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									    Introduction to Social Welfare and
               Social Work:

      The US in Global Perspective

                    Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole

                    Katherine van Wormer
                    University of Northern Iowa

           Introduction - Chapter 1

       Uniqueness of social work

       Social work core values:
        service, social justice, dignity and worth of
        person, importance of human relationships,
        integrity, competence

    Uniqueness of Social Work continued

       Person-in-environment
       Mission—social action to promote social
       Licensing
       Social Context—generalist practice
        Value based criteria
       Global role

    Reasons for International Focus

       Ever shrinking world
       Increasing international similarities
       Leadership in NGOs
       Perspective from other nations
       Innovative approaches

    Knowledge for International Work

       Employment options
       ―International‖ domestic work--refugees
       Influencing global policies through UN

    Terms and Concepts

       Social welfare—‖well being‖--nation’s system of
        programs, benefits, etc.

       Social welfare state

       Social work and sociology, psychology, counseling

       Third World/developing country/Global South/non-
        industrialized country

    Terms continued

       Functionalism
        –   Manifest and latent functions
        –   Examples—car, military haircut, imprisonment
       Regulating the Poor—Piven and Cloward
       Power—Max Weber
        –   Orwell—1984 ‖who controls the past controls the
            future; who controls the present controls the past‖
        –   Power elite

    Terms continued

       Globalization—social, educational, economic
       Empowerment Perspective
       Culture and cultural competence--ethnocentrism
       Ecosystems Theory--Interactionism
       Prejudice—unjustified negative attitudes
        –   Allport--outgroups
        –   Adorno—F scale—obedience most important, displaced
       Blaming the victim as defense mechanism

    Terms continued

       Empowerment
       Our social work imagination—micro (family
        work) and macro practice
       Critical thinking—put social policies in
        perspective, awareness of media bias

     CHAPTER 2

         American Social Values
         International Social

     US Value Orientations

        Work versus leisure
            Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
            Creed of Calvinism
            US--2,000 hours per year, Germany--1,500
            impact of welfare reform
            Korea and work ethic
            France—leisure a top value

     US Values—equal opportunity vs.

        ―The American dream‖—‖rags to riches‖
        Immigrant success stories
        Scandinavian value of equality, not opportunity
         –   Family allowances here and in other industrialized nations
        Wilensky & Lebeaux—residually based (safety net)
         society versus institutionally based
        Means-tested—TANF and stigma
        Globalization—impact of competition

     Values: Mobility vs. Stability

       –   Thom Hartmann’s hypothesis of genetic traits
           from hunter vs farmer societies and ADD
       –   Americans as seen by foreigners

     Competition Vs Cooperation

        Personal achievement as happiness--survey
        Egalitarianism—‖probably the best beer in
         town‖ compared to American ads
        Family socialization into values

     Individualism Vs Collectivism

        Conformists
        Japanese homogeneity
        American individualism
        Collectivism in Norway and Japan
        Progressive periods in US history compared
         to conservative times


        Independence & individualism in U.S.
        Interconnectedness & indigenous culture—
         First Nations People

     Materialism Vs Spirituality

        Materialism
        Alternative values
        Prevalence of religion in America—surveys
         comparing US and European attitudes

     Nuclear Vs Extended Family

        Kinship arrangements in industrialized
         world—marriage as union between families
        African- and Latino- American cultural

     Moralism Vs Compassion

        Moralism and US society, the most unique
         US value
        Social values and social policy
        International policy
        Imprisonment in the US and Norway

     Social Work Values
     American Values

        Social work mission to enhance human well-being,

        Altruism

        Core values of social work—service, social justice, dignity and worth of
         the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and

        How these values compare or contrast to American values

     International Descriptions

        Guam—cultural clash, indigenous population, woman power
        Chile—under socialist government and after CIA back military
         coup, social workers ―disappeared‖, structural adjustments
         required by world banks
        Caribbean—structural adjustments—Jamaica and global
        South Korea—positive experience with globalization, over 100
         social work departments, male dominance
        Cuba—health care services, social workers work in needy
        Canada—impact of global market, NAFTA, cutbacks, universal
         health care

     CHAPTER 3

         Emergence of Social

     Introduction – Chapt. 3

        Drawing from Glasgow, Scotland museum—
         Heatherbank Museum of Social Work,
         ―Houseless Poor Asylum‖

        Social work goes back to Middle Ages and
         social welfare.

     European Milestones
        Norman Conquest, 1066 and feudalism, unity of England under
        Black Death, 1348 and scapegoating of minority groups
         (―witches‖)and labor shortage
        Role of technologies a theme, people moved to cities for work,
         affected family life
        Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther and Henry VIII
        Elizabethan Poor Law 1601, religious dissenters left for New
         –   First poor law—poor relief for deserving, parents responsible,
        New Poor Law 1834—moral view of poverty
        Inflluence of Dickens, Karl Marx (1848)

     Colonial America

        Puritans and theology
        Individualism, limited government and
         separation of church and state
        No large class of landless people
        Weak central government
        Indentured servants, slavery of persons of
        US Constitution and human rights

     Informal and Formal Helping

        Poor Helping Poor—slavery and mutual aid
        Farmers
        Church
        Formal aid
        Dorothea Dix
        Civil War
        Freedmen’s Bureau
        Europe: A Contrast—social insurance in Germany

     Industrial Growth in the U.S.

        Agriculture to Industry
        Depression of 1870s
        Paradigm shifts in times of national hardship
        Origins of social work
        Charity Organization Societies
        Settlement houses
        Hull House and Jane Addams
        Mary Richmond

     Social Work as a Profession

        Flexner and Freudian Influence
        Casework
        The Great Depression—a paradigm shift, Piven and
        New Deal—Harry Hopkins and Francis Perkins
         under Roosevelt
         –   Public Works Administration, Social Security Act
        Women’s leadership in social work,1910-1955
        European Influence

     From 1950s to Today

        McCarthy era, 1950s
        Bertha Reynolds—her education in
         psychoanalytical theory and her union work,
         fired from Smith College but honored today
        1960s, Civil Rights Movement, a paradigm
         shift, war on poverty and war in Vietnam
        New Conservatism
        Self Assessment

     Has Social Work Lost Its Mission?
        Unfaithful Angels: How Social Work Has Abandoned Its Mission—Specht &
         Courtney (1994)
        Their Arguments
          –   Professionalism
          –   Private practice,
          –   Loss of idealism

        van Wormer’s arguments that social work has not lost its mission:
          –   Writings and policies of social work
          –   Idealism of students shown in surveys
          –   CSWE requirements and social work ethics has radicalized
          –   Multicultural education
          –   Feminist influence
          –   Empowerment perspective—theme of textbooks in the field
          –   Global awareness
          –   The fact that Specht and Courtney have raised the issue

     Chapter 4

         Economic Oppression

     Introduction – Chapter 4

        Eisenhower quote about money spent on the
        Economic oppression inextricably linked with
         social and racial oppression.
        Socially oppressed are often poor.
        Impoverished people worldwide not
         necessarily oppressed.
        ―Trickle down theory‖

     Nature of Oppression

        Exploitation
        Marginalization—lack of rights of full
        Structural violence

     Poverty Worldwide

        Relative poverty
        Absolute poverty—75% of world’s population
         live in poor nations
        Global hunger—southern hemisphere and

     Explanations for Existence of Poverty

        Functions of poverty—Gans
         –   Assure society’s dirty work is done
         –   Low wages
         –   Jobs for those who serve the poor
         –   Buyers for old goods
         –   Scapegoating
         –   Control their votes
        Dysfunctions
        Global economy and trade imbalances
        Overpopulation—literacy for women tied to birth control
        War as cause of poverty—loss of young life, land destroyed
        Inadequate welfare benefits as cause of poverty

     Poverty and Globalization

        IMF rules—structural adjustment, loans for military
        Free trade agreements—Wal-Mart in Mexico, privatization,
         processed food
        WTO regulations
        80% of world’s income in the richest 20% of the world’s nations
        Brazil—poor receive 7 % of GNP
        Job loss—see text photo of homeless man
        Empire theory—US media empire, pre-emptive strikes, loss of
         national industries

     Work In A Global Era

        Computer jobs in Bangalore, India
        China and cheap exports
        EU and leveling of standards, soon to be 25
        Productivity up, employment and wages

     Work in the US
        Downsizing, privatization, outsourcing, cost-efficiency, productivity
        Wal-Mart’s strategies
        The End of Work--Rifkin
          –   New technologies
          –   More work and fewer workers
        UN Declaration and work as a right (Article 23,see Appendix)
        Worker stress—lack of loyalty
        McDonaldization of Society --Ritzer–Fast Food Nation
          –   Brain work out of fast food work
          –   Standardization of product
          –   Pseudo-friendliness and processed food
          –   Speed and efficiency
          –   Tyson—dangerous work, lawsuits

     Work, continued

        Impact on family—‖two income trap‖
         –   Korea—55 hours work per week, US 46
         –   Italy--40 vacation days, French--36, US—12
         –   Advice on business customs in Sweden—Fridays
             deserted, summer close down in July, late
             afternoons they think of going home

     Work, continued

        Agriculture—cash crops
        High suicide rate among American farmers
        Nickel and Dimed—Ehrenreich’s story
        Forced overtime work, use of drugs like meth
        Worker’s Rights Mobilization
        Unemployment—not outsourcing but
         ―productivity‖ the big problem—new
         technologies, loss of health benefits

     Strategies to End Poverty

        Earned income tax credits—acceptable
         because rewards workers
        Treatment for substance abuse and mental
         disorders needed
        Need for more, better paying jobs
        Kensington Welfare Rights Union—New
         Freedom Bus Ride, UN Declaration

     CHAPTER 5

         Social Oppression

     Introduction – Chapter 5

        Look at forms of institutionally based
        The ―isms‖
        Dominant group and privilege and target

        Definition                           Food stamp reductions
        Institutional Classism               Welfare reform
        Class & Success                      Welfare for the rich
        Poverty                                –   Tax policy
        Distribution of wealth—gap rich        –   Tax cuts—stockholders
         and poor within countries and          –   Top taxable rate—33%, was
         between countries                          50%1981
        Box 5:1—Where Your Income
         Tax Money Really Goes—
        Poverty line--$18,810 family of
         4, 12.5% in poverty
        War against the poor—lack of
         living wage


        Definition—a form of racial oppression based
         on the color of one’s skin or distinctive or
         imagined physical features
        Global racism—Roma, Dalits
        Welfare racism, ―us and them‖
        Welfare Reform
        Racism & unemployment—loss of
         manufacturing jobs

     Sexism and the Feminization of

        Families below poverty line, 37% female headed
        Feminization of poverty, women’s income—76 cents
         on the dollar compared to men’s, elderly women in
        Female unemployment, child care
        Causes
        Worldwide—lack of education for girls
        Education
        Migration


        Definition—the belief that gays and lesbians
         are inferior to heterosexuals
        Homophobia—a fear factor
        Suicide of gender non-conforming children
        Lesbians—homophobia linked to sexism and
         anti-feminism backlash
        Hate crimes
        Marital rights


        Definition—bigotry in following doctrine od
         one’s own sect
        Fundamentalism—U.S., Islamism, Northern
        Religious oppression
        Displaced aggression
        Box 5.2—a tour of the U.S.Holocaust
         Memorial Museum

        Definition
        War, insecurity and foreigners
        Economics & Migration
        Latinos: Demographic facts
          –   11% have a BA
          –   25.6% poverty rate
          –   Prospects improve for children
          –   Low infant mortality
          –   Poor working conditions
        Cultural factors--kinship
        Anti-immigrant harassment against Arabs—against mosques,
         by government--detainees

     CHAPTER 6

         Human Rights &
         Restorative Justice

     Introduction – Chapter 6

        Refer to the photo that opens this chapter—same
         sex marriage in Portland
        Concepts social justice and human rights—NASW,
         IFSW endorsement
        History of passage of Universal Declaration of
         Human Rights
         –   Nuremberg war crimes trial
         –   Eleanor Roosevelt
         –   1948
         –   3 parts—civil and legal rights (against cruel and unusual
             punishment), economic rights, cultural rights

     The UN Universal Declaration of
     Human Rights

        Social work and international law
        Box 6.1, On Human Rights
        Amnesty International—rights a standard in
         wartime as well as peacetime
        US refusal to join International Criminal Court

     Human Rights Violations Worldwide

        National security as diversion from rights
        Responding to terror with terror
        Genocide throughout the world—ICC to
         address this
        Rape in war—Brownmiller, rape as an
         instrument of war, in most wars and slavery

     Violations of Women Domestically

        U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All
         Forms of Discrimination Against Women
        Conservative reluctance to ratify by Senate
        International violence
        Domestic violence
        Honor killing—300 in Pakistan in one year

     Gays, Lesbians & Human Rights

        Lack of official human rights documents
        International intolerance
        Military duty
        Marriage rights worldwide—full rights in the
         Netherlands, Belgium, most of Canada
        Partner benefits in many European countries

     Criminal Justice in the U.S.

        Individual rights and punitive tradition
         –   Absence of prevention such as strict gun control
         –   Lack of strict media censorship against violence
        Puritan influence
        Rehabilitation—strong in 1970s

     Criminal Justice Data

        Criminal Justice Statistics, see Box 6.2
         –   Homicide—guns use in 66%
         –   Male victims killed by strangers, not female
         –   Over 1,000 women and 440 men killed by an intimate
             partner in 2000 (author’s theory about women’s shelters)
        Crime rate vs incarceration rate
        Handgun deaths— (2003) 151 in Canada, 19 in
         Japan, over 11,000 in the US
        Corrections—2 million in prison

     War on Drugs

        Origins—Ronald Reagan
        Zero tolerance of drugs associated with poor
         people, a form of prohibition
        6% of prisoners are women, big increase in
         women and minorities, conspiracy drug laws
        European Approach—harm reduction

     Human Rights Violations of Prisoners

        Prison labor as involuntary servitude
        U.S. & International Standards
        Privatization & The Incarceration Industry
        Men in prison—abuses, horror stories, rape as power plays,
         suicide attempts by rape victims
        Women in prison—sexual abuse scandals, strip searches,
         pregnancies, reports by NGOs
        Death penalty—most in China, about 70 a year in the US,
         abolished in all democracies except for India, Japan, US
        $2 million per execution, 90% involved white victims in study,
         flaws in deterrence theory, execution as an attraction to some
         suicidal persons

     Restorative Justice

        Influence of First Nations People and Mennonites in
        Starts with victim
        Contrasts with conventional criminal justice but may
         follow criminal justice process, supported by UN
        Reconciliation3 key models—victim offender
         mediation, family group counseling, reparations

     CHAPTER 7

         Human Behavior & The
         Social & Physical

     Introduction – Chapter 7

        Uniting policy and practice
        Importance of understanding both behavior
         and context
        Concepts of HBSE
         –   Ecosystems theory
         –   Bio-psycho-social-spiritual model
         –   Sustainability
         –   Person-in-environment

     The Physical Environment

        Silent Spring-- Rachel Carson
        Human growth and development
        Environmental crisis
        ―War against nature‖ and Mother Earth concepts
        Eco-feminism
        War and the environment

     The Physical Environment continued

        Air—China, Eastern Europe
        Soil—farming practices
        Water—lack of access to safe water
        Environmental racism
        Promising developments—mass
         transportation, wind energy

     Biological Component in Human

        Physiological dimension
        Interaction mind and body
        Exposure in the womb
        Genetic factors
        Biochemical abnormalities--neurotransmitters

     Psychological Domain
            Human behavior from point of individual
         –      Trauma
         –      Resilience
            Developmental stages
            Erikson—trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, etc.
            Maslow—meeting physiological needs, safety, belongingness and
             love, self-esteem, self-actualization
            Bettleheim’s (1943)concentration camp study—final adjustment to
             life in the camp
            Kidnap victims and hostage situations
            Battered women and psychological impact of powerlessness
            PTSD and war

     Social Components in Human

        In wartime—tell people they are being
         attacked to mobilize troops—Goering, former
        Poem, ―Closure‖
        The family and addiction

     The Spiritual Realm

        Deep-ecology—people a part of nature--and
         social work
        Sense of purpose and meaning
        Spirituality and social work practice
        Strengths perspective

     CHAPTER 8

         Child Welfare

     Introduction – Chapt. 8

        Definition—child welfare used here as
         general treatment of children by society
        Images from around the world—Romanian
         orphanages, missing girls in China, children
         in war zones

     History of Childhood
     and Child Welfare

        Treatment of children reflects society’s
        Cruelty England and France
        Egalitarianism—special laws for juveniles
         13th Century Norway, later child welfare act,
        Baby raffle in France, 1912, Canada
         aboriginal children sent away
        US—primary responsibility rests with parents
     U.N. Convention on the Rights of the

        Passed by UN, 1989
         –   Right to due process
         –   Right to protection from violence
         –   Right to health and nutrition
        Norway revised policies to give child legal rights in
         hearings, Sweden and Canada
        United States and non-ratification. Only Somalia
         refused to sign also
        UNICEF—UN Children’s Fund, State of the World’s

     Child Poverty

        One in six US children in poverty
        Poverty and working parents
        Childcare
        TANF
        Homelessness
        Mothers incarcerated for drugs
        Effects of welfare reform

     Exploitation of Children

        Child labor compared to child work which is
         for child’s development
        250 million children in sweatshops worldwide
        Child prostitution Southeast Asia
        Child soldiers—Uganda, other African
         countries where there is civil war

     Child Abuse & Neglect

        Genital mutilation—137 million women have
         been so brutalized—Sudan, Egypt, Ghana,
         cause of AIDS
        Other global forms of child violence—116.9
         males to 100 females in China

     Child abuse and neglect in the U.S.

       –   NASW opposes all physical punishment of children
       –   1,400 children died from abuse and neglect in 2002; 168
           had had contact with authorities
       –   Need for smaller caseloads
       –   Sexual abuse—priest abuse of boys and girls, thousands of
       –   Over 90% of child molesters are males
       –   A factor in early teenage pregnancy
       –   Incest—difficult social work options

     Reasons the CW System Fails Children

        Lack of necessary provisions for welfare
         workers; need for substance abuse treatment
        Sweden—state interventions, adequate
         housing, child care, health care
        Connections between poverty, abuse and

     Promising Developments

        Kinship care
        Shared family care
        Other empowering approaches—villages
         with family care, family partnerships
        School programming


        .

        Gay and lesbian school youth
         Box 8.1:Protecting GLBT Youth
          –   Hate crimes, bullying at school
          –   Suicide
          –   Religious upbringing may be a problem
          –   Participation in unsafe sex, drug use
          –   Jock culture of school
          –   Lack of role models

        What schools can do:
          –   Roles for social workers
          –   Anti-bullying programs
          –   Protect rights
          –   Hire out of the closet gay and lesbian teachers
          –   Work with PFLAG

     CHAPTER 9

         Health/Mental Health

     Introduction – Chapt. 9

        Global Context
        WHO

     Overview of World Health

        Headlines—HIV/AIDS--40 million orphans, TB
         Plague in Russia, Malaria kills 3,000 per day
        Top 3 Deadly Diseases—malaria, AIDS,TB
        Rarity of universal health care
        AIDS—one in 4 adults infected in some countries
        Global Gag Rule by US on health—family planning--
        Maternal mortality

     Health Care in the U.S.

        Service and profit – prevention vs treatment
        Medicare and Medicaid—decimated to cut
         costs, limit doctors’ payments
        Managing health care costs—15% of GDP
        Treatment disparities by class and race, 15%
         of Americans uninsured, lobbying by
         pharmaceuticals—over $21 million. Drug
         prices rise by 17% per year

     US Health Care continued

        US spends 3 times Canada’s amount on
         administration costs
        US 13th in infant mortality rates and 17th in life
        Best states: Vermont, Hawaii, Maine, Minnesota
        Box 9.1:Social Work in the ER
        Marketing disease and treatment—cosmetic surgery,
         big business
        AMA doctors called for nationalized health care

     Physical Disability
        Definition—any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity
         in the manner or within the normal range
        Anti-discrimination legislation in U.S.—Americans with
         Disabilities Act, 1990—accessibility
        Challenges for persons with disabilities
          –   Health care system
          –   Chronic pain
          –   Illness
          –   Intimate relationships
          –   Meaningful work
        Europe
        Box 9.2—The Making of a Disability Rights Activist

     Mental Health Care

        Stigma and poor treatment, affects one in five over lifetime
        Jails and prisons as mental health institutions
        Parents relinquishing custody for treatment in foster care they
         can’t afford
        Psychotropic medicine
        Homeless mentally ill—need for affordable, supportive housing
        Box 9.3—A Day in the Life of a Mental Health Case Manager
        Harm reduction policies
        Box 9.4—AIDS in the Life of a Social Worker—historic

     What We Can Learn from Other

        Health care in the U.K.—NHS, 6% of GDP,
         tax financed, doctors employed by
        Canadian model, 10% of GDP, doctors not
         employed by government
        Cuba: rural health care, huge supply of
         doctors, give free medical care in other Latin
         American countries
     CHAPTER 10

         Care At The End Of
         The Life Cycle

     Introduction – Chapt. 10

        French heat wave and neglect of the elderly
         led to 14,000 dead while relatives vacationed
        Erikson—generativity vs. stagnation and ego
         integrity vs. despair
        Rising age of U.S. population—one in eight
         over age 65, twice as many women as men
         over age 85
        Graying of the world

     Concepts of Aging Worldwide
        U.S.—around 2 children per family, young immigrant workers
         brings more children
        Nations coping with population imbalance
          –   Spain—1.15 children per family
          –   Low ―fertility‖ rates in Italy, Romania, Japan
          –   Northern Europe better because of benefits
        Negative press—interests of elderly pitted against those of
         children, blame for fiscal crisis
        Medicare a windfall for pharmaceutical companies
        5% in nursing homes, 71/2% in Canada
        Elderly men high suicide rate
        Different attitudes in Japan and US toward care for the elderly

     Overlooked Positives of Population

        Low crime rate
        Reduced rate of substance abuse
        More jobs available for the young
        Pool of retired persons for caregiving
        Role models and love for children

     Biological Factors in Aging

        Physical decline—circulatory system, arthritis,
         hearing, cancer,dementia
        Image from TV ads
        Lack of adequate transportation
        Mental health issues. Needs (UN):
         –   Independence
         –   Participation
         –   Care
         –   Self-fulfillment
         –   Dignity

     Psychology of Aging

        Erikson—ego integrity vs. despair, purpose and
         meaning in life
        Old-old age—memories, flashbacks to past trauma
         such as in concentration camp survivors
        Facing death—cheerful poem, ―But Someone Surely
         –   Defense through blaming the victim
         –   Denial of death through American creed
         –   Escape through medical jargon
         –   Social death redefinition of death

     Social Side of Aging

        Cultural expectations
        Assisted suicide—Netherlands and Oregon
        Extended family ties—Box 10.2—Latino Family Ties
        Elderization of poverty—22% of African American
         elderly in poverty, one in four of all older women,
         incomes 58% of elderly men’s, young-old far less in
         poverty than old-old

     Conditions of Aging continued

        U.S. Government Programs—Social security, paid
         for in payroll taxes only up to $87,000
        Community care options—adult foster care, home
         care services in Denmark
        Elder abuse—in institutions and at home,
         psychological abuse related to money
        Ageism—use of term old in negative way, denial in
         everyday speech, old as a burden, see old lady
         stuffed doll in textbook

     Avenues to Empowerment

        Importance of holistic approach
        Relevant questions: Who is important to you?
         What makes life worth living?
        Spirituality and resilience
        Advocacy and political empowerment

     Epilogue to Book—Putting It All

        World growing smaller
        ―US in Global Perspective‖—conflicting demands of global
         market and need for care for all the people
        Each nation same dilemma
        Economic and social oppression
        The ―isms‖
        Human rights, UN Declaration
        Social work across the life span
        War in Iraq influenced focus of book on war and war trauma
        Future challenges—environmental ecology, peace, end of
         terrorism, and becoming world citizens


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