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					         (Insert Name of Sport)

                         (Insert Year)

          Mental Training
              Tools

    (Insert picture of sport or school
                  logo)



Name ___________________________
Much of the material in this packet is taken from:
Sport Psychology for Coaches (2008) by Drs. Damon Burton and Thomas Raedeke, Human
Kinetics, Champaign, IL, and has been adapted by Dr. Christine Lottes of Kutztown University of
Pennsylvania for educational use.
                                Introduction & Control
  •   6 Mental Training Tools we will be learning:
      1. Goal Setting Skills: there are goals we can control and goals we can’t.
      2. Imagery Skills: allow you to see yourself and your teammates successfully playing
         your sport.
      3. Relaxation and Energization: you’ve heard of the phrases psyched-up or psyched-
         out. Each of us performs best at a certain level of mental and physical readiness.
      4. Self-Talk: Self-talk is the steady stream of thoughts and internal dialogue that
         goes on in our heads almost constantly. Your thoughts have a major impact on
         your mood, emotions and performance.
      5. Energy Management: Energy management has to do with helping you control your
         arousal, or the physical and mental energy that fuels your athletic performance.
      6. Stress Management: we all have situations that we feel stressed about. We’ll learn
         how to handle stress whether it comes from sport or from some other part of our
         lives so that when we’re competing, we can perform at our best level.

                                Concerns
List things you are concerned about (both sport and other areas of your life)

  •



  •



  •



  •




                                                                                     2
Pick your greatest concern from your list. With that concern, write in the “No Control”
circle all of the things over which you have no control. Now write in the “Control” circle
all of the things over which you have control. Be Specific.
(Circle from The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (1989) by Stephen Covey, Fireside, NY, NY)




                                       No Control




                                         Control




                                                                                            3
                             Control/No Control

What I have the     With this concern,      One action I will       When         Check
greatest            one thing that I        take in thing I         I’ll do      when
concern             have 100%               have 100%               this (in     Done
about…….            control over…..         control over…..         next 3
                                                                    days)




   •   I will spend time on concerns I have that I _______ control. I won’t spend time on or
       think about what I can’t _________.

Summary
  • 6 Mental Toughness Skills we will be learning: Goal setting, imagery, relaxation and
    energization, self-talk, energy management, stress management.
  • Spend time on concerns you have that you _______ control. Don’t spend time on or
    think about what you _______ control.
  • Can or can’t control, and, if it is both, what can and what can’t:
        -   Official’s call: _________________________________________________
          -   What friend thinks of me: ________________________________________
          -   Amount of playing time: _________________________________________
          -   How I look: ___________________________________________________
          -   Weather: _____________________________________________________



                                                                                        4
                           Self-Confidence & Goal Settting
•   Systematic goal setting programs can be successful in developing
    ____________________ if you set goals that you can __________.
•   These goals you set that you can control will be _____________, ___________ &
    ________________.
•   These are called _________ goals. They will lead to good performances during
    competition and to outcomes that you desire.


                              Three Types of Goals

•   Process Goals: focus on improving form, technique, and strategy.
•   Performance Goals: address overall personal performance such as running a faster
    time, throwing farther or shooting more accurately.
•   Outcome Goals: emphasize outperforming other competitors, as well as the
    objective outcome- that is, placing high or winning.


                             Benefits of Goal Setting

•   Goals enhance focus and concentration.
•   Goals boost self-confidence.
•   Goals help prevent or manage stress.
•   Goals help create a positive mental attitude.
•   Goals increase intrinsic motivation to excel.
•   Goals improve the quality of practices by making training more challenging.
•   Goals enhance playing skill, techniques, and strategies.
•   Goals improve overall performance.




Practice                                                              Competition




Process                          Performance                            Outcome
(improving conditioning,         (improving                           (winning and
technique, and strategy)         overall performance)            social comparison)




                                                                                    5
                                  Workout Exercises

1. Indicate if the following are process (1) or performance (2) goals.
    a. __1__ Exercise 30 minutes a day, 4 times a week in my target heart rate range

   b. __2__ Accept official’s calls without question _g__

   c. __2__ Get in shape _a_

   d. _____ Do packet from Coach

   e. _____ Study 2 hours for five days of each week

   f. _____ Run mile under 8 minutes ____

   g. __1__ Practice focusing and acting on what can control

   h. _____ Lift weights two times a week

   i. _____ Improve grade point average ____

   j. _____ Get stronger _____

   Match the process goal that you can control, to one possible performance goal.



2. Write two sport process goals. Then place an “X” if the goal conforms to each principle
listed.

                               Process     Realistic    Specific   Short-term    Individual

a. Get in shape___________      _____        __X__        _____        _____        __X__

b. Jog for 20 minutes______     __X__         __X_        __X__       __X__         __X__

c. _____________________        _____        _____        _____       _____         _____

  _____________________

d. _____________________        _____        _____        _____       _____         _____

  _____________________

  _____________________




                                                                                        6
3. Write down the position you might be playing this season. List two skills that are
important to success at that position. In the second column, list possible ways to measure
performance so that only your performance, & not the outcome as influenced by someone
else, is measured.
Position: _________________________________
            Skills                                           Ways to measure
1.       Dribbling                             1.     Number of touches in 60 seconds


2.                                           2.


3.                                           3.




4. Determine a terminal performance goal toward which you are striving. Then determine
your baseline or usual performance level at that task. Finally, list three progressively
more challenging process goals that will move you toward achieving your terminal
performance goal.



                                                                   Terminal Performance Goal




                                                                            Goal 3



                                                         Goal 2




                                         Goal 1


 Baseline
 Performance




                                                                                        7
5. Describe an athlete who fits the definition of each of the types of self-confidence.
     a. Optimally confident: having a realistic sense of what you can accomplish.
    Those who have this set realistic goals based on their own abilities.




    b. Diffident: lack confidence. These individuals suffer from a fear of failure and a
   high concentration of self-doubts, which combine to produce a negative self-fulfilling
   prophecy.




    c. Falsely Confident: unfounded confidence in competencies and an act to cover up
   a diffident attitude. The individual tends to act “cocky”, and, in some instances,
   arrogant. Falsely confident individuals further compound their confidence problems
   when their performances show their true competencies.




    d. I am currently a ____________________________ athlete. As I set and
   accomplish process goals, I will either become an Optimally Confident athlete or I
   will become an even stronger Optimally Confident athlete.




                   Self-confidence depends not on winning,
           but on the realistic expectation about achieving success.




                                                                                          8
                        Imagery and Relaxation Training
Review: 3 Types of Goals: P________, P____________, O __________
   • We have control over process and performance goals.
   • As you accomplish goals, what will build? S_____- C____________
   • Tell me if this is an example of a process, performance or outcome goal:
   - 5 minutes per day working on ball control __________
   - Being able to sprint back from the 50 when the opposing team is taking a
      penalty corner on your defense ________________
   - Beating an opponent to the ball __________

Today: Imagery and Relaxation Training
• What does imagery involve?
- Using your _______ - sight, feel- how muscles feel as they move, touch, sound,
   smell and taste- to create or re-create an experience in your mind.
- Through imagery, you an recall a previous experience in great vividness and
   detail.
- You can also create images of events yet to occur by piecing together bits of
   information already stored in your memory.
• Who uses imagery?
- S______________and highly skilled athletes are more likely than less
   accomplished athletes to use imagery regularly.
• How does it work?
- The mind cannot tell the difference between an image and the r____ thing. So,
   when you image something, you can produce almost the same effect as if you
   actually experienced it.
• How effective is it? It can i________ performance but some athletes benefit more
   than others based on:
- Imagery ability: can you see a vivid (vs. blurry) image that you can c________?
- Imagery Perspective: i__________vs. external. Internal is when you experience
   the event seeing it through your own eyes and feeling the movements as if
   actually performing the skill. This is best when you are in the flow of play and
   events are changing. External imagery is good for when you are seeing the big
   picture- where teammates and opponents are.
• How can you use imagery effectively? How can it improve your performance?
- P            the skills and strategies faithfully.
- Work to create a clear, detailed, lifelike image that you can control.
- R________ and allow the image to flow.
- If you lose focus, gently redirect attention back to the image.
• Using Imagery to Improve Mental Skills
- Develop self-awareness, Enhance self-confidence and motivation, Manage Stress,
   Manage Energy, Plan game strategies, Provide relaxation, Control emotions,
   Analyze performances, Practice other psychological skills
• What are the key concepts of imagery?
       - Sensory awareness, Vividness, Control
• What personal imagery skills do I already have?


                                                                                  9
                               Evaluating Imagery Ability

Read the descriptions of four general sport situations. After you read each general
description, think of a specific example of it- the skill, the people involved, the place, and
the time. Close your eyes and take a few deep breaths to become as relaxed as you can. Put
aside all other thoughts. Keep your eyes closed for about one minute as you try to imagine
the situation. If you have distracting thoughts, gently redirect your attention to the scene
you are imagining.

There are no right or wrong images. Your accurate evaluation of your images will help you
to determine what skills you need to focus on in the development of your imagery-training
program.

After imaging the situation, rate the following imagery dimensions by circling the
appropriate number.
   • Visual
   • Auditory
   • Kinesthetic
   • Mood and emotion
   • Control

Situation 1: Select a specific skill or activity in your sport. Imagine yourself performing
the activity in the place where you would normally practice, without anyone else present.
Now close your eyes for about one minute and try to see yourself at this place, hear the
sounds, feel the body movements and be aware of your mood.


                                                           Very poorly             Very well
a. Rate how well you saw yourself performing the activity     1    2         3     4   5
b. Rate how well you heard the sounds of performing the       1    2         3     4   5
activity
c. Rate how well you were able to feel yourself performing    1    2         3     4    5
the activity
d. Rate how well your were aware of your mood and             1    2         3     4    5
emotions.
e. Rate how well you were able to control your image.         1    2         3     4    5


Situation 2: You are performing the same activity but are now practicing the skill with the
coach and your teammates present. This time, however, you make a mistake that everyone
notices, but you remain calm, recover quickly, correct your mistake, and perform well. Now
close your eyes for about one minute and imagine making the error, correcting it, and
performing well as clearly as possible.




                                                                                            10
                                                             Very poorly        Very well
a. Rate how well you saw yourself performing the activity       1    2     3    4   5
b. Rate how well you heard the sounds of performing the         1    2     3    4   5
activity
c. Rate how well you were able to feel yourself performing      1    2     3    4     5
the activity
d. Rate how well your were aware of your mood and               1    2     3    4     5
emotions.
e. Rate how well you were able to control your image.           1    2     3    4     5


Situation 3: Think of a teammate performing a specific activity successfully in a contest-
for example, making a goal or stopping a goal. Now close your eyes for about one minute
to image watching your teammate performing this activity successfully in a critical part
of the contest as vividly and realistically as possible.

                                                            Very poorly         Very well
a. Rate how well you saw your teammate performing the          1    2      3    4   5
activity
b. Rate how well you heard the sounds of your teammate         1    2      3    4     5
performing the activity
c. Rate how well you felt your own physical presence in this   1    2      3    4     5
situation
d. Rate how well your were aware of your mood and              1    2      3    4     5
emotions.
e. Rate how well you were able to control your image.          1    2      3    4     5

Situation 4: Imagine yourself performing the same or a similar activity in a contest, but
imagine yourself performing very skillfully, Spectators and teammates show their
appreciation. Now close your eyes for about one minute to imagine the situation as vividly
as possible.

                                                             Very poorly        Very well
a. Rate how well you saw yourself performing the activity       1    2     3    4   5
b. Rate how well you heard the sounds of performing the         1    2     3    4   5
activity
c. Rate how well you were able to feel yourself performing      1    2     3    4     5
the activity
d. Rate how well your were aware of your mood and               1    2     3    4     5
emotions.
e. Rate how well you were able to control your image.           1    2     3    4     5




                                                                                          11
  Now add up your responses to each question and write your scores in the spaces that
  follow:
  Dimension                                  Score
  Visual (all “a” items)                    _______
  Auditory (all “b” items)                  _______
  Kinesthetic (all “c” items)               _______
  Mood (all “d” items)                      _______
  Control (all “e” items)                   _______
  TOTAL                                     _______

  Compare your scores for each dimension to the following skill categories:
  Score                      Rating
  18-20 Good skills. Periodically do an exercise to keep yourself sharp.
  13-17 Average development of skills. Spend time each week improving these skills
   0-12 These dimensions need daily attention to bring your imagery skills to a useful level.
From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).



  A calm place for me is: __________________________________________.


  Imagery scenario: Pick one.
            - Forward: Drive ball to goal, keeper deflects it, you are following your
                shot, pick up the deflection on your stick and put ball in cage.
            - Mid-Fielder: Cut into a space and collect a pass from a teammate. You
                lift the ball over your defender’s stick and pass the ball through into a
                space where your teammate is cutting into.
            - Defender: Running back on defense. Get ball side and stick side of girl
                you’re marking. Pass comes to her but you cut onto it and take it wide
                where you pass it into a space where the mid-fielder is cutting into.
            - Goalie: Forward is dribbling toward you on a breakaway. She shoots. You
                stop the ball and clear it into a space where your teammate is cutting into.
                You check and adjust your position according to where the cage is and
                where the ball is.

  Summary:
    • Imagery involves all of the senses.
    • Imagery improves performance.
    • The mind can’t tell the difference between a vivid image and a real experience.
      Imagery can be used to improve any skill that can be practiced physically as well
      as to help develop mental skills.
    • Imagery must be systematic to achieve desired benefits- need to do every day or
      every other day (at home and at practice/games). Need to work on vivid and
      controlled images.
    • Successful and highly skilled athletes are more likely than less accomplished
      athletes to use imagery regularly.


                                                                                                     12
                          Relaxation and Energization

Review:
Mark true or false for each statement:
   a. ________ Imagery is only the visualization of a particular event and does not
       involve the other senses (sound, smell, feel, taste).
   b. ________ Images appear as clearly as postcards for all individuals.
   c. ________ Imagery can improve performances.
   d. ________ Imagery may work by producing neuromuscular responses similar to
       those of an actual experience.
   e. ________ Imagery can be used to supplement physical and psychological skills
       practice.

Today: Relaxation and Energization

Introduction
   • Relaxation and energization are two mental training tools that can help not to be
      too tense or unable to keep going when fatigued.

Relaxation
   • We’re going to learn t_______ relaxation and r_______ relaxation.
   • Total relaxation you can use when you have more time.
   • Rapid relaxation you can use in the middle of practice or during a game when the
      action isn’t around you or when there is a timeout.
   • Total relaxation helps when there are major life crises with family or friends,
      health or academic problems, recovery from practice or an injury, or improving
      your sleep.
   • Rapid relaxation helps you perform optimally within practice or a game by
      reducing tension p__________ and m___________ so that you can think and play
      better and with more energy and enjoyment.
   • We’ll start with total relaxation.
   • For your sport, when might you want higher muscle tension? Lower muscle
      tension?
   • Four muscle groups: shoulders, arms and hands; head and neck; chest, back and
      stomach, hips thighs, calves and feet.
   • Focus on your breathing. Breath from your diaphragm, by inhaling through the
      nose and filling your lungs. Then slowly exhale through your mouth.
   • Relaxing activity combining breathing, muscle relaxation and your favorite place.
   • Do this each evening when you go to bed.
   • In a couple of weeks we’ll do Rapid Relaxation, although you’re welcome to try it
      on your own during a break in practice. Breath, relax muscles and say cue word
      (relax, chill) after every exhalation if feel too tense for what need to do.




                                                                                      13
Energization
   • Energization is the opposite of r______________ and involves activation of the
      body for optimal performance.
   • It allows you to speed up your heart rate and respiration, stimulate greater blood
      flow to muscles and enhance brain activity so that you get more out of practice,
      where low energy can reduce concentration and motivation. It allows you to draw
      on your energy reserves late in the game when you are dragging.
   • We’re going to learn t________ energization and r________ energization.
   • Total energization you can use when you have more time.
   • Rapid energization you can use in the middle of practice or during a game when
      the ball is on the other end of the field or when there is a timeout.
   • Total energization helps when there are major life crises with family or friends,
      health or academic problems, recovery from practice or an injury, or improving
      your sleep.
   • Rapid energization helps you perform optimally within practice or a game.
   • First is psych-up breathing: take 5 quick, shallow breathes to get as much oxygen
      to the muscles as possible.
   • Add to that a cue word like “energize” after every 3rd breath.
   • Energization scenario.

My cue word for relaxing: __________________ (relaxed, calm, peaceful, chill)

My cue word for energizing: __________________ (energized, push, strong, powerful)

Summary
  • Relaxation means decreasing unwanted muscular tension and calming the mind.
  • Total relaxation is a longer strategy that helps athletes relax completely, while
    rapid relaxation is an abbreviated technique that uses a cue word to relax quickly.
  • Total relaxation alleviates ongoing stress, promotes recovery from workouts and
    injuries, enhances sleep quality and develops rapid relaxation skills.
  • Rapid relaxation reduces tension, controls becoming too psyched up, breaks the
    stress spiral, conserves energy and increases enjoyment of field hockey. It can be
    done in 3-5 seconds.
  • Relaxation includes deep breathing, imagery relaxation, muscle relaxation and
    cue words.
  • Energization helps athletes control arousal, enhance concentration and elevate
    confidence, particularly when they are tired, encountering adversity or dealing
    with low energy levels.
  • Energization includes psych-up breathing, imagery energization, muscle
    activation and cue words.
  • The cued word is associated with feelings of high energy. In rapid energization,
    these feelings of high energy can occur in 3-5 seconds.
  • Next time we’ll share about the action we took in the area of concern we
    had…….




                                                                                     14
                                  Relaxation Script

    Listen to the sound of my voice as I guide you through the process of relaxing
yourself. Get into a comfortable position and close your eyes. Begin by doing 6 to 8
deep breaths, breathing in deeply through your nose, feeling your diaphragm and then
your chest expand completely, holding the breath briefly, and then exhaling slowly
through your mouth. Keep your breathing slow, deep and regular, and take
approximately the same amount of time to inhale as you do to exhale. Each breath
allows you to exhale tension and anxiety and to take in soothing, refreshing oxygen.
Concentrate on this simple process now. Allow yourself to totally let go of all tension
and sink down deeper into your chair (or bed) as you become more deeply and
completely relaxed.

    Focus your attention on the muscles of your head and neck. Command these
muscles to relax and feel them begin to respond. Feel the tension draining out as each
individual muscle fiber loosens up, smoothes out, unwinds, and relaxes deeply and
completely. Each breath takes you deeper and deeper into relaxation, as your facial
and neck muscles let go and unwind. Concentrate on using your breathing to fuel
relaxation , as you exhale tension and anxiety and breath in soothing, invigorating
oxygen. Focus on your breathing, and allow it to help the muscles of your face and
neck to go down, down, down, deeper and deeper into relaxation. Be aware of how
the relaxation feels and contrast it to the tension you experienced in these muscles
before. Use imagery to further enhance the effectiveness of the technique. You might
imagine your tension falling gradually, like dried leaves…. Or envision a little person
with a broom sweeping the tension away… or the tension is a yellow liquid draining
slowly from the muscles. Feel the muscles of your face and neck gradually let go and
get very loose, limp, heavy and relaxed.

    Allow the relaxation you have achieved in your head and neck to begin to spread
down your body to your shoulders, then your arms, and finally to your hands. See
the tension slowly draining out of these muscles and feel relaxation steadily radiate
into your shoulders and down your arms. Imagine these muscles relaxing and feel
them respond, allowing more muscle fibers to loosen up, smooth out, unwind, and
relax as the tension slowly drains away. Concentrate on your breathing, with each
inhalation bringing in relaxing and soothing oxygen while each exhalation slowly
expels tension and anxiety from your body. Focus on letting go all remaining tension
from your shoulders, arms and hands. Identify these feelings of relaxation and
contrast them to the tension you experienced before. Little by little, slowly and
deliberately, more and more muscle fibers relax, bringing you to a deep level of
relaxation in which all the muscles of your shoulders, arms, and hands feel very
loose, limp, heavy and relaxed.




                                                                                     15
    Continue to breath deeply and regularly, allowing your breathing to deepen your
relaxation. Use your breathing to help extend your relaxation down your body to your
chest, back, and stomach. Let go of the tension in these muscle groups, imagining
the muscles relaxing and feeling them respond. Feel your breathing help each muscle
fiber loosen up, smooth out, unwind, and relax. See the tension slowly draining out of
these muscles and feel relaxation steadily spreading into your chest, back, and
stomach. Concentrate on your breathing, allowing yourself to inhale soothing,
refreshing oxygen and exhale tension and anxiety. Focus on letting go all remaining
tension from your chest, back and stomach. Recognize these feelings of relaxation
and compare them to the tension you experienced before. Little by little, slowly and
deliberately, more and more muscle fibers relax and unwind, bringing you to a deep
level of relaxation where the muscles of your chest, back, and stomach feel loose,
limp, heavy, and relaxed. Your entire upper body is now deeply relaxed.

    Maintain your slow, deep and regular breathing, use it to help spread relaxation
from your upper body to your hips, thighs, calves, and feet. Let go of the tension in
these muscle groups, imagining the muscles relaxing and feeling them respond. Use
your breathing to help each muscle fiber loosen up, smooth out, unwind, and relax.
See the tension slowly draining out of your lower body. Feel the relaxation move
steadily into your hips, thighs, calves, and feet. Concentrate on your breathing,
inhaling refreshing oxygen to promote relaxation and feelings of relaxation and
contrast them to the tension you felt in these muscles before. Little by little, slowly
and deliberately, more and more muscle fibers relax and unwind, bringing you to a
deep level of relaxation where the muscles of your lower body feel loose, limp, heavy
and relaxed.

     Each time you exhale say the word _______ to yourself while focusing on your
breathing and what it feels like to be deeply relaxed. If any stray thoughts, worries or
concerns come to mind just let them go and allow them to float out of your mind as
you continue to focus on your breathing and the feeling of deep relaxation throughout
your body. Focus on those feelings of relaxation, and contrast them to the tension you
felt before so that you can diagnose and release even minute levels of tension as
needed. Continue to take slow, deep, and regular breaths, and each time you exhale
say that cue word to yourself.

    I’m now going to count backward from 4 to 1. 4- begin to move your legs and
feet. 3- move your arms and hands. 2- roll your head and neck. 1- open your eyes.
Your body is very relaxed as if you’ve just awoken from a refreshing nap. Your mind
is calm and relaxed but alert and focused.




                                                                                     16
                                          Energization Script

           Listen to the sound of my voice as I guide you through the process of energizing
      yourself. Start with several deep breaths, breathing in deeply through your nose,
      feeling your diaphragm expand under your belly button, then expanding your chest
      completely, holding your breath briefly, and exhaling slowly through your mouth.
      Each breath brings in invigorating and rejuvenation oxygen and expels tension and
      stress. Imagine yourself walking forward and feeling more and more energized. Feel
      more strength, power, stamina and energy as you walk, very smoothly and very
      effortlessly, until you finally reach a point where you feel as energized as you want to
      be.

           Imagine yourself at the bottom of a long staircase in a large house. Reach out and
      grab the polished wood banister under your hand and begin slowly climbing the
      staircase, smoothly and effortlessly, With each step, you become more and more
      energized. Feel more strength, power, stamina and energy as you ascend, very
      smoothly and very effortlessly, until you reach a point where you feel as energized as
      you want to be.

          Open a door where you see a large-screen TV that is replaying many of your
      successful practice and competitive performances. Watch the TV as you play with
      high energy. Feel the strength and power and stamina and energy in your legs and
      back and stomach and shoulders and arms. Your muscles are tingling with strength
      and powers and stamina and energy. Your breathing is quick and powerful and
      invigorates and rejuvenates your muscles, even if they are tired, sore or injured. Each
      breath rejuvenates the reservoir of power and strength and energy within you. Your
      mind feels keen and sharp and ready to learn. You’re psyched, focused and confident.
      You’re not concerned about problems, roadblocks or obstacles because they’ll get
      worked out. Your mind and body are ready to perform at your best.

           Take 3 quick breaths breathing in through your nose and out through your mouth
      and then repeat the cue word “energized”. Repeat. This process allows you to pair
      the feelings of energization in your mind and body with the word “energized” so that
      you can use the word “energized” to trigger rapid energization when you need it at
      practice or during a game.

            Now go out of the door and walk slowly down the stairs. As you do that, you are
      still energized, focused and confident and ready to go out and accomplish any goal,
      solve any problem, and overcome any obstacle.

Adapted by C. Lottes From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL:
Human Kinetics).




                                                                                                   17
                                           Self-Talk
Review:
   • R_____________ means decreasing unwanted muscular tension & calming the
      mind.
   • T_________ relaxation is a longer strategy that helps athletes relax completely.
      R_________ relaxation is an abbreviated technique that uses a cue word to relax
      quickly.
   • Relaxation includes deep b_________, i___________, relaxation, muscle
      relaxation and cue w________.
   • E__________________ helps athletes control arousal, enhance concentration and
      elevate confidence, particularly when they are tired, encountering adversity or
      dealing with low energy levels.
   • Energization includes psych-up b___________, imagery energization, muscle
      activation and c____ words.
   • The cued words is associated with feelings of high energy and, in rapid
      energization, can occur in 3-5 s___________.

   •   Check- up: share about the action you took in the area of concern you
       had…….

Today: Self-Talk
   • Self-talk is the steady stream of thoughts and internal dialogue that goes on in our
      heads almost constantly. Your t__________ have a major impact on your mood,
      emotions and performance.
   • Make a list of some of the thoughts you had about your sport today:




   •   To make self-talk work for you, you want to increase p_________ thoughts and
       decrease n_________ thoughts. Thoughts will affect your sport performance.
   •   Positive self-talk leads to a f_____ mind-set in which you will excel athletically.
   •   Negative self-talk leads to a c________ mind-set in which irrational thoughts can
       cause you to underachieve.
   •   When an event happens to you, you have beliefs about the situation- how you
       interpret what has happened. This interpretation of the situation determines
       your emotions and behavior to a much greater extent than does the situation itself.

   •   Let’s look at an example of this.




                                                                                       18
Self-Talk Model                Self-Talk Examples
A = Activating Event           Our team must defend against a potentially game-
                               winning penalty stroke in a championship game.
B = Beliefs (Thoughts)       - “I really will be a rotten goalie if I let this player
                               make this stroke. I’ll never have such a great
                               opportunity to be the hero again- don’t blow it!”

                             + “ I’ve prepared well for this moment. Even though
                                this is a pressure-packed moment I’m confident I
                                can defend against this stroke.”

C = Emotional Consequences    - Stress/anxiety
                              + Challenge/excitement

C = Athletic Consequences    - Disruptive behaviors such as feeling tense and
                               flustered; poor concentration; slow to pick up the
                               ball coming off the opponent’s stick; slow reaction
                               to the ball.

                              + Helpful, constructive behaviors such as being
                                focused and confident; quick to pick up and react to
                                the ball.


Self-Talk Model                  Self-Talk Examples
A = Activating Event


B = Beliefs (Thoughts)       -


                             +


C = Emotional Consequences    -


                              +


C = Athletic Consequences        -


                              +




                                                                                        19
•   The basic principle of self-talk is that we can’t always control what happens to us,
    but we can control how we respond to uncontrollable events.
•   Our self-talk comes from either positive or negative thinking.
•   Positive thoughts h____ performance while negative thoughts h____performance.
•   We’ll call positive thought patterns smart-talk.
•   Eight rules of smart-talk:
         1. Be an optimist, not a pessimist: self-talk is a c_____. Focus on what you
             can control, not on what you can’t.
         2. Remain realistic and objective: make g_____ you can achieve.
         3. Focus on the p_______, not the past or future: it is the only thing you can
             control.
         4. See problems as c___________ rather than threats: this keeps you
             motivated and performing up to your capabilities.
         5. View successes as replicable and failures as surmountable: view success
             as due to a_______ and e________. Attribute failure to factors you can
             control such as effort level (I’ll work harder next practice), skill
             development (I can learn to read my opponent better) and mental
             preparation (next time I’ll improve my focus).
         6. Concentrate on p________, not o_________: focus self-talk on process
             goals- hard work, mental preparation, skill and strategy development- that
             you can control and will lead to outcome goals. Ex. In the seconds before
             the penalty corner concentrate on “stopping the ball and follow-through on
             the shot” or “explode out, stick-to-stick” or “explode out, set, ball” or
             “explode back (from 50) and into position”.
         7. Concentrate on things you can c________: Can’t control people and some
             events (opponent’s behavior, officials’ decisions, playing conditions). Can
             control our e_______ and b__________.
         8. Separate your performance from your self-w_______: Your worth has
             nothing to do with how you perform. It has everything to do with who you
             are as a unique creation who is loved regardless of your performance.
•   Negative Thought Patterns: watch for d__________ thinking and i____________
    beliefs.
•   D__________ Thinking: catstrophizing (expecting the worst and exaggerating the
    consequences), overgeneralization (just because make a mistake think that I
    always mess up), blaming (holding others responsible for negative events in my
    life), mustification (things must be my way) and polarized thinking (one way or
    another- I’m a success or a failure).
•   I___________ Beliefs: perfectionism (I have to never make mistakes), fear of
    failure, social approval (everyone must like me), equity (life must be fair, I should
    play well and get the rewards I deserve if I work hard) and social comparison
    (putting too much importance on largely uncontrollable outcomes, such as
    winning and outperforming others rather than concentrating on controllable
    factors such as playing your best.)




                                                                                      20
•   Optimizing Self-Talk:
    1. How can I be aware of my current self-talk patterns?
          a. I_______ recall: Close eyes and think about a game that you played
              very well. Now write down some specific thoughts you had during the
              competition that helped you succeed. Now think about a poor
              performance. Now write down your thoughts during that competition.
              Compare the two lists and identify positive and negative self-talk
              patterns that most affect your performance. Use Self-Talk Log.
          b. Negative Thought Counts: On your own- Put a number of paper clips,
              pennies or sunflower seeds in a pocket. Each time you catch yourself
              using a negative thought, move one item to a different pocket.
          c. G_____ is for negative thoughts to decrease.

    2. See next page for Positive Mental Attitude Self-Talk Log




                                                                                21
From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches(Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).



                                                                                                    22
    3. Program P______ Thoughts: increases confidence, improves concentration &
        focus, enhances motivation, controls s_____ and so increases performance.
•   Positive affirmations: “I’m a talented athlete with the skills to get the job done”
•   Team mottos or Motivational slogans: “Footwork is the key to success.”
    “Suffocating defense.” “No less than all.”
•   C___ words: “relax”, “ball”, “one play at a time”, “I play well every time I take
    the field”, “smooth swing”, “stick with what’s working”, ”hustle”.
    4. Reframe Negative T_________: Negative thoughts will still occur and can
        lead to negative emotions and subpar performance. To correct them follow the
        “3 Ds” of reframing:
            a. Detect negative, unproductive or irrational thinking: what was the
                 t________ that preceded feelings of stress or other negative emotions?
            b. Disrupt negative thoughts by either thought s________or thought
                 c___________: Say “Stop” and think of a red stop sign, red flag or
                 flashing red lights. Or, use a behavioral cue- snap finger or snap a
                 rubber band when have a negative thought. Thought changing works
                 like a TV remote control to simply change the channel from one with
                 negative thoughts to another that is more positive and productive.
            c. Dispute negative thoughts by using effective counterarguments. They
                 function like a good lawyer, putting faulty beliefs on trial, refuting
                 them with logical arguments and identifying logical, realistic,
                 productive thoughts to take their place. Ex. “I want more playing time
                 and I worry that my coach doesn’t like me.” A counterargument will
                 reduce my anxiety- “I can’t control what my coach thinks or how
                 much she decides to play me. I need to concentrate on what I can
                 control and play my best by focusing on footwork and positioning
                 when I don’t have the ball.”

•   Do Worksheet for Reframing Thoughts.




                                                                                    23
Adapted, by permission, from K. Ravizza and T. Hanson, 1995, Heads up baseball: Playing the game one
pitch at a time (Indianapolis, IN: Masters Press), 3d, by permission of the McGraw-Hill Companies. From D.
Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).



                                                                                                       24
•   Develop a Self-Talk Script:




                                  25
From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).




                                                                                                     26
27
28
From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).

  ________________________________________________________________________

      •   Read your script (or record it and play it) 4-5 times per day. Prime times to read
          or play scripts include first thing in the morning, last thing at night, on the way to
          class, during study breaks, while waiting for appointments, and before and after
          practice.
      •   When a negative thought occurs, remember the three Ds of the reframing process:
          __________, _________ and _________ each negative thought and replace it
          with one that is more positive and productive. Refer to chart of Self-Talk Dos
          and Don’ts.
      •   Keep a list of negative situations you have difficulty reframing. Several times a
          week intensely i______ one and the corresponding negative emotions before
          using reframing skills to counter faulty thinking. Build counterarguments for
          situations that are particularly problematic into your smart-talk scripts.

      Summary
      • Self-talk is the steady stream of thoughts and internal dialogue that goes on in our
        heads almost constantly. Your thoughts have a major impact on your mood,
        emotions and performance.
      • The ABCs of self-talk describe how thoughts affect emotions and behaviors. A=
        activating event; B= your belief or interpretation of the situation and it determines
        your emotions and behavior to a much greater extent than the situation itself does;
        C= is the consequence- how you feel and act afterward.
      • Successful self-talk requires recognizing and changing negative thoughts.
      • You can combat distorted and irrational thinking by using counterarguments to
        reframe your thoughts.
      • The best way to program positive self-talk is to develop a short, smart-talk script
        and read or play it 4-5 times daily.
      • To reframe a negative thought use the three Ds- detecting, disrupting and
        disputing negative thoughts.




                                                                                                     29
From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).




                                                                                                     30
                                Energy Management

Introduction
   • Energy management has to do with helping you control your arousal- the
      _______________ and __________ energy that fuels your athletic performance.
   • This energy is on a continuum from deep sleep to intense excitement.
   • Arousal involves both how much the _______ is activated and how that
      activation is _____________. It’s the body’s way of preparing for intense,
      vigorous activity.
   • You have more or less arousal at different times of the day and in different
      situations.

   Put the following on the arousal continuum: sleep, practice, watching TV, playing in
   a state tournament game, sitting in this session.




   Low                              Moderate                               High


   •   When you are physically aroused complex changes happen in your body. Have
       you ever heard of the fight or flight response?
   •   Did you ever get butterflies in your stomach…. have to run to the bathroom….?
   •   Two reasons understanding arousal is important:
   -   Physical symptoms are normal and signal readiness to compete- nothing to worry
       about.
   -   Athletes with elevated arousal deal with it in various ways- pacing, talking
       incessantly, screaming… while some yawn, nap. Both approaches can be
       effective in controlling arousal.
   •   So, each person must find an energy management strategy that works for her to
       attain optimal arousal in practice and competition.




                                                                                      31
      •   How does arousal affect performance?




From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).

      •   Arousal too l___: you’ll lack sufficient physical and mental e_____ to perform to
          your best.
      •   Arousal too h______: you’ll suffer from a variety of problems related to t______,
          attention, motor control and interpretation that prevent you from performing your
          best.
      •   Athletes have different optimal energy z_______. How do you figure out your
          optimal energy zone?
      -   Know your personality and athletic ability.
      -   Know what you need to do in your field hockey position.
      -   Use the Arousal Monitoring Scale: assign yourself a score repeatedly during
          practice (and later during competition), and over time you’ll discover what
          optimal arousal (5) feels like for you in various situations and be able to play
          more consistently in zone 4-6.




From D. Burton and T. Raedeke, 2008, Sport Psychology for Coaches (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics).



                                                                                                     32
•    If you are not in your zone, you can do rapid relaxation to lower arousal or
     energization to increase arousal.
-    Mental side of arousal: how you ___________ physical changes has a huge effect
     on how you perform.
-    If you interpret arousal ___________, as challenge, readiness or excitement, you
     can experience top performance and flow.
-    If you interpret it ____________, you are likely to perform poorly.
-    If you start to experience self-doubt, loss of control or images of failure, use
     mental training tools to get self back in zone. First r_______ completely in order
     to lower arousal. Then use s_____ - ________ to reinterpret your arousal
     constructively and rebuild self-confidence. Then use energization s_______ to
     raise arousal back to your optimal energy zone.
•    List 3 different skills you do in your sport position and then check if each requires
     low or high arousal:


    Skill                                                      Low           High




•    As you consider your personality, do you generally need to increase or decrease
     your arousal level to get into your optimal energy zone for competing?
     __________ Increase          ___________ Decrease (Check one)

•    Think back to a competition where your performance seemed to go up or down
     depending on what you were thinking and feeling. Write a bit about what
     happened……




•    During practices, check yourself on the Arousal Monitoring Scale. Use relaxation
     or energization as needed.




                                                                                       33
                                 Stress Management


Review:
   • Physical and mental energy that fuels your athletic performance is called you’re
      a________ level.
   • It is important how your mind i____________ what is going on around you.
   • Athletes have different optimal energy z__________.
   • If you are not in your zone, you can do rapid r______________ to lower arousal
      or energization to i__________ arousal.


Today: Stress Management
   • Athletes have to deal with stress if they’re going to reach their potential and
      achieve their competitive g________.
   • The problem with stress is that it can get in the way of playing well, it can destroy
      self-c___________, it can cause conflict and hurt teamwork.
   • Why do we feel stress?
   • Stress is an imbalance between what we perceive is being demanded of us-
      c_____________ d________- and what we perceive our capabilities are for
      meeting those demands- p__________ c___________- …. especially in situations
      in which success is important.
   • Think about time in sport when there was what you perceived as a “big game.” If
      you were confident that you were ready for it, you saw the big game as a
      challenge. But if you didn’t think you had the resources to play this opponent then
      you saw the big game as a threat and were stressed and then may not have played
      as well….. may not have coped as well with this situation.
   • What you b_________ about the stress determines whether uncertain competitive
      situations are viewed positively as a challenge or negatively as a threat.
   • Remember our self-talk session? When an event happens to you, you have beliefs
      about the situation- how you i___________ what has happened. This
      interpretation of the situation determines your emotions and behavior to a much
      greater extent than does the situation itself.
   • Example: The official misses a call that is obvious to you. Depending what you
      say to yourself right then will determine how quickly you become an effective
      player in the game for the team. “She should have called that….. we could lose
      the game because of that…. she’s favoring the other team……” or “Play”…..
   • Self-talk is one of the mental tools we’ve been learning this week that we can use
      as a coping strategy to manage stress. The other tools are i________ and
      r______________.




                                                                                       34
List two competitive sport situations that have caused you to           Write which is the
become stressed. These situations can be from any competition           least stressful
(summer, last season, etc.).                                            which is the most
                                                                        stressful
Not doing my running this summer so that when we had our first
competition my lungs felt like they were going to explode and my           Least
legs weighed a ton and I couldn’t last.




   •     Counterarguments deal directly with negative, unproductive or irrational thoughts.

   Take the least stressful situation from the last exercise and complete the following:

Negative Thought that contributed to        Counterarguments for the negative thought.
my stress……..                               You can refer to “Purposes & Thoughts for
                                            Smart-Talk Scripts” (Self-Talk session)
                                            I’ll concentrate on doing my best right now as I
I’ll never get in shape enough to play      can’t control what’s past.
well and I’ve let the team and coach
and everyone down and they’re               I will get in shape by working hard.
probably mad at me.




   Coping Response:
      1. Inhale deeply while repeating a counterargument.
      2. Repeat the transition word so and pause briefly
      3. Repeat your physical relaxation cue word as you exhale deliberately.

       Example: “I’ll concentrate on doing my best right now as I can’t control what’s past,
                 so, relax.”




                                                                                           35
   Cue Words:
   • Can also be used to quiet mind of intruding thoughts. Ex. “ball”: right before field
      pass; shoot penalty stroke; stop shot on goal…. “focus”: can be used in many
      situations.



Summary
   • Whenever possible work to reduce or eliminate sources of stress that you can
     control: get enough sleep, have healthy nutrition, hydrate sufficiently and manage
     your time effectively (set goals, prioritize what to do first, eliminate time
     wasters).
   • If the stressor can’t be changed or you lack the capability to meet competitive
     demands, modify how you view the situation in order to manage your emotions.
   • What you believe about the stress determines whether uncertain competitive
     situations are viewed positively as a challenge or negatively as a threat.
   • View stress as a surmountable challenge.
   • Self-talk (counterarguments), imagery and relaxation (deep breathing and cue
     words) can be used to manage stress.
   • Focus on what you can control: your thoughts and your actions.




                                                                                      36
                          Mental Training During the Season
Imagery:
    • Before practice or a competition review goals and image yourself accomplishing
       your goals for the practice or competition.
    • After listening to Coach’s instructions or observing a demonstration, imagine
       yourself performing the skill before physically practicing it.
    • Immediately after executing a skill effectively, create a vivid image of your
       performance while it is fresh in your memory.
    • When sitting on the bench (not competing), image competing and responding to
       various situations.
    • After a practice session, use imagery to review key points.
    • Use imagery to correct a skill or a play.
    • If bringing a lot of life stress into practice, imagine a calm place (beach,
       mountain….) in order to relax and get mentally prepared for practice.
Relaxation:
    • Practice total relaxation with the team once a week after practice (facilitates cool-
       down and recovery from the workout).
    • After a few weeks, practice rapid relaxation with cue word during practice 2-3
       times a week: take one or two deep breaths and repeat your cue word silently each
       time you exhale.
Energization:
    • Do once or twice a week before practice for several weeks with the team.
    • Do during practice when energy levels are low. Breath rapidly and say your cue
       word after every 3 breaths.
Energy Management: Use either relaxation or energization to get into your optimal
       energy zone before practice or competition and during practice or competition.
Self-Talk:
    • Keep a list of negative situations you have difficulty reframing. Several times a
       week intensely imagine one and the corresponding negative emotions before
       using reframing skills to counter faulty thinking. Build counterarguments for
       situations that are particularly problematic into your smart-talk scripts.
Stress Management:
    • With the team make a list of demanding competitive situations and, several times
       a week, devote 10 minutes during practice to simulating one of them while
       focusing on what you can control- your thoughts and your actions.
    • On your own: use imagery and relaxation (with breathing) scenarios with your
       cue word to relax.
Attentional Control:
    • As you practice and compete your mind needs to attend to something relevant
       like a teammate calling and not attend to irrelevant things like what an opponent
       says… or sometimes even the critical voice in your head.
    • Use self-talk skills and imagery to practice paying attention to the things that will
       help you perform your best.




                                                                                        37
                               Descriptions of Seminars

Goal setting:
  • Athletes learn to set process (goals they can control) goals for practice and for
       games. Process goals lead to performance goals which may result in athletes
       reaching their outcome goals.
  • As a result of accomplishing goals, athletes’ self-confidence will increase.

Imagery Skills:
   • Used- to learn new skills, practice known skills, correct skills, play through
      strategies, with relaxation and energization, in self-talk, in stress management and
      in goal setting. Involves all five senses. When you image something, you can
      produce almost the same effect as if you’d actually experienced it.

Relaxation and Energization Skills:
   • Used to either decrease unwanted muscular tension and calm the mind, or, to
      control arousal, enhance concentration and deal with low energy levels.
      Relaxation is used to alleviate stress, control becoming too “psyched up”,
      conserve energy and promote recovery from workouts and injuries.
   • In controlling arousal through energization, concentration and confidence is
      enhanced and the athlete is able to continue playing when tired or encountering
      adversity.

Self-Talk:
    • Athletes learn to monitor, control and direct the steady stream of thoughts and
       internal dialogue that goes on in their heads almost constantly. These thoughts
       have a major impact on mood, emotion and athletic performance. Athletes learn to
       build counterarguments for situations that are particularly problematic into their
       “smart-talk scripts”.

Energy Management:
   • Athletes learn their “optimal energy zone” for high performance and how to get
      themselves into that zone. This zone is highly individual and rests between an
      athlete’s “psych-up” and “psych-out” arousal zones.

Stress Management:
   • Athletes learn that their belief about a stressor determines whether uncertain
       competitive situations are viewed positively as a challenge or negatively as a
       threat. Athletes learn to identify what they can control (thoughts and actions) in
       each situation and what they cannot control, and the impact this distinction has on
       their stress levels. Self-talk (counterarguments), imagery and relaxation can be
       used to manage stress levels.


Much of the material in this packet is taken from: Sport Psychology for Coaches (2008) by
Drs. Damon Burton and Thomas Raedeke, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, and has been
adapted by Dr. Christine Lottes for educational use.


                                                                                        38

				
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