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					                                                               Interim Analyses
                                                               on Community
                                                               Corrections

                                                               March 11, 2009

                                                               Dr. Tony Fabelo
                                                               Director of Research
                                                               Marshall Clement
                                                               Justice Reinvestment Project Director
                                                               Mike Eisenberg
                                                               Research Manager
                                                               Marc Pelka
                                                               Policy Analyst


Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                           1
  Overview


              Project Overview


              Community Corrections Analysis


              Summary, Next Steps and Upcoming
              Meetings




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009   2
  Big Picture
                                                                     Impact Prison
       Address
                                                                      Operations
        OWI                                       Prison
                                               Overcrowding




        Projected Prison                             State      Community
          Population                                 Fiscal     Corrections
            Increase                                 Crisis     Effectiveness




                                                   Increased
                                                  Revocations
             Pressure
             on Jails


Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                         3
  Six Tracks of Analysis
    1. Prison Population                                        2. Law Enforcement &
       Projection                                  Prison       Public Safety
                                                Overcrowding
    In Process;                                                 Focus Groups This Week;
    April 7 Meeting                                             Further Analysis Pending


                                           3. Community
        Projected Prison                   Corrections System     Community
          Population                       Analysis               Corrections
            Increase                       presented today        Effectiveness



       4. Substance                                             5. Reentry &
       Abuse & Mental                                           Employment
       Health                                                   Strategies
       In Process;                                 Increased    In Process;
       April 7 Meeting                            Revocations   April 7 Meeting

                                  6. Mapping Analysis
                                  In Process; April 7 Meeting

Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                               4
  Pew 1 in 31 Report Just Released




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009   5
  Doing the Math




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009   6
  National Pattern




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009   7
  Wisconsin Statistics




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009   8
  Overview


              Project Overview


              Community Corrections Analysis


              Summary, Next Steps and Upcoming
              Meetings




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009   9
  Revocations Drive WI Prison Admissions

                                                               Revocations
                                                               (w/ No New Sentence)
                                                               increased from
                                                               50% to 61% of all
                                                               prison admissions

                                                               % of prison population
                                                               incarcerated for a
                                                               revocation
                                                               (w/ No New Sentence)
                                                               increased from
                                                               16% to 39%



Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                            10
    Revocations (w/ No New Sentence) by Type of Supervision
    (2000-2007)


                                      2000              2007

  Probation                                                     14%
                                     1,948              2,234
  Revocations

  Probation
  Population                       55,905             54,385    -3%


  Post-Release
  Supervision Revocations
                                     1,842              3,374   83%
  (ES/Parole/MR)


  Post-Release
  Population                         9,890            17,376    76%


Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009          11
  Cost of Revocations
  (w/ No New Sentence) to Prison
         Type of         Number of Revocations                    Average                               Cost
       Supervision        w/ No New Sentence                   Length of Stay                      @ present
                                                                                            costs of $83/day

                             2000           2007           2000          2007       2000           2007

                                                           690            690
          Probation         1,948           2,234                                  $112 m         $128 m
                                                          days*           days

         Extended
                               0            2,188              0        545 days     $0           $99 m
        Supervision

               Parole        661             417         660 days       786 days   $36 m          $27 m

                MR          1,181            753         540 days       514 days   $53 m          $32 m

               Total        3,790           5,592                                  $201 m         $286 m

  *estimated


Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                                   12
  Persons with Repeat Revocations

                                            Number of Prior      N      Percent of
                                            Revocations          %     Population
                                                                         Revoked
                                            0                  2,893         19%
                                                                39%

         61% of people                      1                  2,670         73%
 terminated from post-                                          36%
    release supervision                     2                  1,186         81%
         (discharged or                                         16%
revoked) were revoked                       3+                  669          84%
                 before                                         9%
                                            Total              7,418
                                                               100%



Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                         13
  Supervision Period Has Doubled

                 Length of Prison Admissions w/ New Sentences
                                                               Post Release
                                                                Supervision
                                                                 Population

                                                                   9890


                                                                  14,052



                                                                  17,376




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                  14
  Increase in Supervision Length by Offense
                 Length of Prison Admissions w/ New Sentences




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009    15
  Drug Use One Key Factor in Revocations


                Assessed Drug Use History
                of Post-Release Supervision Population

                    Frequent                Some               None
                      34%                    42%               24%



                 Assessed Drug Use History
                 of Revoked Population

                     Frequent                 Some             None
                       38%                     39%             23%




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009          16
  Mental Health & Reincarceration Rates




              Assessed Mental Health Status
              & Two-Year Return to Prison Rates
                   Serious MI               MH Need, Not SMI       No MH Need

                       46%                             45%                39%
               Reincarcerated                Reincarcerated     Reincarcerated
              N: 665                        N: 1,201           N: 5,720




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                     17
  Unemployment Status & Revocation Patterns

   Employment Status of Post-Release Supervision Population

               Employed 1 Year
               1%
                .   Employed         Unemployed                Unemployable
                    18%              71%                       11%




   Employment Status of Revoked Post-Release Population

               Employed 1 Year
               1%
                    Employed          Unemployed               Unemployable
                .   19%               68%                      12%




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                  18
  Return to Prison Rates Increasing

    Percent Returned to Prison                                           Percent Returned to Prison
                                                                             Within Two Years
                                                                                       2000           2005
                                                               Male                     37%           41%
                                                               Female                   23%           29%
                                                               Age at release

                                                               17-21 (443)              38%           55%
                                                               21-25 (1574)             34%           45%
                                                               25-30 (1750)             35%           41%
                                                               30-35 (1356)             39%           40%
                                                               35-40 (1203)             37%           42%
                                                               40-50 (1995)             33%           36%
                                                               50-60 (517)              22%           29%
                                                               60+ (109)                 8%           17%
Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                                 19
 Community-Based Services

                                      2004            2009      Percent   No system to track
                                                                Change    program quality and
                                                                          outcomes
 Population Under                  68,176           70,121        +3%
 Supervision
                                                                          Current number of
 Total Purchase of                $19.0 m         $27.5 m        +45%     oversight staff
 Community-Based                $279/offender   $392/offender
                                                                          insufficient to assess
 Services                                                                 program quality &
 Halfway Houses                   $13.6 m         $17.9 m        +32%     outcomes

                                                                          Funding not distributed
 Drug Treatment                    $1.0 m           $3.1 m      +210%     according to a systematic
                                                                          assessment of the
                                                                          supervised population’s
 Contract & Program                     1.5             2.2
                                                                          risk/needs
 Oversight Staff                       FTE             FTE



Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                          20
  Overview


              Project Overview


              Community Corrections Analysis


              Summary, Next Steps and Upcoming
              Meetings




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009   21
  Summary of Findings

       1.    Revocations to Prison
             a.    Revocations to prison increasing
             b.    ES revocations for no new sentence driving the increase
             c.    Revocations for no new sentence cost $286 million in 2007



       2.    Length of Supervision
             a.    Post-release period has doubled since 2000, increasing the supervision
                   population
             b.    Length of supervision time now exceeds length of confinement time,
                   reversing pre-TIS trends


       3.    Services & Alternatives to Revocation
             a.    Funding for community-based programs
                   increased significantly since 2004
             b.    Limited staff to oversee and monitor program quality and effectiveness



Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                22
  Best Practices for Effective Supervision

  Effective                       Supervision                  Incentives &            Reduce
  Assessment of                   Strategies                   Sanctions               Returns to
  Risk & Needs                                                                         Prison


       Comprehensive                   Differential            Employ Incentives to      Organization
   Assessment Process with         Supervision Strategies       Encourage Positive        Supports:
       Validated Tools              Based on Results of             Behavior
                                       Assessment                                          •Training
    Use of Assessments to                                      Respond to Violations
    Determine Conditions            Targeting Population        w/Swift & Certain      •Outcome Tracking
      and Supervision                  to Appropriate             Sanctions and          & Evaluation
          Strategies                      Programs                 Appropriate
                                                                Community-Based         •Effective Use of
                                     Effective Program              Programs              Technology
                                         Strategies




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                                23
  Wisconsin Observations

  Effective                       Supervision                   Incentives &                Reduce
  Assessment of                   Strategies                    Sanctions                   Returns to
  Risk & Needs                                                                              Prison


    Assessment Processes            Differentiation of            Limited Incentives             Strengthen
   Need to Be Strengthened       Caseloads by Geography        Available for Satisfactory       Organizational
      (DCC Examining)                    Present                   Compliance and                 Supports:
                                                                Program Participation
      Risk Assessment            Workload System May                                        •Outcome Tracking for
     Disproportionately         Need to Be Redirected to         Revocation Process               Program
     Classifies Offenders        Encourage Casework in         Seems Time & Resource
        as High Risk            Line with Evidence-Based              Intensive             •Deliver Appropriate &
                                        Approach                                               Timely Training
  Limited Assessment Prior                                     Lengthy Re-confinement
  to Sentencing (AIM Pilot)        Examine Need and              Periods Consuming                •Improve
                                   Capacity to Provide           Significant Capacity       Computerization of Key
                                   Increased Access to                                        Data and Business
                                   Community Based                                                Processes
                                        Services

Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                                     24
  Upcoming Study
  Will Shed More Light on Observations
         Kit Van Stelle, UW School of Medicine and Public Health, working with
         DOC to conduct an in-depth study of cases revoked with no new sentence



                                        Examine if criminal behavior and/or new offenses
                                        are involved in the case


                                        Examine the extent to which graduated responses
                                        are utilized

                                        Examine racial disparities for revocations with no
                                        new sentence



Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                                 25
  Emerging Justice Reinvestment Framework

     1.    Strengthen & Improve the Effectiveness of Community Supervision and
           Services
           a. Need to monitor program effectiveness and allocate funds according to
               effectiveness
           b. Need to strengthen community corrections strategies and program
               capacity

     2.   Reduce the Number of Revocations & the Cost to Taxpayers
          a. Need to assess availability and adequacy of incentives and sanctions
          b. Need to review supervision length and re-confinement time


     3.    Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety by Reducing Recidivism and
           Rising Rates of Violent Crime
           a. Examine investments in employment and behavioral health strategies
                to reduce recidivism
           b. Explore possible strategies highlighted by law enforcement



Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                             26
  Next Steps & Upcoming Meetings


    Bipartisan, inter-branch, bicameral structure

    1                                      2                         3
    Analysis                               Implementation            Accountability
   Identify Drivers
   •
    • Solicit Input from                    March 11:                 April 7:
      Stakeholders
    • Map Key Issues
                                            Meeting to
                                            review progress
                                                                     Meeting to review
                                                                      final analysis &
    • Develop Framework                                               framework
    • Identify Policy Options
    • Estimate Costs & Savings
                                            Mid-April: Meeting to review
                                            policy options & cost savings estimates
Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                              27
  How Can These CJ Initiatives be Integrated?

                     Criminal Justice                          Assess, Inform, Measure
                   Coordinating Councils                                (AIM)


                        County-Funded                           Chief Judges Mental
                        Human Services                           Health Task Force


                     Community Justice                             County Jail
                      Act Framework                               Reimbursement


                   Treatment Alternative                       Drug & Mental Health
                        & Diversion                                  Courts



Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                             28
  Thank You



                                                               CONTACT

                                                               Marc Pelka
                                                               Policy Analyst
                                                               (646) 383-5720
                                                               mpelka@csg.org




Council of State Governments Justice Center - March 11, 2009                    29

				
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