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           AP Euro                                       Semester Final Study Guide – Additional Info About Each Century
14th   Century                      Middle Ages Renaissance                                                 15th Century                           Renaissance

Classical Background, Geography, and a Basic Chronological Framework                                         •Signori, wealthy oligarchic families, run Italian city-states (de Medici‟s in Florence, for example)
•You must know the map of Europe we did in the first unit, including: major political divisions of 1500      •Italian city states had a balance of power that allowed cultural explosion but eventually inviting
(13), major European peninsulas (7), major bodies of water (but not rivers) (11), why many major             invasion from outsiders (Valois-Habsburg Wars)
European capitals are on rivers, basic climatic regions (north western, Mediterranean, and Eastern,          •Savonarola represented the popolo’s dissatisfaction with the Signori)
including the impact of the gulf stream and the moderating impact of bodies of water in the west and         •Humanism: individualism, secularism (but not atheism), love of the classical, belief that classical
south on climate)                                                                                            knowledge can be interpreted and evaluated, not just received, introduction of classical texts from the
•History broken into pre-history, classical history/antiquity, medieval history, and the modern age          Middle East; printing press
•The meaning of the term the „Early Modern Age‟                                                              •Humanists: Pico della Mirandola (Oration on the Dignity of Man- humanist anthem); Lorenzo Valla
                                                                                                             (textual criticism); Leonardo da Vinci as Renaissance Man
Late Medieval World
                                                                                                             •Themes of Renaissance Art: single-point perspective, human focus (portraits) (Mona Lisa), realism
•Great Chain of Being, including: patronage v deference, Ptolemy and Aristotle‟s contributions,
                                                                                                             (nudes) (David), higher status of the artist (signed their works… seen as divine), shading
primogeniture, „stations‟ on the chain. Why it was unthinkable to break the chain. The need to accept
                                                                                                             (chiarascuro), revival of classical styles (especially in architecture) (School of Athens painting),
ones‟ station. King versus church sovereignty issues.
                                                                                                             patronage of both wealthy families and the church
•Feudalism/manor system, manorial privileges for nobles: root of social classes… insecurity of medieval
                                                                                                             •Women and the Renaissance: noble women got great educations, but only to make themselves
world leads to castles, local power, nobles of the sword who fight for local security… diminished
                                                                                                             decorative to men (The Courtier was gender biased) not to participate in society; evidence of impact
international trade
                                                                                                             on lower class women is weaker, but weak rape laws indicate low status
•Social repercussions of the Black Plague (poor workers have more rights… end of serfdom in Western,
                                                                                                             •Laura Cereta is an example of a Renaissance humanist/feminist… she was only able to have an
but not Eastern Europe)
                                                                                                             independent life as a writer because of the good fortune of her husband dying… despite her brilliance
•Basics of the 1st Hundred Years‟ War (fought by French and British over ownership of France… some           she was still looked upon skeptically
French nobles betrayed their own side to get independence from French king… Joan of Arc eventually
                                                                                                             •Pre „Age of Exploration‟ status of Africans: curiosities in Europe, valued as such… mixed views on
rallies French to win… Parliament gains power in response to English king‟s need to get money for the
                                                                                                             black skin... Sign of humility or devil?
fight… led to early stirrings of nationalism in France and Britain, one of the last chivalric wars… kings
are left as 1st among equals, but will soon rise higher… Magna Carta in England stands as a medieval         •Erasmus- Northern Humanist (Christian Humanism)- early advocate of bible in vernacular, holier
symbol for limitation of royal power)                                                                        Christianity as promoted by Christian education, more critical version of the bible; criticized abuses in
                                                                                                             Church hierarchy and argued for tolerance, prepared Northern Europe for Luther
•Two basic branches of Christianity: Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox (Byzantium)
                                                                                                             •Thomas More- Northern Humanist- Utopia- no private property… causes corruption, reason is the
•The Great Schism/Babylonian Captivity (several competing Popes; it eventually ends, but weakens the
                                                                                                             basis for a better society
authority and prestige of the church)
                                                                                                             •Rabelais- French humanist Shakespeare
•John Wycliffe attacks Catholic corruption and founds Lollards; Jan Hus, Czech critic of Catholic
Church… burned at the stake… followers known as Hussites; ; pre-Luther Luthers                               •In the wake of the First Hundred Years‟ War, New Monarchs aka Renaissance Princes‟ used
                                                                                                             marriage and war to reassert monarchical power (like France, Spain, England)
•„Gothic‟ signifies German or non-Roman and was an artistic style of the late Middle Ages… it was
significantly different from the classical style, which would be reborn in the Renaissance (I didn‟t cover   •French New Monarchs unified competing French provinces, rebuild French army and increase
this in class, but you must know it for the final!)                                                          French royal power
•Evidence of earliest roots of nationalism in vernacular literature like Dante‟s Divine Comedy and           • English kings use the strict and politically motivated Court of the Star Chamber to reassert royal
Chaucer‟s Canterbury Tales; scholasticism                                                                    authority under the house of Tudor (it stands until the English Civil War); this court breaks the
                                                                                                             English tradition of advanced and fair judiciary, but does centralize and organize England after 1 st
•Christine de Pisan- Early Italian advocate of women‟s rights
                                                                                                             Hundred Years‟ War
•In the 13th c, the fourth crusade sacked Constantinople, eliminating a non-Italian alternative to trade
                                                                                                             •Ferdinand and Isabella used marriage to bring central authority to Spain, booted out Muslims
routes for Asian trade goods entering Europe, handing even more power to the Northern Italian city-
                                                                                                             (reconquista), copied Roman Inquisition to persecute Jews, and began to engineer marriages to
states…ripening them for the Renaissance
                                                                                                             establish Habsburg Empire; funded Columbus‟ missions
•Understand the existence of identification by king or lord in place of nationalism (which wouldn‟t rise
                                                                                                             •Prince Henry the Navigator builds up Portuguese knowledge of African coast to find alternate trade
until Napoleon)… (hint: understanding the difference between subjects and citizens helps with this one).
                                                                                                             route, especially after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman in 1457; Dias rounds Cape of Good
Few large towns in Europe… most are in northern Italy.
                                                                                                             Hope, end of century explosion as part of Age of Exploration
•Petrarch … very early Humanist… believes Italy is entering a Golden „New Classical‟ Age
                                                                                                             •In Treaty of Tordesillas, Pope divides New World between Portuguese and Spain (Portugal is happy
•Vocab- bourgeoisie/burghers, guilds, HRE, oligarchy, despotism, republic, empire                            because they are after east…India, etc… they will later regret losing out on silver of Peru and Mexico)
                                                                                                             •Columbian Exchange, goods cross Atlantic in both directions
         Hansen                 AP Euro                                       Semester Final Study Guide – Additional Info About Each Century
16th Century                                                                                                     16th Century continued
Renaissance  Age of Exploration  Reformation  Wars of Religion
                                                                                                                 •Baroque art reflects the Council of Trent‟s desire to emphasize emotion and to direct art and
                                                                                                                 worship towards the masses rather than elites.
•High Renaissance in Rome with Michelangelo, da Vinci, and Raphael
                                                                                                                 •Tensions in France between absolutist and lavish Catholics (Francis I and Henry II) on the one
•Castiglione‟s The Courtier and the idea of the ideal „Renaissance Man‟
                                                                                                                 hand and the increasingly Huguenot nobles on the other. Francis I and Henry II had overspent
•Machiavelli‟s The Prince and its statements about power (Machiavellian versus Machiavelli). His goal to         their income from the Taille (tax on land) because of lavish living and Habsburg-Valois War.
make Italy strong enough to withstand foreigners taking over Italy (Habsburg-Valios Wars)                        French monarchs create money by selling offices to the Nobility of the Robe. Early Wars of
•Thomas Moore‟s Utopia argues that flawed social institutions and greed, rather than inherent corruption,        Religion fighting was touched off by the St. Bartholomew‟s Day Massacres, which led to the War
caused evil in men; earliest kernels of socialist-type thought                                                   of the Three Henry‟s. This war ended when politique Prince Henry Navarre/Henry IV (“Paris is
•Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church: absenteeism/pluralism, immorality of the clergy, Tetzel‟s               worth a mass”) took the throne. Converts to Catholicism, but passes Edict of Nantes for
indulgences (purgatory), poor education of the clergy, worldliness of church hierarchy, simony                   Protestants.
•Luther‟s teachings- sola scriptura, priesthood of all believers, vernacular bible, faith alone can save (sola   •Netherlands had been able to tolerate Habsburg rule under culturally Flemish Charles V, but not
fide), rejection of most Catholic sacraments because not in bible                                                so much under intolerant Spanish Philip II. Calvinists in the Spanish-owned Netherlands revolt
•Friction between educated laity and poorly educated priests                                                     against Catholicism (smash icons). Spanish Habsburg Philip II sends army up to the Netherlands
                                                                                                                 to pacify it. Spanish use violence and the inquisition. Netherlands unites under William of Orange
•Why could the Reformation happen only in HRE? Understand clash between Charles V and Luther at Diet
                                                                                                                 („the silent‟). Eventually the Southern provinces of the Netherlands (future Belgium) are held by
of Worms.
                                                                                                                 Spain (remain Catholic) and the Northern parts (future Netherlands) are liberated (under the Union
•How did Luther react to HRE peasant revolts and why? (Against the Thieving, Murderous, Hordes of                of Utrecht) (Protestant). Dutch use flooding to hold back Spanish mercenary army.
Peasants) Why did many nobles in HRE support Luther?
                                                                                                                 •Netherlands had been begging Protestant England for help; Elizabeth had tried to avoid helping,
•What was Luther‟s stance on women? (see textbook pg 462)                                                        but needed Dutch markets and didn‟t want to stand alone against Catholic Spain, so eventually,
•Habsburg-Valois Wars (fought between France and Habsburgs over Italy… also, France wants to keep                after William the Silent was assassinated, helped. Catholic cousin of Elizabeth, Mary, Queen of
HRE divided, so it supports Protestant nobles in HRE- in Peace of Augsburg, Charles V has to accept the          Scots, was executed when linked to a Catholic plot to overthrow Elizabeth. Spanish are spurred by
rule that in HRE, he who rules, chooses religion. Charles V can‟t crush Protestantism because he is              aid to Dutch and death of Mary to launch armada. „Protestant wind‟ helps defeat the Spanish
worrying about Ottoman‟s, French, and rebellious Lutheran HRE princes.                                           Armada; Spain is weakened but not defeated, but Protestantism will live.
•Know the total land controlled by Habsburg dynasty by the time of Phillip II (Spanish Habsburg) and             •Thirty Years‟ War is thematically related, but falls in next century.
Ferdinand (Austrian Habsburg)                                                                                    •Portuguese start Age of Exploration by taking North West African islands and ports (starts in
•Calvinism (Calvinism‟s predestination- which links to Calvinist belief in the puniness of humans before         previous century). .Prince Henry the Navigator is pivotal. Caravel, cannon, astrolabe, and
God- morally rigid Geneva with a consistory that looked in on human behavior, inflexibility with some            magnetic compass give European explorers an advantage. Ultimately will find new world and
ideas as evident in execution of Servetus, strong work ethic and educational push to enable reading of the       wrest Indian Ocean trade away from Muslim traders.
bible). Most famous book: Institutes of the Christian Religion                                                   •Spain follows with Columbus. Explorers main goals are economic. Religion and curiosity were
•Calvinism has a greater direct influence on other Protestant faiths (Huguenot in France, Presbyterian in        motives as well. Silver bullion in New World will contribute to Spain‟s mighty power, its attempt
Scotland, Puritans in England) than Lutheranism                                                                  to roll back the „Protestant Tide‟, and the high inflation in Europe in the late 16 th century (Price
•Calvin didn‟t do much to advance the status of women                                                            Revolution). Some recent scholars tie this inflation to Europe‟s growing population as well as the
•Anabaptists were true radicals with: equality for women, adult baptism, and separation of church and state;     new world silver.
persecuted by almost everyone… (“by their fruits you will know them”)                                            •Spanish priest de las Casas criticizes the poor treatment of Native Americans by the Spanish.
•English Reformation: Henry VIII asked for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; Pope‟s           •European Witch Hunts reflect tension and superstition of Wars of Religion; misogyny
hands were tied by need to look infallible in face of Reformation and to avoid angering Catherine‟s relative     •Golden Age of English Lit under Elizabeth and King James (Shakespeare and King James Bible)
Charles V: said no. Henry established Anglican church. Act of Supremacy and Act in Restraint of Appeals          •African slavery increases (middle passage) and slavery is increasingly racial with the end of
end Pope‟s control over English Church. Henry‟s kids swing England back and forth between Catholicism            white slaves from Crimea with fall of Constantinople to Ottomans Indians make poor slaves so
(Bloody Mary) and Protestantism, and Elizabethan Settlement declares a middle of the road Protestantism) .       Africans work sugar plantations in African islands and the New World
•Reason for Irish devotion to Catholicism (link to English oppressors)                                           •Montaigne demonstrates uncertainty of the times of the Wars of Religion with his style of
•Lutheranism becomes popular in Scandinavian states and Calvinism in Scotland                                    skeptical essays. Criticizes poor treatment of non-Europeans
•Catholic reaction to Reformation: two basic models, moral reform of Catholic Church (Catholic                   •The discovery of the new world will be instrumental in the rise of the Atlantic Economy later
Reformation) and an attack on Protestantism (Counter-Reformation)                                                with its mercantilism, joint-stock companies, rising capital and the glimmerings of capitalism, the
•Know the basic reforms of the Council of Trent (end of absenteeism, higher standards for clergy                 putting out system, rising population in Europe (potato), growing power of banks, and a challenge
(vocational callings), Pope over councils, list of banned books, strengthening of inquisition)                   to feudal system, as well as the a struggle for control of Atlantic trade.
•Founding of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) by Ignatius Loyola (famous work Spiritual Exercises) to travel       •Copernicus lays the seeds of the Scientific Revolution, which won‟t blossom until the next
the world and support the papacy‟s brand of Christianity. Ursuline Order to educate Catholic girls.              century; Brahe records valuable empirical astronomical data
         Hansen AP Euro                                                          Semester Final Study Guide – Additional Info About Each Century
17th Century              Rise of Absolutism and Constitutionalism - 2nd Phase of                               17th c continued                      Constitutionalism
Wars of Religion - Scientific Revolution                                                                        •Trouble for English absolutists came after the reign of Elizabeth I, in the reign of King
•Thirty Years War moves struggles over religion to central and Eastern Europe. The Thirty Years‟ War             James I (originally a Scotsman) of England. King James tried to be absolutist, but
is touched off by lingering religious tensions in the HRE that were supposedly solved by the Peace of            Parliament, and especially the House of Commons was starting to feel confident enough to
Augsburg, but lingered. The Catholic League and the Protestant League both jockey for HRE territories.           challenge the monarch (they‟d been gaining wealth from trade, ownership of church lands
The fighting is touched off when Ferdinand of Styria becomes Austrian Habsburg emperor and                       sold by Henry VIII …in short, economic power). However, James I was amiable, and so
determines to crush Protestantism in Bohemia, which leads to the Defenestration of Prague. There were            things never came to blows. Religion was complicated for the British at the time because
several phases of the war. In the first two, the Bohemian phase and the Danish phase, the Catholic
                                                                                                                 the official Anglican Church was squeezed between Catholics on the one hand and
forces won great victories and issued the Edict of Restitution, rolling back gains made by Protestants in
the 1st Phase of the Wars of Religion. However, an increasingly powerful Habsburg dynasty inspired               Puritans on the other. Charles I, James‟ successor, was headstrong and imperious and
enemies like Gustavus Adolphus from Sweden and the French king Louis XIII (even though the French                angered Parliament much more. Charles I was also a religious zealot and many feared he
king was Catholic). Eventually the Catholic forces were beaten back and the Peace of Westphalia                  was pushing England back towards Christianity. Charles also angered the Scots by trying
enshrined the religious „live and let live‟ attitude of the earlier Peace of Augsburg permanently. The           to enforce Anglicanism. When he tried to get Parliament to raise him an army, it refused.
Thirty Years‟ War smashed the population and land of the HRE. The power vacuum left by a weak                    Instead it raised an army against him and he raised his own army and the ensuing clash
HRE helps to explain the later rise of strong absolutist Austria and Prussia.                                    was the English Civil War. This Parliament was known as the Long Parliament, because it
•End of the Thirty Years‟ War (and with it the Wars of Religion) marks the end of religion as the central        wouldn‟t let Charles disband it. Roundheads versus Cavaliers and the New Model Army.
determinant in European wars.
                                                                                                                 •The English Civil War was horribly destructive (prompting philosophers like Thomas
•By the end of the Reformation and the Wars of Religion, Northern and Western Europe became
                                                                                                                 Hobbes in Leviathan to declare that absolutism was the best form of gov‟t). A puritan
primarily Protestant, while Southern and Eastern Europe stayed Catholic
                                                                                                                 military dictatorship took over England under Oliver Cromwell. Its rule is known as the
•Protestants had an advanced work ethic and tended to be more interested in education, which grew out
                                                                                                                 interregnum. The people didn‟t like this either as it was too stifling and the chaos was seen
of a desire/obligation to read the bible.
                                                                                                                 as punishment by god for breaking the Great Chain of Being/Divine Right. Incidentally,
Western (French and Spanish) Absolutism
                                                                                                                 Cromwell started the fierce mercantilist policies to seize Atlantic trade from the Dutch
•What are the characteristics of Absolutism? (Standing armies, centralized power supported by
                                                                                                                 (Navigation Acts).
bureaucracy, secret police, sovereignty safely in the hands of the monarch, Divine Right)
•Spain fell from its era of domination as a result of its attempts to roll back the Protestant tide during the   •The English people eventually invited Charles I‟s sons Charles II and James II to return
Wars of Religion, dwindling new world silver, Habsburg inbreeding, noble distaste with work.                     from exile in the court of Versailles to restore the Chain of Being. Charles II knew to be
Cervantes‟ Don Quixote represents the crumbling of Spain.                                                        easygoing and he hid his Catholicism and worked with the CABAL representatives of
•France became greatest Absolutist nation under the successive reigns of Henry IV and his minister the           Parliament to keep the peace and raised his daughters Protestant (although he was secretly
Duke de Sully (who built up French infrastructure, kept peace, grew trade); Louis XIII and Cardinal              taking $ from Louis XIV). James II was not diplomatic and pushed his absolutism and his
Richelieu (who further strengthened royal power by keeping rival HRE weak, weakening Hugeunot by                 Catholicism. The English might have been content to wait for Charles IIs daughters to take
destroying their strongholds like La Rochelle, destroying nobles‟ castles, kicking powerful nobles off of        over, but James II had a Catholic son. This sparks Parliament to invite Dutch William and
royal councils, executing plotters, creating bureaucracy and local representatives of the king, intendants,      Mary of Orange (Mary was one of James II‟s daughters but had been raised Protestant) to
to help the king rule) and then finally Louis XIV and his minister Colbert. Richeleiu had argued that if
                                                                                                                 invade England and take the throne (pulls the wool over the eyes of God and his damned
a government commits a crime for reasons of state (raison d’etat) then no crime has been committed.
                                                                                                                 chain). The revolution was a Glorious Revolution because there was little bloodshed after
•The Fronde, a noble reaction to growing French Absolutism, happened when Louis XIV was a boy.
                                                                                                                 James II fled. The English Bill of Rights was written immediately after the Revolution and
Convinced Louis that absolutism was necessary. He is absolutism personified: sun king, “l‟etat c‟est
moi”, morning ritual, Palace of Versailles, etc.). Understand how Louis XIV increased the nobles‟                outlined a constitutional monarchy with Parliament over the king, a judiciary independent
symbolical power (status) while undermining their real power.                                                    of the king, regular meetings of Parliament, etc. John Locke wrote a philosophical defense
•Louis‟ minister Colbert pursued mercantilist policies which aimed at the wealth of the state. Why               of the new gov‟t. (Two Treatise on Government) English gov‟t was not a full democracy.
would tariffs be an important part of mercantilist policies?                                                     •The Dutch were an alternate model as a Constitutional Republic with weak central
•Louis built up a professional „Martinet‟ army (dragooning, etc.)                                                authority (confederation with stadholder). The Dutch were famed as religiously tolerant,
•Louis XIV fought a series of expansive wars, which would eventually cause other European powers to              mostly work oriented Protestants), agriculturally advanced, and The Dutch Golden Age
bond together to maintain a Balance of Power.                                                                    existed as the result of a great Dutch trading empire (Dutch East India Company)
•Understand French cultural pre-eminence under Louis XIV as exemplified by lingua franca, French                 (Amsterdam), taken largely from the Spanish, and an advanced banking system with low
Classicism, and the French Royal Academies of Sciences and Arts                                                  interest rates. The Golden Age began to come to an end with competition in trade from
                                                                                                                 England (Navigation Acts) and draining wars against Louis XIV.
                                                                                                                 •Dutch, English and others formed an alliance against Louis XIV‟s French juggernaut to
                                                                                                                 maintain balance of power- Roots of the Second Hundred Years‟ War
         Hansen AP Euro                                                        Semester Final Study Guide – Additional Info About Each Century

17th Century (cont.)                         Absolutism in Eastern Europe                                     18th Century Enlightenment
•Different pattern of development in the East. The Black Death reinforced serfdom rather than ending it.      •Apply successful methods of science (reason) to society (social science): Equality and Liberty
Local lords had great power between the Black Death and the 17th c. There was almost no middle class          •Enlightenment rose out of skepticism of absolute truth caused by the Wars of Religion and its
and town were kept weak. In the 17th c, kings start to rise above nobles. Eastern Europeans grew food         inconclusive settlement and the increasing realization that European cultural values were relative
for expanding Western Europeans in 17th & 18th c.                                                             (the result of increasing contact with non-Europeans (see Baron de Montesqueiu‟s Persian Letters or
•Austria- Habsburgs had little power after the Thirty Years‟ War. They turned eastwards hoping for land       Locke‟s argument that morals were not inherent, but instead built by culture- mind was tabula rasa).
and power. Habsburgs dominated Bohemia (crushed in the first part of the Thirty Years‟ War) and               By the end of the 18th c, most educated elites were adherents to the ideas of the Enlightenment.
Hungary (which was fiercely Protestant and independent, but unable to keep the Austrians out). This           France, post Louis XIV, was ground zero for the Enlightenment, although many philosophe had to use
brought the Austrian Habsburgs face to face with the Ottomans. The Ottomans pushed into Europe and            sneaky means (satire, discussion in salons, foreign publication, dialogue, etc.,) to get around the
managed, at their high point to siege, but not take, Vienna (capital of Austria) in 1683. To consolidate      censors. Many were inspired by England‟s Constitutionalism.
land after victory of Ottomans, Habsburg Charles VI sought the Pragmatic Sanction, which would keep           •Montesquieu is most famous for his Spirit of the Laws, which argued for a separation of powers, in
Habsburg land under one heir.                                                                                 particular, that the nobility and bourgeoisie could provide a check on kings.
•Prussia- Hohenzollern family was basically 1st among equals of nobility in Prussia until the Thirty          •Voltaire believed in Enlightening monarchs (Frederick the Great for example), freedom of
Years War weakened Brandenburg-Prussia‟s Estates and prepared the way for Hohenzollern „Great                 expression, and Deism
Elector‟ Frederick William to start to assert absolutist power. The Great Elector used the constant war       •Diderot and the Encyclopedia
that was going on and his willingness to leave the Junker nobility in charge over their serfs and tax-
exempt, to rise in power. Later, Frederick William, the Soldier King, greatly enhanced Prussian power         •Madame du Chatelet serves as a reminder that women were not fully accepted into the Enlightenment
by building a large standing army, literally of giants, and by forcing the Junkers into the military          (she translated works and helped Voltaire, but wasn‟t accepted to Royal Academy). Women could
(trading them prestige for power).                                                                            find a way to participate as salonnierres.
•Russia- Tsars had to throw of the Mongol Khans to rule. Russians saw themselves as the Orthodox              •The Enlightenment was progressive, more moderate, and more unified before 1770. Afterwards, it
Christian inheritors of the Roman Empire. In the 16 th c, Tsars like Ivan IV (the Terrible) reduced the       became more radical (for example, some became athiests, others, like David Hume, argued that our
power of the Russian nobility (known as Boyars) to service nobility. Ivan IV founded the Romanov              understanding of the world was limited by our reliance on our senses; Hume was famous for his
line, which would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution of 1917. These tsars used secret police and        skepticism; Rousseau argued that spontaneous emotion was as important as reason and logic and
violence to keep their people down and expanded Russia and the power of the tsar (Cossacks formed as          argued that the general will should guide society, even though the majority was not always clear on
peasants fled from the oppression of the tsars; they periodically rose in revolt). Peter the Great tried to   what the general will was, he also argued that sovereignty ought to come from the people)
modernize Russia in a primarily military fashion after he learned how far behind it was during his grand      •Enlightenment ideas: Hobbes and Locke‟s Social Contract, Locke‟s individual natural rights and
tour of Europe as a young man. He built up a strong standing army and defeated Sweden in the Great            right to rebellion, natural law, checks and balances, the general will
Northern War to gain access to the Baltic. There were few years of peace during Peter‟s reign. He built       •widening gap in the tastes and goals of the elites (or „the public‟) and the mob; the salon
St. Peterburg as a modern city and a „window on the West‟ and forced nobles to go live in it.                 •Adam Smith applies reason to the economy and comes up with Capitalist framework (On the Wealth
Scientific Revolution                                                                                         of Nations, the invisible hand, the three basic roles of gov‟t). a repudiation of mercantilism.
•European scientific revolution is spurred by the medieval university system, tools from navigation/Age       Enlightened Absolutism
of Exploration, the development of the Scientific Method                                                      •Frederick the Great was a fascinating Prussia leader. As a young man, he was something of an
•Aristotelian and Ptolemeic worldview was challenged by Copernicus (heliocentrism). Religion                  Enlightenment wussy: pro-peace and art, a dabbler in atheism, he tried to run away from his
opposed the new ideas (oddly, Protestant more than Catholics, because Protestants are propped up by           domineering father as a young man. Yet when he took over, he immediately seized Silesia from
the literalness of the bible). This helps to explain some scientists attempt to hide their criticisms (for    Austria (War of the Austrian Succession). This greatly increased the power of Prussia. European
example, Copernicus didn‟t publish until right before his death and Galileo wrote a Dialogue on the           powers aligned against Prussia in the later Seven Years War, and Prussia was only saved by Russian
Two Chief Systems of the World having a character argue for both Ptolemaic and Copernican systems             Peter III (who admired Frederick the Great and so decided not to crush him). Frederick pursued
so he could claim he had no preference, even though his preference was clear. Galileo was forced to           Enlightened policies (religious toleration except for the Jews, free press, reformed and efficient
recant. Brahe records great astronomical data. Kepler advanced mathematical formulae that helped to           bureaucracy, he himself lived simply (1st Servant of the State as opposed to „l‟etat c‟est moi‟).
explain planetary motion, Galileo conducted experiments and observations with the telescope, and              •Catherine the Great was an HRE noble with Romanov blood. She was married to Tsar Peter III, but
Newton unified all the observation and math with his universal laws and theories of motion and gravity        was complicit in his downfall in a coup with her lover (Peter Orlav) who was an officer in the
(Principia) and invention of Calculus.                                                                        military. Catherine became leader of Russia and was an Enlightened leader who modernized Russian
•Francis Bacon championed inductive reasoning (aka empiricism) (like Galileo), while Rene Descartes           society (whereas Peter the Great had mainly modernized the military). She had to stop short of
argued for deductive reasoning. The two were joined in the scientific method (which added the                 extreme liberal reform because of Cossack Rebellion that caused her to ally with Boyars nobility.
important step that a scientific theory needs to make new predictions that can be tested)                     •Maria Theresa of Austria was an Enlightened monarch. Her son, Joseph II, tried to push reason too
                                                                                                              far… freed the serfs, tried religious toleration for Jews, all of which caused chaos and didn‟t help
                                                                                                              much… eventually was repealed by the next ruler (Leopold II)
                                                                                                              •France‟s absolutism began to slip after Louis XIV‟s death. The Duke d‟Orleans restored power of
                                                                                                              remonstration to Parlement of Paris. Louis XV managed to restore absolutism by abolishing the
                                                                                                              Parlement, but Louis XVI reinstated it.
        Hansen AP Euro                                              Semester Final Study Guide – Additional Info About Each Century

18th Century (cont.)          Expansions of the 18th Century                                    (cont.)
•Although I didn‟t say it in class, the rise of the Cottage Industry and the boom in the        •Improvements in the treatment of mental patients and some improvements to hospital
Atlantic Economy in 18th century Europe are often called the Commercial Revolution              conditions in the late 18th century
•The Dutch led the Agricultural Revolution and the British followed: know, Charles              •Edward Jenner develops an effective inoculation for smallpox
“Turnip” Townsend as a champion of nitrogen-restoring plants, the end of the fallow,            •Literacy of the lower classes was focused on chapbook and almanacs and fairy tales,
enclosure, loss of the commons and its social safety net properties, crop rotation (sometimes   while the upper classes read the philosophes.
called the 3 field system), and selective breeding (linked to scientific farming)
•Population boomed in the 18th c was the result of more food, end of Black Death (wander                                         Late 18th To 19th Century
rat), ability to defeat famine with better transportation of food, new world foods
                                                                                                Political Revolutions
•Putting Out System/Cottage Industry starts in wool industry in England; link between
urban merchants and rural cottage workers                                                       The American Revolution: importance of the Seven Year‟s War, Common Sense , Thomas
•Atlantic Economy is lead by Atlantic European states, especially England. African Slaves       Paine, the irony of the taxes Americans paid after winning the revolution, The Declaration of
in the New World create sugar, tobacco, and cotton. Navigation Acts protect mercantilist        Independence, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, King George III, no taxation
British trade. Navigation Acts contain some privileges for the colonies, so they help           without representation, the American Constitution, the Stamp Act and the Coercise Acts
America build up, too. Mercantilist policies add to tension that will lead to 2 nd Hundred      the Boston Tea party, the Treaty of Paris, the Marquis de Lafayette,
Years‟ War.                                                                                     •Causes of the French Revolution (pre-1787)
•Adam Smith, Scottish philosoph, argues that the government should stay out of economics        •Phases of the French Revolution and their dates: Bourgeois/ Moderate (1789-1791),
(anti-mercantilist); gov‟t would work better with invisible hand (Capitalism)                   Radical (1791-1795), The Directory (1795-1799), Napoleonic (1799-1814), the Congress
The Second Hundred Years War                                                                    of Vienna (1814-1815)
•The S.H.Y.W. was born out of the Grand Alliance and other groups that unified to contain       •Estates, their percentages (in terms of population) and privileges, and the different
Louis XIV‟s growing French military power and morphed into a battle between France and          sections of the third estate and their unique attributes
Britain for control of the Atlantic Economy and European dominance that lasted until the        •Ancien Regime, Marie Antoinette, Louis XVI, san-culottes, Jacobin, Girondin, the
fall of Napoleon.                                                                               Mountain,, Napoleon, Parlement and the reason for their return to power, the Assembly of
•In the War of the Spanish Succession, Louis XIV, who had agreed after disastrous fighting      Notables, Estates General, Voting Deadlock, National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath,
with the League of Augsburg (Dutch, Habsburgs, Spain, and Sweden) to leave the Spanish          Abbe Sieyes, The Great Fear, the concessions of the first two estates on the night of
Empire alone, was handed the Spanish throne (or his nephew Phillip of Anjou was) in the         August 4th 1789 (and how to argue that this wasn't entirely a selfless act of the first two
will of Carlos II (El Hechizado). The Grand Alliance defeated the French and the Treaty of      estates), Cahiers, Marquis de Lafayette, Declaration of the Rights of Man, Radicalizing
Utrecht gave new world land from France to England and the Asiento from Spain to                events- Women's March on Versailles, failed Flight to Varennes, declaration of war by
England.                                                                                        Austria and Prussia, women's movements- why at this time, Olympe de Gouge and Mary
• The War of the Austrian Succession had an Central/Eastern European slant (struggle            Wollestonecraft, the 3rd estatesa disagreements over the Church and what the National
between Austria and Prussia over land) and a Western slant (inconclusive battle in the New      Assembly did with the church (assignats), farmers get land (long lasting gain of the
World.                                                                                          Revolution) rationalization of the French system (department, new calendar, etc.),
•Finally, the Seven Years War (aka French-Indian War) proved conclusive. The British            Political Spectrum (right, center, left, reactionary, conservative, moderate, liberal, radical),
defeated the French forces by siege at Quebec. France lost all New World colonies               Foreign distrust of the French Revolution and Edmund Burke's response, the Reign of
(although the Spanish got Louisiana, not the British) in the 1 st Treaty of Paris. The Seven    Terror, the Committee on Public Safety, Robespierre, early sparks of Socialism,
Year‟s War also had an Eastern/Central European component as Russia, Austria, and France        connection to Rousseau, levee en masse, Revolutionary symbols, fall of Robespierre
tried to smash Prussia. Peter III of Russia backed out of the fighting, narrowly allowing       the Directory, Napoleon's coup d'etat , Horatio Nelson and Battle of Trafalgar, Spain and
Prussia to survive. Don‟t forget, one reason that France lost in the new world is that they     guerrilla warfare, the Louisiana Purchase, Napoleon's plebiscite's, Concordat with the
had to focus on European continental conflict as well, whereas the British could focus on       Pope, and Napoleonic Code Rise to emperor and show of power over the Pope, family
the new world.
                                                                                                members placed on conquered thrones, Continental System, Confederation of the Rhine,
Societal Changes in the 18th Century
                                                                                                Invasion of Russia (Grand Army), Scorched Earth Policy, the Battle of Leipzig, the
•rising number of kids born out of wedlock (foundling homes)
                                                                                                Hundred Days, the Battle of Waterloo, the Bourbon Restoration and the Congress of
•Growing treatment of young kids as unique and valuable rather than as little adults to be
disciplined harshly (based partly on Rousseau‟s ideas in Emile)                                 Vienna (Balance of Power, Legitimacy, Contain France) Metternich, the Battle of
                                                                                                Waterloo, guillotine and the irony of the guillotine
        Hansen AP Euro                                              Semester Final Study Guide – Additional Info About Each Century

                                     Industrial Revolution
•KEY development in European and World History, perhaps since 10,000 BC with the
Development of Farming
•First in England and then on Continent
•Doesn‟t trickle down to help the average person until 1850 and later
•Britain leads for a number of reasons: great infrastructure for transportation (canals,
ocean), capital to invest built up from trade, especially with colonies, iron and coal, low
tariffs and gov‟t interference in economy (capitalism), agricultural success as one of the
leaders of the 2nd Agricultural Revolution (so average Joe has money to spend), stable banks
and credit markets, stable constitutional gov‟t that isn‟t interrupted by invasion from
Napoleon, available proletariat workforce, strong system os education (machinists,
•First industry- textiles
•Cotton gin  spinning jenny  water frame  power loom
•Early factories  water, animal, or human power  used foundlings
•Energy revolution  steam power  Newcomen  Watt  separate condenser used
first to drain mines leads to almost unlimited power and iron
•Trains  the Rocket
•Skilled artisan jobs (weavers, say) replaced by machinery… possible social unrest
•Crystal Palace Exhibition
•Gains of Industrialization eaten up by pop. growth before 1850
•Malthus and Ricardo‟s (Iron Law of Wages) pessimistic economic theories
•Advantages for Continental European industrialization versus England as trailblazer
•U.S. and German industrial explosion after 1850
•Zollverein ideas (Friedrich List), tariffs
•Limited Liability Partnerships (Credit Mobilier of Paris)

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