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Community Breakfast ... - The Connecticut Juvenile Justice Alliance

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									6th Annual Connecticut Data Showcase Conference
                 April 27, 2011




       Abby Anderson, Executive Director
       Lara Herscovitch, Sr. Policy Analyst
               Mission
The mission of the Connecticut Juvenile
         Justice Alliance is to
 (A) reduce the number of children and
youth entering the juvenile and criminal
          justice systems, and
 (B) advocate a safe, effective, and fair
       system for those involved.
    Priorities and Strategies

– Legislative Education and Advocacy
– Strategic Communications
– Community Organizing
– National / State / Local Partnerships
  (esp LISTs)
                 Today’s Agenda

Understanding CT’s Juvenile Justice System
– Who is in our system?
– What reform has been underway?
– What has it achieved?
– Where is the intersection between jj and education
  systems?
– Does race matter in terms of how kids are treated by the
  juvenile justice system and, if so, how?
Of everyone arrested in CT, how many
       are children and youth?
What are our children and youth being arrested for?
What is the gender make up of the
    juvenile justice system?
            Good news:

       Over the past ten years,
 reforms have significantly reduced
the size of the entire juvenile justice
system, from front end to deep end.
System Shrinking
 Fewer kids going to court
            System Shrinking
 Fewer kids in court for delinquency AND FWSN…


2006 – 2009 Delinquency                    2006 – 2009 FWSN

2006           14,280                      2006                      4,560

2007           13,302                      2007                      3,833

2008           11,421                      2008                      2,764

2009            9,763                      2009                      2,475




                          Source: CT Judicial Branch; Court Management Information System
System Shrinking
 Fewer kids in detention




                           Source: Judicial Branch
System Shrinking
Fewer kids committed to DCF
 System Shrinking
Number of kids sent to Connecticut
 Juvenile Training School (juvenile
     prison) is holding steady




  2009         203 admissions
  2008         201 admissions
  2007         189 admissions
  2006         215 admissions


                      Source: DCF CJTS Reports to Legislature, 06-09
As of January 1, 2010, 16-year-olds
are considered juveniles for all but
the most serious crimes. (Only 2
states treat all 16 year-olds as
adults.)

17 year-olds still “adults” in CT no
matter how minor their crime. They
join juvenile justice system July 1,
2012. (Only 10 other states treat all
17 year-olds as adults.)
      Raise the Age:
the impact of 16-year-olds

 • Projected system increase: 40%
 • Actual system increase:    22%



                          Source: Judicial Branch
     Even with the addition of
           16-year-olds,
     court referrals are below
        levels in 2006-07
FY 06-07 Delinquency, FWSN, YIC   19,242

CY 2010 Delinquency, FWSN, YIC    16,275
  Even with 16-year-olds,
detention is below ’06 levels




                      Source: Judicial Branch
   Even with 16 year-olds, CJTS
admissions have not seen a major
 impact (2011 will be more telling)

        2010   211 admissions
        2009   203 admissions
        2008   201 admissions
        2007   189 admissions
        2006   215 admissions
                   Source: DCF CJTS Annual Reports to Legislature 06-10
      Why is the system
        shrinking?
• Smart investments in prevention
• A commitment to serve kids in the least
  restrictive environment
• Home-based, evidence-based, family-
  centric interventions
• e.g., FWSN reform, Family Support
  Centers
   What are the results of a
     shrinking system?
• No increase in crime, juvenile crime rate still falling
• More appropriate services
• Community services cheaper than institutions
   – 6 months of MST = $9,000*
   – 6 months at CJTS = $133,920**
• 16-year-olds incorporated with zero capitol costs and
  fewer programmatic and staff costs than anticipated
• More room to add 17-year-olds at lower cost than
  expected
                 *Judicial Branch, Court Support Services Division
                 **CJTS Advisory Board Report to the Legislature, January 2010
   Where is the intersection of
 juvenile justice and education?
• Connecting the dots:

  –   School Climate
  –   Vision and Approach to Discipline
  –   Suspension
  –   Expulsion
  –   Arrest
  –   Presence of SROs or patrol officers
  –   Relationship between district and PD
  –   Reentry policies and practices
            Education and JJ
                 Keep kids in school.

“Students should be removed from the school setting only
under the most exceptional circumstances...That is why we
need policies like this that keep students in school, not at
home. Keeping children out of school is a direct line to
delinquent behavior. Students get farther behind in their
course work. They lose hope of catching up. It’s a recipe for
failure.”
                          – Governor M. Jodi Rell, June 28, 2007
             Education and JJ

How do kids get into the juvenile justice system from
the education system?

• FWSN – about 50% of all FWSN referrals are for truancy

• Arrest and other exclusionary discipline practices
       Education and JJ

Are school-based disciplinary sanctions
          administered fairly?
               Education and JJ
     Are school-based disciplinary sanctions
                  administered fairly?
                           NO
•   Twice as likely for African-Americans
•   Almost 3x as likely for Latinos
•   Twice as likely for males
•   Twice as likely for special education students

Source: CT State Department of Education, 2011
           Education and JJ
                          Truancy

•Awareness Raising – FWSN laws, available programs
and services. Expansion of Family Support Center and
FSC services statewide.

•Prevention and Early Intervention

      Center for Children’s Advocacy leading these efforts
        Education and JJ
            Keep kids in school.

Reduce the use of discipline strategies that remove
               kids from schools.




               Sign at a Bridgeport high school
            Education and JJ
                Keep kids in school.
Arrests at school
Children much more likely to be arrested in school
today, many for offenses that could be better handled
within school (remove hat, yell in hallway, etc.).
Behavior is “inappropriate but developmentally
understandable.”

Why?
•Zero tolerance policies, lack of discipline alternatives
•Increased pressures on schools and increased
presence of police in schools
•Lack of clarity regarding police role in schools
             Education and JJ
      Limited School-Based Arrest Data…
               But Not for Long.
Waterbury 2008: HALF of all juvenile arrests happened
between 8am and 3pm, Monday to Friday

Ansonia and Windsor 2009-10: 65%+ of arrests were
for disturbance / breach of peace

Judicial Branch collecting school-based arrest data:
•     statewide baseline
•     Annie E. Casey Foundation project pilot sites
      (Manchester, Stamford, Willimantic, plus Middletown)
•     more (and all) to follow
              Education and JJ
Alliance activities: keeping kids in school.

•Awareness-Raising : panels and reports
•Limit offenses for which out-of-school/arrest is an option
•Get data!
    • How many kids are arrested in school / district and for
      what offenses?
•Give educators and police discretion and opportunity to
   use common sense.
    • Zero tolerance = Zero intelligence
•Legislative clarity around reentry policies and practices –
accepting credits, no double-jeopardy expulsion, etc.
             Race Matters
Does race/ethnicity effect how children are treated
         in the juvenile justice system?

                       YES

   Do we know how race/ethnicity effects how
            children are treated?

                       YES
             Race Matters
                  We believe that
ALL youth in the juvenile justice system should be
   treated equally, regardless of their race or
                    ethnicity.

This is not the case. We have DMC in Connectict.
           Race Matters

              What is DMC?


“Disproportionate Minority Contact” (DMC) =
Youth of color receive different treatment by the
 juvenile justice system than their white peers,
     leading to more negative outcomes.
         Race Matters


            What states have
Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC)?
Race Matters




  All of them
Juvenile Justice & Hispanic Kids

 Percentage of CT under-18 population
  that is Hispanic
                    14%

 Percentage of CT juvenile justice population
  that is Hispanic
                    20%
Juvenile Justice & Black Kids

Percentage of CT under-18 population
 that is Black
                   12%

Percentage of CT juvenile justice population
 that is Black
                   35%
Juvenile Justice & White Kids

Percentage of CT under-18 population
 that is White
                   75%

Percentage of CT juvenile justice population
 that is White
                   35%
    Race Matters
Why are there more kids of color
 in the juvenile justice system?
      Race Matters
 Why are there more kids of color
  in the juvenile justice system?

Do kids of color commit more crime
         than white kids?
               Race Matters
        Why are there more kids of color
         in the juvenile justice system?
     Do kids of color commit more crime
              than white kids?
                        NO
In national surveys, including one by the U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, kids of all races
and ethnicities self-report committing the same crimes
at very similar rates.

Kids of all races and ethnicities do the same
things. But we treat kids of color more harshly.
           Race Matters
      Why are there more kids of color
       in the juvenile justice system?

Is Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC)
           a result of poverty?
               Race Matters
         Why are there more kids of color
          in the juvenile justice system?

 Is Disproportionate Minority Contact ( DMC)
            a result of poverty?
                        NO
Connecticut studies of DMC looked at how coming from
a low-income neighborhood affects treatment. Poverty is
a disadvantage, but it does not fully account for the
difference in how a kid is treated.
             Race Matters
        Why are there more kids of color
         in the juvenile justice system?

Is it simply because there’s more crime in cities,
             where many of them live?
               Race Matters
         Why are there more kids of color
          in the juvenile justice system?

Is it simply because there’s more crime in cities,
             where many of them live?
                         NO
We actually see a greater disparity in the treatment of
minority youth in rural and suburban Connecticut than in
the state’s cities.
         Race Matters
Where is the DMC in Connecticut’s
    juvenile justice system?
CT Juvenile Justice Advisory Committee
   research by Spectrum Associates
    15 “decision points”
          how kids are handled after arrest
          through DCF commitment
    Does not include decision to arrest
    7 show Disproportionate Minority Contact
                          Race Matters
7 Decision Points WITH Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC):
                                                           Black      Hispanic     White

 1. Referred to court                                        x           x
  2. Placed in secure holding                                x
 3. Taken to detention                                       x           x
 4. Released from detention prior to case disposition        x
 5. Transferred to adult court                               x           x
  6. Time spent in CJTS                                      x           x
 7. Time spent in non-secure facility                                                   x



    The data covers a sampling of police cases from 2005-2006, juvenile court records
      from 2006 and Department of Children and Families records from 2005-2007.
                           Race Matters
8 Decision Points WITHOUT Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC):
                                                                    Black    Hispanic     White
 1. Brought to police station (versus released)
 2. Length of time in secure holding
 3. Length of time in detention
 4. Type of handling (case in front of a judge or
    probation officer)
 5-6. For cases in front of a judge, how many kids were
      found guilty and what the consequences were for
      being found guilty (i.e., placement in CJTS,
      residential, home / on probation)
 7.   For cases that didn’t go in front of a judge, the
      outcome (supervision, discharge)

 8.   Percentage of DCF commitment completed
      The data covers a sampling of police cases from 2005-2006, juvenile court records
        from 2006 and Department of Children and Families records from 2005-2007.
        Race Matters
Disproportionate Minority Contact
(DMC) is something we can change.
Because we know exactly where in
the system these problems exist, we
can target those decision points and
demand accountability and equality.
          Race Matters
DMC is in everyone’s interest to change.
  • Offends our shared values of equality /
    equal opportunity
  • Diminishes a child’s long-term chances
  • Wastes state resources by putting kids
    in the system who don’t need to be
    there
                    To Recap
Youth make up less than 10% of justice system.
Raise the Age is halfway implemented, so far so
  good.
Overall system is much smaller today than it was a
  decade ago – crime is lower, fewer kids in
  detention or prison, community-based care more
  effective and cheaper.
Education and justice systems overlap. Address
  that by giving schools tools and supports to keep
  kids in school.
Race is a factor in how kids are treated by our
  system. We know where those racial decisions
  occur so we can make changes.
              Questions?
              Comments?

Check out www.ctjja.org to learn more or get involved

								
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