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					AIR QUALITY
REGULATIONS – Part 1
OBJECTIVES
   Air Quality Regulations in U.S.

   What are Air Quality Standards?

   What is a PSD program?

   Discuss various Clean Air Act amendments.

   How is emission trading used to manage air quality?

   What is ISO14000?
AIR POLLUTION
o   A threat to the ecosystem in recent years.

o   Global problem affecting human beings, trees, lakes, crops,
    and animals.

o   Damages ozone layer.

o   Creates acid rain.

o   The effects are diverse and numerous.
WATER POLLUTION
   Contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers,
    oceans, and ground water.

   Problems are more noticeable and immediate in their
    effect.

   Often recognized before it reaches crisis proportions.

   Public complaints are immediate.
Why Air Pollution Laws Were Not Developed?
     Serious health related problems take a long time to
     show up as a result of exposure to air pollutants.
     Therefore, public may not appreciate the importance of
     air pollution laws.

    Often disregarded as a health and safety issue.
GOALS OF AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS
   Protect and enhance air quality.

   Protect and promote human health and public welfare.

   Air pollution control at state and local level.

   Reduce the most significant risks to human health or the
    environment.

   Determine risk-based priorities.
Essential Items

   Human Effort



   Money



   Technical Knowledge
HISTORY OF AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS
•   Prior to 1940: Very little by way of formal regulations. Air Pollution Control
    Ordinance (around 1815)

•   1940 - 1955: Initiation of practical efforts in the US as a result of LA type
    fog

•   1955 -1990: Development, Implementation, and Modification of
    Regulations

•   2001 onwards: New approaches to apply standards, Review of standards

Note : Before passage of 1970 Clean Air Amendments, Air Pollution Laws
  were sometimes similar to Water Pollution Laws
HISTORY OF AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS
  •   1955 : Research for scope and sources of air pollution

  •   1963: Research for techniques to minimize air
      pollution

  •   1970: Regulated emissions from stationary and
      mobile sources

  •   1977: Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) of
      air quality for non-attainment areas

  •   1990: Control of Acid Deposition
HISTORY OF AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS
•   2003: Modern pollution-control equipment for power plants built
    before 1977

•   2004: Reducing pollutants emitted by diesel-powered equipment

•   2005: NOx emission standard for aircraft engines

•   2007: Benzene control technologies for refineries

•   2009: Reporting of GHG emissions from all the sectors
Role of Business Cycle in Regulations
 The US is moving from a “manufacturing industry” to a
  “service industry” with an emphasis on “recreational”
  type of activities.
 Conventional pollutants during early phase (visible
  emissions)
 Toxic pollutants (invisible pollutants) after Bhopal
  accident
 Small sources, non-point sources (area sources, fugitive
  emissions)
 Global problems (GHGs, Climate change)
FEDERAL REGULATIONS ON AIR POLLUTION
TYPES OF LAWS
   Common:
    The body of law that has grown out of common tradition and
    usage, as stated in court decisions - usually concerns private
    rights.


   Statute:
    The body of law that has been passed by legislators (e.g: US
    Congress) and stated in formal documents - usually concerns
    rights of general public.
    Statute laws usually do not take away a citizen's right to sue
OTHER LEGAL TERMS
   Tort :
    A willful or negligent injury to a person, property, or
    reputation

   Nuisance :
    Unlawful invasion of a possessor's interest in the reasonable
    use and enjoyment of property
       Private Nuisance:
               Only the plaintiff or a small, well defined class of plaintiffs are affected
               Plaintiff(s) could take action
       Public Nuisance
           Many people in the community are affected
           Only government could take action
MANAGEMENT OF AIR QUALITY
   Emission Standards

   Air Quality Standards

   Pollution Taxes

   Cost-Benefit Analysis

   Risk Standards Based on Pollution
EMISSION STANDARDS
   Emission Standards: limit the amount or concentration of a
    contaminant that may be emitted from a source.
       Visible emission standards.
       Particulate emission standards.
       Particulate process weight (or mass) standards.
       Gas concentration standards.
       Prohibition of emissions.
       Regulation of fuel.
       Zoning restrictions.
       Dispersion based standards.
EMISSION STANDARDS FOR ON-ROAD DIESEL
ENGINES




                                [Source: Diesel.net
                                (http://www.dieselnet.com)]
EMISSION STANDARDS FOR ON-ROAD DIESEL
ENGINES
   California Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines
                NMHC          THC          CO           NOx                PM
   Year
                (g/bhp-hr)    (g/bhp-hr)   (g/bhp-hr)   (g/bhp-hr)         (g/bhp-hr)

   Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Engines

   1987         -             1.3          15.5         6.0                0.60

   1991         1.2           1.3          15.5         5.0                0.25

   1994         1.2           1.3          15.5         5.0                0.10

   Urban Bus Engines

   1991         1.2           1.3          15.5         5.0                0.10

   1994         1.2           1.3          15.5         5.0                0.07

   1996         1.2           1.3          15.5         4.0                0.05




                                                              [Source: Diesel.net (http://www.dieselnet.com)]
EMISSION STANDARDS FOR NON-ROAD DIESEL
ENGINES
                                   CO           HC           NMHC+NOX NOX             PM
Engine Power Tier           Year
                                   (g/bhp-hr)   (g/bhp-hr)   (g/bhp-hr) (g/bhp-hr)    (g/bhp-hr)
                   Tier 1   2000   8.0 (6.0)    -            10.5 (7.8)   -           1.0 (0.75)
kW < 8 (hp < 11)
                   Tier 2   2005   8.0 (6.0)    -            7.5 (5.6)    -           0.8 (0.6)
8 ≤ kW < 19        Tier 1   2000   6.6 (4.9)    -            9.5 (7.1)    -           0.8 (0.6)
(11 ≤ hp < 25)     Tier 2   2005   6.6 (4.9)    -            7.5 (5.6)    -           0.8 (0.6)
19≤ kW < 37        Tier 1   1999   5.5 (4.1)    -            9.5 (7.1)    -           0.8 (0.6)
(25 ≤ hp < 50)     Tier 2   2004   5.5 (4.1)    -            7.5 (5.6)    -           0.6 (0.45)
                   Tier 1   1998   -            -            -            9.2 (6.9)   -
37 ≤ kW < 75
                   Tier 2   2004   5.0 (3.7)    -            7.5 (5.6)    -           0.4 (0.3)
(50 ≤ hp < 100)
                   Tier 3   2008   5.0 (3.7)    -            4.7 (3.5)    -           -†
                   Tier 1   1997   -            -            -            9.2 (6.9)   -
75 ≤ kW < 130
                   Tier 2   2003   5.0 (3.7)    -            6.6 (4.9)    -           0.3 (0.22)
(100 ≤ hp < 175)
                   Tier 3   2007   5.0 (3.7)    -            4.0 (3.0)    -           -†
                   Tier 1   1996   11.4 (8.5)   1.3 (1.0)    -            9.2 (6.9)   0.54 (0.4)
130 ≤ kW < 225
                   Tier 2   2003   3.5 (2.6)    -            6.6 (4.9)    -           0.2 (0.15)
(175 ≤ hp < 300)
                   Tier 3   2006   3.5 (2.6)    -            4.0 (3.0)    -           -†
                   Tier 1   1996   11.4 (8.5)   1.3 (1.0)    -            9.2 (6.9)   0.54 (0.4)
225 ≤ kW < 450
                   Tier 2   2001   3.5 (2.6)    -            6.4 (4.8)    -           0.2 (0.15)
(300 ≤ hp < 600)
                   Tier 3   2006   3.5 (2.6)    -            4.0 (3.0)    -           -†
                   Tier 1   1996   11.4 (8.5)   1.3 (1.0)    -            9.2 (6.9)   0.54 (0.4)
450 ≤ kW < 560
                   Tier 2   2002   3.5 (2.6)    -            6.4 (4.8)    -           0.2 (0.15)
(600 ≤ hp < 750)
                   Tier 3   2006   3.5 (2.6)    -            4.0 (3.0)    -           -†
kW ≥ 560           Tier 1   2000   11.4 (8.5)   1.3 (1.0)    -            9.2 (6.9)   0.54 (0.4)
(hp ≥ 750)         Tier 2   2006   3.5 (2.6)    -            6.4 (4.8)    -           0.2 (0.15)
STANDARDS FOR STATIONARY SOURCES
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR FOSSIL FUELS
STANDARDS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS
STANDARDS FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS
EMISSION FACTORS FOR COAL COMBUSTION
AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
   Air Quality Standards: Prescribe the pollutant levels
    that cannot be legally exceeded during a specific time
    period in a specific geographic region

   1970 :
       Primary Standards
             Protection of public health (to be achieved regardless of cost
              and within the specified time limit)
       Secondary Standards
             To protect public from known and anticipated adverse effects
             Time schedule to be determined by state and local governments
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
              EPA




     (Source: USEPA)
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
POLLUTION TAXES
   Used in the US on a limited scale
   Home energy efficiency improvement tax credits
       Windows and Doors
       Insulation
       Roofs
       Heating and cooling equipments
   Residential renewable energy tax credits
       Solar energy systems (solar water heating and solar electric systems)
       Small wind systems
       Geothermal heat pumps
       Residential fuel cell and Microturbine systems
   Automobile tax credits
     Hybrid Gas-Electric and Alternative Fuel Vehicles
     Plug-In Electric Vehicles
     Plug-In Hybrid Conversion Kits
     Low Speed & 2-3 Wheeled Vehicles
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
   Economic evaluation of health and environmental
    interventions is important

   Quantification of impacts for health, crops, materials,
    social and economic factors

   Compare the effectiveness of one intervention against
    another

   Help policy makers allocate limited budget

   Demonstrates economic return of investments
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
   Direct impacts

     Tropospheric ozone formation that effects:
        Public health

        Crops

        Materials

        Ecosystems

     Health impacts from primary and secondary pollutants
     Ecosystem acidification
     Damage to building and other materials
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
   Indirect impacts

       Changes in GHG emissions with controlled pollutant levels

       Social and economic effects from impacts and measures
        recommended for their control
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS




 Source: Lewis J. Perl and Frederick C. Dunbar “Cost Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Air Quality Regulations”,
 Papers and Proceedings of the Ninety-Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association1982, Vol. 72, No. 2.
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS




 Source: Lewis J. Perl and Frederick C. Dunbar “Cost Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Air Quality Regulations”,
 Papers and Proceedings of the Ninety-Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association1982, Vol. 72, No. 2.
RISK STANDARDS BASED ON POLLUTION
   The standards are established based on:
     Potential public health impact
     Health hazard (chronic toxicity) and dose response information
      of a chemical


               Risk Standards of Chemicals
RISK STANDARDS BASED ON POLLUTION
       Risk Standards of Chemicals
CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1970
   To protect human health and the air environment

   To establish a national research and development

    program to prevent and to control air pollution

   To provide federal assistance and leadership to state

    and local governments for air pollution programs

   To develop specific standards for hazardous air

    pollutants
CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1970
o   Important legal event in the US federal air pollution control
    field
o   Creation of Environmental Protection Agency
                                  Policy
     HEW (prior to 1970)                 EPA (post 1970)
    Primary emphasis on              Enactment and enforcement
      voluntary control              of effective pollution
    conciliation                     standards
    education                        litigation
    persuasion                       fines
    encourage and support state      injunctions
      and local action               jail terms
PROBLEM

   A power plant stack gas (SO2) at 440°C contains 2200 ppm.
    If the volume rate of gas emitted is 15000 m3/min. What is
    the SO2 emission rate in kg/sec? The stack pressure is 1.0
    bar.
SOLUTION
   Step1: Calculate density
            P = ρRT
            ρ = {P/RT}
         Sp. Vol. α = {RT/P} = 0.926 m3/kg


   Step2: Calculate volume
        Vol. of SO2 emitted = {15000/60}(m3/sec)*2200*10-6
                              = 0.55 m3/sec
   Step3: Mass rate of emission = Density * Volume
                  =(0.55/α) = (vol. of SO2 /α)
                  = 0.55/0.926
                  = 0.594 kg/sec
AIR QUALITY CRITERIA
   Expressions of the latest scientific knowledge based on
    the knowledge of experts.

   Describe the effects that can be expected to occur
    beyond "excedence" pollutant level for a specified time
    period.

   Miscellaneous
       Exposure
       Combination of pollutants etc
CASE FOR NATIONAL STANDARDS
   Unfair economic advantages (by state)
   Competition for lower standards.
   Federal Standards for :
       automobiles
       aircraft
       industries supplying basic needs
       "New Source " performance standards
   Initial NSPS issued on December 23, 1971
        Steam Generators
        Portland Cement Plants
        Incinerators
        Nitric acid and H2SO4 plants
Air Quality Control Regions
   AQCRs were developed in 1967.

   Basis: Common meteorology, topography, and climate

   Ohio is divided in 14 AQCRs

   Toledo: 124 AQCR; Lucas and Wood counties
Air Quality Control Regions in Ohio
Air Quality Control Regions in New Mexico
1973: Sierra Club vs. Ruckelshaus
   As a result of the Sierra Club case, the USEPA had to
    disapprove all implementation plans for not containing
    provisions for the
        Prevention of Significant Deterioration
    of existing air quality.
PREVENTION OF SIGNIFICANT DETERIORATION
    Applies to new or modified sources constructed after March
     19,1979.


    Potential emissions of 100 tons/year of any single pollutant, or a
     combined total of 250 tons/year of all pollutants.


    Best available control technology (BACT) applies to all sources
     covered.


    In regions where ambient air quality standards are not being met,
     a new source is required to provide “Emission Offsets”.
PREVENTION OF SIGNIFICANT DETERIORATION
    Class I: This class covers pristine areas of the country
     and no change from current air quality will be allowed

    Class II: Almost all other areas where moderate
     change in air quality will be allowed

    Class III: Industrialized areas where substantial growth
     will be allowed, and where the increase in
     concentration of pollutants up to the federal
     standards will be insignificant
PSD Increments
APPLICATION OF THE PSD INCREMENT
NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR
HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAPS)

   Beryllium
   Mercury
   Vinyl Chloride
   Radio nuclides
   Benzene
   Asbestos
   Others Proposed
HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS
   Incineration was an economic alternative to solve
    hazardous waste crisis.

   The NESHAP for hazardous waste combustors was
    developed in two phases.

   Phase I, September 30, 1999, addresses hazardous waste
    burning incinerators, cement kilns, and lightweight
    aggregate kilns.

   Phase II, September 14, 2005, Hazardous waste burning
    industrial boilers, process heaters, and hydrochloric acid
    production furnaces.
NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS
AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAPS)
Number of persons living in counties with air quality levels above the primary
national ambient air quality standards in 1985 ( based on 1980 population data)

				
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