernel number is used on the TERMINATE command, the
                  Kernel which is stopped will be in the same Kernel Set as the Kernel to
                  which DMSA is currently signed on.

                  Restarting the Kernel on the Same Node
                  The procedure for restarting the Kernel after a system crash is the same as
                  for the single-machine case discussed above, as long as the Kernel is to be
                  restarted on the node on which it was running before the crash. Again note
                  that the DMSA module used to restart the Kernel must be running on the
                  same network node on which the Kernel is to be restarted.




66  Getting Started
Restarting the Kernel on a Different Node
In some cases it is necessary to restart the Kernel on a different node,
before the node that failed can be brought back into service. How this is
accomplished depends on whether BASIS is running on a network (each
node with its own files) or in a cluster (shared files.) For more
information, see “Communications.”




                                                          Getting Started  67
                  Clusters
                  Since the files are shared by the various nodes of the cluster, the files used
                  by the Kernel on the failed node are available to other nodes in the cluster.
                  To restart on another node, simply enter the DMSA module on the node
                  where the Kernel is to be restarted, and restart the Kernel as in the single-
                  machine case above. The Kernel will restart and recover from the new
                  node. Note that this new node must be listed in the Kernel Directory as a
                  valid node for this Kernel.

                  Networks
                  Although it is possible to restart the Kernel on a different node of a
                  network, it is not advisable. Not only will performance be degraded, there
                  is also a great chance for confusion or error due to the restarted Kernel
                  relying on logical names that might be defined differently on the other
                  node. If the need arises to restart the Kernel on a different node of a
                  network, please contact your BASIS support agency for a thorough
                  discussion of the issues and potential problems involved.



BASIS System Tuning Overview
                  “System Generated Options” describes the System Generation module,
                  DMG and its parameters. You can set some of these parameters for your
                  site before and during installation. See “System Generation Options.”

                  “DMSA Module” describes how you can use DMSA to adjust some of
                  these parameters during operation.

                  The DMSA module and the Communications Control Facility (CCF)
                  allow you to tune the BASIS software according to your site’s needs. The
                  DMSA module allows the System Generation parameters associated with
                  the Kernel to be altered. These parameters include such controls as the
                  number of simultaneous users per database and per Kernel, the number of
                  entries in the Kernel’s database file pool and translation table, and the size
                  of the Kernel’s work space.



68  Getting Started
“Communications” discusses tuning the communications software with the
Communications Control Facility. You can use it to define Kernels and
host system facilities that are used by BASIS.
“Tuning the System” discusses overall system tuning issues. You can
learn about various ways to tune BASIS and your operating system to
obtain best overall performance.




                                                       Getting Started  69

				
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