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Capitalization

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					                    Chapter 1
                     Nouns




 Les Hanson 2002
               Nouns
 Definition of nouns
 Capitalization
 pluralization
    When to capitalize nouns
 Names of particular people, places, or
  things
 E.g. Stockwell Day, Alberta, Canadian Alliance
But not general references
      party leader,   communist, fascist, right wing

In general, specific names require capitals
  Lake     Superior, Fred, Great Depression
General names do not require capitals
  the    prairies, my uncle, a recession
            Names and Titles
 Capitalize titles that precede names
     Prime Minister Chretien,   Aunt Polly

But not when used alone, or after names

     The minister was demoted to the back benches
     Bill, my uncle, sat beside Gary Doer, premier of
      Manitoba
                 Sentences
 Capitalize the first word of a sentence
 And the first word of a quoted sentence
   She   said, “You are stupid.”
 Don’t capitalize the second part of a
  fragmented quotation
   “Youare stupid,” she said, “and your
    mother dresses you funny.”
 Don’t capitalize partial quotes
   He talked of the “plausible deniability” of
    the scheme.
Titles of books, articles, and
            songs
 Capitalize the first, last, and all
  important words in a title
 Don’t capitalize short articles,
  prepositions, and conjunctions
   As You Like It
   The Merry Wives of Windsor
   Love’s Labours Lost
   Taming of the Shrew
   The Merchant of Venice
        Dates and Directions
 Capitalize days of the week, months,
  holidays
   Monday,   June, Thanksgiving
 But not seasons
   summer,    fall, winter
 Don’t capitalize directions
  I   drove north for two blocks
 Unless it refers to a specific location
   Fighting broke out in the Middle   East
   Winter roads are common in the     North
         Names of Groups

 Capitalize races, religions, nationalities
  and languages

   Bosnian,   Buddhism, French, Cree
             Product Names

 Capitalize brand names and trademarks
   Coke,    Kleenix, Roller Blades, Popsicle

 Do not capitalize generic product names
   cola,   tissues, inline skates, flavoured ice
              Course Names
 Capitalize specific names of courses
          101, Intermediate Basket-
   History
   weaving, a Bachelor of Arts degree
 But not general references to courses
   geography,  communication, accounting
   He is studying engineering
          Pluaralization
 Regular plurals
 Adding –s
 Adding-es
(-s, --ss, -sh, ch, -x, -z)
Nouns ending in –y
Nouns ending in ay,ey,oy,uy
Nouns ending in o
Nouns ending in –f
 The pronunciation of the plural
       endings –s and -es
 Iz (After –s,-ss,-z, -x, se, dge, -ge)
 Bus, horse, buzz, wish, match, wage
 Z (After vowel sounds and voiced
  consonants)
 Day, car,dog,home
S
 After other unvoiced consonants
 Book, lip,cliff
           OtherPlurals
 Irregular plurals
 Words of foreign origin
 Nouns which do not change in the
  plural
 Nouns which look singular but are in
  fact plural
 Nouns ending in –s which are in fact
  singular
        Irregular plurals
 Man\ woman\ Child
 foot/\tooth\goose
 Losue\ Mouse\ ox
 Penny ( pennies- pence)
Pennies (to talk about the number of
  coins) e.g there are 5 pennies on the
  table
pence(to talk about the value of
  something)e.g, the small apples are 5
  pence each.
    Words of foreign origin
 Ending in –us =-uses, -I
Cactus, fungus,stimulus.
 Ending in –a = -as, -ae
Alga, formula, vertebra
 Ending in –um = ums, -a
Memorandum, bacterium, datum
 Ending in –ex = exes, ices
Index ( indexes for books, indices,used
  in math)
 Ending in –ix= -ixes, -ices
 Appedix ( appendices in books,
  appendexes in medicine)
 -on = -ons,-a
 Criterion, phenomenon
 Ending in –is = -ises, -es
 Analysis, hypothesis,
  synopsis,diagnosis, oasis
Nouns which do not change in the
             plural
 Series and species
He gave a series of lectures about
  birdwatching.
There have been several series of
  programes on television about microchip
  technology.
 Nouns of nationalities ending in –ese
China, Japan, Portugal
 Some animals and fish
Duck, snipe,fish salmon,piketrout deer
Nouns which look singular but are
         in fact plural
 Cattle,clergy, dice, people, police
 His cattle are the finestin this part
  of England
 Dice are used in many board games
Nouns ending in –s which are
      in fact singular
 News
 Some diseses
 Rickets, mumps, measles
 Some games
 Billiards,darts,dominos
 Some activities or branches of study
 Ceramics, phonetics, politics
     Formation of Nouns
 Masculine or feminine
 Endings to describe size
 Endings which describe repeated
  actions and small objects
 Professions
 Abstract nouns
 Gerunds
 Noun and verb
 Compound nouns
   Masculine or feminine
 Different words
Bachelor-spinster, cock-hen,lad-lass,
Husband-wife, king-queen, uncle-aunt
 Change of ending
Actor-actress, duke-duchess, emperor-
  empress, hero-heroine
 No distinction
Cousin friend parent person guest
  Endings to describe size
 -let: leaflet, booklet
 -ling: duckling, weakling
Sometimes we use adjectives to
  describe small things like big, little
-ette: maisonette, kitchenette,
Mini-: minicab, minicomputer
Micro-, macro-: microchip macro-
  economics.
Endings which describe repeated actions or
              small objects
 -inkle: twinkle, winkle
 -ingle: jingle, tangle, tingle
 -ggle: giggle, wriggle
 -tter: mutter stutter, chatter
 -mble: mumble, stumble,rumble
 -bble: bubble pebble quibble
 -ddle: cuddle, muddle, paddle, puddle
 -ttle: little, tittle-tattle
           Professions
 -er:
bake-baker, play-player, teach-teacher,
  engine-engineer, photograph-
  photographer
 -or
Actor, tailor, doctor, director
 -ist: piano-pianist, violin-violinist
 -ologist: geology-geologist
 -icist: physics-physician
          Professions
 -ist: science-scientist
 -ian
 Mathematics-mathematician,
 _ian:
 History-historian
 -ant:
 account-accountant
 -ent: residence-resident

				
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posted:10/16/2011
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