A study of the effects of cellular telephone microwave radiation on by pengxiuhui


									                                                         ORIGINAL ARTICLE
                                                     MORA, CRIPPA, MORA, DELLEPIANE

A study of the effects of cellular
telephone microwave radiation on
the auditory system in healthy men
Renzo Mora, MD; Barbara Crippa, MD; Francesco Mora, MD; Massimo Dellepiane, MD

We conducted a study of the effects of mobile cellular                auditory brainstem response (ABR) were obtained in all
telephone microwave radiation on the auditory system                  subjects. The study was then conducted in three phases:
in 20 healthy men. After the subjects underwent baseline                 Phase 1. Subjects were first exposed to an electromag-
measurements of transient evoked otoacoustic emission                 netic field of 900 to 1,800 MHz that was produced by a
(TEOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR), they                   global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular
participated in three sessions of exposure to an electro-             telephone (Motorola V3690). The phone was placed in the
magnetic field of 900 to 1,800 MHz produced by a cellular             normal position for conversation, with the receiver pressed
phone. Sessions ranged from 15 to 30 minutes in length.               against each subject’s left ear; the phone was supported by
TEOAE and ABR were again measured after or during each                a metal stand.The aerial was extended away from the head.
exposure. Throughout the study, no significant changes                Each subject maintained physical contact between the ear
in either measurement were noted. We conclude that the                and the receiver for 30 minutes continuously. No conversa-
use of cellular phones does not alter the auditory system             tion occurred; subjects were quiet as they were exposed to
in the short term.                                                    the silent energy. At the end of this initial exposure period,
                                                                      TEOAE and ABR were again measured.
Introduction                                                             Phase 2. One hour later, the same ear was then inter-
Therelationshipbetweenexposuretoelectromagneticfields                 mittently exposed to the same electromagnetic field for
and human health has been put into sharper focus because              another 30-minute period. During this second phase, sub-
of the rapidly expanding use of electromagnetic fields in             jects carried on 12 telephone conversations of 2 minutes
modern society. Exposure to electromagnetic fields has                and 30 seconds each. Afterward, TEOAE and ABR were
been linked to different forms of cancer (e.g., brain tumors          again recorded.
and leukemia), to neurologic diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s                 Phase 3. In the third phase 1 hour later, subjects were
disease), to asthma and allergy, and to two phenomena                 continuously exposed to the same electromagnetic field
called electrosupersensitivity and screen dermatitis.1-5 In           for 15 minutes. During this phase, the receiver was held
this article, we describe our study of the possible short-            in contact with the left retroauricular mastoid area rather
termeffectsofcellular-phone–generatedelectromagnetic                  than the ear. TEOAE was recorded during the exposure
waves on the auditory system.                                         at 0, 10, and 15 minutes.

Patients and methods                                                  Results
Our study population was made up of 20 healthy men, aged              All baseline TEOAE and ABR measurements were nor-
20 to 40 years, who were of normal height and weight.                 mal. Following exposure during phase 1, no significant
These subjects were chosen at random from among the                   changes were observed in TEOAE or ABR. Likewise,
staff at San Martino Hospital in Genoa, Italy. All had                no significant changes were observed after phase 2 and
normal hearing.                                                       during phase 3.
  Prior to the start of the study, baseline measurements                 After each phase, all subjects reported a warm sensation
of transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and                  in the area of contact with the receiver and in the area of
                                                                      the antenna.

From the ENT Department, San Martino Hospital, University of Genoa,   Discussion
Reprint requests: Renzo Mora, MD, Via dei Mille 11/9, 16147 Genoa,    The degree of adverse biologic effects of cellular phone
     Italy. Phone: 39-010-353-7631; fax: 39-010-353-7684; e-mail:     microwaveradiation(e.g.,radiofrequencysickness,electro-
     renzomora@libero.it                                              encephalographicandbloodpressurechanges,andcancer

160                                                                                         ENT-Ear, Nose & Throat Journal  March 2006
                                                 MORA, CRIPPA, MORA, DELLEPIANE

risks) depends on many factors, including the duration of           In our study, we observed no alterations involving the
exposure to the radiation and the individual characteristics     auditorysystemaftershort-termcontinuousorintermittent
of a given patient’s central nervous system and immune           exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by a cellular
status.2,4,6,7 Cellular phone microwave radiation can induce     phone. It is possible that the absence of change was related
reversible, nonspecific adaptive responses when the dura-        to the duration of the exposure (30 min maximum), which
tion of exposure is short and the affected organism is very      was not long enough to result in a temperature increase in
radiosensitive. The results of some studies of the biologic      tissue. It is noteworthy that no detectable changes were
effects of low-intensity modulated microwave radiation,          seen even during phase 2, when subjects participated in
including that generated by cellular phones, have led in-        numerous short telephone calls and were exposed to the
vestigators to conclude that such radiation does not exert       increased electromagnetic field that was generated at the
any lasting pathologic effects on the body.6,7                   beginning of each call.
   Other studies have shown that ultrahigh-frequency ra-            Concerns have been expressed that the use of cellular
diation induces significant changes in local temperature         phones might cause brain tumors. Certainly, if such a risk
and in the physiologic parameters of the central nervous         doesexist,thematterwouldbeofconsiderablepublichealth
and cardiovascular systems.8-12 Among these changes are          importance, given the wide popularity of these devices.
an increase in blood pressure values, locoregional vaso-         However,publisheddatadonotsupportthehypothesisthat
dilation, and transient inflammation brought about by an         the use of a cellular phone causes brain tumors over the
increase in the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane.        short term. Data on long-term (>1 yr) risks among heavy
The mechanism of the increase in the permeability of the         cellular phone users are not yet available. 19-21 Other stud-
erythrocyte membrane is not well understood. It might be         ies have shown that radiofrequency fields––particularly
the result of a hemolytic effect linked to the destabilization   those generated by cellular phones––are not genotoxic.
of divalent calcium-protein bridges. Such effects occur          Also, they do not seem to be teratogenic, and they do not
only after tissue has been exposed to microwave fields           appear to induce cancer.22-25
for at least 30 consecutive minutes.8,13                            We conclude that the use of cellular phones does not alter
   The heat sensation reported by our subjects was caused        theauditorysystemintheshortterm.Weintendtocontinue
by the activation of inflammatory mechanisms.The release         monitoringthesesubjectsinordertodocumentthepossible
of inflammatory substances (e.g., histamine) from macro-         appearance of any long-term hearing alterations.
phages in the skin results in a local erythema, edema, and
sensations of itching and pain, and the release of somato-       References
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                                                                SPECIAL TOPICS CLINIC

Continued from page 159
rence rates as high as 61 to 89%.1 The treatment of choice                  lously dissected circumferentially around the demarcated
for most ranulas is complete excision of the ranula and                     pseudocyst, and the sublingual gland is transected and
the associated sublingual gland. Complications associated                   removed along with the ranula. Loupe magnification (×2.5)
with surgical excision are not uncommon; they include                       can improve visualization during dissection, but it is often
recurrence, tongue paresthesias, damage to Wharton’s                        unnecessary because the methylene blue stains only the
duct, wound dehiscence, bleeding, hematoma, and post-                       pseudocyst. As a result, the underlying structures, such as
operative infection.2                                                       Wharton’s duct and the lingual nerve, can be preserved
   Wehavedevelopedaninnovativetechniqueofintraranula                        (figure, C). In the event of a ranula rupture, the methylene
injection with methylene blue that facilitates pseudocyst                   blue effectively stains the interior of the pseudocyst cav-
localization and complete surgical removal while decreas-                   ity, and complete excision can be easily accomplished by
ing the risk of the aforementioned complications. With the                  excising all of the stained tissue (figure, D). The surgeon
patient under general anesthesia, the tongue is retracted                   then performs primary closure of the wound with absorb-
to expose the floor of the mouth and the ranula (figure,                    able sutures.
A). The ranula is injected with 0.1 to 0.2 ml of methylene                     Complete excision of the pseudocyst and associated
blue via a 30-gauge needle. The needle is inserted through                  sublingual gland is the treatment of choice for most ranulas.
the contralateral surface of the tongue and introduced into                 Ranulainjectionwithmethylenebluefacilitatespseudocyst
the pseudocyst from the lingual side. This prevents the                     localization, aids in complete surgical removal, decreases
ranula from rupturing and prevents the methylene blue                       unnecessary dissection, and preserves uninvolved tissue
from leaking out of the injection site. The methylene blue                  while decreasing the risk of complications.
permeates through the mucus of the ranula and effectively
demarcates the ranula from the surrounding normal tissue                    References
(figure, B).                                                                 1. Crysdale WS, Mendelsohn JD, Conley S. Ranulas-mucoceles of
                                                                                the oral cavity: Experience in 26 children. Laryngoscope 1988;98:
   Once the extent of the ranula has been localized with                        296-8.
methylene blue, a #15 blade is used to incise the mucosa                     2. Zhao YF, Jia J, Jia Y. Complications associated with surgical
around the periphery of the lesion. The ranula is meticu-                       management of ranulas. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005;63:51-4.

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