Timeline - South Africa

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					Timeline of South Africa


2.6 Billion BC

2-1.5 MillionBC



1700 BC

200 AD

1497 Nov 18

1497 Nov 22

1687 Dec 31

1781 Apr 29
1795 Sep 16

1803 Feb 21
1806 Jan 10
1807 Mar 25
1814 May 30
1814 Aug 13
1834 Aug 1

1836 May 31
1838 Feb 6

1838 Dec 16

1852 Jan 17
1852 Feb 26

1853 Jul 5
1854 Feb 23

1862 Sep 27
1877 April
1879 Jan 11
1879 Jan 12
1879 Jan 22-24
1879 Mar 12
1879 Mar 28
1879 Mar 29
1879 Jul 4
1879 Jul 4
1879 Aug 28
1881 Feb 26
1881 Mar 4
1881 Mar 23

1883 Apr 16

1884 Apr 24

1889 Mar 19
1891 Jul 31
1892 Jan 3

1892 Jun 13


1897 Jan 22,
1899 Sep 8
1899 October 9
1899 Oct 11
1899 Oct 12,
1899 Oct 30

1899 Oct 30
1899 November 14
1899 Nov 15

1899 Nov 28
1899 December 9-15
1899 Dec 15

1900 Jan 8
1900 Feb 6

1900 Feb 8
1900 Feb 14
1900 Feb 15
1900 Feb 18
1900 Febuary 27
1900 Feb 28

1900 Mar 11
1900 Mar 27
1900 Apr 9
1900 May
1900 May 12

1900 May 28
1900 Jun 5
1900 Aug 31
1900 September 1

1901 Sep 3
1901 Sep 17
1900 December

1900 Dec 1

1900 Dec 9

1901 Mar 23

1901 Jun 20

1902 Jan 17
1902 Mar 10
1902 March 23
1902 Mar 26
1902 Apr 4

1902 Apr 10
1902 May 6
1902 May 21
1902 May 31

1904 Aug 11
1904 Nov 27
1904 Dec 24

1905 Jan 25
1906 Feb 9
1906 Sep 11
1907 Mar 2
1907 Jul 1
1908 Jan 11
1908 Aug 16
1908 Oct 8
1909 Nov
1909 Dec 28
1910 May
1910 Jul 9
1912 Dec 14
1913 Nov 6
1914 Jan
1915 Feb 2
1915 Jul 9

1916 Jan 12

1918 Jun 11
1918 Jul 18
1918 Sep 18

1919 May 6


1920   Feb 4
1922   Oct 8
1922   Nov 8
1923   Nov 20

1925 Jul 7
1931 Oct 7
1932 Mar 4

1932   Jun 11
1934   Jan 27
1935   May 29
1935   May 29

1936 Mar 18
1939 Sep 6

1943 May 25
1949 Jan 14
1949 Jun 29
1950 Jan 29
1950 Apr 27
1950 Sep 11
1952 Mar 24
1956 Dec 6
1957 May 22
1960 Mar 21
1960 Mar 31
1961 Mar 15
1961 Mar 29
1961 Apr 13
1961 May 31
1962 Aug 4
1962 Aug 5
1964 Jun
1965 Dec 1
1966 Aug 8
1966 Sep 6
1966 Oct 27
1967 Dec 3
1970 May 15
1971 Mar 3
1971 Mar 3
1971 Dec
1974 Nov 12
1975 Oct 23
1975 Nov


1976 Jun 16
1976 June
1976 Aug
1976 Nov 9
1977   Apr 27
1977   Aug 12
1977   Aug 18
1977   Sep 11
1977   Sep 12
1977   Dec 14

1978 May 6
1978 Sep 12
1978 Sep 20
1979 Jun 4
1983 August 20
1982 Apr
1982 Nov 20
1982 Dec 19
1983 Sep 10
1984 Feb 14
1984 Mar 16
1984 May 12
1984 September
1984 Oct 16
1984 Dec 10

1985 July 21
1985   Mar 21
1985   Apr 15
1985   May 18
1985   Sep 9
1985   Oct 11
1985   Oct 18



1986 Jan 6
1986 Apr 14
1986 May 18
1986 June 12
1986 Sep 7



1987 Jan 21

1987 Apr 11

1987 May 6
1987 Nov 5
1987 Nov 28


1988 Feb 29

1988 Apr
1988 Jul 11
1988 Jul 28
1988 Aug 31

1988 Nov 24
1988 Dec 3

1988 Dec



1989   Jan
1989   Jun 19
1989   Jul 5
1989   Aug 14

1989 Aug 15

1989 Sep 6
1989 Sep 13
1989 Sep 20
1989 October

1989 Oct 10
1989 Oct 15
1989 Dec 13
1990 Feb 2
1990 Feb 10
1990 February 11
1990 Feb 11
1990 Mar 16
1990 Mar
1990 May 2
1990 May 4
1990 May 6
1990 Jun 5
1990 Jun 7
1990 Jun 16
1990 Jun 26
1990 Jun 30
1990 Sep 23
1990 Sep 24
1991 Jan 13
1991 Feb 1
1991 Feb 15
1991 Mar 16
1991 May 13
1991 Jun 17
1991 Jul 9
1991 Jul 10
1991 Jul 19
1991 Aug 9
1991 Sep 4
1991 Sep 5
1991 Sep 8
1991 Sep 14
1991 Oct 3
1992 Mar 17
1992 Apr 13
1992 Jun 20
1992 Aug 3
1992 Sep 7

1992   Sep 26
1992   Nov 28
1992   Dec
1993   Mar 21
1993   Mar 24
1993   Apr 10
1993   Apr 13
1993   Apr 14
1993   Apr 24
1993   May 7
1993    May 10
1993   Jun 2
1993   Jul 4
1993   Sep 8
1993 Aug 23
1993 Sep 23
1993 Sep 24
1993 Oct 8
1993 Oct 15
1993 Oct
1993 Nov 18
1993 Nov 23
1993 Dec 6
1993 Dec 10
1994 Jan 29
1994 Mar 13
1994 Mar 18
1994 Mar 28
1994 Mar
1994 Apr 25
1994 Apr 27
1994 May 1
1994 May 2
1994 May 6
1994 May 9
1994 May 10
1994 May 11
1994 May 25
1994 Jun 7
1994 Jun 19
1994 August 26 - 29
1994 Oct 3
1994 Oct 4
1994 Oct 6
1995 Mar 25
1995 May 10
1995 Jun
1995 Nov
1995 Dec
1995 Dec 25
1995 Dec. 26
1996   Feb
1996   Mar 19
1996   Apr 25
1996   May 8
1996   May 9
1996   Jun 5
1996   Jun 27
1996   Jul 5
1996   Jul 7
1996   Jul 13
1996   Jul 31
1996   Aug 13
1996   Aug 17
1996   Aug 26
1996   Aug 28
1996   Sep 6
1996   Sep 23
1996   Sep
1996   Oct 11
1996   Dec 4
1996   Dec 10
1996   Dec 10
1996   Dec 24
1997   Jan 5
1997   Jan 5
1997   Jan 28
1997   Jan 29

1997   Jan
1997   Feb 6
1997   Apr
1997   May 10
1997   May 11
1997   Jul 22
1997   Jul
1997   Aug 26
1997   Oct 28
1997   Dec 16
1997   Dec 20
1997   Dec 30
1998   Jan 7
1998   Jan
1998   Mar 19
1998   Mar 26
1998   Mar 28
1998    Apr 11
1998   Apr 15
1998   Apr 20
1998   Apr 29
1998   May 8
1998   May 10
1998   Jun
1998   Jul 10
1998   Jul 31
1998   Aug 21
1998   Aug 25
1998   Oct 28
1998   Oct
1998   Oct
1998   Dec 1
1998   Dec 15
1998   Dec 22
1999   Jan 23
1999   Jan 28
1999   Feb 4
1999   Feb 10
1999   Feb 16
1999   Mar 3
1999   Mar 9
1999   Mar 17
1999   Mar 25
1999   Apr 20
1999   May 11
1999   Jun 2
1999   May 14
1999   May 21
1999   Jun 2
1999   Jun 2
1999   Jun 13
1999   Jun 15
1999   Jun 16
1999   Jul 29
1999   Jul 29
1999   Aug 8
1999   Aug 16
1999   Aug 24
1999   Aug 29
1999   Sep 15
1999   Sep 27
1999   Oct 11
1999   Oct 18
1999   Oct 25
1999   Nov 4
1999   Nov 28
1999   Dec 14
1999   Dec 24
1999   Dec 29
2000   Jan 10
2000   Feb 11
2000   Feb 18
2000   Feb 26
2000   Mar 2
2000   Mar 25
2000   May 28
2000   Jun 19
2000   Jun 23
2000   Jul 9
2000   Jul 14
2000   Jul
2000   Aug 26
2000   Sep 13
2000   Nov 17
2000   Dec 1
2000   Dec 5
2000   Dec 15
2000   Dec 18
2001   Jan 6
2001   Jan
2001   Mar 20
2001   Apr 11
2001   May 8
2001   May 18
2001   May 24
2001   May 25
2001   Jun 1
2001   Jun 26
2001   Jun 28
2001   Jun
2001   Jul 10
2001   Jul 30
2001   Aug 19
2001   Aug 30
2001   Aug 31
2001   Sep 1
2001   Sep 2
2001   Sep 3
2001   Sep 7
2001   Sep 8
2001   Oct 3
2001   Oct 15
2001   Nov 26
2001   Nov 27
2001   Dec 4
2001   Dec 13
2001   Dec 30
2002   Jan 29
2002   Feb 5
2002   Feb 9
2002   Mar 24
2002   Mar 25
2002   Apr 11
2002   Apr 25
2002   Apr 27
2002   May 6
2002   Jun 17
2002   Jun 25
2002   Jul 2
2002   Jul 8
2002   Jul 9
2002   Jul 10
2002   Jul 14
2002   Aug 26
2002   Aug 26
2002   Aug 27
2002   Aug 28
2002   Aug 29
2002   Aug 31
2002   Sep 2
2002   Sep 4
2002   Sep 10
2002   Sep 13
2002   Sep 28
2002   Oct 1
2002   Oct 30
2002   Oct 30
2003   Jan 7
2003   Jan 20
2003   Mar 21
2003   Apr 6
2003   Apr 25
2003   May 1
2003   May 5
2003   Jul 9
2003   Aug 7
2003   Aug 19
2003   Sep 2
2003   Oct 2
2003   Nov 19
2003   Nov 29
2004   Jan 1
2004 Jan 29

              Africa Index:
South Africa

          African rocks from South Africa’s Eastern Transvaal in 2000 indicated primitive microbes on dry land from about
          this time.
          Australopithecus robustus. Skull of adult female found by Quarryman Fourie in 1950 at Swartkrans, South Africa.
          A survey of Robustus teeth by Alan Mann shows an average age at death of 17 years. A female Paranthropus
          robustus was found in 1994 Drimolen, South Africa.

          Human footprints that dated back to this time were discovered along Langebaan Lagoon some 60 miles north of
          Cape Town, South Africa, in Sep, 1995. The 117,000 year-old prints were cut out and moved to the South African
          Museum in 1998.
          In 2002 evidence from the Blombos Cave in South Africa indicated possible symbolic thinking. Sophisticated tools of stone and
          Scholars surmised that diggers in Africa’s Swaziland began to seek iron about this time.

          Traces of a man-made shelter from this time were found in northern South Africa north of Johannesburg.

          Agricultural revolution in sub-Saharan Africa.
          The site of Thulamela in Kruger Nat’l. Park in northeastern South Africa had graves containing people with gold
          Early Iron Age communities to be resident in South Africa.
          Bartolomue Dias (Portugese Explorer) lands at Mossel Bay near Cape of Good Hope.
          Vasco da Gama reached the Cape of Good Hope.

          Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope.

          Vasco da Gama (Portugese Explorer) lands at Mossel Bay. The Portuguese leave under bad terms, and local inhabitants destr
          Sir Francis Drake rounded the promontory of what later became Cape Town.
          Officials [farmers] of the Dutch East India Company were sent from Europe to run the small victualing station at
          the cape of South Africa. They were distinguished from the native born Dutch people who are called Afrikaner. It
          marked the beginning of Cape Town. Jan Van Riebeck, a Dutch ship’s surgeon, founded Dap Town.

          European settlers arrived at the cape. Robben Island in Cape Town’s Table Bay from this time on was variously used as a men
          The 1st Huguenots departed France to the Cape of Good Hope
          A 350-acre vineyard was established in the Paarl Valley on the border of Nelson Creek. It was sold to Alan
          Nelson in 1989, who developed it with his workers to a prize-winning vineyard. Mr. Nelson in thanks to his
          workers gave them 25 acres valued at $500,000 in 1998.

          French fleet stopped Britain from seizing the Cape of Good Hope.
          Graaff-Reinet, the major town of the eastern Karoo, was founded.
          The British captured Capetown from the Dutch for the first time during the Napoleonic Wars.
          The Capitulation of Rustenburg: A Dutch garrison at the Cape of Good Hope surrendered to a British fleet under Adm. George
          The Witwatersrand gold mines were discovered, the largest gold reserve find in the world. The gold came from a
          strip of land 62 miles long and 25 miles wide and produced three-fourths of all the gold ever mined.

          The British return the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch (Batavian Republic) under the Treaty of Amiens.
          The British recaptured Capetown and took over Cape Province.
The Capitulation of Papendorp: The Dutch in Cape Town surrendered to a British fleet.

The British Parliament abolished the slave trade. This led to a labor problem in South Africa.
Saartjie Baartman (~21) left South Africa with 2 white men who promised to make her rich.
The First Treaty of Paris was declared, after Napoleon's first abdication. It returned France to its 1792 borders and secured for
 Treaty of London-Netherland was signed to stop the transport of slaves. By agreement Britain paid the Dutch £6 million in com
Saartjie Baartman (~27), taken from S. Africa in 1810, fell sick and died penniless and friendless in France after being exhibited
The Zulu Mfecane spread from Natal throughout southern Africa.
En masse arrival of English nationals to settle & colonise Eastern Cape.
The British Cape Colony was extended northward to the Orange River.
Hoping to escape British rule, thousands of Dutch families (Boers) migrate further north and east. South Africa's interior consist
England ended slavery in the West Indies slaves and all its Caribbean holdings effective on this date. Slavery was abolished th
Some 10,000 Dutch (Boer) cattlemen and farmers moved northward from the Cape Colony due to restrictions on
slavery and the sympathetic native policy of the government. They settled in what became the Transvaal. Under
Piet Retief they began to occupy Zululand and Natal.

Lesotho acted as a buffer between the Afrikaner’s and British colonial interests and supplied seasonal farm workers to both.
The Europeans fought the sixth war with the Xhosa since the 1780s.
HMS Beagle anchored in Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope.
A massive migration of Boer families began into the southern African interior, and resulted in the foundation of two Boer Repub
Having failed to obtain land by trickery from the Zulus of South Africa, Boar leader Piet Retief and 60 followers were executed b
Boers led by Andreas Pretorius defeated the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River and settled in Natal. The
Afrikaners while escaping from British rule encountered resistance from the native black peoples. In the Battle of
Blood River a few hundred Boers repelled an attack by more than 10,000 warriors of the Zulu king Dingaan.

Zulu king Dingaan was defeated by his rival Umpanda, who accepted the rule of the Boers.
The British government annexed the coastal region of Natal.
The British government annexed the Orange River Sovereignty.
Urbanization and economic growth during World War II fuels white fears that South Africa's racial barriers will collapse. The Na
Under the leadership of Albert Lutuli -- and Johannesburg law partners Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela -- the African Nation
The British government recognized Boer independence in the Sand River and Blomfontein Conventions.
At the Sand River Convention, the British recognized the independence of the Transvaal Board.

The British frigate Birkenhead sank off South Africa and 458 died.
Cecil John Rhodes (d.1902), politician, diamond merchant, was born in South Africa. He discovered a vast lode of
diamonds at Kimberley and founded the De Beers Mining Co. He ran for Cape parliament in 1881 and was prime
minister of the Cape Colony from 1890-1896. He founded Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) for mineral speculation and
endowed the Rhodes scholarships upon his death with £3 million.

Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the Orange Free State.
Olive Schreiner, South African author and feminist: "My feeling is that there is nothing in life but refraining from hurting others, a
Cape Colony Governor Sir George Grey articulated the need for a southern African federation because, as separate states, the
South Africa's massive diamond deposits discovered in Kimberley, Cape Province.
Andries Pretorius' son Marthinus Pretorius tried to unite the Orange Free State and Transvaal by winning election as president
Louis Botha, commander-in-chief of the Boer Army against the British and first president of South Africa, was
Diamonds were discovered at Hope Creek (a tributary of the Orange River).
In South Africa diamonds were discovered. This and the later discovery of gold prompted the end of Boer isolation.
Britain annexed Basutoland, ostensibly to protect it from Boer aggression.
The town of Kimberley was incorporated in the western part of the Ornage Free State.
Early "Gold Rushes" to to the Pilgrim's Rest and Barberton areas.
Cape Province annexed West Griqualand, west of Kimberley, further angering the Boer governments.
The British government yielded control over all Cape Colony internal affairs. This was a big step towards Cape autonomy and e
British Secretary of State for Colonies Lord Carnarvon (under Disraeli) invited the Boer governments to discuss confederation.
Internal dissent over plans for a railway to Mozambique (bypassing British territory) led to the collapse of the Transvaal Boer go
The British government annexed Transvaal.
Sir Bartle Frere replaced Lord Carnarvon as the Governor of Cape Colony.
Sir Bartle Frere's attempt to win Boer favor by annexing Zulu territory led to a major Zulu victory over the British at the Battle of
The Zulu war against British colonial rule in South Africa began
British-Zulu War began as British troops under Lieutenant General Frederic Augustus invaded Zululand from the southern Afric
Eighty-two British soldiers with rifles held off attacks by 4,000 Zulu warriors with spears at the Battle of Rorke's Drift in South Af
The British Zulu War began.
British mounted troops under Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood went up Hlobane Mountain to battle the Zulus—only to be surrounde
Some 2,000 British and Colonial troops of the 90th Light Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood
Afrikaner Union was formed by Rev SJ du Toit at Cape colony.
Battle at Rorkes Drift: Britain ended attack on Zulus.
Cetewayo (or Cetshwayo), last of the great Zulu kings, was captured by the British at the end of the Zulu wars.
John Dunn (d.1885), Englishman and friend of Zulu King Cetshwayo, was granted 10,000 acres after the Anglo-Zulu war. Dunn
Paul Kruger became the new president of the Transvaal, signalling an era of increasing Boer militancy. He immediately demand
Cecil Rhodes founded the De Beers Consolidated Mining Company which controlled diamond mining in the Orange Free State
Various Boer revolts against British authority were successful and the Boer governments obtained nominal independence with
Cecil Rhodes was elected to the Cape Colony parliament.
Natal British troops under General-Major Colley occupied Majuba Hill.
South African President Kruger accepted a ceasefire.
Boers and Britain signed a peace accord. This ended the 1st Boer war.
Paul Kruger was chosen president of Transvaal.

During the Berlin Conference of 1884-85 European countries plot the complete colonialization of Africa.
Gold was discovered at the Rand, a mountain in Boer Transvaal.
Otto von Bismarck cabled Cape Town that South Africa had become a German colony.

The first railroad and telegraph line from Kimberley to Capetown opened.
Gold discovered on the Main Reef by George Harrison on the western outskirts of present day Johannesburg.
Cecil Rhodes received a royal charter for his British South Africa Company.
Cecil Rhodes became Prime Minister of Cape Colony.
There are more than 40,000 uitlanders (foreigners) living in Johannesburg; larger than the entire Boer population of the then Tr
Cecil Rhodes personally financed an attempt to overthrow the Transvaal governemnt (Jameson's War). The new British Prime
Rhodes' replacement as Governor of Cape Colony (Sir Alfred Milner was unable to reason.)
Paul Kruger was reelected as president of the Transvaal.
Sarah Gertrude Millina, South African writer (The Dark River, God's Stepchildren), was born.

Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
J.R.R. Tolkien, author of the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy, was born in Bloemfontein, South Africa. "All that is gold does not glitter;
Basil Rathbone, actor (Sherlock Holmes), was born in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Mohandas Gandhi (24) moved to South Africa to work as a legal advisor to an Indian businessman.
Cecil Rhodes supported the Jameson Raid to help rebellious British settlers in the Dutch Transvaal.

Barney Barnato, a mining magnate, bought a block of land at the corner of Eloff and Commissioner streets in Johannesburg to
Eighty-two British soldiers held off attacks by 4,000 Zulu warriors at the Battle of Rorke's Drift in South Africa.

The British government sent an additional 10,000 troops to Natal South Africa.
When the British ignored a Boer ultimatum against additional British troops in South Africa, the Anglo-Boer War began.
South African Boers, settlers from the Netherlands, declared war on Great Britain. In the Boer War Dutch settlers of the South A
The Anglo-Boer War began
British Morning Post reporter Winston Churchill reached Capetown.
In South Africa two battalions of British troops were cut off, surrounded and forced to surrender to General Petrus
Joubert's Boers at Nicholson's Nek.

A British ammunition train was ambushed on its way to Ladysmith. Among the captives was the Morning Post newspaper corre
Morning Post reporter Winston Churchill and wife were captured in Natal.
The British were victorious over the Boers at Modder River.

The British suffered three defeats in the same week at Magersfontein, Stormberg, and Colenso.
In South Africa the Boars defeated the British at the Battle of Colenso.
In the Boer War some 12,000 blacks and 18,000 whites were killed from epidemics in British concentration camps. Some 25,00
Boer commandos respond with guerrilla warfare (a first in military history). General Kitchener puts Boers' civilian sympathisers
The Boers attacked Ladysmith, but are turned back by General White in South Africa.

Battle at Vaalkrans, South Africa (Boers vs. British army).
British General Buller was beaten at Ladysmith, South Africa as the British fled over the Tugela River.

General Roberts invaded South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
The British threatened to use natives in the Boer War fight.
Battle at Paardeberg (Boer War), 1,270 British killed or injured.
The siege of the British town of Ladysmith ended.
After a 119-day siege by the Boers, the English defenders of Ladysmith, under General Sir George White were relieved.
British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury rejected the peace overtures offered from Boer leader Paul Kruger.

The London Parliament passed the War Loan Act which gave 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause.
British forces routed the Boers at Kroonstadt, South Africa.
The British government annexed the Orange Free State.
Mostly Black fighters in Mafikeng repelled a Boer assault. Col. Robert Baden-Powell, commander of the British troops in Mafike
Britain annexed the Orange Free State.

In South Africa, British troops under Lord Roberts seized Pretoria from the Boers.
British troops overran Johannesburg.
The British government annexed the Transvaal.
Lord Herbert Horatio Kitchener created concentration camps where hundreds of thousands of Boer women, children and old m
Boer General Smuts entered Kiba Drift in Cape Colony.

At the Battle at Elands River Port, Boer Gen. Smuts destroyed the 17th Lancers unit .
The British opened the first concentration camps to "protect" non-combatants in Boer territory (mostly Boer families), but overcr
Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to meet with Boer leader Paul Kruger in Berlin.

The Russian Czar rejected Paul Kruger’s pleas for aid to the Boers in South Africa against the British.

A process of "forced removals," whereby Blacks were removed to allow for all-white areas, was begun.

The British commander Kitchener (of Fashoda and the Mahdi conquest) divided the country in sectors using blockhouses and l
The world learned that Boers were starving to death in British concentration camps.
Charlotte M. Manye of South Africa became the first native African to graduate from an American University.

Gideon Scheepers, South Africa Boer leader, was executed.
The Boers scored their last victory over the British, capturing British General Methuen and 200 men.

Boer military leaders agreed to surrender even though their military forces were not defeated.
Cecil Rhodes (48), Prime Minister of Cape Colony (1890-96), died.
British financier Cecil Rhodes left $10 million in his will to provide scholarships for Americans at Oxford University in England. T
South African Boers accepted British terms of surrender.

There was a Zulu assault at Holkrantz, South-Africa.
Peace of Vereeniging Treaty ends the independence of Boer states of Transvaal and the Orange Free State, which are now un
The Boer War ended between the Boars of South Africa and Great Britain with the Treaty of Vereeniging. This effectively ended
The British Colonial Administration singed a law that gave 100-acre farms to 63 descendants of John Dunn (d.1885).
Alan Paton, South African author: "The tragedy is not that things are broken. The tragedy is that they are not mended again."
German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa.

German colonial army defeated Hottentots at Warmbad in Southwest Africa.
German SW Africa abolished the slavery of young children.
Soweto (an acronym for southwest townships) was established as a separate, African-only district.

530.20 carat Cullinan I (or Star of Africa) diamond is found near Pretoria. Pear-shaped, with 74 facets, it is set in the Royal Sce
Largest diamond, Cullinan (3106 carets), was found in South Africa.
Natal proclaimed a state of siege in Zulu uprising.
Mohandas Gandhi addressed a meeting in Johannesburg on social protest against the Asiatic Law Amendment, a new law by
The luxury Carlton Hotel opened in Johannesburg. It closed in 1998.
Sir Laurens van der Post, South African author: "Human beings are perhaps never more frightening than when they are convinc
General Louis Botha was named premier of Transvaal.
The Asiatic Registration Act became law in the province of Transvaal, SA.
Following elections, three of the South African colonies had Boer self-government. Only Natal was British.
Mohandas Gandhi and a group of other Indian men were arrested for refusing to register under the Asiatic Registration Act.
Mohandas Gandhi and hundreds of other registered Indians set fire to thousands of registration cards at the Hamidia Mosque i
Mohandas Gandhi was again arrested. And sentenced to 2 months in prison. Following his release he was again arrested for n
Mohandas Gandhi returned to South Africa from a trip to England to lobby the government to help repeal the Registration Act. H
The first manned, controlled, powered flight in the whole continent of Africa and the entire southern hemisphere was successfu
The Union of South Africa held its first elections, with Boer victories in all provicnes except Natal
The Union of South Africa received its constitution.
Govan Mbeki (d.2001), the son of a Xhosa chief, was born.
Louis Botha was elected prime minister, and held the post until his death in 1919. Botha was the first prime minister of the Unio
An assembly of concerned (mostly middle class) black South Africans held in Bloemfontein in reaction to the abolition of African
Louis Botha resigned as South Africa's premier.
In South Africa Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (d.2003), anti-apartheid hero, was born.
The South African "Natives Land Act" prohibited Africans from owning land outside of reserves established by the British gover
Mohandas K. Gandhi led a march of Indian miners into Transvaal, South Africa. He was arrested 3 times during the 1st 4 days
Gen. Smuts began negotiations with Mohandas Gandhi to eradicate many of the racist laws imposed on South African Indians.
Abba Eban (d.2002), Israeli statesman, was born in South Africa. He grew up in England, attaining honors at Cambridge Unive
Germany surrendered South West Africa to Union of South Africa.
Pieter W. Botha, later president of South Africa, was born in Orange Free State.

Ernest Oppenheimer founded the Anglo American Corp., a mining company.

Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa, anti-apartheid leader, was born. Prior to becoming president he served 18 of 27 yea
Nelson Mandela, first black president of South Africa, was born in Qunu, S. Africa.
Nelson Mandela, later pres. of South Africa, was born.
*note: Multiple birth dates for Nelson Mandela are sited. Each one is considered the 'correct' date. No follow up/correction giv
Namibia comes under South African rule
Paris Peace Conference disposed of German colonies; German East Africa was assigned to Britain & France,
German SW Africa to South Africa.

Prime Minister Louis Botha died.

The 1st flight from London to South Africa took off and lasted 1 month.

Dr. Christiaan Barnard, Pioneering South African heart-transplant surgeon, was born.
Christiaan Barnard, South African surgeon, was born. He performed the first human heart transplant operation.
The SANNC became the African National Congress (ANC).
Nadine Gordimer, Nobel Prize-winning South African novelist, was born.
Afrikaans was recognized as one of the official languages of South Africa, along with English and Dutch.

Ernest Oppenheimer, founder of the Anglo American Corp., took control of De Beers.
Desmond Tutu, South African Black archbishop who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, was born.
Miriam Makeba, singer (Grammy 1965), was born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Athol Fugard, South African playwright, director and actor (The Blood Knot, "Master Harold" . . . and the Boys),
was born in Middleburg, S. Africa.

Julian Ogilvie Thompson, CEO of De Beers, was born.
André P. Brink, South African writer (Dry White Season), was born.
Denis J. Worrall, South African politician/leader (DP), was born.
Frederik Willem de Klerk, president of the Republic of South Africa, was born in Johannesburg. He initiated the
abolition of apartheid.
Karen Blixen wrote her novel: "Out of Africa."
South Africa declared war on Germany.
Olive Schreiner wrote her novel: "The Story of an African Farm."
Solomon Linda’s Original Evening Birds made recordings that included the piece "Mbube" (The Lion). In 1951 the
Zulu song was recorded by Pete Seeger with "Uyimbube" (You’re the lion) mistranslated to "Wimoweh." The song
became a big hit in 1961 recorded by the Tokens as "The Lion Sleeps Tonight." Linda died in poverty.
Wynand C. Malan, South African lawyer, NP/DP-politician, was born.
In South Africa Walter Sisulu (1912-2003), Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo formed the ANC Youth League.
A group of University of Fort Hare (prestigious black-only University) graduates establish the ANC Youth League. Their aim was
Stephen Biko, South African anti-apartheid activist, was born.
Alan Paton authored the novel "Cry the Beloved Country."
Nationalist Party comes to power under Dr Malan. Ascendency to power of Afrikaaner ideology.
There was a Black-Indian race rebellion in Durban, South Africa; 142 died.
System of formalised racial segregation (apartheid) comes into effect. Mixed marriages immediately outlawed
The government of South Africa enacted a ban against racially mixed marriages.
South Africa established an apartheid program.
Riots broke out in Johannesburg, South Africa, over Apartheid.
South Africa passed the Group Areas Act, formally segregating races.
Jan C. Smuts, co-founder of British RAF and S. African PM (1919-48), died at 80.
The South Africa Nationalist government banned Communists and forced them to go underground to struggle against apartheid
About 3.5 million blacks were forcibly trucked off to ethnic territories, often abandoning land, houses and cattle.
.D. Bold wrote "Phrase Book, Grammar and Dictionary of Fanagalo," a pidgin language used by miners.
African Liberationist Rebellions. In Kenya the Mau-Mau rebel against British rule and gain independence in 1956, Ghana 1957,
Albert Luthuli becomes president of ANC, with Nelson Mandela as deputy president. Various non-violent civil disobedience cam
Great demonstrations took place against apartheid in South Africa.
South Africa began refining oil.
The ANC adopts the Freedom Charter which states that South Africa belongs to all those people who live in South Africa, both
60,000 Black Africans evicted from Sophiatown(in Johannesburg). The area is designated a whites-only area.
The government removed the black residents of Sophiatown and razed the area for a whites only suburb.
Nelson Mandela and 156 others were arrested for political activities in South Africa.
South Africa government approved race separation in universities.
Ernest Oppenheimer, founder of the Anglo American Corp., died.
Dr Verwoerd elected president. Grand architect of apartheid follows a vigourous campaign of "separate development" by way o
The Pan African Congress was founded.
Sharpeville Massacre in which 76 peaceful demonstrators are killed for protesting against Pass Laws - a law requiring all urban
The ANC & PAC (Pan Africanist Congress) banned by the government.
A police massacre in Sharpeville, South Africa, left 72 black protestors dead. The ANC was outlawed.
The South African government declared a state of emergency after demonstrations led to the deaths of more than 50 Africans.
Joe Modise was soon appointed high commander of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC.
Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) launched as military wing of ANC to answer violence with violence. Carries out nume
South Africa withdrew from British Commonwealth.
In South Africa Nelson Mandela was acquitted on a treason charge after a 4 year trial .
The U.N. General Assembly condemned South Africa for apartheid.
South Africa became an independent republic
Western Deep Levels Mine is opened and becomes the deepest mine in the world reaching nearly 4000 metres (4 kms.) South
Nelson Mandela was captured by South African police.
Nelson Mandela was arrested for incitement and illegally leaving South Africa
The Rivonia trial began and resulted in the jailing of Nelson Mandela and Govan Mbeki. In 1999 Glenn Frankel authored "Rivon
Albie Sachs was jailed without charges for 168 days. He described his experience in the book: "The Jail Diary of Albie Sachs."
Steve Tshwete (d.2002 at 64) was arrested and sentenced to 15 years on Robben Island, where he spent time with Nelson Ma
South Africa conducted a joint nuclear test with Israel, but the Israelis did not confirm the report
Rivonia Treason Trial. Leadership of ANC sentenced to life imprisonment for treason.
In South Africa Nelson Mandela, convicted of treason in the Rivonia Trial, was moved into a jail cell on Robben Island. He staye
South Africa government said children of white fathers are white.
Donald Woods founded and edited the Daily Dispatch until 1977 when the government put him under effective house arrest.
South African Broadcasting banned the Beatles for Lennon's anti-Jesus remark.
South African Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd was stabbed to death by a deranged page during a parliamentary session in Ca
The UN deprived South Africa of Namibia.
Albie Sachs was ordered by the government into exile. He went to England and spent 11 years studying for a Ph.D., and then m
District Six, a multicultural community in Cape Town, was declared an all-white area.
Surgeons in Cape Town, South Africa, led by Dr. Christiaan Barnard, performed the first human heart transplant at the Groote S
Alfred Nzo (d.2000 at 74) served as the secretary general of the ANC.
South Africa was excluded from Olympic play.
South African Broadcasting Corp lifted its ban on the Beatles
Winnie Mandela was sentenced to 1 year in jail in South Africa.
The main 600-room structure of the Carlton Hotel was completed.
 "Umabatha" by Welcome Msomi, playwright and director, premiered at the Amphitheatre of the Univ. of Natal. It was a recast
South Africa was suspended from UN General Assembly over racial policies
Battle between Cuban and South Africa troops took place in Angola.
 In Ebo, Angola, some 1,300 Cuban troops halted the advance of a much larger South African column.
Breyten Breytenbach (b.1939), Afrikaner writer, was charged with sabotage during a clandestine visit. He was
sentenced to 9 years in prison but was released in 1982 with the intervention of Francois Mitterand.

White police gunned down black schoolchildren and caused a nationwide riot that left 700 people dead. Students
at Morris Isacson High School in Soweto had marched to protest a new rule that called for Afrikaans as the
The township of Soweto riots; mass opposition to apartheid begins.
Jimmy Kruger, minister of justice and police, recommended killing anti-apartheid demonstrators at a cabinet meeting
The UN General Assembly approved ten resolutions condemning apartheid in South Africa, including one characterizing the wh
President Vorster extends apartheid policies to Black Education, forcing black students to study some subjects in Afrikaans. Po
Black prisoners were killed by injections supplied by Dr. Wouter Basson, head of the chemical and biological and weapons prog
Bloody riots took place in Soweto, South Africa.
Steven Biko, leader of the black consciousness movement in South Africa, was arrested.
Steve Biko and Peter Jones were picked up by police at Grahamstown
Steve Biko was found by a guard to be semiconscious and foaming at the mouth. A doctor ordered him transported 750 miles t
In South Africa Steven Biko died while under police custody. He headed the Black Consciousness Movement and was the coun
The South African government eased job restrictions on blacks.
South Africa prepared to detonate a nuclear device in the Kalahari desert, but the plans were detected by a spy satellite and ca
US Rev. Leon H. Sullivan (d.2001 at 78) drafted guidelines (the Sullivan Principles) to help persuade American
companies to treat their workers in South Africa the same way as in the US.
The United Nations imposed an arms embargo against South Africa to pressure it to end apartheid.
South Africa military went into Angola
The first annual "Day of Martyrs" was held in South Africa to remember those who gave their lives in the struggle against aparth
John Vorster, prime minister of white-ruled South Africa since 1966, announced his resignation
Donald Woods escaped to Britain where he waged a campaign for South African democracy
P.W. Botha led the apartheid regime of South Africa
South African Pres. Vorster resigned due to scandal
The Karoo National Park in South Africa was established
Eugene TerreBlanche tarred and feathered a college professor who challenged Afrikaner nationalist's claim to power.
Developer Norman Jarrett helped create "Gold Reef City" theme park near Johannesburg.
Nadine Gordimer, 1991 Nobel Prize winner, authored "July’s People." It was set in a futuristic South Africa roiling from racial rev
Col. Eugene de Kock testified in 1998 that he blew up a building belonging to the African National Congress in London and rece
Durban human rights attorney Griffiths Mxenge was slain by a police death squad that included Dirk Coetzee. Mxenge was stab
Pieter-Dirk Uys, writer, brought his newspaper character Evita to life in the theater. He had begun using the character to write c
Escalating conflict in Namibia & Angola. South Africa involved in anti-SWAPO efforts, as well as anti-Marxist operations in Ango
The United Democratic Front — a coalition of trade unions, women's groups, and youth organizations — is established.
Nelson Mandela left his jail cell on Robben Island
South Africa backed down on a plan to install black rule in neighboring Namibia
Four bombs exploded at South Africa's only nuclear power station in Johannesburg.
South African police bombed the London offices of the African National Congress. Gen'l. Johann Coetzee commander of apart
First, an exiled anti-apartheid activist, was killed in Mozambique from a letter bomb sent by agents of the Nationalist South Afric
Frederik de Klerk was president.
John Vorster, prime minister of white-ruled South Africa from 1966 to 1978, died in Cape Town at age 67
The Organ and Tissue Act of this year allowed officials to remove needed organs and tissues without consent if reasonable atte
The Booker Prize in Literature was won by J.M. Coetzee of South Africa for his novel "Live and Times of Michael K."
In the Church Street bombing a car bomb outside Air Force headquarters in Pretoria killed and injured a number of people.
De facto civil war in most black residential areas (or townships). Characterised by media black-outs, increased police brutality,
Brig. Jack Cronje ran the Vlaakplaas counter-insurgency unit.
Under Apartheid rule the Black community at Mogopa was displaced in a "force removal" action. Some 300 homes and a cluste
Mozambique and South Africa signed a pact banning support for one another’s internal foes.
South Africa prisoner Nelson Mandela saw his wife for the 1st time in 22 yrs
Riots in Vaal Triangle; beginning of township rebellion.
Desmond Tutu, black Anglican Archbishop in South Africa, won the Nobel Peace Prize
South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu received the Nobel Peace Prize
Breyten Breytenbach, Afrikaner writer, authored "The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist," a memoir of his arrest and 7-ye
Tutu wins Nobel Peace Prize. Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his non-
violent campaign to end apartheid. He criticizes U.S. President Ronald Reagan's "quiet diplomacy" against
apartheid and urges a more forceful stance.
From Sep ‘84 to Dec ‘93, some 19,000 people were killed in political violence.
Fighting between the Inkatha and the ANC was believed to have killed 14,000 people over this time.
The first state of emergency is imposed.
Police in Langa (Uitenhage), South Africa, opened fire on blacks marching to mark the 25th anniversary of the
Sharpeville shootings, killing at least 21 demonstrators.
South Africa planned to repeal sex and marriage laws against whites and non-whites.
1st remote location for "Nightline" was in South Africa.
President Reagan ordered sanctions against South Africa
President Reagan banned importation of South African Krugerrands.
Benjamin Moloisi (30), South African poet, was hanged.
Eugene de Kock took over the Vlaakplaas counter-insurgency unit and ran it until 1993. The existence of the unit
was only made public in 1989 and the full extent of its activities were not revealed until the Truth Commission in
Two ANC activists and 8 others were killed in a raid into Lesotho. A government assassin told a court in 1996 that
plans for the raid were approved by the highest levels of Pres. Botha’s apartheid regime.
Three Port Elizabeth activists, the Pepco 3, were beaten and strangled at an unused police station.
Dr. Mike Odendaal headed the microbiology division at Roodeplat Research Labs (RRL), a biological research
front for the chemical and biological warfare program known as Project Coast.
The government prohibits the press from reporting political unrest.
Impala Platinum fired 20,000 black mine workers in Johannesburg.
Desmond Tutu was elected Anglican archbishop of Capetown.
South African army occupied Botswana, Zimbabwe & Zambia.
The second state of emergency is imposed; thousands are arrested.
Desmond Tutu was installed as the Anglican archbishop of Capetown, the first black to lead the Anglican Church in southern A
Mark Mathabane authored "Kaffir Boy," an account of the poverty, violence and racism under apartheid. In 2000 his sister, Miria
In South Africa 10 youths were drugged and then blown to pieces with explosives. In 1999 Abraham Joubert, former special for
In Sweden Prime Minister Olaf Palme was assassinated. In 1996 South African former police officer Eugene de Kock said that
National Congress supporter Dr. Fabian Ribeiro and his wife, Florence, were assassinated
Economic sanctions. The European Community and United States impose economic sanctions on South Africa.
The tougher U.S. measures ban the import of South African agriculture, iron and steel and prohibit U.S. loans and
Railway strike. A strike by black railway workers leads to the worst violence in South Africa since the government
declared a national state of emergency in 1986. Eleven workers were killed and more than 60 trains damaged or
destroyed in firebomb attacks before the government met workers' demands.
A paramilitary force killed 13 civilians in their sleep in the KwaMakutha Zulu township (KwaZulu-Natal black
homeland). In 1996 former defense minister Magnus Malan and 20 others were charged with authorizing the
killing. The first six defendants of the Inkatha Freedom party were acquitted by Judge Jan Hugo. Former
intelligence officer Johan Opperman admitted to planning the attack.
Invoking emergency powers, the government of South Africa outlawed any action, word or written document
protesting the practice of detention without trials or calling for the release of detainees.
The London building that housed the Congress of South African Trade Unions was bombed under orders of the
apartheid government of South Africa
Goban Mbeki, an early leader of the African National Congress, was released from Robben Island prison after 24
A South African Airways Boeing 747 crashed into the Indian Ocean with the loss of all 159 people aboard
The film "Cry Freedom" was made by Richard Attenborough. It covered the relationship of Steve Biko and Donald
Govan Mbeki, the father of Thabo Mbeki, was released from Robben Island
Ashley Kriel, an anti-apartheid activist was killed. Police officer Jeffrey Benzien later confessed to the killing and
was absolved by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 1999.
South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu and other religious leaders were arrested while kneeling near
Parliament with a petition against government bans on anti-apartheid groups. All were freed hours later.
Albie Sachs was working in Mozambique on legal guarantees that be part of the new South African Constitution
when a car bomb exploded that left him without a right arm.
Nelson Mandela spoke at Wembley Stadium, London, for the Freedomfest.
Winnie Mandela’s home in Soweto, South Africa, was destroyed by arson.
 The Khotso House was bombed. In South Africa police chief Johan van der Merwe was instructed to blow up the
Johannesburg headquarters of the South African Council of Churches, called Khotso House, for harboring anti-
apartheid groups. The bombing injured 21 people. He said in 1996 that the instructions came from Law and Order
Minister Adriaan Vlok, who told him that the order came directly from Pres. P.W. Botha. In 1997 a document
submitted by Vlok said the order to destroy the headquarters came from Pres. Botha. Col. Eugene de Kock
testified in 1998 that he was called in by a police general to blowup Khotso House. Vlok testified in 1998 that
South Africa's justice minister announced that Nelson Mandela would not be returned to prison upon his recovery
from tuberculosis, but would instead remain in custody in another location.
In South Africa, 11 black funeral mourners were slain in Natal Province in an attack blamed on security forces.
Stompie Seipei (14) was kidnapped and killed by the Mandela United Football Club, the bodyguards of Winnie
Mandela. Jerry Richardson was convicted of the murder and sentenced to a life sentence. In 1997 he reported to
the truth commission that Mrs. Mandela asked him to do it. Dr. Abu-baker Asvat, who examined Stompie, was
also murdered. The events were later described in the 1997 book "Katiza’s Journey" by Fred Bridgland.
Bodyguard Katiza Cebekhulu in 1997 testified that he saw Winnie Mandela plunge a shiny object into Stompie.
Pelo Mekgwe, one of the 4 young men brought to the Mandela house, testified in 1997 that chief bodyguard Jerry
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela assaulted and kidnapped a young activist and was later convicted on the charges.
Lolo Sono beaten and his body was never found. It was reported that she played a role in as many as a dozen
killings. In 1999 Jerry Richardson, her former bodyguard, testified that he killed Koekie Zwane on orders from
The Trust Feed massacre was masterminded by policeman, Brian Mitchell, and he was later convicted of 11
murders in the botched assassination attempt. He served less than five years of a 30-year sentence was freed
from prison in 1996 by the Reconciliation Commission.
Abu Baker Aswat, a Soweto doctor, was killed. Thulani Dlamini was later convicted and sentenced to 25 years in
prison. Dlamini testified in 1997 that Winnie Madikizela Mandela paid him for the murder.
Mary Benson, anti-apartheid campaigner, wrote her autobiography: "A Far Point."
South-African Pres Pieter Botha visited ANC leader Nelson Mandela.
South African President P.W. Botha announced his resignation after losing a bitter power struggle within his
F.W. de Klerk was sworn in as acting president of South Africa, one day after P.W. Botha resigned as the result
of a power struggle within the National Party.
The National Party, the governing party of South Africa, lost nearly a quarter of its parliament seats to far-right
and anti-apartheid rivals, its worst setback in four decades.
Desmond Tutu les the biggest anti-apartheid protest march in S. Africa
F.W. de Klerk was sworn in as president of South Africa.
The government begins releasing imprisoned leaders of the African National Congress (ANC).
South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that eight prominent political prisoners, including African
National Congress official Walter Sisulu, would be unconditionally freed, but that Nelson Mandela would remain
South African officials released eight prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, a leader of the African National Con
South African President F.W. de Klerk met for the first time with imprisoned African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela,
Winnie Mandela sent a young man to the mission of Paul Verryn, a Methodist minister, to try to trap him into a sexual liaison. S
Eugene de Kock’s covert Vlakplaas unit began to be exposed in newspapers and court proceedings.
De Klerk comes to power. P.W. Botha steps down as National Party leader and president of South Africa. He is replaced by th
In a dramatic concession to South Africa's black majority, President F.W. de Klerk lifted a ban on the African National Congress
South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that black activist Nelson Mandela would be released the next day after 27 y
After 27 years in prison, black leader Nelson Mandela is released.
Nelson Mandela was released from a South African prison after being detained for 27 years as a political prisoner fighting again
South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that exiled African National Congress leaders could return home for talks wit
After UN-observed elections the previous year, South Africa formally ceded sovereignty to Namibia, generally known before ind
The government of South Africa and the African National Congress opened their first formal talks aimed at paving the way for m
The South African government and the African National Congress concluded historic talks in Cape Town with a joint statement
Former president P.W. Botha quit South Africa's ruling National Party.
South African troops plundered Mandela's dwelling.
South African President F.W. de Klerk announced he was lifting a four-year-old state of emergency in three of the country’s fou
A crowd in the Netherlands welcomed African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela, who thanked them for staunch Dutch
South African black nationalist Nelson Mandela and his wife, Winnie, arrived in New York City for a ticker-tape parade in their h
African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela addressed the U.S. Congress, asking for "material resources" to hasten the
African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela visited Oakland, California, a day after receiving a star-studded welcome in L
South African President F.W. de Klerk arrived in the US for talks with President Bush.
South African President F.W. de Klerk met at the White House with President Bush.
A letter bomb from a pro-apartheid hit squad left Rev. Michael Lapsley maimed for life.
Over 5,000 people were killed in KwaZulu-Natal province prior to the first all-race elections
In the Northern Province some 577 killings were committed related to witchcraft.
Increased tension between ANC supporters and Inkhata Freedom Party (supported largely by Zulu speaking persons). Many po
International sanctions lifted against South Africa and De Kerk removes remaining apartheid laws.
Forty-two people were killed in a brawl and stampede during a soccer match in Johannesburg, South Africa.
South African President F.W. de Klerk said he would repeal all remaining apartheid laws.
The government of South Africa and the African National Congress announced an agreement on terms of the ANC’s decision t
South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that exiled African National Congress leaders would be allowed to return hom
South African black activist Winnie Mandela and two co-defendants were convicted of abducting four young black men and kee
The South African Parliament abolished the Population Registration Act, the last major apartheid law still in effect.
The International Olympic Committee readmitted South Africa.
President Bush lifted economic sanctions against South Africa, citing its "profound transformation" toward racial equality.
The South African government acknowledged that it had been giving money to the Inkatha Freedom Party, the main rival of the
Hundreds of police battled neo-Nazis as pro-apartheid extremists tried to stop a speech by President F.W. de Klerk.
President F.W. de Klerk proposed a new constitution that would allow blacks to vote and govern; the African National Congress
Nelson Mandela was chosen president of South African ANC
More than 40 people were reported killed in factional fighting around Johannesburg, South Africa.
The government of South Africa, the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party signed a national peace pact.
South African author Nadine Gordimer was named winner of the Nobel Prize in literature.
Ted Botha wrote "Apartheid in My Rucksack."
Afrikaner nationalists led by Prof. Carel Boshoff, son-in-law of the late PM Hendrik Verwoerd, founded the Orania enclave in the
Winnie Mandela and Xoliswa Falati were both convicted of assaulting and kidnapping Stompie Seipei in 1988. Both received 6-
Eugene TerreBlanche provoked a street battle that left 3 people dead.
White South Africans approved constitutional reforms giving legal equality to blacks.
Nelson Mandela announced he would seek a divorce from Winnie.
An enraged mob forced South African President F.W. de Klerk to cut short a visit to the black township of Boipatong, the scene
Millions of South African blacks joined a nationwide strike against white-led rule.
Troops in South Africa fired on African National Congress supporters near the Transkei homeland, killing 28 and wounding 200
South African President F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela held their first
meeting in three months, during which they agreed on the urgent need for an interim government.
In King William's Town, South Africa, four people were killed, about 20 injured, when black militant gunmen attacked a country
Sol Kerzner, multimillionaire, unveiled his $280 million Palace of the Lost City in Sun City in the state of Bophuthatswana.
Transition to 'democracy'. Mandela, de Klerk and representatives from 18 other parties agree on an interim constitution that pa
South Africa White Wolves killed a 5-year-old black girl.
South African Pres F.W. de Klerk admitted for the 1st time that his country had built 6 nuclear bombs, but that the weapons had
Chris Hani, leader of the South African Communist Party, was killed by Janusz Walus and Clive Derby-Lewis. The 2 men appea
Anti-apartheid activists of the ANC killed 2 white brothers, Alistair and Glen Weakly, who were on a fishing trip, in retaliation for
Sam Ntombani, ANC-secretary in Soweto South Africa, was shot to death.
Former African National Congress president Oliver Tambo died in Johannesburg, South Africa, at age 75.
 In South Africa, representatives of 23 political parties signed a declaration of intent to hold multiracial elections within a year.
Nelson Mandela [of the ANC] moved into the president’s office of South Africa.
South Africa's Supreme Court upheld Winnie Mandela's conviction for kidnapping four young blacks, but said she would not ha
South African leaders F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela received the Liberty Medal in a ceremony outside Philadelphia's Inde
Black gunmen in South Africa launched a series of attacks on black commuters, claiming two dozen lives.
Stanford graduate Amy Biehl was slain while attempting to drive black friends home to Guguletu outside Cape
Town. Four members of the Congress’ youth wing were arrested, convicted and sentenced to 18-year jail terms.
They later requested amnesty from the Truth & Reconciliation Commission. In 1998 the 4 men convicted of
The South African parliament voted to allow blacks a role in governing.
Addressing the United Nations, Nelson Mandela asked the world community to lift economic sanctions against South Africa, sa
UN lifted remaining economic sanctions against South Africa.
Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end apartheid.
Pres. De Klerk authorized an attack in the Transkei Homeland on a house where arms were allegedly stored. Five youths were
Representatives of 21 South African political parties approved a new constitution.
President Clinton signed legislation lifting remaining U.S. sanctions against South Africa, and announced an initiative to spur inv
Crimes committed up to this date became eligible for amnesty as set up by special constitutional legislation that set up the Trut
South African President F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela accepted their Nobel Peace Prize
Breyten Breytenbach, Afrikaner writer, authored "A Return to Paradise."
The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Nelson Mandela and Frederic de Klerk of South Africa
South Africa renounced its biological weapons program
In South Africa Petrus Matthews testified in 1998 how he and 8 members of the neo-Nazi Afrikaner Resistance Movement erec
Wouter Basson was forced to resign from the army after a government report linked him with making poisons and chemical bo
An attack on St. James Church in Capetown by the ultra-radical Azanian People’s Liberation Army under commander Daniel M
In South Africa, Nelson Mandela kicked off his party's campaign for the country's first multiracial elections.
A South African diplomat took over as leader of Bophuthatswana as the black homeland's president, Lucas Mangope, was dep
The South Africa Goldstone committee revealed the existence of secret police.
More than 50 people were killed in violence that erupted in Johannesburg, South Africa, during a march by Zulu nationalists.
ANC guards killed a number of Zulus during a demonstration in South Africa.
Terrorist bombers struck twice on the eve of South Africa's first all-race election, killing about a dozen people. Car bombs near
South Africa began its first democratic elections.
South Africa's first all-race elections ended.
 Nelson Mandela claimed victory in the wake of South Africa's first democratic elections; President F.W. de Klerk acknowledged
Nelson Mandela and his ANC finally were confirmed winners in South Africa.
South Africa's newly elected parliament chose Nelson Mandela to be the country's first black president
Nelson Mandela was sworn in as Prime Minister of South Africa. His ANC party earmarked $4 billion to be spent over ten years
Six white racists were sentenced to death in South Africa.
The UN Security Council lifted a 10-year-old ban on weapons exports from South Africa, scrapping the last of its apartheid-era
The Organization of African Unity formally admits South Africa as its fifty-third member.
Mary Benson authored the biography: "Nelson Mandela: The Man and the Movement."
South Africans vote in fair and free elections; the ANC government is voted into power.
South African President Nelson Mandela addressed the United Nations, urging the world to support his country's economy.
President Clinton welcomed South African President Nelson Mandela to the White House.
In an address to a joint meeting of the U.S. Congress, South African President Nelson Mandela warned against the lure of isola
King Goodwill Zwelithini broke with Inkatha leader Mangosuthu Buthelezi and tension between the Zulu royal family and Inkatha
Dr. Nkosazana Zuma became the first South African black minister of health
Prudence Mabele became the first black South African woman to admit being HIV-positive.
Chinese triads arrived in South Africa seeking abalone to supply black markets in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea. Poaching s
South Africa wins Rugby World Championship in Johannesburg.
to present Truth & Reconciliation Committee (TRC) established to investigate and provide "as complete a picture as possible o
A protest took place in South Durban over the high pollution at the Engen oil refinery.
One-hundred-four miners were killed in an elevator accident in Orkney, South Africa.
The death penalty was abolished by the Constitutional Court
The first McDonald’s restaurant opened in Johannesburg.
A Zulu mob killed 14 supporters of the African National Congress (ANC) in the KwaZulu-Natal province. 600 members of Inkath
Supporters of the Zulu nationalist Inkatha Freedom Party carried out a Christmas massacre where 18 people were killed. In 199
Floods in eastern South Africa killed at least 130.
Nelson Mandela published his autobiography "Long Walk to Freedom." In 1998 British journalist Martin Meredith published a bi
The first lion infected with tuberculosis was discovered by Dewald Keet, chief veterinarian at Kruger National Park. They picked
Truth and Reconciliation Commission holds hearings on human-rights abuses during Apartheid-era.
Afrikaner men attacked 300 black students protesting outside a primary school in rural Trompsburg for admittance. The men ch
Winnie Mandela divorced Nelson after 38 years of marriage
Princess Nonhlanhla Zulu disappeared during a gang attack on a royal residence in KwaMashu black township near Durban, S
South Africa approved a National Constitution that guaranteed equal rights for all races. Zulu nationalists and white extremists b
In South Africa the National Party withdrew from a national-unity government with Pres. Mandela’s African National Congress.
Anglican Church leaders chose Rev. Njongonkulu Ndungane to succeed Desmond Tutu as the archbishop for southern Africa.
A report from the World Health Organization said that South Africa has the worst tuberculosis problem in the world and that dru
In South Africa the Anglo American Platinum Corp. fired an additional 7,000 striking workers. That makes the total 28,261 fired
The average cost of a Big Mac in South Africa was $1.64.
Winter storms raged across South Africa and snowdrifts up to 8-feet high blocked the main road from Johannesburg to Durban
In South Africa rush-hour crowds panicked when guards used electric prods to drive off fare-beaters. At least 15 died and 65 w
In South Africa Nadthmie Edries, leader of a group called People Against Gangsterism, was charged with sedition in connection
It was reported that 900 million South African bees died this year. The Cape bees were introduced in the north and threw off the
Eugene de Kock, former police colonel, was found guilty of 5 counts of murder. He still faced 116 charges that included 3 for m
South Africa announced an investigation into killings that have left 25 miners dead in recent weeks at 4 gold fields
The high court rejected the 140-page constitution in part because of the proposals for a restructured senate. 3 months were allo
In South Africa 2 days of ethnic fighting among gold miners at Buffeslfontein left 18 people dead.
The government disclosed that it was sending $18 million worth of arms to Rwanda.
In South Africa former defense minister Magnus Malan and other members of the military hierarchy were acquitted of charges i
A new constitution was given final approval. It would go into full effect in 1999.
Pres. Nelson Mandela signed the finished constitution, largely the work of Albie Sachs
A policeman convicted of 11 murders in a botched 1988 assassination attempt and serving a 30-year sentence was freed from
In Worcester, South Africa, 2 pipe bombs killed 1 adult and 2 children in shopping areas. The Boer Attack Troop claimed respo
In the US Arthur Penn directed the film "Inside." It focused on the abuses of the penal system in South Africa just before and af
A census was conducted in all 11 of South Africa’s official languages. It revealed that over half the population did not have runn
Chief Khayelihle Mathaba of the Mangethe tribe claimed the lands of the descendants of John Dunn (d.1885) and tried to decla
The South Africa Council for Scientific and Industrial Research patented the active chemical of hoodia, called P57, and licensed
The vigilante group People Against Gangsterism and Drugs publicly lynched gang boss Rashaad Staggie.
New ANC Chief. Declaring "the time has come to take leave," Mandela, 79, steps down as ANC party leader. He is replaced b
In Algeria Muslim guerrillas massacred 16 in Ben Achour village.
In South Africa police arrested 2 white men in connection with 3 bomb blasts near Johannesburg.
Five former police officers in South Africa admitted to killing anti-apartheid activist Stephen Biko, who died in police custody in 1
Wouter Basson, retired brigadier general, was arrested for selling 1,000 tablets of the drug Ecstasy to undercover police
 Eicker Henning ordered a worker to tie Ndelwa Kepisi Mgaga to his truck. Henning dragged Mgaga along a
gravel road and left Mgaga to die. Henning was convicted in 2000 and sentenced to 25 years in prison.
Mixed race rioters protested in Eldorado Park. One died and more than 100 were injured.
Eugene Terre’Blanche was convicted of attempted murder and assault in 1996 incidents. He led the radical wing of the Afrikane
The amnesty act was extended to this date
In South Africa some 8,000 people filed for amnesty to meet the deadline of the commission for the investigation of apartheid-e
Five killings in Magoda in Kwa Zulu / Natal Province were suspected of being caused an unknown "third force," a presumed rig
Max, a 400-pound gorilla, beat up a fleeing armed robber, a former police officer, who tried to hide in his cage at the Johannesb
Former Pres. Frederik de Klerk announced his retirement from politics and his leading role in the National Party.
The First National Branch in Pretoria was robbed of $2,500. Mzwakhe Mbuli, a renowned "people's poet," and 2 suspects were
Pres. Mandela stepped aside as leader of the African National Congress and was succeeded by Deputy Pres. Thabo Mbeki
President Nelson Mandela stepped down as leader of South Africa's governing African National Congress.
South Africa established diplomatic ties with China and ended formal ties with Taiwan.
The film "Fools" was the first South African feature film directed by a black South African, Ramadan Suleman.
Theo Mbeki takes over as President of the ANC.
Five African nations compete in the World Cup (Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, Morocco and Tunisia).
The attorney general announced that former Pres. Peter Botha would be prosecuted for refusing to appear before the Truth Co
Six white police officers made a video tape showing a "training exercise" where they incited their dogs to maul 3 black men and
Hundreds of black demonstrators clashed with police as they marched on the Vryburg High School. Some 2,500 residents of H
President Clinton stood with President Nelson Mandela in a racially integrated South African parliament to salute a country that
President Clinton, during his visit to South Africa, went to Soweto, a landmark in the bloody uprising against apartheid, to honor
In Benoni Nicholas Steyn (42), a white farmer, shot Francina Diamina (11) and her 6-month old cousin, Angelina, for trespassin
It was reported that Fanagalo, a pidgin tongue based on Zulu, English and Afrikaans, was still being used by miners, despite ind
The Goldman Environmental Awards were presented to six winners in SF. The prizes were increased to $100,000. Sven "Bobb
Pres. Mandela named Siphiwe Nyanda as the first black to head the nation’s armed forces.
The National Sports Council asked the world to boycott South African Rugby in a move to push for the resignation of Louis Luyt
Louis Luyt announced his resignation as the president of the South African Rugby Football Assoc.
Four bombings occurred in the center of Cape Town and attributed to rival gangs.
8 people were gunned down in the Kwa-Zulu-Natal town of Richmond. Pres. Mandela spoke out against the police after anothe
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission closed down after 2 years of hearings. A report was due in October.
Former Pres. Botha (82) was convicted of ignoring a subpoena to testify about apartheid atrocities in front of the Truth and Rec
In South Africa a bomb exploded in a Planet Hollywood restaurant in Cape Town and killed one person and injured 24. A group
In South Africa the 3,500 page report of the Truth and Reconciliation Committee was formally handed over from Desmond Tutu
Parliament approved one of the world’s toughest anti-smoking laws.
Former Pres. F.W. de Klerk completed his divorce with Marike de Klerk and married his companion Elita Georgiades, the forme
A rally of 82 vintage cars entered Cape Town after a 39 day, 18,600 mile journey that began in London.
In South Africa a tornado killed 13 people in Umtata. Pres. Mandela narrowly escaped injury while shopping there.
In South Africa Gugu Dlamini (36), an AIDS activist, died from wounds inflicted by a mob
A South Africa court struck down the law against sodomy.
South Africa's second all-race elections are scheduled for June 2. Going into the vote, ANC leader and Deputy President Thabo
In South Africa Sifiso Nkabinde, leader of the small United Democratic Movement party, was shot and killed in Richmond. Later
In Cape Town, South Africa, a bomb exploded at the main police station and wounded 11 people. It was the 3rd bombing in 5 m
 It was reported that a $650 flamethrower, invented by Charl Flourie, was available for installation on cars to protect against car
In South Africa a helicopter crashed on the roof of an office building in Cape Town and all 4 people aboard were killed
In South Africa the 4 policemen charged with the fatal beating of Steve Biko were denied amnesty.
From South Africa it was reported that 3.6 million people, one in eight adults, were carrying the AIDS virus by the end of 1998. T
In South Africa a gunman killed Patata Nqwaru, vice chairman of the local United Democratic Movement in Cape Town.
Allan Boesak (53), a leading anti-apartheid activist, was convicted of stealing money from foreign donors intended for the Foun
In South Africa Wouter Basson, the former head of chemical and biological warfare dubbed "Doctor Death," was indicted on 64
In South Africa the police beating of 4 carjacking suspects was broadcast over TV. One suspect died from the beating and the
Authorities found over 7 tons of arms, ammunition and explosives in KwaZulu-Natal province. It was believed to have been ama
Pres. Mandela set this date for elections. Thabo Mbeki, the deputy of Pres. Mandela, was expected to win
In South Africa the ruling African National Congress signed a peace pact with the arch-rival Inkatha Freedom Party.
In South Africa a principal and teacher opened fire on students who were throwing stones angered by field trip fees. Sithembiso
An appeals court set aside the contempt conviction against former Pres. P.W. Botha based on a technicality.
In South Africa Pres. Mandela set this date for elections. Thabo Mbeki, the deputy of Pres. Mandela, was expected to win. The
In South Africa Pres. Mandela welcomed visiting Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy as his last official guest. Khadafy was on his
The Truth Commission granted amnesty to Eugene TerreBlanche after he made full disclosure for his apartheid-
Thabo Mbeki took the oath as president of South Africa, succeeding Nelson Mandela
In South Africa some 300,000 workers staged a public sector strike and demanded a 10% pay hike.
Simon Mahlathini Nkabinde, lead groaner of the Mahlathini and the Mohatella Queens, died at age 62. The group performed to
Tito Mboweni was inaugurated as governor of the South African Reserve Bank.
In South Africa thousands of state workers stayed home from work and some 10,000 Telkom and post office workers demonst
In South Africa an estimated 100,000 workers joined marches across the country in a one-day strike for wage increases.
In South Africa a heavy storm in Cape Town left 4 people dead and some 5,000 homeless.
The government reported that it would purchase $3.5 billion in arms over the next 8 years in exchange for investments in the co
In South Africa a bus of British tourists overturned as it approached Lydenburg and 27 people were killed.
South Africa and the European Union signed a free-trade pact.
Nelson Mandela visited Israel for the 1st time in an effort to end enmity between the Jewish state and the African National Cong
The 31st Booker Prize in Literature was won by J.M. Coetzee of South Africa for his novel "Disgrace." He became the 1st autho
At Empangeni rival minivan taxi operators waged a gun battle that left at least 10 people dead and 24 wounded.
In South Africa a pipe bomb injured at least 43 people at St. Elmo's pizza restaurant in Camps Bay, just south of Cape Town.
In South Africa Clarence Mlokoti (69), co-founder of the Kaizer Chiefs soccer team, was killed during an attempted car-jacking
In South Africa 7 policemen were injured after responding to a bomb threat in Cape Town.
In South Africa police arrested 3 members of a Muslim vigilante gang and seized bomb materials linked to recent bombings ne
Breyten Breytenbach, Afrikaner writer, authored "Dog Heart: A Memoir," a look at South Africa since the 1994 elections.
Nadine Gordimer authored "Living in Hope and History: Notes from Our Century."
In South Africa there was a rock fall at the African Rainbow Minerals gold mine. 9 miners were rescued after 4 days, but 4 were
In South Africa it was reported that at least 19 people had died and 12 were feared drowned after torrential rains hit the norther
The telephone company, Telkom, announced that it would buy and distribute 5 million condoms to its employees in an effort to
Heavy rains continued to ravage South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 33 people were reported dead in the no
Dr. Larry C. Ford committed suicide just days after a botched assassination attempt on his business partner at Biofem Inc., of I
In South Africa a flashflood down the Storms River Gorge left 7 dead and 6 missing from a group of 24 whitewater enthusiasts.
Themba Khoza, member of parliament and leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party, died of AIDS at age 41.
Mary Benson, writer and anti-apartheid campaigner, died at age 80. Her work included a 2-volume history of the African Nation
A Panamanian registered tanker sank off Cape Town, South Africa and at least 1,300 tons of seeped out. Oil began to soak the
The 13the Int’l. AIDS Conference convened in South Africa. Pres. Thabo Mbeki opened the conference and insisted that pover
In South Africa Nelson Mandela closed the 13th Int’l. Conference on AIDS with a call for scientists to set aside differences with
Jul, Nkosi Johnson (10), a victim of AIDS, spoke to int’l. delegates and implored South Africa to provide HIV-positive pregnant w
In Sasolburg John Mosoko Rampuru (37) died after being dragged behind a pickup for over 3 miles by Pieter Odendaal (44).
The government announced war with the Muslim vigilante group, PAGAD, People Against Gangsterism and Drugs, following a
In South Africa 11 workers died from a fire while apparently locked in a floor polish factory in Lenasia
On World AIDS Day the government agreed to accept a $50 million donation of the drug fluconazole from Pfizer to treat a brain
7 people were killed at 2 polling stations during the 2nd all-race municipal elections. The elections slashed the number of munic
Pres. Mbeki spoke at a MERCOSUR meeting in Brazil and planned to begin negotiations to join the trading block.
Edmund Ntemi Piliso, jazz musician, died at age 75. He led the Alexandra All-Star band in Sophiatown in the 1950s.
South Africa ranked as the world’s 8th largest wine producer. Its output was roughly in line with Germany.
Durban hosts UN race conference.
It was reported that cholera had sickened some 13,000 people in KwaZulu-Natal and had killed at least 53.
A single lightning bolt killed 14 people huddled in a hut in Kwa-Zulu-Natal province
New AIDS statistics indicated that 25% of the adult population, one of every 9 people, was infected with HIV.
In Johannesburg 43 people were killed in a stampede at a soccer game in Ellis Park Stadium. Over 150 were injured
In South Africa 12 miners were killed in a gold mine explosion
Shareholders of De Beers, a giant diamond company, approved a move the privatize the company. Shares would be delisted J
US Sec. of State Colin Powell traveled to South Africa as part of his 4-nation African tour to promote the fight against AIDS.
US Sec. of State Colin Powell spoke to students at the Univ. of Witwatersrand and called on Pres. Mugabe of Zimbabwe to sub
Nkosi Johnson (12), a victim of AIDS, died. In 2000 he had spoken to int’l. delegates and implored South Africa to provide HIV-
In Washington Pres. Bush met with South Africa Pres. Thabo Mbeki and defended Mbeki’s efforts to combat AIDS
Queen Modjadji V, the "rain queen" of the Bolobedu tribe, died at age 64.
Members of the Pan African Congress began collecting $3 from poor people in exchange for small parcels of vacant land in Bre
The government ordered the demolition of shacks on the occupied land in Bredell. 1-2 thousand shacks were expected to be d
In South Africa Catholic bishops denounced condoms as "immoral and misguided" weapons against AIDS.
Donald Woods (67), former Daily Dispatch editor and apartheid opponent, died in Sutton, England.
Govan Mbeki, the father of Pres. Thabo Mbeki, died at age 91. He authored the book "South Africa: The Peasant’s Revolt" whil
The UN World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance began in Durban, Sout
At the UN World Conference Against Racism a variety of African leaders demanded apologies, an in some cases financial repa
Dr. Christiaan Barnard (78), South African cardiologist, died in Paphos, Cyprus. He performed the world’s 1st human heart tran
The US delegates pulled out of the UN Conference on Racism due to extremist diatribes against Israel by Arab nations.
In Durban the UN Conference on Racism went into overtime and agreed on a deal. The conference acknowledged that slavery
In South Africa the UN World Conference on Racism ended and agreed to condemn the "barbarism" of the slave trade, propos
In South Africa ANC leader Tony Yengeni was charged with corruption, forgery and perjury linked to the country’s $6 billion arm
 In South Africa Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the former wife of Nelson Mandela, was indicted for fraudulent loans of more than
Joe Modise (72), former defense minister (1994-1999), died
The predominantly white New National Party (NNP) joined into a coalition with the ruling African National Congress (ANC).
In South Africa Marike de Klerk (64), former wife of former Pres. F.W. de Klerk, was found stabbed and strangled in her luxury
It was reported that 83 vanadium miners at the Vantech Tech. mining operations in Steelport were let go between 1998 and 20
In South Africa an open truck carrying families on a pilgrimage to ancestral graves, overturned on a steep hill and 48 people we
In South Africa Doctors Without Borders defied patent law and imported a generic AIDS drug from Brazil
In Durban, South Africa, a commuter train collided with a freight train and 18 people were killed
In South Africa Bulelani Vukwana (29), shot and killed his girlfriend and 9 others before killing himself in Mdantsane suburb of E
It was reported that scientist David Rasnick had agreed to inject himself with HIV and that computer scientist Philip Machanick
A Pretoria high court ruled that the government must provide the anti-AIDS drug nevirapine to all public hospitals with the capa
A white judge acquitted Dr. Wouter Basson ("Dr. Death"), former head of the chemical and biological weapons program, of 46 c
A Russian rocket blasted into orbit with Mark Shuttleworth (28) of South Africa, who paid $20 million for the trip to the Int’l. Spac
Steve Tshwete (64), security minister, died. He had been arrested in 1963 and sentenced to 15 years on Robben Island, where
Daan Goosen, South Africa scientist, passed a vial of genetically engineered bacteria to a retired US CIA officer and offered an
In South Africa Lulu Petersen said she hoped a class-action lawsuit against foreign companies that dealt with the racist, white r
South Africa's parliament passed a landmark bill aimed at transforming the country's mining industry by giving the government
A former South African policeman killed four people and wounded nine during a shooting rampage in a small town in the Northe
African leaders gathered in South Africa to form the new African Union and to bid farewell to the Organization of African Unity, a
African leaders in Durban, SA, launched the African Union, an ambitious new body intended to pull the beleaguered continent o
The first summit of the African Union ended with lofty promises of a new era of economic development and good government o
A passenger bus overturned and burst into flames after hitting a cow, killing at least 18 people in South Africa's Eastern Cape p
The 4th UN World Summit on Sustainable Development opened in Johannesburg, SA, with a call from South African President
As Zimbabwean and Ethiopian activists staged protests, South African security officials promised to clamp down on any protest
In South Africa delegates to the World Summit on Sustainable Development called for increased global efforts to bring new agr
Delegates at the World Summit on Sustainable Development focused on ways to bring fresh water and sanitation to hundreds o
The World Summit on Sustainable Development focused on ways business and governments could work together to spread pr
In South Africa some 10,000 people marched from a township of tin shacks and open sewers to the glittering venue of a U.N. d
At the UN Earth Summit in South Africa negotiators agreed on a global plan to reduce the use of oil and switch to other cleaner
The World Summit on Sustainable Development closed Wednesday with just a handful of small victories and some promising n
In South Africa the highest court ruled that gay couples have the right to adopt children and laws that prevent them from doing s
In South Africa the Italian ship, the Jolly Rubino, that ran aground within the boundaries of the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park,
In South Africa a commuter bus veered off a road and flipped several times down a mountain pass, killing 21 people and injurin
In South Africa tens of thousands of workers blew whistles and sang protest songs as they marched in a nationwide strike prote
A series of bomb blasts rocked the poor township of Soweto, SA, killing one person, ripping a hole in a mosque and damaging
Nine people, mostly Canadian or British tourists, were killed and at least 10 more injured when their bus crashed in South Africa
Over 21,000 people were murdered in South Africa this year.
In South Africa a passenger train collided with a freight train, killing 10 people and injuring 49.
In South Africa an execution-style attack at a Cape Town house used as a gay massage parlor killed eight men and badly woun
A South African commission that investigated the crimes of the era recommended that the government pay compensation tota
In Capetown, SA, Roxanne Dickson (5) became the 7th child to die from gang violence in the last month. Some 280 gangs ope
In South Africa Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the fiery anti-apartheid leader and ex-wife of former President Nelson Mandela, wa
In South Africa a bus believed to be carrying about 90 people plunged into a reservoir in South Africa. 10 survivors were rescue
In South Africa Walter Sisulu (b.1912), anti-apartheid hero, died. He brought Nelson Mandela into the ANC and together with O
Pres. Bush met with South African President Thabo Mbeki in Pretoria for discussions on AIDS, the war on terror, trade issues a
F.T. Prince (90), South African poet, died in Southampton, England. His work included the WWII poem "Soldiers Bathing."
South African police and the FBI arrested Craig Michael Pritchert, 41, and Nova Ester Guthrie, 28, in Capetown. The couple are
Two South China tigers, the first ever to leave the country, arrived in South Africa as part of a project to save the endangered s
South Africa's J.M. Coetzee, whose stories tell of innocents and outcasts oppressed by the cruel weight of history, won the 200
South Africa said it would provide free AIDS drugs.
Beyonce Knowles, Bono, Peter Gabriel and other musicians from around the world took to the stage for an AIDS benefit conce
In South Africa a minibus full of British and Canadian tourists headed to a scenic mountain area crashed, killing eight Britons an
Widespread drought was reported across southern Africa. Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe were all affected.

Africa Index:
ticated tools of stone and carve bone had etchings that indicated complex behavior

nd local inhabitants destroy a cross they had erected on shore.

s variously used as a mental institution, leper colony and prison.

fleet under Adm. George Elphinstone.
 borders and secured for the British definite possession of the Cape of Good Hope.
e Dutch £6 million in compensation for the Cape of Good Hope.
ance after being exhibited as the "Hottentot Venus." Her body was dissected, her brain and genitals were bottled, and her skeleton was wire

uth Africa's interior consists of a hodgepodge of British colonies and protectorates, Boer republics, and tribal nations until the discovery of dia
 Slavery was abolished throughout the British Empire with compensation to the owners. Some 35,000 salves were freed in the Cape Colony

 farm workers to both.

dation of two Boer Republics, Transvaal ("across the Vaal River") and Orange Free State (after the Orange River).
ollowers were executed by Dingaan, the Zulu king.

 iers will collapse. The National Party introduces apartheid (separateness) measures against blacks, Indian immigrants and those of mixed ra
ndela -- the African National Congress organizes a passive resistance campaign against apartheid and issues the Freedom Charter. The gov

ning from hurting others, and comforting those that are sad."
 e, as separate states, the European communities were too weak to stop African resistance. He advocated a uniform "native" policy to protec

 ing election as president of both states simultaneously. The attempt failed because they disagreed over relations with the British.

 oer isolation.
ds Cape autonomy and eventual independence.
o discuss confederation.
 of the Transvaal Boer government, and the Transvaal was annexed by Britain.

he British at the Battle of Insandlhwana.

nd from the southern African republic of Natal.
 f Rorke's Drift in South Africa. A large British troop had just been massacred prior to this battle. The 1964 film "Zulu" was based on this even

us—only to be surrounded by a 22,000-man impi (army). Lieutenant Colonel Redvers Buller, received the Victoria Cross for his gallantry dur
lonel Henry Evelyn Wood repulsed a major attack by 20,000 Zulu tribesmen at Khambula, Zululand. Jubilant over their victory at Hlobane the

the Anglo-Zulu war. Dunn took 27 Zulu wives and was declared a chief by the king.
y. He immediately demanded that the British grant Boer independence.
 in the Orange Free State.
minal independence with treaties in 1881 and 1884.

 population of the then Transvaal Republic.
r). The new British Prime Minister, Joseph Chamberlain, was aware of the plan.

at is gold does not glitter; not all those that wander are lost."

reets in Johannesburg to develop a world-class hotel. His untimely death and the Boer War delayed the opening of the Carlton Hotel to 1906

 Boer War began.
utch settlers of the South African Republic (the Traansvaal) under Pres. Paul Kruger and the Orange Free State refused to accept English rul
ng Post newspaper correspondent, Winston Churchill.

 ation camps. Some 25,000 blacks and 94,000 whites were herded into the world's first concentration camps. Thomas Packenham later auth
ers' civilian sympathisers into concentration camps. Over 20,000 women and children die.

hite were relieved.

he British troops in Mafikeng, armed black fighters and many died during the 7-month siege.

omen, children and old men were herded. An estimated 16,000 died in the camps.

Boer families), but overcrowding turned them into death camps.

 using blockhouses and long lines of barbed wire built to protect the railways. He then employed cavalry columns to sweep and destroy farm
 d University in England. The first scholars were selected in 1903. In Rhodesia [later Zimbabwe] after Cecil John Rhodes, British imperialist, d

e State, which are now under British rule.
ing. This effectively ended a 3-year uprising by the Boers, led by Louis Botha, commandant general of the Transvaal forces. Botha was a sig
Dunn (d.1885).
are not mended again."

 , it is set in the Royal Scepter (kept with the other Crown Jewels in the Tower of London). It was cut from the 3,106-carat Cullian, the largest

mendment, a new law by the province of Transvaal that made it compulsory for all Indians over age 8 to register with the government and ca

han when they are convinced beyond doubt that they are right."

siatic Registration Act.
  at the Hamidia Mosque in Johannesburg.
  was again arrested for not carrying a registration card.
 eal the Registration Act. He founded a communal farm named "Tolstoy" to help support a few members of his Satyagrahi movement.
emisphere was successfully carried out by the Frenchman Albert Kimmerling (d.6/12/1912) at East London, South Africa using a Voisin bi-pla

prime minister of the Union of South Africa. His only formal education was at a German mission school in his native Orange Free State. He b
n to the abolition of African political rights in the Union of South Africa, and the proposed Natives' Land Bill. Out of this the SANNC (alternative

 shed by the British government in the late 19th century
mes during the 1st 4 days of the march. The miners had struck because the Cape Colony Supreme Court Justice had ruled that only Christian
 on South African Indians.
 nors at Cambridge University, where he honed his oratory as a leader of the university debating society.

ent he served 18 of 27 years in jail on Robben Island

 o follow up/correction given by Mr Mandela himself.
uth League. Their aim was to turn the ANC from a course of passive protest to that of militant nationalism. The emphasis is on African racial

struggle against apartheid.

 ce in 1956, Ghana 1957, Congo 1960, Nigeria 1963.
ent civil disobedience campaigns undertaken to demonstrate against new & oppressive racially biased laws.

live in South Africa, both black and white.
e development" by way of separate education, the establishment of Black independent "homelands", protectionist labour laws to ensure whit

- a law requiring all urban Black persons to have state sanction to be in city.

of more than 50 Africans.

iolence. Carries out numerous sabotage activities; name of country changes to Republic of South Africa.

00 metres (4 kms.) South Africa produces about 60% of the gold mined in the world. Many South Africans depend on gold as it is the country

n Frankel authored "Rivonia's Children." White activists (Joe Slovo and his wife Ruth First, Rusty and Hilda Bernstein, and Anna Marie and H
ail Diary of Albie Sachs."
pent time with Nelson Mandela. He later became South Africa’s security minister.

n Robben Island. He stayed there until Apr 1982.

effective house arrest.

arliamentary session in Cape Town. Demitrios Tsafendas was reported to have been insane with the belief that a tapeworm inside his head in

ng for a Ph.D., and then moved to Mozambique.

 transplant at the Groote Shur Hospital. Louis Washkansky lived 18 days with the new heart. The first heart transplant operation in the U.S. w

 of Natal. It was a recast of Shakespeare’s Macbeth in the context of 19th century Zulu history.

abinet meeting
one characterizing the white-ruled government as "illegitimate."
 subjects in Afrikaans. Police open fire on a peaceful protest by Soweto students. Many students killed. Leads to national anarchy in which o
ological and weapons program. In 2000 Johan Theron, a former special forces officer, testified how he flung the victim’s corpses from an airp

m transported 750 miles to a prison hospital in Pretoria.
vement and was the country’s best known political dissident. He was detained and held in Port Elizabeth and later driven naked in a truck 70

d by a spy satellite and cancelled under int'l. pressure led by Pres. Jimmy Carter. The events were later described by Seymour M. Hersh in "T

he struggle against apartheid

 claim to power.

 frica roiling from racial revolution. In 2001 it was struck from the approved reading list for the 12th grade by the Education Department of Ga
ngress in London and received a Star of Excellence medal approved by pres. Botha.
 oetzee. Mxenge was stabbed 46 times.
ng the character to write critical commentary on apartheid in the late 70s.
Marxist operations in Angola (and latter Mozambique). Activities are partly funded or assisted by CIA intelligence. Cold War politics in Africa!
  — is established.

 tzee commander of apartheid police and 8 officers received amnesty in 1999.
  he Nationalist South African government. In 1997 her daughter, Gillian Slovo, published "Every Secret Thing: My Family, My Country."

consent if reasonable attempts to locate the potential donor’s next of kin had failed.
 of Michael K."
 a number of people.
ncreased police brutality, police sponsored ethnic factionalism, ANC bombings and secret service assasinations. Many multinational compan

 e 300 homes and a cluster of community buildings were bulldozed over.

moir of his arrest and 7-year incarceration.
can Church in southern Africa.
 d. In 2000 his sister, Miriam Mathabane authored "Miriam’s Song: A Memoir."
 oubert, former special forces commander, testified that he authorized a plan for the slayings submitted by provincial special forces command
Eugene de Kock said that Craig Williamson, a South African spy, was involved in the murder.
 the African National Congress.
s leader Nelson Mandela, at de Klerk's office in Cape Town.
m into a sexual liaison. She then kidnapped 4 youths from the mission and beat them until they agreed to accuse the minister of having sex

rica. He is replaced by the younger, more charismatic F.W. de Klerk, who is more sensitive to the growing anti-apartheid movement.
African National Congress and promised to free Nelson Mandela.
ed the next day after 27 years in captivity

 cal prisoner fighting against Apartheid
d return home for talks with the white-led government.
enerally known before independence as South West Africa.
ed at paving the way for more substantive negotiations on dismantling apartheid.
 wn with a joint statement agreeing on a "common commitment toward the resolution of the existing climate of violence."

three of the country’s four provinces, with the exception of Natal.
d them for staunch Dutch support for the anti-apartheid movement.
 ker-tape parade in their honor as they began an eight-city US tour.
  resources" to hasten the end of white-led rule
 star-studded welcome in Los Angeles.

 eaking persons). Many politically motivated murders and massacres.

ms of the ANC’s decision to suspend its armed struggle against apartheid.
 d be allowed to return home for talks with the white-led government.
 young black men and keeping them at her Soweto home. After an appeal, Mrs. Mandela was ordered to pay a fine.

ward racial equality.
Party, the main rival of the African National Congress.
F.W. de Klerk.
African National Congress rejected the plan, charging it was designed to maintain white privileges.

 d a national peace pact.

  the Orania enclave in the desert of South Africa with a ban on using black laborers for menial tasks.
 in 1988. Both received 6-year prison sentences. Mandela paid a $3,200 fine on appeal and Falati had her sentence reduced to 2 years.

 p of Boipatong, the scene of a massacre three days earlier.

 ing 28 and wounding 200. 29 ANC protestors were killed in the Bisho massacre by troops of the homeland of Ciskei. Major General Marius O

nmen attacked a country club.
of Bophuthatswana.
nterim constitution that paves the way for historic all-race elections. All citizens over 18 are allowed to vote, and a long list of social and politic

 but that the weapons had been dismantled.
y-Lewis. The 2 men appealed for amnesty in 1997. Amnesty was denied and the 2 continued to serve life sentences
 hing trip, in retaliation for the killing of Chris Hani. The activists applied for and received amnesty in 1999.

 elections within a year.

but said she would not have to serve her five-year prison term.
utside Philadelphia's Independence Hall.
s against South Africa, saying huge foreign investments would help prevent unrest and build a multiracial democracy.

end apartheid.
 stored. Five youths were killed while asleep by a death squad. He claimed the attack was a military operation but in 1996 Eugene de Kock te

ced an initiative to spur investment in South Africa's black private sector.
 lation that set up the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. A 1996 extension was requested to move the deadline to May 10, 1994.
ed their Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway.

esistance Movement erected a bogus roadblock to kill ANC supporters. The pulled over 2 carloads of blacks and shot the victims in a ditch.
poisons and chemical bombs for the army. In 1998 it was revealed that an army project, Project Coast," plotted to poison Nelson Mandela w
der commander Daniel Mofokeng left 11 people dead. Mofokeng in 1997 refused to either regret or apologize for the killings before the Truth

Lucas Mangope, was deposed.

ch by Zulu nationalists.

 people. Car bombs near voting stations killed 20 people. Afrikaner Nationalists led by Eugene Terre’Blanche were responsible. In 1997 Clifto

W. de Klerk acknowledged defeat.

o be spent over ten years to help correct the land imbalance largely due to the forced abandonment by blacks between 1950-80 when about

e last of its apartheid-era embargoes

s country's economy.

ed against the lure of isolationism, saying the U.S. post-Cold War focus should be on eliminating "tyranny, instability and poverty" across the
 u royal family and Inkatha escalated.

an and Korea. Poaching soared and "Operation Neptune" was begun to combat a feared extinction.

te a picture as possible of the nature, causes and extent of gross violations of human rights". It is an attempt to avoid Nuremburg style trials.

e. 600 members of Inkatha, a Zulu nationalist group, were responsible.
people were killed. In 1998 5 of the 13 men convicted in the massacre were freed from prison.

n Meredith published a biography titled "Nelson Mandela."
 ational Park. They picked up the disease from feeding on infected Cape Buffalo, who picked it up from infected cattle herds

 r admittance. The men chased away the youths while police watched. three girls were severely injured and the angry students went on a ram

 township near Durban, South Africa
 sts and white extremists boycotted the parliament vote and the entire process. The Constitution contained a clause that prevented discrimina
 ican National Congress.
 shop for southern Africa.
m in the world and that drug-resistant forms of the disease were spreading rapidly.
 kes the total 28,261 fired workers since the strike began June 25.

  Johannesburg to Durban.
 At least 15 died and 65 were injured in a stampede.
 with sedition in connection with the vigilante slaying of a drug-gang leader.
  he north and threw off the breeding patterns of the native bees. They were unable to endure the harsher climate and died. Fruit farmers and
 rges that included 3 for murder. He admitted to killing about 65 people and was later sentenced to 212 years.

 enate. 3 months were allotted for changes

 ere acquitted of charges in the massacre of 13 people in 1987. Judge Hugo said that evidence showed that Inkatha’s leader, Zulu Chief Man

 sentence was freed from prison by the amnesty panel.
tack Troop claimed responsibility. Jan van der Westhuizen (44), Clifton Barnard (41) and Abraham Myburgh (24) were convicted and given s
h Africa just before and after the collapse of Apartheid.
pulation did not have running water in their homes.
d.1885) and tried to declare himself their chief.
 , called P57, and licensed development rights to a British firm. They did not acknowledge the San Bushmen who used the cactus raise ener

y leader. He is replaced by 55-year-old Deputy President Thabo Mbeki

 died in police custody in 1977. His death had been officially listed as an accident.
 undercover police

 adical wing of the Afrikaner nationalists. In 1997 he was sentenced to 6 years in prison.

vestigation of apartheid-era crimes.
rd force," a presumed right-wing group dedicated to fomenting black-on-black violence.
his cage at the Johannesburg Zoo. Max survived 3 gunshots.

 et," and 2 suspects were arrested shortly after the robbery. Mbuli was convicted in 1999, but claimed that he was framed due to his knowled
uty Pres. Thabo Mbeki

ppear before the Truth Commission and for hindering its work.
 to maul 3 black men and beat the victims if they tried to protect themselves. The officers were arrested in 2000 on charges of attempted mu
ome 2,500 residents of Huhudi township marched in support of the students who said they no longer feel safe at school. A later investigation
nt to salute a country that was "truly free and democratic at last."
gainst apartheid, to honor South Africans "who answered the call of conscience" and defeated their country's system of white supremacy.
n, Angelina, for trespassing. The baby was hit in the head and killed and Francina was wounded in the back. Steyn was convicted of culpable
sed by miners, despite industry and government efforts stamp it out.
 to $100,000. Sven "Bobby" Peek (31) of South Africa won for fighting for the rights of poor people in industrialized South Durban.

e resignation of Louis Luyt, the league’s president, over racist and corrupt practices.

nst the police after another 15 were killed with no arrests. 40 people had been killed since May.

ront of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. He was fined $1,577 and given a suspended 1 year jail sentence.
n and injured 24. A group called Muslims Against Global Oppression claimed responsibility. One injured man died 10 days later.
 over from Desmond Tutu to Pres. Mandela. It was based on years of testimony from the people who ran the 1960-1994 white-government a

lita Georgiades, the former wife of Tony Georgiades, Greek shipping magnate.

 pping there.

d Deputy President Thabo Mbeki enjoys a huge lead over a divided opposition.
 killed in Richmond. Later gunmen in the same town killed 11 people who backed the ANC.
as the 3rd bombing in 5 months.
ars to protect against carjackers.
oard were killed

virus by the end of 1998. This compared with 2.7 million in 1997.
ent in Cape Town.
ors intended for the Foundation for Peace and Justice. He was later sentenced to 6 years in prison for theft and fraud.
 eath," was indicted on 64 charges that included murder, theft and fraud. Conspiracy charges for offenses in Namibia, Swaziland, Mozambiqu
from the beating and the officers were suspended and put under criminal investigation.
 elieved to have been amassed by former police commander Eugene de Kock.

 eedom Party.
 field trip fees. Sithembiso Gcwenya (19) was killed and 2 students were wounded near Scottburgh on the Indian Ocean.

was expected to win. The ANC headed for victory with 62.2% support after half the votes were counted. The final count showed a 65.7% win.
guest. Khadafy was on his first foreign tour since sanctions were lifted in April.

. The group performed together from 1964-1997 and popularized mbaqanga music.

t office workers demonstrated in Pretoria and other cities.
or wage increases.

e for investments in the country.

 the African National Congress. Israel had supported the apartheid government in South Africa.
 He became the 1st author to win the prize twice. He won in 1983 for the novel "Live and Times of Michael K."

st south of Cape Town.
an attempted car-jacking in Soweto.

ed to recent bombings near Cape Town.
he 1994 elections.

d after 4 days, but 4 were found dead and two were feared dead.
ential rains hit the northern province of Mpumalanga.
employees in an effort to fight AIDS which had infected some 13% of the adult population.
e reported dead in the northern province of South Africa and 29 dead in Zimbabwe.
 artner at Biofem Inc., of Irvine, Calif. Ford had met with scientists from South Africa's Project Coast in the 1980s to discuss chemical and bio
4 whitewater enthusiasts.

 tory of the African National Congress.
 out. Oil began to soak the local penguins at Robben Island.
 e and insisted that poverty was a greater enemy than the AIDS virus. Hundreds of delegates walked out.
set aside differences with Pres. Thabo Mbeki and to concentrate on fighting the disease.
de HIV-positive pregnant women with anti-retroviral drugs to block transmission of the virus to children at birth. Johnson died June 1, 2001 at
y Pieter Odendaal (44).
m and Drugs, following a series of bombings.

rom Pfizer to treat a brain inflammation associated with AIDS. Recent approval was also given for nevirapine, a drug to reduce transmission
shed the number of municipalities from 843 to 284 with 6 megacities, each presided by a single mayor. The ruling ANC won at least 59% of t

n in the 1950s.

50 were injured

hares would be delisted June 1 and the company will be taken over by DB Investments, a consortium owned by the Oppenheimer family, Ang
he fight against AIDS.
 gabe of Zimbabwe to submit to free elections next year.
uth Africa to provide HIV-positive pregnant women with anti-retroviral drugs to block transmission of the virus to children at birth.
combat AIDS

rcels of vacant land in Bredell, 12 miles northeast of Johannesburg. A week later the government condemned the PAC and arrested people
ks were expected to be destroyed.

 he Peasant’s Revolt" while imprisoned on Robben Island.
ce began in Durban, South Africa.
some cases financial reparations, from Western countries that benefited from slavery and colonization of African countries for over 3 centurie
 ld’s 1st human heart transplant in 1967, authored a distinguished text on cardiology, a scandalous autobiography and 4 minor novels.
el by Arab nations.
cknowledged that slavery and the salve trade were crimes against humanity, expressed an apology and offered a package of economic ass
of the slave trade, proposed an aid package for Africa, recognized Palestinian rights and Israeli security concerns, opposed bias against ethn
he country’s $6 billion arms deal with Europe
dulent loans of more than $100,000.

nal Congress (ANC).
nd strangled in her luxury apartment near Cape Town. Police arrested Luyanda Mboniswa (21), a security guard, on Dec 5. The guard confes
 go between 1998 and 2001 after suffering respiratory problems. Vantech was a subsidiary of the Swiss-based Xstrata.
 eep hill and 48 people were killed.

 in Mdantsane suburb of East London.
 cientist Philip Machanick agreed to take a cocktail of anti-HIV drugs for the rest of his life in a test over the cause of AIDS.
  ic hospitals with the capacity to use it.
 weapons program, of 46 counts murder, fraud and drug dealing following a 2 ½ year trial.
or the trip to the Int’l. Space Station.
  on Robben Island, where he spent time with Nelson Mandela.
CIA officer and offered an entire collection of pathogens developed in SA bio-weapons research for $5 million and immigrations permits for 1
ealt with the racist, white regime would finally bring her family justice.
by giving the government control of mineral rights
 a small town in the Northern Cape province.
 nization of African Unity, a much-criticized regional body formed nearly four decades ago to usher the continent out of colonialism.
e beleaguered continent out of poverty and conflict
  t and good government on a continent plagued by poverty and oppression.
 h Africa's Eastern Cape province.
m South African President Thabo Mbeki for coordinated international action to fight poverty and protect the world's natural resources. Pres. B
 amp down on any protesters demonstrating at the U.N. development summit without government approval.
 al efforts to bring new agricultural technologies to poor farmers to help feed the developing world.
 d sanitation to hundreds of millions of people who lack access to either. Negotiators hailed their first breakthrough: a deal to protect the worl
work together to spread prosperity in the developing world while protecting the environment.
 littering venue of a U.N. development summit to protest that world leaders are not doing enough to fight poverty.
nd switch to other cleaner and more efficient forms of energy.
 ies and some promising new initiatives. Colin Powell was heckled and the US was viewed as a key obstacle to setting firm targets on many i
prevent them from doing so violate their constitutional rights.
 r St. Lucia Wetland Park, began leaking oil and was in danger of breaking up, according to conservation officials and a salvage company.
 lling 21 people and injuring 52 in the Eastern Cape
n a nationwide strike protesting the government's privatization plans.
 a mosque and damaging several railway stations and rail lines running into the nearby city of Johannesburg. The Boeremag (Afrikaner Powe
 us crashed in South Africa, police said.

eight men and badly wounded two.
nt pay compensation totaling $348 million to more than 21,000 victims of apartheid-era abuses.
nth. Some 280 gangs operated in Western Cape, a province of about 3 million people, 5 percent of whom are believed to belong to gangs.
dent Nelson Mandela, was sentenced to four years in prison for her conviction on fraud and theft charges.
 10 survivors were rescued outside the town of Bethlehem. 51 people were killed.
 ANC and together with Oliver Tambo formed the ANC Youth League in 1944.
 r on terror, trade issues and to seek common ground in their attempts to deal with the political and economic crisis in neighboring Zimbabwe
m "Soldiers Bathing."
Capetown. The couple are suspected of armed robberies in Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Texas, and Oregon between 1993 an
 o save the endangered species.
ht of history, won the 2003 Nobel Prize for literature. His books included "Dusklands" (1974), "In the heart of the Country" (1977), "Waiting fo

or an AIDS benefit concert hosted by former South African President Nelson Mandela.
ed, killing eight Britons and the pedestrian.
we were all affected.
e bottled, and her skeleton was wired and exhibited in the Musee de l’Homme in Paris. In 2002 her remains were returned to S. Africa. In 20

ibal nations until the discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold the following decade.
lves were freed in the Cape Colony

ian immigrants and those of mixed race.
ssues the Freedom Charter. The government suppresses the movement and begins arresting ANC leaders.. Boers attacked Moshoeshoe's

ed a uniform "native" policy to protect Europeans.

relations with the British.
4 film "Zulu" was based on this event.

he Victoria Cross for his gallantry during the difficult withdrawal of his troopers from the mountain. Hlobane was the worst rout of British caval
 ilant over their victory at Hlobane the day before, the Zulus prepared to finish off the British at Khambula. This time, however, the outcome w

 opening of the Carlton Hotel to 1906.

 e State refused to accept English rule in southern Africa. The Boers were the predominately Dutch inhabitants of the two republics, which ha
mps. Thomas Packenham later authored "The Boer War."

columns to sweep and destroy farms and crops.
 cil John Rhodes, British imperialist, died at age 48 he was buried in a tomb in the Matopos Hills. He had co-founded De Beers Consolidated

he Transvaal forces. Botha was a signatory at the peace conference. The combination of superior fire power and a brutal war of attrition laun

m the 3,106-carat Cullian, the largest diamond crystal ever found.

 register with the government and carry ID cards. In the India Opinion he published articles on what he called Satyagraha (Truth Force): "the

 of his Satyagrahi movement.
on, South Africa using a Voisin bi-plane.

 in his native Orange Free State. He became active in politics when the New Republic became part of the South African Republic in 1888. W
 ill. Out of this the SANNC (alternatively called the South African Native National Congress or the South African National Native Congress) wa

 t Justice had ruled that only Christian marriages registered by the Registrar of Marriages would be considered legal.
m. The emphasis is on African racial pride and cultural autonomy. Prominent figures include Robert Sobukwe, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu
otectionist labour laws to ensure white job security, etc.

ns depend on gold as it is the country's main export and the nation's largest single industry and second largest employer.

da Bernstein, and Anna Marie and Harold Wolpe) of the South African Communist Party, involved in the trial, fled into exile. The trial was na

ief that a tapeworm inside his head instructed him to do the killing. In 2001 Henk Van Woerden authored "The Assassin: A Story of Race and

eart transplant operation in the U.S. was on December 6, 1967, in New York City.

Leads to national anarchy in which over 1000 people die, 4000 injured and 13000 arrested.
ung the victim’s corpses from an airplane into the Atlantic. Theron and Gen. Fritz Loots had decided that there were too many guerrillas of th

h and later driven naked in a truck 700 miles to Pretoria where he died in a prison cell. In 1997 the five police officers involved in his detention

described by Seymour M. Hersh in "The Samson Option."

 by the Education Department of Gauteng.

elligence. Cold War politics in Africa!

Thing: My Family, My Country."

inations. Many multinational companies withdraw from South Africa.
by provincial special forces commander Charl Naude. In 1999 3 police officers received amnesty for their roles in the killings.
to accuse the minister of having sex with them.

ng anti-apartheid movement.

ate of violence."
er sentence reduced to 2 years.

nd of Ciskei. Major General Marius Oelschig radioed the "open fire" command. He said that he was convinced by officers on the seen that th

te, and a long list of social and political rights are guaranteed. Mandela and de Klerk are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
 l democracy.

ration but in 1996 Eugene de Kock testified that de Klerk knew that a covert operation would carry out the attack.

he deadline to May 10, 1994.

acks and shot the victims in a ditch.
 plotted to poison Nelson Mandela with Thallium to induce brain damage.
ogize for the killings before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

nche were responsible. In 1997 Clifton Barnard and Abraham Myburgh were sentenced to 50 years in prison for the bomb blasts that killed 2

blacks between 1950-80 when about 3.5 million blacks were forcibly trucked off to ethnic territories, often abandoning land, houses and cattle

y, instability and poverty" across the globe.

empt to avoid Nuremburg style trials. The commission has received over 7,000 applications for amnesty, of which 4,500 have been rejected.
nfected cattle herds

and the angry students went on a rampage. Afterwards white parents pulled their kids out of the school rather than integrate it.

ed a clause that prevented discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

r climate and died. Fruit farmers and native plants were put into severe jeopardy

that Inkatha’s leader, Zulu Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi, had in 1996 secretly requested assistance from apartheid leaders for a paramilitary f

urgh (24) were convicted and given sentences of life in prison in 1997 for the bombing that killed 4 people.

men who used the cactus raise energy and fight hunger. In 2003 an agreement was reached to pay the San 6% of the royalties. Some 100,0

at he was framed due to his knowledge of government officials involved in drug smuggling. He was given a 13-year jail term.
 in 2000 on charges of attempted murder. 4 officers pleaded guilty in 2001.
el safe at school. A later investigation revealed that the 140 black students were isolated from the 750 white students in classrooms and facili

ntry's system of white supremacy.
ack. Steyn was convicted of culpable homicide in 1999. Steyn was given a suspended sentence in 1999 and freed.

ustrialized South Durban.

 man died 10 days later.
n the 1960-1994 white-government and their victims.

heft and fraud.
 s in Namibia, Swaziland, Mozambique and Britain were later dismissed. 61 charges remained. Basson was acquitted of 46 counts of murder

he Indian Ocean.

The final count showed a 65.7% win. The Congress Party trailed a rival black party in KwaZulu-Natal province. The ANC won 266 seats, one
he 1980s to discuss chemical and biological warfare under Wouter Basson, head of the project. Project Coast, which has been accused of tr

t birth. Johnson died June 1, 2001 at age 12.

apine, a drug to reduce transmission of the AIDS virus to a fetus.
The ruling ANC won at least 59% of the contests.

wned by the Oppenheimer family, Anglo-American and Debswana.

 virus to children at birth.

 mned the PAC and arrested people for trespassing.

f African countries for over 3 centuries.
biography and 4 minor novels.

 offered a package of economic assistance to Africa. A deal on the Middle East was not yet reached.
concerns, opposed bias against ethnic minorities, refugees, indigenous peoples and women.
 y guard, on Dec 5. The guard confessed Dec 7. In 2003 DNA evidence linked him to the murder.
 based Xstrata.

he cause of AIDS.

million and immigrations permits for 19 associates and family members. The deal collapsed.

ontinent out of colonialism.

he world's natural resources. Pres. Bush sent Colin Powell as his stand-in. The 3rd gathering was in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

 akthrough: a deal to protect the world's oceans and marine life.

 acle to setting firm targets on many issues.

n officials and a salvage company.

 urg. The Boeremag (Afrikaner Power) was believed responsible.

m are believed to belong to gangs.

 omic crisis in neighboring Zimbabwe.

Texas, and Oregon between 1993 and 1996.

 rt of the Country" (1977), "Waiting for the Barbarians" (1980), "Life and Times of Michael K" (1983) and "Disgrace" (1999).
ains were returned to S. Africa. In 2003 Barbara Chase-Ribaud authored the novel "Hottentot Venus" based on the Baartman story

ers.. Boers attacked Moshoeshoe's Sotho kingdom (Basutoland).
ne was the worst rout of British cavalry—and the last Zulu victory—of the Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa.
a. This time, however, the outcome was different as the Zulus vainly assaulted British foes who were dug in and ready for them. The assault,

bitants of the two republics, which had gained their independence from Great Britain in the 1850s. Years of tensions between British settlers
 co-founded De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and built great railways through southern Africa.

ower and a brutal war of attrition launched by Lord Kitchener forced the Boers to give in. Kitchener burned the farms of Africans and Boers al

alled Satyagraha (Truth Force): "the vindication of truth not by infliction of suffering on the opponent but on one's self."

e South African Republic in 1888. When war broke out in 1899, Botha quickly rose through the ranks finally being the commandant general
African National Native Congress) was born.
ukwe, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, and Oliver Tambo.
argest employer.

 trial, fled into exile. The trial was named after the area where the ANC members were arrested.

d "The Assassin: A Story of Race and Rage in the Land of Apartheid."
t there were too many guerrillas of the South West African People’s Organization in the prison camps.

olice officers involved in his detention filed for amnesty. They were retired Col. Harold Snyman, retired Lt. Col. Gideon Nieuwoudt, Ruben Ma
r roles in the killings.
vinced by officers on the seen that they were under danger of imminent attack.

obel Peace Prize.
rison for the bomb blasts that killed 21 people.

n abandoning land, houses and cattle. It was later declared that crimes committed under apartheid up to this time would be considered for pa

, of which 4,500 have been rejected. 125 amnesties granted to date. Revelations of state sponsored terrorism and violence elicit heated deb
ather than integrate it.

apartheid leaders for a paramilitary force against political rivals but that the prosecution had not shown sufficient evidence against the defen

San 6% of the royalties. Some 100,000 San lived in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola.

n a 13-year jail term.
hite students in classrooms and facilities.

was acquitted of 46 counts of murder, fraud and drug dealing in 2002.

ovince. The ANC won 266 seats, one shy of a two-third majority.
Coast, which has been accused of trying to create deadly bacteria that would only affect blacks, poisoning opponents' clothing and stockpilin
de Janeiro in 1992.

"Disgrace" (1999).
sed on the Baartman story
g in and ready for them. The assault, depicted in "The Battle of Khambula" by Angus McBride, ended in failure for the Zulus, leaving them do

s of tensions between British settlers and the Boer governments exploded into war. Eventual British victory resulted in the Boer republics bec
d the farms of Africans and Boers alike and collected as many as a 100,000 women and children in carelessly run and unhygienic concentra

 on one's self."

nally being the commandant general of the Transvaal forces and a signatory at the peace conference in 1902.
t. Col. Gideon Nieuwoudt, Ruben Marx, Johan Beneke, and then Capt. Daantjie Siebert. In 1999 former Detective Sgt. Gideon Nieuwoudt wa
 this time would be considered for pardon under an amnesty act.

rorism and violence elicit heated debate over the TRC's relevance. It is accused of worsening race relations.
sufficient evidence against the defendants.
ng opponents' clothing and stockpiling cholera, HIV and anthrax, opened an offshore bank account to pay Ford. In 2002 former FBI informan
failure for the Zulus, leaving them doubting for the first time their ability to win the Anglo-Zulu War.

ory resulted in the Boer republics becoming colonies of the British Empire and in 1910 part of the Union of South Africa.
elessly run and unhygienic concentration camps on the open veldt. Britain annexed Transvaal.
Detective Sgt. Gideon Nieuwoudt was denied amnesty because he denied any crime. This killing was the breaking point and led to internatio
y Ford. In 2002 former FBI informant Peter Fitzpatrick told "60 Minutes" that Ford passed a bag filled with cholera, typhoid, botulism, anthrax
of South Africa.
he breaking point and led to international protests and a UN imposed arms embargo.
th cholera, typhoid, botulism, anthrax and bubonic plague to a South African military doctor during a meeting at the house of the South Africa
eting at the house of the South African trade attache in California.

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