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					Motivation Questionnaires
Motivation to Manage
 CLASS MEAN    HISTORICAL MEAN
      35              34

ERG
  CLASS MEAN   HISTORICAL MEAN
E     17             17
R     15             15
G     16             16
PROCESS THEORIES
 Equity Theory
 Expectancy Theory
 Goal-Setting Theory (Ch. 6)
     Equity Theory Concepts
   Inputs
       employee contributions to the organization

   Outcomes
       rewards employees receive from the organization

   Referent Persons
       comparison others

   Outcome/Input (O/I) ratio
                              Outcomesself
                                           = Outcomesother
                               Inputsself     Inputsother
    Consequences Of Inequity
                               Under-reward

                              Tension    Motivation
                 Anger
                                         to Change

Perceived   Dissatisfaction
 Inequity

                                         Motivation
                 Guilt        Tension
                                         to Change

                               Over-reward
    How People React to Perceived
    Inequity (feeling under-paid)
 Reduce inputs
 Increase outcomes
 Rationalize inputs or outcomes
 Change the referent person
 Leave (e.g., change jobs)
EXPECTANCY THEORY
   Analyzes the parts of the Motivation
    Process that the Leader must attend to
    (cf., Path-Goal Theory of Leadership)

   Has the greatest Breadth of popular
    motivation theories
       EXPECTANCY THEORY

       E     P                     P O
     (Expectancy)             (Intrumentality)              Valence

 What is the probability    What is the probability   What value do I place
that I can perform at the that my good performance      on the potential
     required level if        will lead to desired         outcome?
          I try?                  outcomes?




  Effort            Performance                           Outcomes
MULTIPLICATIVE
RELATIONSHIP
If any of the three (Expectancy,
  Instrumentality, or Valence) equal Zero,
  then there is No Motivation.
Ranking Rewards
How do you think 1000 non-managers
ranked the following? (1 = highest)
_2_   Work done being appreciated
_4_   Job security
_7_   Good working conditions
_3_   Feeling of being in on things
_5_   Good wages
_9_   Tactful discipline
_8_   Organization being loyal to employees
_1_   Interesting work
10_   Sympathetic help with personal problems
_6_   Promotion and growth opportunities
Applying Expectancy Theory
   Increase Expectancy:
     Enhance  employees’ skills
     Build up employees’ confidence
   Increase Instrumentality
     Clearly   link rewards to performance
   Increase Valences
     Find   out what employees want from their
      jobs
How do we learn?
   Classical Conditioning
     Learn   by experiencing two stimuli occurring
      close in time
   Operant Conditioning
     Learn   from consequences of behaviors
   Social Learning
     Learn   by observing others
Classical Conditioning
   Involuntary reflexes
     Behavior   is “elicited”
 Neutral Stimulus becomes
  “conditioned” through association
  with an “unconditioned” one
 Thus, the formerly neutral stimulus
  now elicits the response previously
  elicited only by the “unconditioned”
  stimulus
Operant Conditioning
   Voluntary Behavior
     Behavior   is “emitted”
 Associations learned among
  Stimulus, Response, and
  Consequence
 The focus is on learning to obtain
  positive outcomes and avoid
  negative ones
 Behavior is “Shaped” through small,
  reinforced steps
Social Learning
 Also called “Modeling” and
  “Vicarious Learning”
 Observe someone else (the Model)
 Consequences to Model are
  important
 Can be considered a sub-category of
  Operant Conditioning
MAJOR ELEMENTS OF
REINFORCEMENT
THEORY
   Stimulus
     Supervisor   requests faster work
   Response
     Employee increases or decreases speed or
     does nothing
   Consequence
            Reinforcement, Negative Reinf.
     Positive
     (Avoidance), Extinction, Punishment
BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES
   To Motivate                To Motivate
  Employees to              Employees to Cease
 Continue Desired             Undesirable
    Behaviors                  Behaviors
 Positive Reinforcement             Extinction
 (Good outcome if you       (No outcome whether you
        continue)                continue or not)
 Negative Reinforcement           Punishment
(Bad outcome if you don’t   (Bad outcome if you don’t
        continue)                     stop)
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
 Spacing or Timing of Reinforcements
                                                   Fixed Interval
                                       Fixed                           Fixed Ratio




                                       Variable   Variable Interval
                                                                      Variable Ratio




                                                     Passage of   Number of Times
                                                       Time        Behavior Occurs
                                         Basis for Determining Frequency of Reinforcement
SCHEDULES OF
REINFORCEMENT:
EXTINCTION
The less predictable Reinforcement was in
  the past, the more difficult behavior is to
  extinguish (Resistance to Extinction)

--Intermittent (Partial) Schedules are more
   resistant than Continuous (100%)

--Variable Schedules are more resistant than
  Fixed

				
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posted:10/15/2011
language:Dutch
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