Document Sample
					 Master of Science Degree/
  Post Graduate Diploma
In Cognitive Psychotherapy

         2004-2005 ENTRY

1.   Cognitive Psychotherapy
     The cognitive approach to helping individuals with mental health problems - subsuming
     cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles and interventions - is thoroughly evidence
     based, practical and helpful. It assumes that mental health difficulties arise because of the
     negative meaning individuals attribute to particular events. Such events can be experienced as
     ‘external’ or ‘internal’. An external event - for example being made redundant - is likely to be
     experienced by someone as happening to her or him and interpreted in terms of personal
     worthlessness, resulting in lowered mood. An example of an internal event is negative
     appraisal of social performance. This may in turn confirm a person’s belief that s/he not
     likeable, which will provoke the experience of anxiety in social situations. Put simply, the
     cognitive approach assumes that the meaning people attribute to events is strongly associated
     with any emotions they experience. Individuals with mental health problems are also likely to
     interpret situations as more dangerous, disastrous, etc. than they turn out to be are because of
     beliefs that they learned at a much earlier stage in their life. In a relatively ‘silent’ or tacit way,
     such beliefs influence how people experience themselves, the world and others.

     Negative emotions are, in turn, likely to influence changes in behaviour - such as avoidance -
     and changes in day to day thinking, with fearful or negative thoughts governing what someone
     does or does not do. From a cognitive perspective, this emerging ‘vicious circle’ serves to
     maintain the problem and prevent clients from working through their difficulties. The
     cognitive approach provides a framework for collaborative working between mental health
     worker and client, in order to assist her or him in solving such problems. The client is helped
     to specify the goals s/he wants to work towards, and appropriate interventions are used which
     logically emerge from a tailored case formulation of the client’s difficulties. These
     interventions are geared to enable the client to ‘test out’ to what extent the thoughts mediating
     their difficulties are true, through agreed homework assignments. From the basis of a
     collaborative therapeutic relationship, the overall aim is to help people not only attain their
     goals, but develop a more enabling and adaptive way of thinking about themselves, others and
     the world.

2.   Empirical support
     The approach has been empirically supported across the range of diagnostic areas (APA
     2000, Nathan et al. 1999) in mental ill health, from anxiety-based problems (Hawton et al
     2002, Leahy and Holland 2000, Salkovskis 1996) to more intractable personality disorders
     (Beck et al. 1990, Young 1999) and the severe and enduring psychoses (Gamble and Brennan
     2000, Jones et al. 2000, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2000, Wykes et al.

3.   Justification for using the term ‘cognitive psychotherapy’
     In tracing the historical development and merging of cognitive and behavioural
     psychotherapies, Rachman (1996) shows how interchangeable the terms ‘cognitive’ and
     ‘cognitive-behavioural’ have become. Indeed when surveying the literature one notices the
     frequency with which established exponents use both terms (IACP 2002, Leahy and Holland
     2000, Salkovskis 1996, Wells 1997).

     The cognitive psychotherapeutic approach includes many behavioural or activity based
     techniques, to the extent that one could argue that ‘cognitive-behavioural therapy’ is a more
     accurately descriptive term. However, in recent years, the use of the term ‘cognitive therapy’
     has helped to distinguish the constantly developing approach from more traditional
     behavioural approaches. Influenced by this, and after much discussion and consideration, the
     authors of the course document settled on the use of the term ‘cognitive psychotherapy’ in
     order to underscore developments in cognitive behavioural education at the University of
     Brighton in recent years. These include the incorporation of contemporary cognitive change
     methods, the proposed inclusion of therapy for psychotic symptoms (which draws heavily on
     cognitive psychology), and the pivotal use of cognitive case formulation methods and
     cognitive models for enhancing the therapeutic alliance. Lastly, it was also felt that it was
     worth capitalising on the contemporary cache associated with the title ‘cognitive

4.   The course in relation to current Mental Health Policy
     Developing an MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy is in keeping with recent key Department of
     Health mental health policy directives. Reports on the provision of psychotherapy services in
     England (DoH 1996) and the National Service Frameworks for Mental Health (DoH 1999)
     call for training in psychotherapeutic interventions, pitched at the least complex, costly and
     intrusive levels, which are evidence based, and which meet the needs of individuals suffering
     from psychotic or neurotic problems. In both reports, the cognitive behavioural interventions
     subsumed within the practice of cognitive psychotherapy are cited as meeting those criteria.

5.   Evidence-based multidisciplinary education
     The urgent need for multidisciplinary cognitive psychotherapy education in the United
     Kingdom reflects an international problem of educational provision of evidence-based
     interventions being insufficient to meet public need (Nathan et al. 1999). In a recent mapping
     exercise conducted to investigate the ability of current mental health education in English
     Universities to meet the standards of the National Service Framework for Mental Health (DoH
     1999), Brooker et al. (2002) found that the provision of evidence-based education, including
     cognitive interventions, was the exception rather than the rule. With regard to planned
     relevant courses, only 17% were pitched at Masters level (the level at which, according to the
     literature, multidisciplinary education is best promoted). This picture, combined with
     professional practice benchmarking for psychotherapy practice in Britain makes the proposed
     MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy an exciting, relevant and much needed development, and can
     only add to the existing good reputation of cognitive behavioural education locally.

     Since 1992, the University of Brighton has had considerable success in the education of
     graduate practitioners of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy at diploma and first degree
     level. Most of these individuals have achieved accredited and registered status with the British
     Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies and the united Kingdom Council
     for Psychotherapy, respectively, and some have published in the field (Grant and Mills 2000,
     Grant et al. 2003, Mills 2000, Short and Kitchiner 2002). It is thus timely that education in
     this area moves to a post graduate level and incorporates new developments in psychotherapy
     for psychosis.

6.   Cognitive Psychotherapy for Psychosis
     In recent years government policy on mental health has encouraged services to focus more
     closely on serious mental illness (DoH1999). A consequence of this is that cognitive
     psychotherapists are increasingly expected to work with people who experience symptoms
     such as voices, delusions, paranoia and very low motivation. The last decade has seen a
     growing body of research into the psychology of these symptoms, related therapeutic
     interventions and the consequent development of training methods (Tarrier et al. 1999).
     Outcome studies associated with this movement are low in number but offer cautious
     optimism with regard to reduction in the distress surrounding symptoms, reduced admission
     rates, more regular use of medication and preventing relapse (Jones et al. 2000, NHS Centre
     for Reviews and Dissemination 2000). Making cognitive psychotherapy helpful for these
     difficulties requires the creative application of core principles to new and challenging clinical
     problems (Mills 2000), and is reflected in the learning outcome of the proposed course.

7.   Professional Accreditation
     Students educated to Masters level in this area will meet the benchmarking criteria
     for candidature for registration with the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy
     (UKCP), and accreditation with the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive
     Psychotherapies (BABCP). The proposed course does not offer a Post Graduate
     Certificate exit point as this would not meet the professional requirements of either
     organisation. At the Faculty Academic Board (Standards) meeting of the 20th
     February 2002, it was minuted that the award of a Postgraduate Certificate exit award
     would not be appropriate for the proposed course. This is to control as far as possible
     for the possibility that students exiting the course at this point may claim to have
     trained sufficiently in cognitive psychotherapy to practice independently as
     ‘cognitive/cognitive behavioural psychotherapists’.

8.   Existing GPHSS Provision
     Having this diploma/degree as part of the GPHSS framework will enhance rather than threaten
     existing provision. Feedback from within the university, from the KESS Confederation and
     the private sector, suggests that there is a need for a part time degree of this level to give
     multidisciplinary mental health workers the knowledge and skills required to deliver evidence-
     based practice and local, cascading, training and supervision. There is, currently, no such
     provision in that the existing MA in mental health is not a therapeutic skills-based degree. The
     proposed course and its modules will also enhance the existing and future provision of
     counselling and psychotherapy provision within the School of Applied Social Sciences
     (SASS), and the GPHSS modular framework. Post graduate students accessing SASS
     counselling and psychotherapy education may undertake modules from the MSc in Cognitive
     Psychotherapy, as can other students in the GPHSS framework. Appropriate research methods
     modules are shared within this framework, and there is future potential for the Postgraduate
     Diploma in Counselling, the MA Mental Health, and the MA Learning Disabilities (subject to
     validation) to be clustered with this course.

9.   Rationale
     Although cognitive psychotherapy, subsuming cognitive behavioural interventions techniques,
     is an effective treatment for both psychotic and neurotic mental health difficulties (Barlow et
     al. 1999, Department of Health 2001, Gamble and Brenan 2000, Jones et al. 2000, Nathan et
     al. 1999, NHS 2000, Wykes et al. 1999), with support for its efficacy in helping individuals
     with personality disorders (Beck et al. 1990, Young 1999), there is a national and international
     problem with the both the provision and dissemination of sufficiently skilled practice in
     cognitive psychotherapy (Andrews and Henderson 2000, Tarrier et al. 1999).

     In keeping with the evidence-base above, and with current policy requirements to increase the
     provision of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy across the diagnostic categories
     (DoH1999), the course seeks to attract individuals from a variety of professional groups
     within mental health services in order to maximise the potential for dissemination of good
     practice. The course will aim to produce Masters and Diplomate graduates who are
     competent, safe and flexible practitioners of cognitive psychotherapy.

     The program relies heavily on the principles of case formulation to facilitate the application of
     fundamental skills to a wide variety of problems. The many approaches within cognitive
     psychotherapy share these techniques, and their effective application often rests on the
     practitioner’s ability to adjust them to suit individual cases. The course contains a high degree
     of reflective education, particularly around the development of skilled application of
     techniques through self-practice. The context of practice receives particular attention,
     encompassing close scrutiny of therapeutic relationship factors, psycho-diagnostic issues,
     factors associated with different clinical settings, the complexity of clinical problem, and the
     varieties of ways of disseminating effective interventions.

     In keeping with the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education descriptors (2001),
     Masters level graduates will differ from diplomates in having more of a critically evaluative
     and synthetic purchase on two specific inter-related knowledge and practice domains. The first
     is cognitive psychotherapy’s empirical basis. The second is the impact of organisational
     factors on both clinical practice and the integrative nature of contemporary cognitive
     psychotherapy. ‘Organisational factors’ refers both to micro-and macro-organisational issues.
     The former will emphasise the potential impact of organisations in facilitating and
     undermining the creative risk taking characteristic of Masters level practice (Grant and Mills
     2000, Morgan 1997). The latter will emphasise the unique nature of the University of Brighton
     degree in acknowledging specific contemporary debates in the philosophy of science. These
     centre around the ‘crisis of representation’ of modernist assumptions of science in the latter
     part of the 20th century (Gergen (1999), which have in turn informed the development of
     social constructionist approaches to psychotherapy generally (Gergen 1999) and
     postmodernist revisions to cognitive psychotherapy specifically (IACP1997). Finally, it
     should be stressed that all students will be taught at Masters level, the distinction between
     diplomates and Masters graduates being that the latter will undertake a dissertation module.

          Masters and Diplomate graduates will be able to draw on experiences of using cognitive
          principles and techniques on themselves in order to enhance engagement with clients and help
          them make better use of cognitive psychotherapy. This is not intended to make personal
          cognitive psychotherapy a pre-requisite of training, but merely to acknowledge the value of
          ‘self practice’ in learning its methods. The course graduate will also understand the essential
          nature of casework supervision. S/he will be able to use this as well as recourse to literature
          and peer consultation to formulate and plan responses to obstacles in therapy. This will be
          particularly evident when analysing factors associated with the therapeutic relationship.
          Finally, the program will carefully follow guidelines set out by the BABCP (2000) in order to
          prepare students for candidature for accreditation with that body and registration with the

10.       Core philosophical principles
          In summary, the development of the course has been strongly influenced by a number of core
          principles and positions found in the contemporary literature on cognitive psychotherapy.
          These are that:

         Cognitive psychotherapy is an effective treatment for a wide variety of mental health
         There is a national and international problem with the dissemination of sufficiently skilled
          practice in cognitive psychotherapy.
         Given the gap between health care need and available supply, the delivery of cognitive
          interventions merits consideration of modes such as computer packages, and supervised
          cascading delivery, in addition to traditional one to one approaches.
         Skilled practice should be influenced by both innovation and evidence.
         What counts as ‘evidence’ must be informed by interpretive-constructionist and
          postmodern, as well as positivist and post-positivist paradigm, conceptual and empirical work.
         An ideal method of learning cognitive psychotherapeutic approaches is for students to practice
          them personally.
         The practice of cognitive psychotherapy will be affected by shifting contexts of application.
         The practice of cognitive psychotherapy must be informed by contemporary conceptual and
          empirical developments in both case formulation and the therapeutic alliance.

          In view of the above, and because cognitive psychotherapy is offered to people with
          increasingly complex problems, practitioner education needs to prepare students to meet the
          aims and learning outcomes described in the next section.

11.       Course team and their main areas of interest

Dr Alec Grant, UKCP Reg;                   The therapeutic alliance in cognitive psychotherapy
BABCP Accred (Course leader)               Resistance in cognitive psychotherapy
Principal Lecturer in Mental Health        Axis one anxiety and depression-based disorders
Institute of Nursing and Midwifery         Case formulation
Room D113, Falmer Campus,                  The impact of core beliefs and underlying assumptions
Brighton                                   The impact of organisational factors on practice
Tel: 01273-643533
Or, room 110, Aldro, Robert Dodd
Campus, Eastbourne
Tel: 01273-643100
Jem Mills UKCP Reg; BABCP                  Working with SEMH and Axis Two Clients
Accred (module teacher)                    Low Self Esteem
Cognitive Behavioural                      Case formulation-based supervision
Psychotherapist                            The dissemination of evidence-based psychological
Tel: 01323-847945                           approaches
                                           Evidence-based organisational practice change


Course Aims
       Specifically, by the end of the course, students will be able to critically evaluate and

        (Masters students)
               The empirical basis of psychotherapy, reflected in students’ dissertations.
               The integrative nature of cognitive psychotherapy

        (Masters and Diplomate students)
               The role of the cognitive psychotherapeutic paradigm in the context of psychotherapy
                provision generally, and evidence-based practice specifically.
               The role of contextual factors impacting on the practice of cognitive psychotherapy.

Course Learning Outcomes
       By the end of the course the student will be able to:

        (Masters students)

        (Informed by both the empirical basis for cognitive psychotherapy, and relevant organisational

                Deal with complex issues around the practice, development and dissemination of
                 cognitive psychotherapy both systematically and creatively, making sound
                 judgements in the absence of complete data, and communicating these clearly to
                 specialist and non-specialist audiences (QAA 2001).
                Demonstrate self-direction and originality in tacking and solving problems around the
                 practice, development and dissemination of cognitive psychotherapy, and act
                 autonomously in planning and implementing related tasks at a professional level
                 (QAA 2001).
                Continue to advance their knowledge and understanding of cognitive psychotherapy,
                 and to develop new skills in this area to a high level (QAA 2001).
                Demonstrate a critical knowledge of the empirical basis for the contemporary practice
                 of cognitive psychotherapy.
                Articulate the potential impact of organisational factors on clinical practice and on
                 the integrative nature of contemporary cognitive psychotherapy.

        (Masters and Diplomate students)
                Critically apply research evidence across clinical problems.
               Expertly develop tailored case formulations collaboratively with clients, in
                response to the complexity of their problems in living.
                Expertly and reflexively utilise the therapeutic alliance in client case work.
                Draw on research and concepts from other paradigms in planning interventions.
                Apply structured evaluation to individual cases.
                Formulate ways of applying established techniques and principles to new difficulties.
               Tailor cognitive psychotherapeutic interventions, taking into account different
                practice settings, the complexity of client difficulty, organisational opportunities and
                constraints, and flexible modes of delivery of interventions.
               Sensitively and safely practice supervised cognitive psychotherapy, using a variety of
                modes of application, across familiar and novel problem areas.
               Demonstrate skills in quantitative and/or qualitative research in relation to an area of
                Cognitive psychotherapeutic practice, and in critical appraisal of the cognitive
                psychotherapy and related literature.
               Identify both the ways in which, contextual factors impacting on the use of cognitive
                interventions, and creative responses to this.
               Critique the cognitive psychotherapeutic paradigm.

13.1   Professional requirements
       The entry requirements of the course will reflect the minimum training standards for the
       practice of cognitive psychotherapy of the BABCP (2000). In keeping with those standards,
       likely applicants will normally come from the range of mental health professions, including
       nursing, social work, occupational therapy, clinical psychology and medicine, and from
       counselling and teaching professions. Their work circumstances will enable them to undertake
       supervised cognitive interventions with clients with mental health difficulties.

13.2   Academic requirements
       Candidates will normally hold a first degree or equivalent in a mental health-related or other
       area of relevance to the professional requirements described above. Candidates who also hold
       relevant post graduate qualifications will only be granted advanced standing where it can be
       demonstrated that an appropriate level of knowledge of the core content of the relevant
       modules has been achieved within the last five years, in line with the ApeL regulations in the
       Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences documentation . Candidates without a
       first degree must provide evidence of being able to work at post graduate level.

13.3   Organisational requirements
       It is essential that management from students’ work places are supportive to students in line
       with the implicit requirements of the minimum training standards of the BABCP (2000), in the
       following two areas:

                -   Developing an appropriately supervised practice caseload.
                -   Ongoing practice supervision, normally from a BABCP accreditable practitioner,
                    either from the student’s workplace or from a neighbouring Trust or agency.

       In line with the QAA Code of Practice on Placement Learning, contractual arrangements will
       be put in place between employing organisations and the course, to ensure ongoing support of
       students, following the model used by the University of Derby’s MSc in Cognitive
       Psychotherapy (see appendices 2-7).

13.4   Practice supervision requirements
       Practice supervisors will be required to supervise students, mindful of ethical and safe practice
       outlined in the BABCP’s Guidelines for Good Practice of Behavioural and Cognitive
       Psychotherapy (available from Practice supervisors may supervise the
       student for the duration of the course, although students will be encouraged to negotiate
       different supervisors, in accordance with need and development, where local resources allow
       this. Practice supervision will differ from the casework supervision and casework study days
       in the following ways. Whilst it is not intended to prescribe particular models of supervision to
       Practice supervisors, they will be encouraged to adhere to the requirements of the BABCP
       minimum training standards and good practice guidelines. In addition to providing informal
       education on a case by case basis, they will be concerned with the student’s overall caseload
       management and, within this, the student’s work with individual clients, and should meet with
       students on a regular (weekly to fortnightly basis). Practice supervisors will be required to
       complete a supervision report which will be sent directly to the course leader at the end of
       each semester. Supervisors will be encouraged to be both appropriately supportive in
       accordance with the minimum training standards and the good practice guidelines, but also to
       report any instances of breaches in professional conduct identified in section 8.2 below, which
       may result in a student’s discontinuation from the course .

       All practice supervisors will be provided with support and ongoing training in the form of
       regular one-day workshops, convened by the course leader and held at the University of
       Brighton. The onus of these workshops will be on the contemporary practice of cognitive and
       cognitive behavioural supervision, and the need to ensure that students are fairly and
       appropriately supervised.

       Casework study days and casework supervision will follow the highly structured pattern
       outlined in sections 9.2 and 9.3 and the former will require students to audio-/video-tape their

       sessions. The course leader and course team are also required to support good practice and,
       equally, to identify and act appropriately to unsafe, unethical or unprofessional practice
       identified in either the casework study days or casework supervision.

       All three of the above, distinct yet overlapping, modes of supervision and teaching and
       learning together constitute a triple learning and personal/professional audit facility for
       students’ formative and summative development.

13.5   Students’ individual responsibilities
       Ethical, Safe and Professional Practice:
       Students must be committed to high standards of practice enshrined in the Guidelines for
       Good Practice of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy in both actively seeking and
       using supervision and learning facilities, in order to practise ethically, safely and
       professionally within their range of skills and expertise. Ethical, safety or professional
       difficulties must always be brought to the attention of the students’ supervisor who, in turn,
       will report to the course leader, or to the course team/leader directly.

       In line with BABCP requirements for the minimum training standards for practice (2000), all
       students will be expected to keep a log book to demonstrate that they have completed a
       minimum of 200 hours supervised practice.

       Personal Attributes:
       Students need to be open to self-exploration and able to engage with the, often uncomfortable,
       dynamic process characteristic of psychotherapy education and training.

13.6   Course team responsibilities
       The course leader and course team will provide consistent and appropriate levels of support
       for students in the form of personal tutorial help, casework supervision and casework study
       days. Moreover, the course leader and course team will aim to provide flexible and sensitive
       levels of support for students, based on the individual needs of the latter group for the duration
       of the course,


14.1    Diagrammatic Representation of Course Structure
Award         Mandatory Modules                                             Credit rating       Total
Postgraduate  1. Cognitive Behavioural Interventions (NAM 40)               40 credits
              2. Cognitive Change Methods (NAM31)                           20 credits

               3. The Therapeutic Alliance in Cognitive                     20 credits
               Psychotherapy (NAM39)
                                                                            20 credits
               4. The Contextual Application of Cognitive
               Psychotherapy (NAM38)
                                                                            20 credits          120 credits
               5. Any M level research module from the
               Graduate Programme in Health and Social
               Sciences appropriate to the dissertation needs of
               the student
MSc            Dissertation module (NAM96)                                  60 credits          180 credits

14.2   Rationale for Course Structure

The structure of the course, including its assessment and ongoing supervision component and
lack of optional modules, is a direct response to the theoretical and skills training requirements
of the BABCP. In addition to specific requirements, curricula must ‘…provide a broad-based
understanding of the theoretical basis of cognitive and/or behaviour therapies and their
application across a range of problem areas. Skills training is an essential component of the
acquisition of knowledge and experience and should not be less than 50% of …(the)… total
training programme.’ (BABCP 2000). It is intended to review the future development of the
course in terms of the appropriateness of utilising other modules from the GPHSS framework.

Each individual student’s choice of route through the course should be provisionally agreed
with the course team at the start of studies, and monitored and evaluated at points throughout
the student’s time on the course. For those pursuing candidature in relation to professional
requirements, the course structure is flexible with regard to both the individualised learning
contract and learning outcomes of module 4. Flexibility also pertains to the choice of research
module for Masters and Diplomate students, and the range of possible projects within the
dissertation module for Masters students. Allowing students to choose a research module on
the basis of appropriateness for their professional development and/or dissertation directly
relates to decisions made in the GPHSS in 2001 to allow considerably more freedom, than had
hitherto been the case, of choice of M level research module. The GPHSS module and
courses handbook has a complete list of such modules.

The structure is also flexible to the extent that, it allows for modules from the course to be
accessed as part of the GPHSS programme - either as continuing professional development
stand-alones or as a component part of Masters degrees within the GPHSS.

The course offers extensively delivered modules in part-time study mode. Satisfactory
completion of the compulsory modules plus the dissertation will lead to an award of a Master
of Science Degree in Cognitive Psychotherapy. Each module of the course will carry 20
credits, apart from Cognitive Behavioural Interventions which carries 40 modules. The
dissertation will carry 60 credits. The 20 credit modules will each consist of 30 taught hours
and a notional figure of 170 hours student effort which will double for the 40 credit module.
The module team will guide independent study and preparation for assessments. The
dissertation module will involve a student commitment equivalent to the other modules, with
the corresponding tutorial support and supervision.

Drawing on the model of teaching in relation to supervision proposed by Padesky (1996),
students will be expected - as a compulsory requirement of the course - to attend a minimum
of ten, 5 hour ‘consultation’ study days to make up the 200 taught hours specified in the
BABCP minimum training requirements document (BABCP 2002). These study days,
organised and facilitated by the module team, will be based on ‘live’ (video/audio/role-played)
casework. Students will be asked to identify which consultation study days they will attend at
the start of each module. Initially, the content of these days will be based on the clinical work
of the module team, but students will increasingly be expected to contribute subsequent study
days, with audio- and videotapes of their own clinical work.

Module delivery allows for some flexibility around how students work through the course
(see diagram 7.6 below). Module 1 will be offered extensively on Wednesdays on the
Eastbourne campus, from 4-6pm, in both semesters subject to demand. Modules 2, 3 and 4
will run extensively on a fortnightly basis on Fridays from 10-4pm on the Eastbourne campus,
in sequence over 3 semesters. Students may access modules 1 and 2 or 1 and 3 simultaneously
or separately.

Students will however be advised not to begin their studies with module 3 (The Therapeutic
Alliance in Cognitive Psychotherapy) as they will need to contextualise knowledge from this
module in either module 1 or 3.

The Contextual application of Cognitive Psychotherapy (module 4) will normally be accessed
as the last of the compulsory cognitive modules. This is because students will require a good
working knowledge of cognitive interventions and change methods, and the therapeutic
alliance in cognitive psychotherapy, before progressing to this module. Module 5 may be
accessed at any time during the course, prior to the dissertation module.

       Candidates who hold relevant post graduate qualifications will be granted advanced standing
       where it can be demonstrated that an appropriate level of knowledge of the core content of the
       relevant modules has been achieved within the last five years, in line with the ApeL
       regulations in the Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences documentation .

14.3   Diagrammatic representation of compulsory module provision from February 2004 –
September 2005
Semester 2,
Week         Module 1       Module4         Casework
                                            Study day
1                                 
2                                                
3                                 
4                                                
5                                 
6                                                
7                                 
8                                                
9                                 
10                                               
11                                
12                
Semester 1,
Week         Module 1       Module 2        Casework
                                            Study day
1                                 
2                                                
3                                 
4                                                
5                                 
6                                                
7                                 
8                                                
9                                 
10                                               
11                                
12                
Semester 2,
Week         Module 1       Module 3        Casework
                                            Study day
1                                 
2                                                
3                                 
4                                                
5                                 
6                                                
7                                 
8                                                
9                                 
10                                               
11                                
12                

14.4   Progression Routes and Exit Points
       Students may exit the course with 120 credits, having passed all compulsory modules, with a
       Post Graduate Diploma in Cognitive Psychotherapy. Students who subsequently undertake
       and pass the dissertation module will be awarded the degree Master of Science in Cognitive


15.1   Rules for progression, award classification and attendance requirements
       The course regulations are in accordance with the University’s General examination and
       Assessment Regulations and the Faculty of Health Graduate Programme in Health and Social
       Sciences in Health and Social Sciences.

15.2   Course specific regulations (to cover professional body requirements)
       In most cases, committed students will work diligently and openly, with their practice
       supervisor and the course team, in the promotion of good practice in cognitive psychotherapy.
       In exceptional cases however, in the light of the professional requirements of the BABCP for
       the good practice of behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, the Course Examination Board
       may decide at its discretion against progression of individual students on the basis of
       formative or summative development difficulties. These decisions will be based on one or
       more of the following circumstances:

                -    A practice supervisor report which highlights ethical breaches and/or examples
                     of unprofessional and/or unsafe practice.
                -    Ethical breaches and/or examples of unprofessional and/or unsafe practice
                     picked up by the course team or course leader in casework supervision.
                -    Continual, unsatisfactory summative development which is related to formative
                     difficulties outlined above.
                -    Inappropriate and disruptive forms of classroom behaviour which seriously
                     impede the learning process for other students on the course.

       In the light of the above circumstances, the Examination Board may, at its discretion, offer
       individual students the right of re-sit, once only, of an entire assessment or of appropriate parts
       of an assessment. These course specific regulations are of particular importance because of the
       need for the course leader, course team and the student’s case supervisor to take all necessary
       steps to promote the safety and psychological well-being, and minimise the risk of
       exploitation, of clients.


16.1   Modular learning and teaching
       This will include trigger lectures by module leaders, student-led seminars, problem-based
       learning; CCTV role-play and feedback and private study.

16.2   Casework Study Day learning and teaching
       These will be based on the model described by Padesky (1996) for developing Cognitive
       Therapist competency, and will utilise the revised cognitive therapy scale in this endeavour
       (Blackburn et al. 2001). Drawing on appropriate reading and clinical demonstrations,
       consultation days will be structured around the following key elements advised by Padesky:

          The formation of rapid conceptualizations
          Knowledge and skills for the treatment of varied and interrelated problems
          A strong focus on the quality of the therapeutic alliance
          Skills in the cognitive therapy process

       Casework study days will also provide the most appropriate opportunity for service user
       teaching. The course leader will begin this process, having been given informed consent by
       one of his clients to audio-tape all sessions in the course of therapy with her. These audio-
       tapes will form the basis of clinical demonstrations. Students will benefit from the actual
       presence of the service user and course leader/(therapist), both in providing a commentary
       dialogue on the tapes and acting as a teaching and learning resource for the students.

16.3   Casework Supervision
       Each modular teaching day will begin with group supervision, derived from the Oxford post
       graduate certificate in cognitive psychotherapy model, and will be informed by the current
       minimal requirements of the BABCP. Casework supervision will be organised as follows:

       1.       The student asks a supervision question, in relation to:
                 the presentation of weekly measures (case specific or standardised)
                 a succinct case formulation

       2.       This will trigger a facilitated group discussion and possible role plays

       3.      The student summarises her/his action plan (in response to the question ‘what are
               you going to do next?’)

       Audio or video-taped clinical sessions will be a requirement of casework supervision

16.4   Student tutorials
       The course and module leaders will provide tutorial support for students in relation to their
       developing assignments in accordance with the Graduate Programme in Health and Social
       Science documentation.

       Modules will be assessed independently and the details of the assessment are described within
       each. All assessments require the integration of theory with practice and will conform to
       professional requirements (BABCP 2000). In modules 1-3, the assessment tasks are
       deliberately geared to a 50-50 theory practice division, with video recordings of clinical
       practice conforming to the Department of Health guidelines on gaining informed consent for
       video recordings (attached as appendix). The assessment for module 4 consists solely of a
       written assignment, directly in line with the aims and learning outcomes of the module. The
       assessment for module 5 will correspond with the aims and learning outcomes of the specific
       research module chosen by the student, and students can choose, according to their needs,
       from a comprehensive range of research modules in the Graduate Programme in Health and
       Social Sciences. The assessment for the dissertation module, NAM96, is also directly related
       to the aims and learning outcome for this module, and will be marked in accordance with the
       Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences criteria.


18.1   Course Management and Course Boards
       The day to day management of the course will be the responsibility of the course and module
       leaders, in conjunction with the Course Board. Course Boards will be held each semester and
       will include student and service user representation. The responsibilities of both course leader
       and course board are detailed in the Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences
       Document. In terms of quality assurance and reporting on developments within the course, it
       will also be represented at the INaM Graduate Division Board which meets three times a year.

18.2   Outline procedure for monitoring and evaluation including committee routes
       There exist well-defined University and Faculty structures and procedures to ensure effective
       evaluation of all course, and the proposed course will conform to these Monitoring and
       Evaluation mechanisms. The assessment of assignments will provide evidence for both staff
       and external examiners of the extent to which students are able to perform satisfactorily in
       relation to the course rational, aims and professional requirements. Staff and students will

       have the opportunity to discuss the general progress of the course and any particular problems
       arising at their regular Course Board meetings.

18.3   Student evaluation
       Students will provide views and comments on individual modules at the course as a whole
       through nominal group evaluations at the end of each semester. One student will be elected
       from each cohort for the course management board, which meets once a semester. It is also
       essential that students are given every opportunity to discuss any issues or difficulties that may
       occur, with the course and module leaders.

18.4   Annual monitoring and evaluation
       In accordance with the University’s own policy for internal academic control, the Course
       Board for the MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy will submit an annual monitoring and
       evaluation report to the Board of Study of INaM.

18.5   Link arrangements with academic, statutory or professional partners
       The course leader is chief external examiner to the Postgraduate Programme in Health and
       Social Sciences in Psychotherapy and Counselling, including the MSc in Cognitive
       Behavioural Psychotherapy, at the School of Education, Human Sciences & Law, University
       of Derby. This facilitates ongoing academic development and dialogue.

       The resourcing of this course will operate according to the model detailed in the Graduate
       Programme in Health and Social Sciences in Health and social Sciences Document. This
       states that departments own and resource modules, the Faculty Office identifying the
       proportion of income generated by the involvement of departments in the Graduate
       Programme in Health and Social Sciences. Funds are devolved to departments in direct
       proportion to their contribution to the scheme and are managed at the department level.

19.1    Physical resources
       All taught sessions will now take place in Eastbourne, in the Darley Road or Carlyle Road

19.2   CCTV resources
       Video recording and playing equipment can be borrowed from the media technicians at
       Queenwood, opposite the Robert Dodd Campus

19.3   Library and computing resources
       Until summer 2002, the library facilities required to support the MSc in Cognitive
       Psychotherapy were situated in the Eastbourne District General Hospital site. Since then, half
       of the books and all of the journals have been transferred to the Falmer site, to create a
       relatively even distribution for students in East and West Sussex.

19.4   Staffing resources
       Overall management of the course will be conducted by the course leader who will also take
       most of the course teaching load. Because the course leader has been educated exclusively in
       the practice of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy with adults suffering from neurotic
       problems, the psychosis and much of the axis two (personality disorder) teaching and
       supervision on the course will necessarily require additional teaching input. In the short term,
       visiting lecturer agreement has been made with Jem Mills who has specialist knowledge of
       psychosis and axis two work.

19.5   Staff development
       It is considered essential that the course team’s knowledge and expertise is such that the
       course is delivered at the appropriate academic standard. Consequently, staff development is
       an important and continuous process and all members of the course team are currently
       involved in continuous professional development (CPD), in the form of studying for higher
       degrees in cognitive psychotherapy or related fields and/or in attendance at CPD recognised
       training and education events, and in the production of cognitive behavioural knowledge

           (Grant et al. 2003). The course leader also has considerable experience of course leadership,
           teaching and supervision at graduate level.

20.        The dissertation module

           The dissertation is an essential and central component of the Masters programme and is
           weighted accordingly at 60 level M credits. It enables students to select a focus which is of
           interest to them and which may be informed by, or derived from themes and issues which
           have been explored within the course. Students will choose a dissertation focus which is
           relevant to their practice and personal interests, and which is capable of practical application
           or more generally benefiting their work situation.

           The dissertation process will reflect the flexibility of the course and the stages of development
           will need to be planned according to each students’ programme of studies.

           All dissertation proposals will be considered by the course team. A suitable supervisor,
           normally someone familiar with the area of study selected by the student, will be identified by
           the course leader, following discussion with the student. These processes will normally be
           completed prior to the student starting their planned study. Research proposals will be subject
           to submission to the relevant ethics committees. Progress will be monitored by the supervisor
           through regular supervision tutorials.

           Dissertations will be marked by two internal examiners, one of which will be the supervisor.
           In assessing the dissertation, the examiners will consider the following as minimal
           requirements for the attainment of Masters level and the award of 60 level M credits:

      1.   The subject focus should reflect the mental health practice focus of the course, demonstrate
           the depth of study achieved in the completed modules and be located within the students’
           sphere of practice.

      2.   The intrinsic worth of the subject as a topic which merits attention, its complexity, and how it
           is perceived and presented within the dissertation.

      3.   Effective overall structure, organisation and presentation of content.

      4.   The relevance, appropriateness and application of the research methodology.

      5.   the ability to develop and elucidate an argument and/or hypothesis logically and clearly, to
           present ideas at a conceptual level and to integrate theory with empirical evidence.

      6.   Demonstration of critical appreciation and evaluation of literature and secondary sources.

      7.   Evidence of creativity of thought and independence of views in terms of scholarship,
           academic debate and research skills.

      8.   Possession of perception and insight in the analysis of practice experience, and the integration
           of theory and practice.

      9.   The value of the contribution to the field of mental health knowledge and the potential benefit
           of its application to mental health service delivery.

           The precise order of presentation and the balance between discussion of relevant literature and
           the students’ own contributions and conclusions is left to the discretion of the student in
           consultation with the supervisor. The supervisor will be the first marker, and the work will be
           judged with reference to the criteria detailed below.

21.        Criteria of assessment

        Fail      An inadequate understanding of the material, substantial irrelevance, an inadequate
        conceptual framework or its complete absence, little evidence of effort or application.
        Students who fail a module may be required to either retake it or choose another module
        instead, depending on if the module is a core module or not.

        Referral          Some progress has been made, but there is insufficient evidence of Masters
        level standard, more work must be done to the piece of work before it can be accepted as a
        pass standard (also know as a 'refer'). Students who are 'referred' are normally required to
        resubmit their work.

        Pass     A sound grasp of the material and its implications, an ability to discriminate
        appropriately, a sound conceptual framework, an understanding of attendant problems and
        their ramifications, a case well-argued and convincingly presented.

        Distinction        All the qualities of the above combined with a clear understanding of the
        limitations of the work, an ordering and attempted resolution of central problems, an element
        of integrative and synthetic originality. This category is an acknowledgement of the very high
        standard at which some students perform. Such work can be of publishable standard.

22.     Accreditation of Prior learning

        Accreditation of Prior Learning and Experience will be subject to current policy on the
        Faculty of Health Graduate Programme in Health and Social Sciences. The programme leader
        concerned refers decisions about accreditation to the Graduate Programme Co-ordinating
        Group (See Graduate Programme Handbook). This group meets at least once each semester.
        Students who are of the opinion that they have prior study that is relevant to be acredited as
        prior learning should approach the Programme Leader in the first instance.

22.     Complaints

        If you are unhappy about some aspect of the programme please make your feelings known at
        the earliest opportunity. If you are unhappy about aspects of the programme it is also a good
        idea to make your views known to the student representative, so that they can be raised at
        appropriate programme meetings.

        The course teaching team hope you enjoy your studies on the programme.


American Psychiatric Association (APA). 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders. 4th edn. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Andrews G. Henderson S. (eds) 2000. Unmet Need in Psychiatry: Problems, resources, responses.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barlow D H, Levitt J T, Bufka L F. 1999. The dissemination of empirically supported treatments: a
view to the future. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 37: 147-162.

British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies. February 2002. Accreditation

Beck A T, Freeman A. & Associates. 1990. Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York
and London: The Guilford Press.

Blackburn I-M, James I A, Milne D L, Baker C, Standart S, Garland A, Reichelt F K. 2001. The
Revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R): Psychometric Properties. Behavioural and Cognitive
Psychotherapy. 29: 431-466.

British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2000. Guidelines for Good Practice
of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy.

Brooker C, Gournay K, O’Halloran P, Bailey D, Saul C. 2002. Mapping training to support the
implimentation of the National Service Framework for mental health. Journal of Mental Health. 11(1):

Department of Health. 1999. A national service framework for mental health. London: HMSO.

Department of Health. 2001. Treatment Choice in Psychological Therapies and Counselling: Evidence
Based Clinical Practice Guideline. Brief Version. London: Department of Health.

Gamble C, Brennan G. (eds). Working with Serious Mental Illness: A manual for clinical practice.
London: Ballier Tindall in association with the Royal College of Nursing.

Gergen K. 1999. An Invitation to Social Construction. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Grant A J, Mills J. 2000. The Great Going Nowhere Show: Structural power and mental health nurses.
Mental health practice. 4(3): 14-16.

Grant A J, Mills J, Mulhern R, Short N. 2003 in Press. Cognitive Behavioural Interventions for Mental
Health Workers: A guide to practice in shifting contexts. London: Sage Publications ltd.

Hawton K, Salkovskis P M, Kirk J, Clark D M. 2002. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric
Problems: A Practical Guide. New York: Oxford University Press.

IACP. 1997. Special Issue on Cognitive Psychotherapy and Postmodernism. Journal of Cognitive
Psychotherapy. 11(2): 75-126.

International Association of Cognitive Psychotherapy (IACP). 2002. Journal of Cognitive
Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly. 16(1).

Jones, C., I.Cormac. J. Mota., & C. Campbell. 2000 Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia
(Cochrane review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, Oxford: Update Software

Leahy R L, Holland S J. 2000. Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety
Disorders. New York and London: The Guilford Press.

Mills J. 2000. Dealing with voices and strange thoughts. In: Gamble C, Brennan G. (eds). Working
with Serious Mental Illness: A manual for clinical practice. London: Ballier Tindall in association with
the Royal College of Nursing.

Morgan G. 1997. Images of Organization.2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Nathan P E, Gorman J M, Salkind N J. 1999. Treating Mental Disorders: A Guide to What Works.
New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2000 Psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia
Bulletin on the effectiveness of health service interventions for decision makers 6: 3 Available from:

NHS Executive. 1996. NHS Psychotherapy Services in England: Review of Strategic Policy. London:
Department of Health.

Nathan P E, Gorman J M, Salkind N J. 1999. Treating Mental Disorders: A Guide to What Works.
New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Salkovskis P M. 1996. The Cognitive Aproach to Anxiety: Threat Beliefs, Safety-Seeking Behavior,
and the Special Case of Health Anxiety and Obsessions. In: Salkovskis P M. (ed). Frontiers of
Cognitive Therapy. New York and London: The Guilford Press.

Short N, Kitchiner N J. 2002. Panic disorder: Nature, assessment and treatment. Mental Health
Practice. 5(7): 33-39.

Tarrier, N., C. Barrowclough. G. Haddock. & J. McGovern 1999. The Dissemination of innovative
cognitive-behavioural psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Health. 8 (6): 569-

The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. January 2001. The framework for higher
education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Gloucester: Quality Assurance
Agency for Higher Education.

Wells A. 1997. Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders: A Practice Manual and Conceptual Guide.
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Wykes T, Tarrier N, Lewis S. 1999. Outcome and Innovation in Psychological Treatment of
Schizophrenia. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons

Young J E. 1999. Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders: A Schema-Focused Approach. 3rd edn.
Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press.

                                                                                              Appendix 1

                                     Writing and using references

Why referencing?
Referencing is essential to show that you have researched your material, that the ideas that you present
have been considered in the light of documented material on the subject, to differentiate between your
own opinions and the views of those who have greater knowledge and wider experience of the given
subject. References are necessary to substantiate the knowledge, theories and discussions that you
present in your papers.

You may refer to literature in order to:
•     Give factual information
•     Illustrate a point
•     Present a theoretical perspective
•     Present an argument or counter argument
•     Support an argument or a counter argument of your own

References are necessary to acknowledge the source of your information, ideas and arguments. The
reader should be able, from your reference list, quickly to follow up your source of information.
References need to be cited in two places – once in abbreviated form when you refer to the document
in the text, and then in full at the end of the work.

A reference is a description of a published work that you have referred to either directly or indirectly
in your text.

A bibliography lists books and articles which are relevant to a piece of work and have been used in
your research as a source of information or inspiration; no direct or indirect reference is
made to this work in the text.

There are two common ways of linking abbreviated references in the text to a full description of the
published work – either numeric (i.e. a number in the text which is linked either to a footnote or to a
numbered list at the end of the paper) or author/date (also known as the Harvard or parenthetical
system) where the briefest author/date information appears in parentheses (brackets) in the text and the
full description in an alphabetical list at the end of the paper. The Harvard method is in use in the
Faculty of Health and must be used at all times. The particular interpretation or convention of the
Harvard method used in the Faculty of Health is the Chicago Manual of Style.

If you look on the library shelves at guides to writing theses, student papers etc., you will find a
bewildering array of style conventions (British Standard, APA, MLA etc.). The Faculty of Health
recommends the use of the Chicago Manual of Style: books and online guides that use this convention
are listed at the end of this guide. In the examples that follow, the punctuation and italicisation follows
the Chicago style: you should also follow this style, but if you cannot produce italic text, underlining
may be substituted.

Under no circumstances should another writer’s material or ideas be presented without
acknowledging the source – if you do so it is plagiarism and your work will be penalised.

References in the text
In the body of the text the surname of the author(s) is given followed by the year of publication, all in
brackets. Only if you are giving a direct quote from your source should you provide the page number
as well. If the author’s name appears naturally in your text, only cite the date in brackets.

a One author
     The Thatcherite bias against the more environmentally benign option of public transport
     reinforced the institutionalised position of the road lobby (Dudley 1983).
     In one study (Coser 1963) it was found that...
     Jones (1994) has argued forcefully that…
     "Rheumatoid arthritis holds a unique position among the connective tissue diseases" (Hughes
     1977, 24).

b Two authors of one work
      Visual deprivation has been found to increase postural sway (Brown and Dickinson 1972).
      In the course of this discussion, Cohen and Abrahams (1985) commented that the prison system
      had nothing to do with turning offenders into honest citizens.

c Authors of two different works
Note: The references in brackets are in alphabetical order.
       Deregulation of bus services and cuts in subsidy to road and rail were accompanied by
       large increases in road traffic (Dudley 1983; Hamer 1987)

d More than three authors of one work
      In contrast to the present study Panzer et al. (1995) found that lateral sway did not increase with
      eyes closed.

e An author with more than one cited publication in the same year
Distinguish these by adding lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year and within the brackets:
       Anthony (1989a) proposed that…
       It has been argued by Anthony (1989b) that…

Citing secondary sources
Whenever possible, quote from the original source. When this is not possible (e.g. when the original is
unpublished, or for some other reason is not readily available) use the term ‘cited by’ followed by the
reference for the work in which it is quoted.
       Evidence from test results by Johnson and Appleby is cited by Neale (1993) to show that
       parental attitudes to children's footwear changes.
When you refer to this in the reference list, it should be listed under Neale:
                   Neale, D. 1993. Neale’s Common Foot Disorders: diagnosis and management.
Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Reference list
At the very end of the essay or dissertation, references should be given in full in alphabetical order. Do
not depend on the cover of a book for accurate bibliographical information. Use the information on the
title page (for author, title, volume number if relevant, place of publication and publisher) and its
reverse or ‘verso’ (for publication date and edition).

A book reference should contain:
1.    Author’s surname followed by initials (second and third authors are not inverted and if
      there are more than three authors, use first author plus ‘et al.’)
2.    Year of publication.
3.    Title of book in italics (or underlined if italics are not available).
4.    Edition of book if not the first.
5.    Volume number if there is more than one.
6.    Place of publication.
7.    Publisher’s name.

       Examples: (Please note and follow the punctuation!)

       Andrews, A. 1975. Greek society. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
       Brown, E.L. 1971. Nursing reconsidered. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
       Harris, A. and M. Super. 1991 Cystic fibrosis: The facts. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University
       Marsh, D. and R.A.W Rhodes. 1989. Policy networks in British government. Oxford: Oxford
       University Press.
       Melzack, R. and P. Wall. 1988. The challenge of pain. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

When the author and publisher are the same, the name should be repeated e.g.
      Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust. 1953. The work of nurses in hospital wards. London:
      Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust.

Where the book is an edited collection of material with no author listed on the title page, use the
abbreviation ‘ed’ or ‘eds’ for editor(s) or ‘comp’ or comps’ for compiler:
      Neale, D., ed. 1993. Common foot disorders. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

If, however, the reference is to a specific chapter then it must be put under the name of the author of
the chapter:
       Jones, G. 1993. Nail conditions. In: Common foot disorders, edited by D. Neale. 4th ed.
       Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

A journal reference should contain:
1.    Author’s surname, followed by initials.
2.    Year of publication.
3.    Title of article.
4.    Title of journal, italicised (or underlined if italics are not available).
5.    Volume number
6.    Issue number, in brackets.
7.    The number of the first and last pages on which the article appears.

     Abdel-Al, H. 1974. An approach to nursing education. Nursing Mirror 139 (4): 68-70.
     Blackburn, T.A. 1985. Rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Orthopaedic Clinics
     of North America. 16 (2): 241-267.
     Chapman, C.N. 1975. The graduate in nursing. Nursing Times 71: 615-617.
     Newell, K.M., R.E.A. Emmerik and R.L.Sprague. 1993. On postural stability and variability.
     Gait and Posture 4: 225-230.
     Reiner, R. 1992. Policing a post-modern society. The Modern Law Review 55 (6): 761-781.

Popular weekly or monthly magazines often do not have volume numbers and should be cited by date
only. Page numbers follow, separated from the date by a comma – but if the article jumps from one
part of the magazine to another, page numbers may be omitted.

     Arthur, Charles. 1995. Just pick up the phone and say aah. New Scientist. 6 May 1995, 23.

Journals should be referred to by their full name, even if the journal title is very long.

Corporate authors, reports, etc.
Reports which are not the responsibility of one individual should be listed under the name of the body
responsible for their publication. They should not be listed under the name of the chairman of a
committee, in spite of the fact that they are commonly referred to in this way.

Example: the ‘Platt’ report:
     Royal College of Nursing and National Council of Nurses of the United Kingdom.1964. A
     reform of nursing education: first report of special committee on nurse education. [Platt report]
     London: Royal College of Nursing and National College of Nursing in the U.K.

Note that with lengthy corporate authors such as the example above, the citation in the text may be
abbreviated to something that agrees with the start of the name – e.g. (Royal College 1964) but not
(Platt report 1964).

Miscellaneous examples
      Central Health Services Council. 1970. Domiciliary, midwifery & maternity bed needs: Report
      of the Sub-Committee of the Standing Maternity & Midwifery Advisory Committee. [Chairman:
      Sir John Peel] London: HMSO.
      Department of Health and Social Security and Welsh Office.1971. Better services for the
      mentally handicapped. Cmnd. 4683. London: HMSO.
      Industrial Relations Act, 1971. London: HMSO.
      Interdepartmental Working Party on the Recruitment & Training of Nurses. 1947. Report of the
      working party on the recruitment and training of nurses. [Chairman: Sir Robert Wood] London:

       Scottish Home and Health Department. 1970. Duties & training of nursing auxiliaries and
       nursing assistants. Edinburgh: Scottish Home & Health Department.

Sequence of references by the same author
These should be in date order within the alphabetical sequence with the oldest reference first:
       Peters, R. 1935. Corns I have known. London: Kluwer.
       Peters, R. 1959. Bunions on my toes. London: Elsevier Science.
       Peters, R. 1985. Warts and all. New York: Mosby.

Referencing from electronic sources
There is no agreed method for citing electronic sources yet and the key text on the subject (Li and
Crane 1996) does not cover the Chicago style. But it is possible to adapt the conventions for print
material to electronic sources. The following elements should be included if available:

       Author’s name and initials (as for book or journal article)
       Year of publication
       Title of document cited
       Type of medium (e.g. CD-ROM, online)
       Location (URL, ftp address etc.)
       Date accessed (essential for online documents which may change location but not necessary for
       ‘stable’ sources such as CD-ROM)

From CD-ROM sources
To cite a full-text article from a CD-ROM, follow the style used for journal or magazine articles (see
above) and add [CD-ROM], CD-ROM title used, version and date:

      Arthur, Charles. 1995. Just pick up the phone and say aah. New Scientist. 6 May 1995, 23. [CD-
      ROM] New Scientist, Winter 1997
From email
Cite Author. Year. Subject line from email posting. [Email] Type of posting (personal, to group,
memo) [date accessed]:

       Jones, K. 1998. Nurse education in Sussex. [Email] Personal email to J. Smith. [28 Feb 1998].

WWW document
Cite Author. Year. Title of document. [Online] Place of publication: Publisher (if you can ascertain
this). Available from: (i.e. location of document) [date accessed]:

       Cross, P. and K. Towle. 1996. A guide to citing Internet sources. [Online] Poole: Bournemouth
       University. Available from:
       [10 May 1998]

Note: don’t put in any extra punctuation after the URL which might be misread as a part of the address.
For this reason, it is sensible to put the URL on a separate line.

Electronic journal
To cite a full-text article from an Internet source, follow the style used for journal or magazine articles
(see above) and add [Online] Location and date accessed:

       Pulsford D. 1997. Therapeutic activities for people with dementia - what, why... and why not?
       Journal of Advanced Nursing. 26 (4): pp 704-709 [Online] JournalsOnline on BIDS. Available
       [10 May 1998]

Further reading
      Li, X. and N.B. Crane. 1996. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information.

        2nd ed. Medford, N.J: Information Today.
This is the most cited book on the subject but it does not cover the Chicago style. It does, however,
include every type of electronic source you are likely to encounter and once you have grasped the
principles of the Chicago style, you can adapt the examples given in the first half (APA style) of this

       Turabian, K.L. 1996. A manual for writers of term papers, theses and dissertations. 6th ed.
       Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Much more digestible than the Chicago Manual of Style on which all the examples are based. See in
particular Chapter 8 on ‘Parenthetical references and reference lists’.

        University of Chicago Press. 1993. The Chicago manual of style. 14th ed. Chicago: University
        of Chicago Press.
The ‘bible’ of the Chicago style and over 900 pages long but you can get by on chapter 16 on author-
date citations and reference lists. Unfortunately, it is weak on electronic sources.

Internet sources
       Cross, P. and K. Towle. 1996. A guide to citing Internet sources. [Online] Poole: Bournemouth
       University. Available from:
       [10 May 1998]
Uses Harvard method and something similar to Chicago for citations

      Hunter College Writing Center. [1997?]. The documented essay/research paper: Chicago
      Manual of Style documentation. [Online] New York: Hunter College. Available from:
      [Accessed 9 May 1998]
Read section headed ‘Documentation two: author-date style’

      Learning and Information Services. 1997. Referencing electronic sources. [Online] London:
      South Bank University. Available from:
      [11 May 1998]
Wide range of examples, though not in Chicago style

                                                Appendix 2

PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Faculty of Health
University of Brighton

Clinical Supervisor Details







Psychotherapy Qualifications………………………………………………….


Psychotherapy Theoretical Approach………………………………………...


Psychotherapy Experience…………………………………………………….




Clinical Supervision Qualifications…………………………………………………………..


Clinical Supervision Theoretical Approach…………………………………………………


Clinical Supervision Experience





                                                               Appendix 3
University letter heading and address


Supervisor’s name and address

Dear                          ,

I’m writing to you as the identified clinical supervisor for (name of student’s) clinical practice during
the period (dates). The course regulations require me to request that you complete and return the
attached documentation. The Clinical Supervisor Details and the Agreement for Clinical Supervision
with Student of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy forms should be completed and returned
immediately. The Practice Supervisor report should be completed by the end
Without this documentation, students cannot remain on the course.

For the duration of (name of student) supervision relationship with you, I request that your focus is on
the (name of student) overall caseload management and, within this, (her/his) work with individual
clients, with a specific focus on the quality of the student’s therapeutic relationship with clients.
Supervision meetings should, normally, be held on a weekly to fortnightly basis. Whilst it is not the
intention of the course management board to prescribe particular models of supervision to students’
practice supervisors, you are encourage to be mindful of the accreditation requirements described in
the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies Minimum Training Standards
and Good Practice Guidelines (both attached). To maximise teaching, learning and reflective practice,
we also suggest that supervision sessions are conducted around audio-taped or video-taped sessions,
rather than retrospective accounts, of (name of student’s) clinical work.

On behalf of the Course Management Board, I would like to offer you my continual support in working
with (name of student) in what I hope will be a mutually rewarding supervision relationship, and invite
you to contact me whenever you feel you need to. I wish finally to stress that, having followed the
procedure described in the Agreement for Clinical Supervision…, you will be given full support in
bringing to my attention any instances of unsafe, unethical or unprofessional practice, which will be
met with prompt action on my part.

Kind regards,

Yours sincerely,

Dr Alec Grant
Course Leader, MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
On behalf of the Course Management Board

                                                      Appendix 4

                              Practice Supervisor Report
                                 Date from – date to

Name of student:…………………………………….

Name of supervisor:…………………………………

1.   In what specific ways do you consider (name of student) has developed around the
     supervised practice of cognitive/cognitive behavioural psychotherapy during the period
     of the report?

2.   Please identify any developmental needs you feel (name of student) should concentrate
     on at this point in time:

3.   If appropriate, please identify any instances of (name of student’s) unprofessional,
     unsafe or unethical practice that you have become aware of during the period of
     supervision, and how these were resolved:

4.   Final comments

Signature of supervisor…………………………………………………………

                                                                           Appendix 5
PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Faculty of Health
University of Brighton

Agreement for Clinical Supervision with Student of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy

I agree to contract for clinical supervision with ………………………………………………………..,
student of the PGDip/MSc in in Cognitive Psychotherapy at the University of Brighton, on the basis of the
following criteria:

1.       the focus of supervision is clinical work and the therapeutic relationship with clients of the
         supervisee’s placement agency(ies);

2.       I undertake to complete the attached Practice Supervisor’s Report to be submitted to the course
         leader at the end of each university semester;

3.       I agree to attend a once yearly clinical supervision workshop at the University of Brighton;

4.       Should I have concerns about the work of the supervisee, who has clinical responsibility for
         her/his therapeutic work and is accountable to the management of the placement(s) for this, I will
         in the first instance address those concerns with the supervisee and satisfy myself of their
         receiving appropriate attention; and

5.       Should I feel that the concerns have not been addressed by the supervisee, after discussion with
         him/her, I will negotiate appropriate forms of communication with the management of the
         placement(s) (who have line managerial responsibility for the work of the supervisee) and the
         course leader of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy; and

6.       In the absence of such notification, the course leader of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive
         Psychotherapy can assume that, to the best of my knowledge, I am generally satisfied with the
         supervisee's continuing fitness to practice, and that I will be prepared to offer support to the
         supervisee at a level appropriate to my knowledge of her/him and the case(s) under review,
         should her/his work come under examination or investigation;

7.       It is an expectation of the supervisory relationship that supervisors will work within a designated
         Code of Ethics and Practice and within the limits of their competence.

8.       I understand that ordinarily the course leader of the PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy of
         the University of Brighton will not contact me about the supervisee other than for agreed reports,
         and not without first having gained permission from the supervisee so to do.



                                                                        Appendix 7
PGDip/MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Faculty of Health
University of Brighton

MSc in Cognitive Psychotherapy
Agreement for Student Placement

The course team undertakes:
 to test the Student's acquisition of fundamental psychotherapeutic skills, and continue to monitor
    ongoing development and competence;
 to communicate to placement managers any concerns regarding the Student on placement which
    can not be resolved with the student;
 to respond effectively to concerns from placement managers regarding the student..

The placement agency undertakes:
 to offer, as far as possible, an agreed level of referrals of a suitable type (ie. therapeutic work as
    opposed to advice and guidance);
 to provide the Student with a clear contract indicating his/her responsibilities and duties;
 that, where supervision is provided by the agency, the supervisor will be trained to a level
    appropriate to working with the core model of the course.
 to provide management within the placement, on site support and consultation via named
    practitioner(s), and procedures for access to medical and psychiatric cover;
 to provide a safe working environment and a reasonable level of administrative support,
    appropriate to the development of cognitive behavioural psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills.

The Student undertakes:
 to work within the BABCP Guidelines for Good Practice of Behavioural and Cognitive
    Psychotherapy, and take up professional indemnity insurance;
 to be clear about the practices and policies of the agency;
 to provide an agreed level of working hours by negotiation with placement managers;
 to use clinical supervision as a means of monitoring his/her own development and fitness to
 to consult in an appropriate and ethical fashion with colleagues, managers and course staff
    regarding clients within the placement, especially when there are grounds for concern for clients'

Signature for the course:                              Position:                 Date:

Signature for the placement:                           Position:                 Date:

Student’s Signature:                                                                      Date:


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