Master of Science Degree/
Post Graduate Diploma
In Cognitive Psychotherapy
1. Cognitive Psychotherapy
The cognitive approach to helping individuals with mental health problems - subsuming
cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles and interventions - is thoroughly evidence
based, practical and helpful. It assumes that mental health difficulties arise because of the
negative meaning individuals attribute to particular events. Such events can be experienced as
‘external’ or ‘internal’. An external event - for example being made redundant - is likely to be
experienced by someone as happening to her or him and interpreted in terms of personal
worthlessness, resulting in lowered mood. An example of an internal event is negative
appraisal of social performance. This may in turn confirm a person’s belief that s/he not
likeable, which will provoke the experience of anxiety in social situations. Put simply, the
cognitive approach assumes that the meaning people attribute to events is strongly associated
with any emotions they experience. Individuals with mental health problems are also likely to
interpret situations as more dangerous, disastrous, etc. than they turn out to be are because of
beliefs that they learned at a much earlier stage in their life. In a relatively ‘silent’ or tacit way,
such beliefs influence how people experience themselves, the world and others.
Negative emotions are, in turn, likely to influence changes in behaviour - such as avoidance -
and changes in day to day thinking, with fearful or negative thoughts governing what someone
does or does not do. From a cognitive perspective, this emerging ‘vicious circle’ serves to
maintain the problem and prevent clients from working through their difficulties. The
cognitive approach provides a framework for collaborative working between mental health
worker and client, in order to assist her or him in solving such problems. The client is helped
to specify the goals s/he wants to work towards, and appropriate interventions are used which
logically emerge from a tailored case formulation of the client’s difficulties. These
interventions are geared to enable the client to ‘test out’ to what extent the thoughts mediating
their difficulties are true, through agreed homework assignments. From the basis of a
collaborative therapeutic relationship, the overall aim is to help people not only attain their
goals, but develop a more enabling and adaptive way of thinking about themselves, others and
2. Empirical support
The approach has been empirically supported across the range of diagnostic areas (APA
2000, Nathan et al. 1999) in mental ill health, from anxiety-based problems (Hawton et al
2002, Leahy and Holland 2000, Salkovskis 1996) to more intractable personality disorders
(Beck et al. 1990, Young 1999) and the severe and enduring psychoses (Gamble and Brennan
2000, Jones et al. 2000, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2000, Wykes et al.
3. Justification for using the term ‘cognitive psychotherapy’
In tracing the historical development and merging of cognitive and behavioural
psychotherapies, Rachman (1996) shows how interchangeable the terms ‘cognitive’ and
‘cognitive-behavioural’ have become. Indeed when surveying the literature one notices the
frequency with which established exponents use both terms (IACP 2002, Leahy and Holland
2000, Salkovskis 1996, Wells 1997).
The cognitive psychotherapeutic approach includes many behavioural or activity based
techniques, to the extent that one could argue that ‘cognitive-behavioural therapy’ is a more
accurately descriptive term. However, in recent years, the use of the term ‘cognitive therapy’
has helped to distinguish the constantly developing approach from more traditional
behavioural approaches. Influenced by this, and after much discussion and consideration, the
authors of the course document settled on the use of the term ‘cognitive psychotherapy’ in
order to underscore developments in cognitive behavioural education at the University of
Brighton in recent years. These include the incorporation of contemporary cognitive change
methods, the proposed inclusion of therapy for psychotic symptoms (which draws heavily on
cognitive psychology), and the pivotal use of cognitive case formulation methods and
cognitive models for enhancing the therapeutic alliance. Lastly, it was also felt that it was
worth capitalising on the contemporary cache associated with the title ‘cognitive
4. The course in relation to current Mental Health Policy
Developing an MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy is in keeping with recent key Department of
Health mental health policy directives. Reports on the provision of psychotherapy services in
England (DoH 1996) and the National Service Frameworks for Mental Health (DoH 1999)
call for training in psychotherapeutic interventions, pitched at the least complex, costly and
intrusive levels, which are evidence based, and which meet the needs of individuals suffering
from psychotic or neurotic problems. In both reports, the cognitive behavioural interventions
subsumed within the practice of cognitive psychotherapy are cited as meeting those criteria.
5. Evidence-based multidisciplinary education
The urgent need for multidisciplinary cognitive psychotherapy education in the United
Kingdom reflects an international problem of educational provision of evidence-based
interventions being insufficient to meet public need (Nathan et al. 1999). In a recent mapping
exercise conducted to investigate the ability of current mental health education in English
Universities to meet the standards of the National Service Framework for Mental Health (DoH
1999), Brooker et al. (2002) found that the provision of evidence-based education, including
cognitive interventions, was the exception rather than the rule. With regard to planned
relevant courses, only 17% were pitched at Masters level (the level at which, according to the
literature, multidisciplinary education is best promoted). This picture, combined with
professional practice benchmarking for psychotherapy practice in Britain makes the proposed
MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy an exciting, relevant and much needed development, and can
only add to the existing good reputation of cognitive behavioural education locally.
Since 1992, the University of Brighton has had considerable success in the education of
graduate practitioners of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy at diploma and first degree
level. Most of these individuals have achieved accredited and registered status with the British
Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies and the united Kingdom Council
for Psychotherapy, respectively, and some have published in the field (Grant and Mills 2000,
Grant et al. 2003, Mills 2000, Short and Kitchiner 2002). It is thus timely that education in
this area moves to a post graduate level and incorporates new developments in psychotherapy
6. Cognitive Psychotherapy for Psychosis
In recent years government policy on mental health has encouraged services to focus more
closely on serious mental illness (DoH1999). A consequence of this is that cognitive
psychotherapists are increasingly expected to work with people who experience symptoms
such as voices, delusions, paranoia and very low motivation. The last decade has seen a
growing body of research into the psychology of these symptoms, related therapeutic
interventions and the consequent development of training methods (Tarrier et al. 1999).
Outcome studies associated with this movement are low in number but offer cautious
optimism with regard to reduction in the distress surrounding symptoms, reduced admission
rates, more regular use of medication and preventing relapse (Jones et al. 2000, NHS Centre
for Reviews and Dissemination 2000). Making cognitive psychotherapy helpful for these
difficulties requires the creative application of core principles to new and challenging clinical
problems (Mills 2000), and is reflected in the learning outcome of the proposed course.
7. Professional Accreditation
Students educated to Masters level in this area will meet the benchmarking criteria
for candidature for registration with the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy
(UKCP), and accreditation with the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive
Psychotherapies (BABCP). The proposed course does not offer a Post Graduate
Certificate exit point as this would not meet the professional requirements of either
organisation. At the Faculty Academic Board (Standards) meeting of the 20th
February 2002, it was minuted that the award of a Postgraduate Certificate exit award
would not be appropriate for the proposed course. This is to control as far as possible
for the possibility that students exiting the course at this point may claim to have
trained sufficiently in cognitive psychotherapy to practice independently as
‘cognitive/cognitive behavioural psychotherapists’.
8. Existing GPHSS Provision
Having this diploma/degree as part of the GPHSS framework will enhance rather than threaten
existing provision. Feedback from within the university, from the KESS Confederation and
the private sector, suggests that there is a need for a part time degree of this level to give
multidisciplinary mental health workers the knowledge and skills required to deliver evidence-
based practice and local, cascading, training and supervision. There is, currently, no such
provision in that the existing MA in mental health is not a therapeutic skills-based degree. The
proposed course and its modules will also enhance the existing and future provision of
counselling and psychotherapy provision within the School of Applied Social Sciences
(SASS), and the GPHSS modular framework. Post graduate students accessing SASS
counselling and psychotherapy education may undertake modules from the MSc in Cognitive
Psychotherapy, as can other students in the GPHSS framework. Appropriate research methods
modules are shared within this framework, and there is future potential for the Postgraduate
Diploma in Counselling, the MA Mental Health, and the MA Learning Disabilities (subject to
validation) to be clustered with this course.
Although cognitive psychotherapy, subsuming cognitive behavioural interventions techniques,
is an effective treatment for both psychotic and neurotic mental health difficulties (Barlow et
al. 1999, Department of Health 2001, Gamble and Brenan 2000, Jones et al. 2000, Nathan et
al. 1999, NHS 2000, Wykes et al. 1999), with support for its efficacy in helping individuals
with personality disorders (Beck et al. 1990, Young 1999), there is a national and international
problem with the both the provision and dissemination of sufficiently skilled practice in
cognitive psychotherapy (Andrews and Henderson 2000, Tarrier et al. 1999).
In keeping with the evidence-base above, and with current policy requirements to increase the
provision of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy across the diagnostic categories
(DoH1999), the course seeks to attract individuals from a variety of professional groups
within mental health services in order to maximise the potential for dissemination of good
practice. The course will aim to produce Masters and Diplomate graduates who are
competent, safe and flexible practitioners of cognitive psychotherapy.
The program relies heavily on the principles of case formulation to facilitate the application of
fundamental skills to a wide variety of problems. The many approaches within cognitive
psychotherapy share these techniques, and their effective application often rests on the
practitioner’s ability to adjust them to suit individual cases. The course contains a high degree
of reflective education, particularly around the development of skilled application of
techniques through self-practice. The context of practice receives particular attention,
encompassing close scrutiny of therapeutic relationship factors, psycho-diagnostic issues,
factors associated with different clinical settings, the complexity of clinical problem, and the
varieties of ways of disseminating effective interventions.
In keeping with the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education descriptors (2001),
Masters level graduates will differ from diplomates in having more of a critically evaluative
and synthetic purchase on two specific inter-related knowledge and practice domains. The first
is cognitive psychotherapy’s empirical basis. The second is the impact of organisational
factors on both clinical practice and the integrative nature of contemporary cognitive
psychotherapy. ‘Organisational factors’ refers both to micro-and macro-organisational issues.
The former will emphasise the potential impact of organisations in facilitating and
undermining the creative risk taking characteristic of Masters level practice (Grant and Mills
2000, Morgan 1997). The latter will emphasise the unique nature of the University of Brighton
degree in acknowledging specific contemporary debates in the philosophy of science. These
centre around the ‘crisis of representation’ of modernist assumptions of science in the latter
part of the 20th century (Gergen (1999), which have in turn informed the development of
social constructionist approaches to psychotherapy generally (Gergen 1999) and
postmodernist revisions to cognitive psychotherapy specifically (IACP1997). Finally, it
should be stressed that all students will be taught at Masters level, the distinction between
diplomates and Masters graduates being that the latter will undertake a dissertation module.
Masters and Diplomate graduates will be able to draw on experiences of using cognitive
principles and techniques on themselves in order to enhance engagement with clients and help
them make better use of cognitive psychotherapy. This is not intended to make personal
cognitive psychotherapy a pre-requisite of training, but merely to acknowledge the value of
‘self practice’ in learning its methods. The course graduate will also understand the essential
nature of casework supervision. S/he will be able to use this as well as recourse to literature
and peer consultation to formulate and plan responses to obstacles in therapy. This will be
particularly evident when analysing factors associated with the therapeutic relationship.
Finally, the program will carefully follow guidelines set out by the BABCP (2000) in order to
prepare students for candidature for accreditation with that body and registration with the
10. Core philosophical principles
In summary, the development of the course has been strongly influenced by a number of core
principles and positions found in the contemporary literature on cognitive psychotherapy.
These are that:
Cognitive psychotherapy is an effective treatment for a wide variety of mental health
There is a national and international problem with the dissemination of sufficiently skilled
practice in cognitive psychotherapy.
Given the gap between health care need and available supply, the delivery of cognitive
interventions merits consideration of modes such as computer packages, and supervised
cascading delivery, in addition to traditional one to one approaches.
Skilled practice should be influenced by both innovation and evidence.
What counts as ‘evidence’ must be informed by interpretive-constructionist and
postmodern, as well as positivist and post-positivist paradigm, conceptual and empirical work.
An ideal method of learning cognitive psychotherapeutic approaches is for students to practice
The practice of cognitive psychotherapy will be affected by shifting contexts of application.
The practice of cognitive psychotherapy must be informed by contemporary conceptual and
empirical developments in both case formulation and the therapeutic alliance.
In view of the above, and because cognitive psychotherapy is offered to people with
increasingly complex problems, practitioner education needs to prepare students to meet the
aims and learning outcomes described in the next section.
11. Course team and their main areas of interest
Dr Alec Grant, UKCP Reg; The therapeutic alliance in cognitive psychotherapy
BABCP Accred (Course leader) Resistance in cognitive psychotherapy
Principal Lecturer in Mental Health Axis one anxiety and depression-based disorders
Institute of Nursing and Midwifery Case formulation
Room D113, Falmer Campus, The impact of core beliefs and underlying assumptions
Brighton The impact of organisational factors on practice
Or, room 110, Aldro, Robert Dodd
Jem Mills UKCP Reg; BABCP Working with SEMH and Axis Two Clients
Accred (module teacher) Low Self Esteem
Cognitive Behavioural Case formulation-based supervision
Psychotherapist The dissemination of evidence-based psychological
Tel: 01323-847945 approaches
Evidence-based organisational practice change
12. AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
Specifically, by the end of the course, students will be able to critically evaluate and
The empirical basis of psychotherapy, reflected in students’ dissertations.
The integrative nature of cognitive psychotherapy
(Masters and Diplomate students)
The role of the cognitive psychotherapeutic paradigm in the context of psychotherapy
provision generally, and evidence-based practice specifically.
The role of contextual factors impacting on the practice of cognitive psychotherapy.
Course Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course the student will be able to:
(Informed by both the empirical basis for cognitive psychotherapy, and relevant organisational
Deal with complex issues around the practice, development and dissemination of
cognitive psychotherapy both systematically and creatively, making sound
judgements in the absence of complete data, and communicating these clearly to
specialist and non-specialist audiences (QAA 2001).
Demonstrate self-direction and originality in tacking and solving problems around the
practice, development and dissemination of cognitive psychotherapy, and act
autonomously in planning and implementing related tasks at a professional level
Continue to advance their knowledge and understanding of cognitive psychotherapy,
and to develop new skills in this area to a high level (QAA 2001).
Demonstrate a critical knowledge of the empirical basis for the contemporary practice
of cognitive psychotherapy.
Articulate the potential impact of organisational factors on clinical practice and on
the integrative nature of contemporary cognitive psychotherapy.
(Masters and Diplomate students)
Critically apply research evidence across clinical problems.
Expertly develop tailored case formulations collaboratively with clients, in
response to the complexity of their problems in living.
Expertly and reflexively utilise the therapeutic alliance in client case work.
Draw on research and concepts from other paradigms in planning interventions.
Apply structured evaluation to individual cases.
Formulate ways of applying established techniques and principles to new difficulties.
Tailor cognitive psychotherapeutic interventions, taking into account different
practice settings, the complexity of client difficulty, organisational opportunities and
constraints, and flexible modes of delivery of interventions.
Sensitively and safely practice supervised cognitive psychotherapy, using a variety of
modes of application, across familiar and novel problem areas.
Demonstrate skills in quantitative and/or qualitative research in relation to an area of
Cognitive psychotherapeutic practice, and in critical appraisal of the cognitive
psychotherapy and related literature.
Identify both the ways in which, contextual factors impacting on the use of cognitive
interventions, and creative responses to this.
Critique the cognitive psychotherapeutic paradigm.
13. ADMISSIONS POLICY
13.1 Professional requirements
The entry requirements of the course will reflect the minimum training standards for the
practice of cognitive psychotherapy of the BABCP (2000). In keeping with those standards,
likely applicants will normally come from the range of mental health professions, including
nursing, social work, occupational therapy, clinical psychology and medicine, and from
counselling and teaching professions. Their work circumstances will enable them to undertake
supervised cognitive interventions with clients with mental health difficulties.
13.2 Academic requirements
Candidates will normally hold a first degree or equivalent in a mental health-related or other
area of relevance to the professional requirements described above. Candidates who also hold
relevant post graduate qualifications will only be granted advanced standing where it can be
demonstrated that an appropriate level of knowledge of the core content of the relevant
modules has been achieved within the last five years, in line with the ApeL regulations in the
Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences documentation . Candidates without a
first degree must provide evidence of being able to work at post graduate level.
13.3 Organisational requirements
It is essential that management from students’ work places are supportive to students in line
with the implicit requirements of the minimum training standards of the BABCP (2000), in the
following two areas:
- Developing an appropriately supervised practice caseload.
- Ongoing practice supervision, normally from a BABCP accreditable practitioner,
either from the student’s workplace or from a neighbouring Trust or agency.
In line with the QAA Code of Practice on Placement Learning, contractual arrangements will
be put in place between employing organisations and the course, to ensure ongoing support of
students, following the model used by the University of Derby’s MSc in Cognitive
Psychotherapy (see appendices 2-7).
13.4 Practice supervision requirements
Practice supervisors will be required to supervise students, mindful of ethical and safe practice
outlined in the BABCP’s Guidelines for Good Practice of Behavioural and Cognitive
Psychotherapy (available from www.babcp.com). Practice supervisors may supervise the
student for the duration of the course, although students will be encouraged to negotiate
different supervisors, in accordance with need and development, where local resources allow
this. Practice supervision will differ from the casework supervision and casework study days
in the following ways. Whilst it is not intended to prescribe particular models of supervision to
Practice supervisors, they will be encouraged to adhere to the requirements of the BABCP
minimum training standards and good practice guidelines. In addition to providing informal
education on a case by case basis, they will be concerned with the student’s overall caseload
management and, within this, the student’s work with individual clients, and should meet with
students on a regular (weekly to fortnightly basis). Practice supervisors will be required to
complete a supervision report which will be sent directly to the course leader at the end of
each semester. Supervisors will be encouraged to be both appropriately supportive in
accordance with the minimum training standards and the good practice guidelines, but also to
report any instances of breaches in professional conduct identified in section 8.2 below, which
may result in a student’s discontinuation from the course .
All practice supervisors will be provided with support and ongoing training in the form of
regular one-day workshops, convened by the course leader and held at the University of
Brighton. The onus of these workshops will be on the contemporary practice of cognitive and
cognitive behavioural supervision, and the need to ensure that students are fairly and
Casework study days and casework supervision will follow the highly structured pattern
outlined in sections 9.2 and 9.3 and the former will require students to audio-/video-tape their
sessions. The course leader and course team are also required to support good practice and,
equally, to identify and act appropriately to unsafe, unethical or unprofessional practice
identified in either the casework study days or casework supervision.
All three of the above, distinct yet overlapping, modes of supervision and teaching and
learning together constitute a triple learning and personal/professional audit facility for
students’ formative and summative development.
13.5 Students’ individual responsibilities
Ethical, Safe and Professional Practice:
Students must be committed to high standards of practice enshrined in the Guidelines for
Good Practice of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy in both actively seeking and
using supervision and learning facilities, in order to practise ethically, safely and
professionally within their range of skills and expertise. Ethical, safety or professional
difficulties must always be brought to the attention of the students’ supervisor who, in turn,
will report to the course leader, or to the course team/leader directly.
In line with BABCP requirements for the minimum training standards for practice (2000), all
students will be expected to keep a log book to demonstrate that they have completed a
minimum of 200 hours supervised practice.
Students need to be open to self-exploration and able to engage with the, often uncomfortable,
dynamic process characteristic of psychotherapy education and training.
13.6 Course team responsibilities
The course leader and course team will provide consistent and appropriate levels of support
for students in the form of personal tutorial help, casework supervision and casework study
days. Moreover, the course leader and course team will aim to provide flexible and sensitive
levels of support for students, based on the individual needs of the latter group for the duration
of the course,
14. COURSE STRUCTURE
14.1 Diagrammatic Representation of Course Structure
Award Mandatory Modules Credit rating Total
Postgraduate 1. Cognitive Behavioural Interventions (NAM 40) 40 credits
2. Cognitive Change Methods (NAM31) 20 credits
3. The Therapeutic Alliance in Cognitive 20 credits
4. The Contextual Application of Cognitive
20 credits 120 credits
5. Any M level research module from the
Graduate Programme in Health and Social
Sciences appropriate to the dissertation needs of
MSc Dissertation module (NAM96) 60 credits 180 credits
14.2 Rationale for Course Structure
The structure of the course, including its assessment and ongoing supervision component and
lack of optional modules, is a direct response to the theoretical and skills training requirements
of the BABCP. In addition to specific requirements, curricula must ‘…provide a broad-based
understanding of the theoretical basis of cognitive and/or behaviour therapies and their
application across a range of problem areas. Skills training is an essential component of the
acquisition of knowledge and experience and should not be less than 50% of …(the)… total
training programme.’ (BABCP 2000). It is intended to review the future development of the
course in terms of the appropriateness of utilising other modules from the GPHSS framework.
Each individual student’s choice of route through the course should be provisionally agreed
with the course team at the start of studies, and monitored and evaluated at points throughout
the student’s time on the course. For those pursuing candidature in relation to professional
requirements, the course structure is flexible with regard to both the individualised learning
contract and learning outcomes of module 4. Flexibility also pertains to the choice of research
module for Masters and Diplomate students, and the range of possible projects within the
dissertation module for Masters students. Allowing students to choose a research module on
the basis of appropriateness for their professional development and/or dissertation directly
relates to decisions made in the GPHSS in 2001 to allow considerably more freedom, than had
hitherto been the case, of choice of M level research module. The GPHSS module and
courses handbook has a complete list of such modules.
The structure is also flexible to the extent that, it allows for modules from the course to be
accessed as part of the GPHSS programme - either as continuing professional development
stand-alones or as a component part of Masters degrees within the GPHSS.
The course offers extensively delivered modules in part-time study mode. Satisfactory
completion of the compulsory modules plus the dissertation will lead to an award of a Master
of Science Degree in Cognitive Psychotherapy. Each module of the course will carry 20
credits, apart from Cognitive Behavioural Interventions which carries 40 modules. The
dissertation will carry 60 credits. The 20 credit modules will each consist of 30 taught hours
and a notional figure of 170 hours student effort which will double for the 40 credit module.
The module team will guide independent study and preparation for assessments. The
dissertation module will involve a student commitment equivalent to the other modules, with
the corresponding tutorial support and supervision.
Drawing on the model of teaching in relation to supervision proposed by Padesky (1996),
students will be expected - as a compulsory requirement of the course - to attend a minimum
of ten, 5 hour ‘consultation’ study days to make up the 200 taught hours specified in the
BABCP minimum training requirements document (BABCP 2002). These study days,
organised and facilitated by the module team, will be based on ‘live’ (video/audio/role-played)
casework. Students will be asked to identify which consultation study days they will attend at
the start of each module. Initially, the content of these days will be based on the clinical work
of the module team, but students will increasingly be expected to contribute subsequent study
days, with audio- and videotapes of their own clinical work.
Module delivery allows for some flexibility around how students work through the course
(see diagram 7.6 below). Module 1 will be offered extensively on Wednesdays on the
Eastbourne campus, from 4-6pm, in both semesters subject to demand. Modules 2, 3 and 4
will run extensively on a fortnightly basis on Fridays from 10-4pm on the Eastbourne campus,
in sequence over 3 semesters. Students may access modules 1 and 2 or 1 and 3 simultaneously
Students will however be advised not to begin their studies with module 3 (The Therapeutic
Alliance in Cognitive Psychotherapy) as they will need to contextualise knowledge from this
module in either module 1 or 3.
The Contextual application of Cognitive Psychotherapy (module 4) will normally be accessed
as the last of the compulsory cognitive modules. This is because students will require a good
working knowledge of cognitive interventions and change methods, and the therapeutic
alliance in cognitive psychotherapy, before progressing to this module. Module 5 may be
accessed at any time during the course, prior to the dissertation module.
Candidates who hold relevant post graduate qualifications will be granted advanced standing
where it can be demonstrated that an appropriate level of knowledge of the core content of the
relevant modules has been achieved within the last five years, in line with the ApeL
regulations in the Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences documentation .
14.3 Diagrammatic representation of compulsory module provision from February 2004 –
Week Module 1 Module4 Casework
Week Module 1 Module 2 Casework
Week Module 1 Module 3 Casework
14.4 Progression Routes and Exit Points
Students may exit the course with 120 credits, having passed all compulsory modules, with a
Post Graduate Diploma in Cognitive Psychotherapy. Students who subsequently undertake
and pass the dissertation module will be awarded the degree Master of Science in Cognitive
15. COURSE REGULATIONS
15.1 Rules for progression, award classification and attendance requirements
The course regulations are in accordance with the University’s General examination and
Assessment Regulations and the Faculty of Health Graduate Programme in Health and Social
Sciences in Health and Social Sciences.
15.2 Course specific regulations (to cover professional body requirements)
In most cases, committed students will work diligently and openly, with their practice
supervisor and the course team, in the promotion of good practice in cognitive psychotherapy.
In exceptional cases however, in the light of the professional requirements of the BABCP for
the good practice of behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, the Course Examination Board
may decide at its discretion against progression of individual students on the basis of
formative or summative development difficulties. These decisions will be based on one or
more of the following circumstances:
- A practice supervisor report which highlights ethical breaches and/or examples
of unprofessional and/or unsafe practice.
- Ethical breaches and/or examples of unprofessional and/or unsafe practice
picked up by the course team or course leader in casework supervision.
- Continual, unsatisfactory summative development which is related to formative
difficulties outlined above.
- Inappropriate and disruptive forms of classroom behaviour which seriously
impede the learning process for other students on the course.
In the light of the above circumstances, the Examination Board may, at its discretion, offer
individual students the right of re-sit, once only, of an entire assessment or of appropriate parts
of an assessment. These course specific regulations are of particular importance because of the
need for the course leader, course team and the student’s case supervisor to take all necessary
steps to promote the safety and psychological well-being, and minimise the risk of
exploitation, of clients.
16. LEARNING AND TEACHING STRATEGY
16.1 Modular learning and teaching
This will include trigger lectures by module leaders, student-led seminars, problem-based
learning; CCTV role-play and feedback and private study.
16.2 Casework Study Day learning and teaching
These will be based on the model described by Padesky (1996) for developing Cognitive
Therapist competency, and will utilise the revised cognitive therapy scale in this endeavour
(Blackburn et al. 2001). Drawing on appropriate reading and clinical demonstrations,
consultation days will be structured around the following key elements advised by Padesky:
The formation of rapid conceptualizations
Knowledge and skills for the treatment of varied and interrelated problems
A strong focus on the quality of the therapeutic alliance
Skills in the cognitive therapy process
Casework study days will also provide the most appropriate opportunity for service user
teaching. The course leader will begin this process, having been given informed consent by
one of his clients to audio-tape all sessions in the course of therapy with her. These audio-
tapes will form the basis of clinical demonstrations. Students will benefit from the actual
presence of the service user and course leader/(therapist), both in providing a commentary
dialogue on the tapes and acting as a teaching and learning resource for the students.
16.3 Casework Supervision
Each modular teaching day will begin with group supervision, derived from the Oxford post
graduate certificate in cognitive psychotherapy model, and will be informed by the current
minimal requirements of the BABCP. Casework supervision will be organised as follows:
1. The student asks a supervision question, in relation to:
the presentation of weekly measures (case specific or standardised)
a succinct case formulation
2. This will trigger a facilitated group discussion and possible role plays
3. The student summarises her/his action plan (in response to the question ‘what are
you going to do next?’)
Audio or video-taped clinical sessions will be a requirement of casework supervision
16.4 Student tutorials
The course and module leaders will provide tutorial support for students in relation to their
developing assignments in accordance with the Graduate Programme in Health and Social
17. ASSESSMENT STRATEGY
Modules will be assessed independently and the details of the assessment are described within
each. All assessments require the integration of theory with practice and will conform to
professional requirements (BABCP 2000). In modules 1-3, the assessment tasks are
deliberately geared to a 50-50 theory practice division, with video recordings of clinical
practice conforming to the Department of Health guidelines on gaining informed consent for
video recordings (attached as appendix). The assessment for module 4 consists solely of a
written assignment, directly in line with the aims and learning outcomes of the module. The
assessment for module 5 will correspond with the aims and learning outcomes of the specific
research module chosen by the student, and students can choose, according to their needs,
from a comprehensive range of research modules in the Graduate Programme in Health and
Social Sciences. The assessment for the dissertation module, NAM96, is also directly related
to the aims and learning outcome for this module, and will be marked in accordance with the
Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences criteria.
18. COURSE MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE
18.1 Course Management and Course Boards
The day to day management of the course will be the responsibility of the course and module
leaders, in conjunction with the Course Board. Course Boards will be held each semester and
will include student and service user representation. The responsibilities of both course leader
and course board are detailed in the Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences
Document. In terms of quality assurance and reporting on developments within the course, it
will also be represented at the INaM Graduate Division Board which meets three times a year.
18.2 Outline procedure for monitoring and evaluation including committee routes
There exist well-defined University and Faculty structures and procedures to ensure effective
evaluation of all course, and the proposed course will conform to these Monitoring and
Evaluation mechanisms. The assessment of assignments will provide evidence for both staff
and external examiners of the extent to which students are able to perform satisfactorily in
relation to the course rational, aims and professional requirements. Staff and students will
have the opportunity to discuss the general progress of the course and any particular problems
arising at their regular Course Board meetings.
18.3 Student evaluation
Students will provide views and comments on individual modules at the course as a whole
through nominal group evaluations at the end of each semester. One student will be elected
from each cohort for the course management board, which meets once a semester. It is also
essential that students are given every opportunity to discuss any issues or difficulties that may
occur, with the course and module leaders.
18.4 Annual monitoring and evaluation
In accordance with the University’s own policy for internal academic control, the Course
Board for the MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy will submit an annual monitoring and
evaluation report to the Board of Study of INaM.
18.5 Link arrangements with academic, statutory or professional partners
The course leader is chief external examiner to the Postgraduate Programme in Health and
Social Sciences in Psychotherapy and Counselling, including the MSc in Cognitive
Behavioural Psychotherapy, at the School of Education, Human Sciences & Law, University
of Derby. This facilitates ongoing academic development and dialogue.
The resourcing of this course will operate according to the model detailed in the Graduate
Programme in Health and Social Sciences in Health and social Sciences Document. This
states that departments own and resource modules, the Faculty Office identifying the
proportion of income generated by the involvement of departments in the Graduate
Programme in Health and Social Sciences. Funds are devolved to departments in direct
proportion to their contribution to the scheme and are managed at the department level.
19.1 Physical resources
All taught sessions will now take place in Eastbourne, in the Darley Road or Carlyle Road
19.2 CCTV resources
Video recording and playing equipment can be borrowed from the media technicians at
Queenwood, opposite the Robert Dodd Campus
19.3 Library and computing resources
Until summer 2002, the library facilities required to support the MSc in Cognitive
Psychotherapy were situated in the Eastbourne District General Hospital site. Since then, half
of the books and all of the journals have been transferred to the Falmer site, to create a
relatively even distribution for students in East and West Sussex.
19.4 Staffing resources
Overall management of the course will be conducted by the course leader who will also take
most of the course teaching load. Because the course leader has been educated exclusively in
the practice of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy with adults suffering from neurotic
problems, the psychosis and much of the axis two (personality disorder) teaching and
supervision on the course will necessarily require additional teaching input. In the short term,
visiting lecturer agreement has been made with Jem Mills who has specialist knowledge of
psychosis and axis two work.
19.5 Staff development
It is considered essential that the course team’s knowledge and expertise is such that the
course is delivered at the appropriate academic standard. Consequently, staff development is
an important and continuous process and all members of the course team are currently
involved in continuous professional development (CPD), in the form of studying for higher
degrees in cognitive psychotherapy or related fields and/or in attendance at CPD recognised
training and education events, and in the production of cognitive behavioural knowledge
(Grant et al. 2003). The course leader also has considerable experience of course leadership,
teaching and supervision at graduate level.
20. The dissertation module
The dissertation is an essential and central component of the Masters programme and is
weighted accordingly at 60 level M credits. It enables students to select a focus which is of
interest to them and which may be informed by, or derived from themes and issues which
have been explored within the course. Students will choose a dissertation focus which is
relevant to their practice and personal interests, and which is capable of practical application
or more generally benefiting their work situation.
The dissertation process will reflect the flexibility of the course and the stages of development
will need to be planned according to each students’ programme of studies.
All dissertation proposals will be considered by the course team. A suitable supervisor,
normally someone familiar with the area of study selected by the student, will be identified by
the course leader, following discussion with the student. These processes will normally be
completed prior to the student starting their planned study. Research proposals will be subject
to submission to the relevant ethics committees. Progress will be monitored by the supervisor
through regular supervision tutorials.
Dissertations will be marked by two internal examiners, one of which will be the supervisor.
In assessing the dissertation, the examiners will consider the following as minimal
requirements for the attainment of Masters level and the award of 60 level M credits:
1. The subject focus should reflect the mental health practice focus of the course, demonstrate
the depth of study achieved in the completed modules and be located within the students’
sphere of practice.
2. The intrinsic worth of the subject as a topic which merits attention, its complexity, and how it
is perceived and presented within the dissertation.
3. Effective overall structure, organisation and presentation of content.
4. The relevance, appropriateness and application of the research methodology.
5. the ability to develop and elucidate an argument and/or hypothesis logically and clearly, to
present ideas at a conceptual level and to integrate theory with empirical evidence.
6. Demonstration of critical appreciation and evaluation of literature and secondary sources.
7. Evidence of creativity of thought and independence of views in terms of scholarship,
academic debate and research skills.
8. Possession of perception and insight in the analysis of practice experience, and the integration
of theory and practice.
9. The value of the contribution to the field of mental health knowledge and the potential benefit
of its application to mental health service delivery.
The precise order of presentation and the balance between discussion of relevant literature and
the students’ own contributions and conclusions is left to the discretion of the student in
consultation with the supervisor. The supervisor will be the first marker, and the work will be
judged with reference to the criteria detailed below.
21. Criteria of assessment
Fail An inadequate understanding of the material, substantial irrelevance, an inadequate
conceptual framework or its complete absence, little evidence of effort or application.
Students who fail a module may be required to either retake it or choose another module
instead, depending on if the module is a core module or not.
Referral Some progress has been made, but there is insufficient evidence of Masters
level standard, more work must be done to the piece of work before it can be accepted as a
pass standard (also know as a 'refer'). Students who are 'referred' are normally required to
resubmit their work.
Pass A sound grasp of the material and its implications, an ability to discriminate
appropriately, a sound conceptual framework, an understanding of attendant problems and
their ramifications, a case well-argued and convincingly presented.
Distinction All the qualities of the above combined with a clear understanding of the
limitations of the work, an ordering and attempted resolution of central problems, an element
of integrative and synthetic originality. This category is an acknowledgement of the very high
standard at which some students perform. Such work can be of publishable standard.
22. Accreditation of Prior learning
Accreditation of Prior Learning and Experience will be subject to current policy on the
Faculty of Health Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences. The programme leader
concerned refers decisions about accreditation to the Graduate Programme Co-ordinating
Group (See Graduate Programme Handbook). This group meets at least once each semester.
Students who are of the opinion that they have prior study that is relevant to be acredited as
prior learning should approach the Programme Leader in the first instance.
If you are unhappy about some aspect of the programme please make your feelings known at
the earliest opportunity. If you are unhappy about aspects of the programme it is also a good
idea to make your views known to the student representative, so that they can be raised at
appropriate programme meetings.
The course teaching team hope you enjoy your studies on the programme.
American Psychiatric Association (APA). 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders. 4th edn. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Andrews G. Henderson S. (eds) 2000. Unmet Need in Psychiatry: Problems, resources, responses.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barlow D H, Levitt J T, Bufka L F. 1999. The dissemination of empirically supported treatments: a
view to the future. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 37: 147-162.
British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies. February 2002. Accreditation
Beck A T, Freeman A. & Associates. 1990. Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York
and London: The Guilford Press.
Blackburn I-M, James I A, Milne D L, Baker C, Standart S, Garland A, Reichelt F K. 2001. The
Revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R): Psychometric Properties. Behavioural and Cognitive
Psychotherapy. 29: 431-466.
British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2000. Guidelines for Good Practice
of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy.
Brooker C, Gournay K, O’Halloran P, Bailey D, Saul C. 2002. Mapping training to support the
implimentation of the National Service Framework for mental health. Journal of Mental Health. 11(1):
Department of Health. 1999. A national service framework for mental health. London: HMSO.
Department of Health. 2001. Treatment Choice in Psychological Therapies and Counselling: Evidence
Based Clinical Practice Guideline. Brief Version. London: Department of Health.
Gamble C, Brennan G. (eds). Working with Serious Mental Illness: A manual for clinical practice.
London: Ballier Tindall in association with the Royal College of Nursing.
Gergen K. 1999. An Invitation to Social Construction. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Grant A J, Mills J. 2000. The Great Going Nowhere Show: Structural power and mental health nurses.
Mental health practice. 4(3): 14-16.
Grant A J, Mills J, Mulhern R, Short N. 2003 in Press. Cognitive Behavioural Interventions for Mental
Health Workers: A guide to practice in shifting contexts. London: Sage Publications ltd.
Hawton K, Salkovskis P M, Kirk J, Clark D M. 2002. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric
Problems: A Practical Guide. New York: Oxford University Press.
IACP. 1997. Special Issue on Cognitive Psychotherapy and Postmodernism. Journal of Cognitive
Psychotherapy. 11(2): 75-126.
International Association of Cognitive Psychotherapy (IACP). 2002. Journal of Cognitive
Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly. 16(1).
Jones, C., I.Cormac. J. Mota., & C. Campbell. 2000 Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia
(Cochrane review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, Oxford: Update Software
Leahy R L, Holland S J. 2000. Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety
Disorders. New York and London: The Guilford Press.
Mills J. 2000. Dealing with voices and strange thoughts. In: Gamble C, Brennan G. (eds). Working
with Serious Mental Illness: A manual for clinical practice. London: Ballier Tindall in association with
the Royal College of Nursing.
Morgan G. 1997. Images of Organization.2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Nathan P E, Gorman J M, Salkind N J. 1999. Treating Mental Disorders: A Guide to What Works.
New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2000 Psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia
Bulletin on the effectiveness of health service interventions for decision makers 6: 3 Available from:
NHS Executive. 1996. NHS Psychotherapy Services in England: Review of Strategic Policy. London:
Department of Health.
Nathan P E, Gorman J M, Salkind N J. 1999. Treating Mental Disorders: A Guide to What Works.
New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salkovskis P M. 1996. The Cognitive Aproach to Anxiety: Threat Beliefs, Safety-Seeking Behavior,
and the Special Case of Health Anxiety and Obsessions. In: Salkovskis P M. (ed). Frontiers of
Cognitive Therapy. New York and London: The Guilford Press.
Short N, Kitchiner N J. 2002. Panic disorder: Nature, assessment and treatment. Mental Health
Practice. 5(7): 33-39.
Tarrier, N., C. Barrowclough. G. Haddock. & J. McGovern 1999. The Dissemination of innovative
cognitive-behavioural psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Health. 8 (6): 569-
The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. January 2001. The framework for higher
education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Gloucester: Quality Assurance
Agency for Higher Education.
Wells A. 1997. Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders: A Practice Manual and Conceptual Guide.
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Wykes T, Tarrier N, Lewis S. 1999. Outcome and Innovation in Psychological Treatment of
Schizophrenia. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Young J E. 1999. Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders: A Schema-Focused Approach. 3rd edn.
Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press.
Writing and using references
Referencing is essential to show that you have researched your material, that the ideas that you present
have been considered in the light of documented material on the subject, to differentiate between your
own opinions and the views of those who have greater knowledge and wider experience of the given
subject. References are necessary to substantiate the knowledge, theories and discussions that you
present in your papers.
You may refer to literature in order to:
• Give factual information
• Illustrate a point
• Present a theoretical perspective
• Present an argument or counter argument
• Support an argument or a counter argument of your own
References are necessary to acknowledge the source of your information, ideas and arguments. The
reader should be able, from your reference list, quickly to follow up your source of information.
References need to be cited in two places – once in abbreviated form when you refer to the document
in the text, and then in full at the end of the work.
A reference is a description of a published work that you have referred to either directly or indirectly
in your text.
A bibliography lists books and articles which are relevant to a piece of work and have been used in
your research as a source of information or inspiration; no direct or indirect reference is
made to this work in the text.
There are two common ways of linking abbreviated references in the text to a full description of the
published work – either numeric (i.e. a number in the text which is linked either to a footnote or to a
numbered list at the end of the paper) or author/date (also known as the Harvard or parenthetical
system) where the briefest author/date information appears in parentheses (brackets) in the text and the
full description in an alphabetical list at the end of the paper. The Harvard method is in use in the
Faculty of Health and must be used at all times. The particular interpretation or convention of the
Harvard method used in the Faculty of Health is the Chicago Manual of Style.
If you look on the library shelves at guides to writing theses, student papers etc., you will find a
bewildering array of style conventions (British Standard, APA, MLA etc.). The Faculty of Health
recommends the use of the Chicago Manual of Style: books and online guides that use this convention
are listed at the end of this guide. In the examples that follow, the punctuation and italicisation follows
the Chicago style: you should also follow this style, but if you cannot produce italic text, underlining
may be substituted.
Under no circumstances should another writer’s material or ideas be presented without
acknowledging the source – if you do so it is plagiarism and your work will be penalised.
References in the text
In the body of the text the surname of the author(s) is given followed by the year of publication, all in
brackets. Only if you are giving a direct quote from your source should you provide the page number
as well. If the author’s name appears naturally in your text, only cite the date in brackets.
a One author
The Thatcherite bias against the more environmentally benign option of public transport
reinforced the institutionalised position of the road lobby (Dudley 1983).
In one study (Coser 1963) it was found that...
Jones (1994) has argued forcefully that…
"Rheumatoid arthritis holds a unique position among the connective tissue diseases" (Hughes
b Two authors of one work
Visual deprivation has been found to increase postural sway (Brown and Dickinson 1972).
In the course of this discussion, Cohen and Abrahams (1985) commented that the prison system
had nothing to do with turning offenders into honest citizens.
c Authors of two different works
Note: The references in brackets are in alphabetical order.
Deregulation of bus services and cuts in subsidy to road and rail were accompanied by
large increases in road traffic (Dudley 1983; Hamer 1987)
d More than three authors of one work
In contrast to the present study Panzer et al. (1995) found that lateral sway did not increase with
e An author with more than one cited publication in the same year
Distinguish these by adding lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year and within the brackets:
Anthony (1989a) proposed that…
It has been argued by Anthony (1989b) that…
Citing secondary sources
Whenever possible, quote from the original source. When this is not possible (e.g. when the original is
unpublished, or for some other reason is not readily available) use the term ‘cited by’ followed by the
reference for the work in which it is quoted.
Evidence from test results by Johnson and Appleby is cited by Neale (1993) to show that
parental attitudes to children's footwear changes.
When you refer to this in the reference list, it should be listed under Neale:
Neale, D. 1993. Neale’s Common Foot Disorders: diagnosis and management.
Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
At the very end of the essay or dissertation, references should be given in full in alphabetical order. Do
not depend on the cover of a book for accurate bibliographical information. Use the information on the
title page (for author, title, volume number if relevant, place of publication and publisher) and its
reverse or ‘verso’ (for publication date and edition).
A book reference should contain:
1. Author’s surname followed by initials (second and third authors are not inverted and if
there are more than three authors, use first author plus ‘et al.’)
2. Year of publication.
3. Title of book in italics (or underlined if italics are not available).
4. Edition of book if not the first.
5. Volume number if there is more than one.
6. Place of publication.
7. Publisher’s name.
Examples: (Please note and follow the punctuation!)
Andrews, A. 1975. Greek society. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Brown, E.L. 1971. Nursing reconsidered. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Harris, A. and M. Super. 1991 Cystic fibrosis: The facts. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University
Marsh, D. and R.A.W Rhodes. 1989. Policy networks in British government. Oxford: Oxford
Melzack, R. and P. Wall. 1988. The challenge of pain. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
When the author and publisher are the same, the name should be repeated e.g.
Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust. 1953. The work of nurses in hospital wards. London:
Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust.
Where the book is an edited collection of material with no author listed on the title page, use the
abbreviation ‘ed’ or ‘eds’ for editor(s) or ‘comp’ or comps’ for compiler:
Neale, D., ed. 1993. Common foot disorders. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
If, however, the reference is to a specific chapter then it must be put under the name of the author of
Jones, G. 1993. Nail conditions. In: Common foot disorders, edited by D. Neale. 4th ed.
Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
A journal reference should contain:
1. Author’s surname, followed by initials.
2. Year of publication.
3. Title of article.
4. Title of journal, italicised (or underlined if italics are not available).
5. Volume number
6. Issue number, in brackets.
7. The number of the first and last pages on which the article appears.
Abdel-Al, H. 1974. An approach to nursing education. Nursing Mirror 139 (4): 68-70.
Blackburn, T.A. 1985. Rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Orthopaedic Clinics
of North America. 16 (2): 241-267.
Chapman, C.N. 1975. The graduate in nursing. Nursing Times 71: 615-617.
Newell, K.M., R.E.A. Emmerik and R.L.Sprague. 1993. On postural stability and variability.
Gait and Posture 4: 225-230.
Reiner, R. 1992. Policing a post-modern society. The Modern Law Review 55 (6): 761-781.
Popular weekly or monthly magazines often do not have volume numbers and should be cited by date
only. Page numbers follow, separated from the date by a comma – but if the article jumps from one
part of the magazine to another, page numbers may be omitted.
Arthur, Charles. 1995. Just pick up the phone and say aah. New Scientist. 6 May 1995, 23.
Journals should be referred to by their full name, even if the journal title is very long.
Corporate authors, reports, etc.
Reports which are not the responsibility of one individual should be listed under the name of the body
responsible for their publication. They should not be listed under the name of the chairman of a
committee, in spite of the fact that they are commonly referred to in this way.
Example: the ‘Platt’ report:
Royal College of Nursing and National Council of Nurses of the United Kingdom.1964. A
reform of nursing education: first report of special committee on nurse education. [Platt report]
London: Royal College of Nursing and National College of Nursing in the U.K.
Note that with lengthy corporate authors such as the example above, the citation in the text may be
abbreviated to something that agrees with the start of the name – e.g. (Royal College 1964) but not
(Platt report 1964).
Central Health Services Council. 1970. Domiciliary, midwifery & maternity bed needs: Report
of the Sub-Committee of the Standing Maternity & Midwifery Advisory Committee. [Chairman:
Sir John Peel] London: HMSO.
Department of Health and Social Security and Welsh Office.1971. Better services for the
mentally handicapped. Cmnd. 4683. London: HMSO.
Industrial Relations Act, 1971. London: HMSO.
Interdepartmental Working Party on the Recruitment & Training of Nurses. 1947. Report of the
working party on the recruitment and training of nurses. [Chairman: Sir Robert Wood] London:
Scottish Home and Health Department. 1970. Duties & training of nursing auxiliaries and
nursing assistants. Edinburgh: Scottish Home & Health Department.
Sequence of references by the same author
These should be in date order within the alphabetical sequence with the oldest reference first:
Peters, R. 1935. Corns I have known. London: Kluwer.
Peters, R. 1959. Bunions on my toes. London: Elsevier Science.
Peters, R. 1985. Warts and all. New York: Mosby.
Referencing from electronic sources
There is no agreed method for citing electronic sources yet and the key text on the subject (Li and
Crane 1996) does not cover the Chicago style. But it is possible to adapt the conventions for print
material to electronic sources. The following elements should be included if available:
Author’s name and initials (as for book or journal article)
Year of publication
Title of document cited
Type of medium (e.g. CD-ROM, online)
Location (URL, ftp address etc.)
Date accessed (essential for online documents which may change location but not necessary for
‘stable’ sources such as CD-ROM)
From CD-ROM sources
To cite a full-text article from a CD-ROM, follow the style used for journal or magazine articles (see
above) and add [CD-ROM], CD-ROM title used, version and date:
Arthur, Charles. 1995. Just pick up the phone and say aah. New Scientist. 6 May 1995, 23. [CD-
ROM] New Scientist, Winter 1997
Cite Author. Year. Subject line from email posting. [Email] Type of posting (personal, to group,
memo) [date accessed]:
Jones, K. 1998. Nurse education in Sussex. [Email] Personal email to J. Smith. [28 Feb 1998].
Cite Author. Year. Title of document. [Online] Place of publication: Publisher (if you can ascertain
this). Available from: (i.e. location of document) [date accessed]:
Cross, P. and K. Towle. 1996. A guide to citing Internet sources. [Online] Poole: Bournemouth
University. Available from:
[10 May 1998]
Note: don’t put in any extra punctuation after the URL which might be misread as a part of the address.
For this reason, it is sensible to put the URL on a separate line.
To cite a full-text article from an Internet source, follow the style used for journal or magazine articles
(see above) and add [Online] Location and date accessed:
Pulsford D. 1997. Therapeutic activities for people with dementia - what, why... and why not?
Journal of Advanced Nursing. 26 (4): pp 704-709 [Online] JournalsOnline on BIDS. Available
[10 May 1998]
Li, X. and N.B. Crane. 1996. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information.
2nd ed. Medford, N.J: Information Today.
This is the most cited book on the subject but it does not cover the Chicago style. It does, however,
include every type of electronic source you are likely to encounter and once you have grasped the
principles of the Chicago style, you can adapt the examples given in the first half (APA style) of this
Turabian, K.L. 1996. A manual for writers of term papers, theses and dissertations. 6th ed.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Much more digestible than the Chicago Manual of Style on which all the examples are based. See in
particular Chapter 8 on ‘Parenthetical references and reference lists’.
University of Chicago Press. 1993. The Chicago manual of style. 14th ed. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
The ‘bible’ of the Chicago style and over 900 pages long but you can get by on chapter 16 on author-
date citations and reference lists. Unfortunately, it is weak on electronic sources.
Cross, P. and K. Towle. 1996. A guide to citing Internet sources. [Online] Poole: Bournemouth
University. Available from:
[10 May 1998]
Uses Harvard method and something similar to Chicago for citations
Hunter College Writing Center. [1997?]. The documented essay/research paper: Chicago
Manual of Style documentation. [Online] New York: Hunter College. Available from:
[Accessed 9 May 1998]
Read section headed ‘Documentation two: author-date style’
Learning and Information Services. 1997. Referencing electronic sources. [Online] London:
South Bank University. Available from:
[11 May 1998]
Wide range of examples, though not in Chicago style
PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Faculty of Health
University of Brighton
Clinical Supervisor Details
Psychotherapy Theoretical Approach………………………………………...
Clinical Supervision Qualifications…………………………………………………………..
Clinical Supervision Theoretical Approach…………………………………………………
Clinical Supervision Experience
University letter heading and address
Supervisor’s name and address
I’m writing to you as the identified clinical supervisor for (name of student’s) clinical practice during
the period (dates). The course regulations require me to request that you complete and return the
attached documentation. The Clinical Supervisor Details and the Agreement for Clinical Supervision
with Student of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy forms should be completed and returned
immediately. The Practice Supervisor report should be completed by the end
Without this documentation, students cannot remain on the course.
For the duration of (name of student) supervision relationship with you, I request that your focus is on
the (name of student) overall caseload management and, within this, (her/his) work with individual
clients, with a specific focus on the quality of the student’s therapeutic relationship with clients.
Supervision meetings should, normally, be held on a weekly to fortnightly basis. Whilst it is not the
intention of the course management board to prescribe particular models of supervision to students’
practice supervisors, you are encourage to be mindful of the accreditation requirements described in
the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies Minimum Training Standards
and Good Practice Guidelines (both attached). To maximise teaching, learning and reflective practice,
we also suggest that supervision sessions are conducted around audio-taped or video-taped sessions,
rather than retrospective accounts, of (name of student’s) clinical work.
On behalf of the Course Management Board, I would like to offer you my continual support in working
with (name of student) in what I hope will be a mutually rewarding supervision relationship, and invite
you to contact me whenever you feel you need to. I wish finally to stress that, having followed the
procedure described in the Agreement for Clinical Supervision…, you will be given full support in
bringing to my attention any instances of unsafe, unethical or unprofessional practice, which will be
met with prompt action on my part.
Dr Alec Grant
Course Leader, MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
On behalf of the Course Management Board
Practice Supervisor Report
Date from – date to
Name of student:…………………………………….
Name of supervisor:…………………………………
1. In what specific ways do you consider (name of student) has developed around the
supervised practice of cognitive/cognitive behavioural psychotherapy during the period
of the report?
2. Please identify any developmental needs you feel (name of student) should concentrate
on at this point in time:
3. If appropriate, please identify any instances of (name of student’s) unprofessional,
unsafe or unethical practice that you have become aware of during the period of
supervision, and how these were resolved:
4. Final comments
Signature of supervisor…………………………………………………………
PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Faculty of Health
University of Brighton
Agreement for Clinical Supervision with Student of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
I agree to contract for clinical supervision with ………………………………………………………..,
student of the PGDip/MSc in in Cognitive Psychotherapy at the University of Brighton, on the basis of the
1. the focus of supervision is clinical work and the therapeutic relationship with clients of the
supervisee’s placement agency(ies);
2. I undertake to complete the attached Practice Supervisor’s Report to be submitted to the course
leader at the end of each university semester;
3. I agree to attend a once yearly clinical supervision workshop at the University of Brighton;
4. Should I have concerns about the work of the supervisee, who has clinical responsibility for
her/his therapeutic work and is accountable to the management of the placement(s) for this, I will
in the first instance address those concerns with the supervisee and satisfy myself of their
receiving appropriate attention; and
5. Should I feel that the concerns have not been addressed by the supervisee, after discussion with
him/her, I will negotiate appropriate forms of communication with the management of the
placement(s) (who have line managerial responsibility for the work of the supervisee) and the
course leader of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy; and
6. In the absence of such notification, the course leader of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive
Psychotherapy can assume that, to the best of my knowledge, I am generally satisfied with the
supervisee's continuing fitness to practice, and that I will be prepared to offer support to the
supervisee at a level appropriate to my knowledge of her/him and the case(s) under review,
should her/his work come under examination or investigation;
7. It is an expectation of the supervisory relationship that supervisors will work within a designated
Code of Ethics and Practice and within the limits of their competence.
8. I understand that ordinarily the course leader of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy of
the University of Brighton will not contact me about the supervisee other than for agreed reports,
and not without first having gained permission from the supervisee so to do.
PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Faculty of Health
University of Brighton
MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Agreement for Student Placement
The course team undertakes:
to test the Student's acquisition of fundamental psychotherapeutic skills, and continue to monitor
ongoing development and competence;
to communicate to placement managers any concerns regarding the Student on placement which
can not be resolved with the student;
to respond effectively to concerns from placement managers regarding the student..
The placement agency undertakes:
to offer, as far as possible, an agreed level of referrals of a suitable type (ie. therapeutic work as
opposed to advice and guidance);
to provide the Student with a clear contract indicating his/her responsibilities and duties;
that, where supervision is provided by the agency, the supervisor will be trained to a level
appropriate to working with the core model of the course.
to provide management within the placement, on site support and consultation via named
practitioner(s), and procedures for access to medical and psychiatric cover;
to provide a safe working environment and a reasonable level of administrative support,
appropriate to the development of cognitive behavioural psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills.
The Student undertakes:
to work within the BABCP Guidelines for Good Practice of Behavioural and Cognitive
Psychotherapy, and take up professional indemnity insurance;
to be clear about the practices and policies of the agency;
to provide an agreed level of working hours by negotiation with placement managers;
to use clinical supervision as a means of monitoring his/her own development and fitness to
to consult in an appropriate and ethical fashion with colleagues, managers and course staff
regarding clients within the placement, especially when there are grounds for concern for clients'
Signature for the course: Position: Date:
Signature for the placement: Position: Date:
Student’s Signature: Date: