THE 4-H STUDY OF POSITIVE ... - 4-H Youth Development Program by iwestaaiegjpuiv

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									       THE 4-H STUDY
             OF
POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

                  Jacqueline V. Lerner
                     Boston College
                            and
                    Christina Theokas
 Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development
                     Tufts University
Background and
 Significance
A New Perspective About Youth

Scientists, practitioners, and educators agree:
 Youth are resources to be developed; they are
  not problems to be managed.

 This vision replaces the traditional deficit model
  of children and adolescents which is a model of
  disease and prevention. In the deficit view,
  people see children as broken or as destined to
  be broken and feel that they need to fix them or
  prevent these problems from occurring.
       However:

Prevention is not promotion

Problem free is not prepared

Prepared is not engaged
     The Positive Youth
  Development Perspective
 All   children have strengths

 Allfamilies, school, and communities have
  assets –or the “nutrients” or “building
  blocks” of healthy, positive development

 Aligning  – creating a good fit – between
  child strengths and ecological assets will
  promote positive youth development
Attributes of Positive
Youth Development:

      “THE FIVE Cs”
       Competence
       Confidence
       Connection
       Character
       Caring


      Contribution
Positive Youth Development Happens
               in Context

                          INDIVIDUAL



                 Competence

          Confidence                   Contribution

                                                        COMMUNITY
         Connection           PYD
FAMILY
          Character                       Reduced
                                       Risk behaviors
                 Caring



                             SCHOOL
  One Community
   Asset for the
   Promotion of
     Positive
   Development:


Effective Youth Serving Programs
The “Big Three” Features of Effective
   Youth Development Programs*


 Positive,sustained adult-youth
  relationships

 Skill-building               activities for youth

 Youth  participation and leadership in every
  facet of the program

 Lerner, R.M. (2004). Liberty: Thriving and civic engagement among America’s youth.
   “Time spent in youth programs was the
 developmental asset that appeared to have
         the most pervasive positive
       influence…predicting…thriving
 outcomes…Good youth programs provide
 young people with access to caring adults
   and responsible peers, as well as skill-
   building activities that can reinforce the
  values and skills that are associated with
 doing well in school and maintaining good
               physical health.”

Note: This conclusion comes from a study of about 100,000 diverse youth in grades 6-12 from
across the United States. (Scales, Benson, Leffert, and Blyth, Applied Developmental Science,
2000)
Research Design
 Goals and Research Questions
Goal # 1: To advance the understanding of the
 nature of positive youth development.


Questions:

   Is the model of PYD -- as represented by the five
    Cs – useful and able to be empirically validated?

   What characteristics of youth in combination with
    what family and community characteristics are
    related to the five Cs?
 Goals and Research Questions
Goal # 2: To study the impact of community-
 based youth development programs,
 specifically 4-H and HealthRocks! as a
 particular 4-H program, on children and
 youth.
Questions:
 What is the role of these programs as a means
  to promote PYD?
   Do characteristics of the youth, family, or
    community impact the role of youth development
    programs?
               Research Design
   Pilot
       Develop a good measurement model of the Five Cs.

   Wave 1:     2002-2003 (5th grade)
       Recruit a national, diverse sample.
       Assess initial levels of PYD, risk behaviors, and assets.

   Wave 2:     2003-2004 (6th grade)
       Evaluate changes in PYD, risk behaviors, and assets.

   Wave 3:     2004-2005 (7th grade)
       Continue to evaluate changes in PYD, risks behaviors,
        and assets.
       Determine the impact of youth development programs.
                Study Participants
Wave I participants of the 4-H Study are a diverse group of about 1,700 fifth
grade adolescents and approximately 1,200 of their parents. The sample
socioeconomic status, family structure, rural-urban location, and
geographic region of the United States.

                                      Gender:

                         Males: 47.9%     Females: 52.1%

                                   Race/Ethnicity:

 Native American:           4.1%              Asian American:               3.3%
 African American:          8.1%              Hispanic:                    18.0%
 European American:        57.9%              Multi-ethnic/Multi-racial:    5.7%
 Other:           3.0%

            Youth and parents come from the following states:

 Northeast: MA, NY                            Mid-Atlantic: MD
 Southeast: AL, FL, NC                        Mid-West: WI, TN, MO, MN
 Northwest: WA, MT                            Southwest: AZ
    The Student Questionnaire

 More than 300 questions!
 Demographic questions
   About them, their household, the time they have lived
    in their neighborhood, etc.
 Future Goals and Expectations
 Activity Participation
   School clubs, sports, lessons, after-school programs
 Relationships with parents, friends, other adults
 Involvement in positive behaviors
 Involvement in risky behaviors
    Measurement Model for the Five Cs

Competence     Confidence     Connection      Character       Caring

SI: School     SI: Positive   TAP: Peer       SI: Personal    Eisenberg:
Grades         Identity       Support         Values          Sympathy

SI: School     SPPC: Self     SI: Family      SI: Social
Engagement     Worth                          Conscience

SPPC:                         SI: School      SI: Values
Academic                                      Diversity
Competence
SPPC: Social                  SI: Community   SI:
Competence                                    Interpersonal
                                              Values and
                                              Skills
      Measurement of Contribution
Two Components
1.   Ideology of Contribution: In response to open
     ended questions, youth indicate a commitment to
     giving back to the world around them.

2.   Participation in activities that reflect active
     engagement with the world around oneself such
     as: being a leader in a group, helping friends and
     neighbors, participation in school government,
     sports, religious youth groups and volunteering in
     the community
Findings
Validation of Empirical Bases of the
               Five Cs

Using LISREL 8.54, a confirmatory factor analysis
 of the measures produced the first empirical
 evidence for the presence of the Five Cs and their
 combined relationship to form a second order
 latent construct of PYD

Fit indices indicated that the model provided good
 fit to the data:
     X2 = 552, d.f. = 134
     RMSEA = 0.043
     CFI = 0.99
     GFI = 0.97
           Correlations between the
               5C Factor Scores

                  1       2      3      4     5
1.Competence      1
2.Confidence    .628**    1
3.Connection    .744** .693**    1
4.Character     .676**   .630   .746    1
5.Caring        .405**   .378   .447   .407   1
     The Five Cs and Individual and
            Family Variables
   Girls’ scores on:
    Competence, Connection, Character and
    Caring were higher than those of boys

   European American and Latino youth reported
    greater Confidence

   Household income was positive related to:
    Competence, Confidence, Connection and
    Character
     Contribution, the Five Cs and
    Individual and Family Variables

   Girls scores are higher on Contribution

   Race/ethnicity was not related to contribution

   Family income was negatively related to
    contribution

   PYD is significantly related to contribution
       Of the individual Cs: Character and Competence
        most strongly predict Contribution
How about 4-H Program Participation?
    4-H Program Participation is not significantly
     related to higher PYD scores

    However 4-H program participation contributes
     significantly to higher Contribution scores

      3.5

        3

      2.5
                                              4-H
        2                                     no YDP

      1.5

        1
                   Contribution
                   What about HealthRocks!
   Similarly, youth who have received Health
    Rocks! do not show higher PYD scores.

   However, incidence of smoking is less!

                              Incidence of Smoking

                   0.25                          Health Rocks!
                   0.20
     % Incidence




                                                 Health Education
                   0.15                          Class
                   0.10                          Other Program
                   0.05
                                                 No Program
                   0.00
                          School-Level Smoking   Multiple
                               Prevention        Programs
           THE KEY QUESTION:

Does 4-H promote positive development?
   Point-in-time analyses (e.g., analyses of
    wave1 data) cannot answer this question

   ONLY longitudinal analyses can answer this
    question

   Therefore, what do the longitudinal data tell
    us about whether 4-H and HR! protects and
    promotes?
                     4-H Participation and PYD

                                     Confidence                                           Competence
                     0.3                                                 0.3

                                                                                                          0.127
                     0.1                                0.047            0.1
                                                                                 0.008
                             0.017
                                                        -0.008
                     -0.1                                               -0.1     -0.001                   -0.023
                            -0.122

                     -0.3                                               -0.3

                              5th Grade            6th Grade                      5th Grade          6th Grade


                Caring                                           Character                                    Connection
0.3                                         0.3                                               0.3

                                                                                  0.141                                     0.192
0.1                                         0.1                                               0.1
                                 0.022                0.013                                           0.044
       0.003
       -0.017                   -0.004                                            -0.025             -0.006                 -0.034
-0.1                                        -0.1      -0.09                                   -0.1


-0.3                                        -0.3                                              -0.3

         5th Grade          6th Grade                  5th Grade             6th Grade                 5th Grade       6th Grade



                                                                               Others
                                                                    4-H Participants
           Summary of Findings

   The positive vision and vocabulary of youth
    practitioners and developmental researchers
    has been validated and can be empirically
    studied

   4-H, even in very young youth, is having a
    positive impact on youth contribution to self,
    family, and community

   HR! is associated with a low incidence of youth
    smoking
                 Future Steps
   Examine developmental changes in the Five Cs;
    that is, what is the course of PYD through
    puberty and into the higher risk adolescent
    years?
   Introduce additional contextual variables and
    diversity into the analyses to better understand
    what conditions promote positive development
   Gain a more nuanced view of the relationship
    between 4-H and HR!, PYD, and youth
    contributions, that is, how and in what ways
    does program participation help?

								
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