sugar mills ppt by priyaalagar

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       Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The
happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job
satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design
aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance, methods include job rotation, job
enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the
management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and
autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is
frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is
the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs.
Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional
opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no
questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not
at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied").
          One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-
1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various
conditions (most notably illumination) on workers‟ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in
work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase
resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong
evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors
in job satisfaction.

          Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow
Taylor‟s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given
work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor
and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific
management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace.
However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding
job satisfaction. It should also be
noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor‟s work.

           Some argue that Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job
satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs,
safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which
early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.
                            Models of job satisfaction
1.Affect Theory
2.Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The
main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a
job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g.
the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations
are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both
positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who
doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is
indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of
autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also
states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker
values that facet.
3.Dispositional Theory
4.Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that
suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of
satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of
evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also
indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.
                             Models of job satisfaction
(a)Affect Theory
 Edwin A. Locke‟s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model.
The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants
in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work
(e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when
expectations are/aren‟t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly
impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met),
compared to one who doesn‟t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace
and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that
offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to
Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of
dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

(b) Dispositional Theory
 Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that
suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of
satisfaction, regardless of one‟s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light
of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also
indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.
• Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)

• Frederick Herzberg‟s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction
and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors –
motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to
perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities.
These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects
of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.
While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the
model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a
methodological artifact.[ Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all
employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been
criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.

                                              Job Characteristics Model

    Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how
particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core
job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical

   psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the
actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction,

absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential
score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and
behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of
the JCM.
                           Measuring job satisfaction

•       There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting
data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for
gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced
choice answers. This data is typically collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system.
The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job
satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and
promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer
either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s
job.       The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an improvement to the Job
Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in

Other job satisfaction questionnaires include:          the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job
Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long
form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each
facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of
job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which
participants respond to by choosing a face.
                                           Job satisfaction and emotions

      Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which cumulate to form the affective element of job satisfaction.
Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived
and have a clear object or cause.

      There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative
emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction.
Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of
positive emotion when it is experienced.

      Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to job satisfaction. Emotion work (or emotion management) refers
to various efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion regulation includes all of the conscious and unconscious
efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of
emotional labor emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the
consequences of emotional labor are not uniformly negative.
The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models:
       Between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the process of
emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low organizational
commitment, and low job satisfaction.
      Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers‟ emotion regulation might beget
responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For
example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job
satisfaction performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could increase job satisfaction.

•Relationships and practical implications

    Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work
behaviours such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover.

     Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work
One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. [
 This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people
who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. However, some research has found that job satisfaction is
not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-
evaluations are taken into account.

     With regard to job performance, employee personality may be more important than job satisfaction. The link
between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be a spurious relationship; instead, both satisfaction and
performance are the result of personality.
                                                             INDUSTRY PROFILE
       The history of sugar is associated with the history of civilization in the ancient time honey was well known. Sugar is derived from the
Sanskrit word scare begins its history in the 4th century B.C with the discovery by the soldiers of the great Alexander in the valley of the Indus
river of a cane yielding, honey without bees in the 7th century A.D the Arabs invade the middle east and discover one more the sugarcane.
They spread its cultivation in the Mediterranean basis laboratories of producing sugar out of sugarcane are setup in Rhode Cyprus Egypt in the
northern islands in the southern Spain.

      Sugar appears in the central Europe in the 12th century due to the crusaders who carried it over from the Syria. The impetration took place
from the Venice port. Its sales were at a very high price from the drug store as a precious exotic product in the form of sugarcanes broken
aggregate of sugar or in the dust.

       The discovery of the new world altered fully the geography of sugar. The sugarcane was grown in tropical climates e.g. In the Caribbean
island which are there by called sugars islands.
Sugar was imported raw and petrified in the refineries setup mostly near the European harbors. The French revolution and the continental
embargo imposed by the France upon the English sugarcane. These results severe constrains upon consumption.
Its therefore necessary to find a European plan out of which to produce sugar like sugarcane.

         In1994 MARGARF a German chemist proved that in the cattle breeding beet is contained the same sugar produced out of sugarcane.25
years later his country man ARCHARD repeated and perfected is experiments sugar out of beet represented 63% of the universal production.
        Today’s percentage is 40% for the sugar out of beet represented 60% for the sugar out of sugarcane. The annual universal sugar production
is fairly enough complicated process which includes a great many processing stages. There follows a description in outline of the main stages of
sugar production.
        The term sugar refers to the sucrose (c12, h12. 011) which is a natural product and contained in many plants.
However it is extracted, industrially throughout the world out of to cultivated plants. The sugarcane which is grown in the
temperate zoon sucrose is composed pf two molecules one molecule of glucose and one more molecule of fructose. Its
sweetening power is set conventionally on a par within the unit.

         There are artificial sweetening materials which have sweetening capacity multiple of sugar (aspartame, sugaring etc)
without having the qualities of sugar
•     various preparations
•     To reinforce and display the savor of the foods
•     To safeguard from the onset of microorganism e.g. marmalades, sweet etc
•     To protect from the less of vitamin c
•     To supply energy
      It is cheapest food per calories oils and fats have greater calories power (9k cal/g) whereas sugars and the albumen‟s
have 4k cal/g. so a tea spoon of sugar with a capacity of 8gm ha only 32kcal.

          The main activity of the company is the production and trade of sugar, as well as the trade of the by-products of
sugar. The company produces white crystal sugar. Whereas in the course of production there results as a set of by- products
which following a proper processing are mode available in the market.
              In concrete terms the products are traded by the company as follows,
•      White crystal sugar
•      Molasses
•      Sugar-pie
•      Nutria 135
•      Fresh pulp
       The sugar is sugar by- product and is used as a raw material to produce alcohol, yeasts and cattle feed. Sugar pie is
cattle feed and is prepared by dry pulp (by- product of sugar) with the addition of molasses.
      Nutria 135 is a short of cattle feed which is used for fattening the calves and is prepared by dry pulp and molasses with
an addition pf trace elements and vitamins
•     High reliable plant require less maintenance
•     Out sugar plants in corporate all the components such motors, gearboxes, bearing, coupling etc as per the international
standards and sizes and can be replaced easily in any part of world
•     Sugar produced is crystal white manufacture through suspiration or carbonation process
•     Our sugar plants are equipped with captive power generation having steam               is used to run the turbines and the
exhaust steam is used for the process requirement haggises being the waste of sugarcane
•     Our sugar plants are equipped with both air pollution control as well as water pollution control equipment.

       The sugar industry in India has been playing an important role in the economic development of the country. The sugar
industry is seasonal and operators for 120 to 240 days in a year, beginning from early November and ending in May. Large
volumes of effluents are produced during the manufacture of sugar and they contain a high pollution potential. As these
wastes are disposed of on land or into water bodies in the non-monsoon period, extreme pollution of small rivers and foul
smell in the vicinity of the sugar mills commonly noticed.
                                                  COMPANY PROFILE


                                         Perambalur sugar mills ltd.., is a subsidiary unit of Tamil Nadu sugar corporation Ltd..,
it is situated in Eraiyur village. About20 Kms away from Perambalur on Trichy-Chennai National Highways in an extent of
133 acres of land. This is an agro based industry. Sugar cane being the raw material. Crushing operation will be going on for
about six months every year and the remaining period will be utilized for overhauling of the machinery. The factory had its
maiden crushing during 1977-78 season with n installed capacity of 120 tones of cane per day.

                                       Taluka                                                                          District
       1. Perambalur                                                                                     Perambalur
       2. Veppanthattai                                                                                  Veppanthattai
       3. Kunnam                                                                                                     Kunnam
       4. Ariyalur                                                                                                   Ariyalur
       5. Senthurai                                                                                                  Senthurai
       6. Athur (Thalaivasal&Gangavalli)                                                            Salem
       7. Kallakurichy (52 villages)


           The installed capacity of the mill was expanded during 1989-90 from 1250 TCD to 3000 TCD and crushing at
expanded capacity was start on 06.11.1990. The loans received from financial institutions for expansion have been fully

             The mills is being administered by the Board Of Directors of Perambalur sugar mills Ltd., At
Unit level, the execute administration is being carried out by the Chief Executive subject to the control and
supervisions of the Chairman & Managing Director, Perambalur sugar mills ltd., the following departments
are functioning in the mills:


           We all us at per commit ourselves to consistency manufacture and deliver sugar of quality that
comply with National and International Standards by.

• Strict adherence to product quality requirement and quality management system.
• On going Training and effective communication .
• Team effort and contribution by individuals in continual improvement programme.
             Planning high sugar variety cane to get recovery about 10%
             On time delivery o customers
             Modernization of plant and machinery

                                                 SUGAR POLICY:

             One sugar is 12 months from October to September. The actual crushing will depend upon the availability of
sugar cane. This will normally be about 6 months in a year.


Statutory Minimum price

              The government of India fixes the statutory minimum cane price the sugar cane control order, 1966. This price
as to be paid by the sugar mill within 14 days from the date of supply of cane failing which interest at the rate of 15% will
have to be paid to the cane growers till the date of payment. The statutory minimum cane price is fixed by the government of
India for the recovery of 9.50%.
The cane price is fixed for a sugar mills based on the peak period recovery of the mill. The peak period recovery refers to the
average recovery obtained from 1st December to 31st March of the proceeding season. The statutory minimum price for 1998-
99 for Perambalur sugar mills was Rs. 539.40 per tone.
              The state government announce cane price every over and above the statutory minimum price fixed by
the government of the India and this price is the known as state advised price. The state advised price (S.A.P) for
1998-99 for this mills was Rs.702.50 linked to 8.5% recovery. The –cane price fixed by the government and paid by
the mills since 1989-90 are furnished in Annexure-II.


              Initially the Govt. of India fixed the statutory minimum price for sugarcane for a particular season based
on the peak period recovery of the previous season. At the end of every season, the final cane price payable to the
cane growers for a season is being computed under clause 5A of the sugarcane control order, 1966. For working out
this final price, the Govt. of „L‟ factor.
        The sales realization of sugar out of a particular season‟s sugar is matched with the cost of production and the
surplus is being shared between the sugar producers and growers @50.50. While announcing the final cane price, the
statutory minimum price initially paid is deducted.


             The co-operative and public sector sugar ill Tamil Nadu are also in the/ practice of declaring an
incentive cane price for the cane drawn in a particular season to enthuse the growers to bring in more area under
cane cultivation. While declaring such incentive cane price, the ill usually deducts a portion of the price towards the
Area Development Fund. The corpus of the fund is usually utilized for socially relevant schemes in the command
area of the mills.
SALE OF SUGAR             :
             As per the existing sugar policy (Dual control) every sugar producer shall sell 40% of their production as levy
sugar to the public distribution system through the civil suppliers corporation / food corporation of India and the balance
60% shall be in the open market. Under the sugar control order, 1966 the sale and dispatch of sugar (both levy &tree) is
regulated by the monthly release orders issued by Directorate of sugar. Govt. Of India. The quantity released for a month
under sale should be sole and dispatched before end that month.

IPRCE       :

       •Levy sugar

            The price of levy sugar for a particular season os fixed by Govt. of India which is called “Notified Price”. The
levy sugar price for the 1998-99 sugar season for Tamil Nadu / one is Rs.1069.82 Qtl, For Road delivery. This price is being
paid for sugar dispatched / delivered at factory gate. While fixing the levy price, the Government of India takes into account
the following factors:

•   The minimum price. If any fixed for sugarcane by the central government.
•   The manufacturing cost of sugar.
•   The duty or tax, if any paid or payable thereon
•   A reasonable return on the capital employed in the business of manufacturing sugar.
•   Free sale sugar

            The price of free sale sugar depends upon the supply and demand position of the market, its comparative price in
the neighboring states and the transport charges involved for purchases of sugar from the neighboring states. The sale of free
sale entitlement is being effected by Tamil Nadu co- operative sugar federation.
The consideration for the levy and sale sugar is being received in advance by all the mills.
Sugar mill waste and pollution control:
            Cane sugar waste is one of the important organic industrial wastes in our country. The effluents are rich in
suspended solids, BOD and oil and grease and hence a great pollution potential. Preventive measures for the pollution load
• Provisional of receptors during crushing
• Lime treatment followed by 8 hrs setting for filter cloth washing
• Recycling of spill- over‟s of molasses and sugar
• Dry cleaning of floors
• Proper loading of evaporators and pans
• Control of waste from spray ponds and
• Good housekeeping.



             The production of bagasse will be normally around 30% of the cane crushed. About 80% of the bagasse will be
utilized as fuel in the mills boilers for production of steam which is utilized for generation of electricity. The remaining
quantity of bagasse id being sold to Tamil Nadu Newsprints &papers limited

Press mud

.          The production of press mud will be normally around 30 and of the cane crushed. The entire press
mud is being given to cane growers @ Rs.25 per tone.

            The are 10 cane divisional offices at the following places:

•   Eraiyur
•   V. Kalathur
•   Labbaikudikadu
•   Agramseegur
•   Puduvettakudi
•   Thamaraipoondi
•   Veppur
•   Perambalur
•   Krishnapuram
•   Arumbavoor

Emphasis on sugarcane management:

            Considerable knowledge and technology on sugarcane are available. The exploitation of such knowledge should
be managed, cost effective and result oriented combining alertness, agility, imagination and skill of the chief manager based
on sound principles of good management.

The sugarcane management broadly cover the following areas:
• cane area management
• cane productivity
• varietal management
• cane quality management
• plant & Raton crop management
• sugar recovery management
• harvest management
Cane Area Management:

           The required and potential cane for availability of 4.3 lakhs tones for 172 days duration in Tamil Nadu in respect
of 2500 TCD sugar mill will range from 140000 to 23000 cres depending stabilized by efficient management.

Cane Productivity Management:

              The yield / acre of the sugar mill zone range from 70-80 The as against 100-110 the of state average. This large
gap in yield the has to be narrowed down. The strategy to be adopted is to look for a high yielding cane variety with all other
suitable filed management. Early planting and harvest and poor plant crop will not an economic Raton crop.

Cane Quality Management:

             Cane quality improvement is possible, though difficult under prevailing tropical in Tamil Nadu. The climate,
though favorable for high cane yield potential, is a major constraint for high sugar formation in cane sugar is a product of
high variety, climate, comprising maximum and minimum temperature, R humidity and climate before harvest at 12-13
months age.

Sugar Recovery Management:

             The sugar recovery is a function of cane quality and factory efficiency. High cane quality with higher sugar in
cane. High juice enhances efficiency.
             The factory performance consisting steady crushing, better cane preparation, maximum mill extraction, high
imbibitions, minimum down time, better clarification, lower final molasses purity will hike the sugar recovery.
      R&D Management on sugarcane:

             Top priority should be given for an efficient R&D wing both at the factory level and TNCSE level. Seed
technology, bio-fertilizers, and drip irrigation, bio agents for pest and disease control. Tissue culture by TNCSE in its
technical wings.
             Certain aspects of cane management has to be pursued by cane department if necessary by having additional
temporary staff to undertake further programmed in the field for improving sugar production in the field.

      SUBSIDIES           (Customer satisfaction)

      Transport subsidy

            The transport charges only paid by the mill.

      Crop Insurance

      Action being taken for insuring the crops from this season onwards.


             Roads were laid under sugarcane Road development scheme for a distance of 48.6 ICM by spending Rs.182
lakhs to connect the villages with the main roads to enable the growers to transport the sugar cane to the mills.
             In addition to this 54 roads for a distance of 46.6 ICMs by spending Rs.37.70 lakhs laid by utilizing the area
development fund.


           Loans were sanctioned to the cane growers under sugar development fund for digging and deepening of open
wells and bore wells, purchase of oil Engines and electric motors. So far a sum of Rs.254.33 lakhs received from the
government of India Had been sanctioned to 2828 cane growers. The loan amounts are being recovered from the cane

•   To measure the employees job satisfaction level in “Perambalur Sugar Mills Ltd” Eraiyur.
•   To study the employees perception towards organizations.
•   To study the attitude of the employees towards their work.
•   To identify the factors that motivates the employees.

•     This study is conducted to judge the level of Job Satisfaction of employees who are working in Perambalur sugar mills


• To discover the various expectations that determines the satisfaction level of employee(s).
• To measure the level of satisfaction of employees with respect to the company.
• To judge the level of job satisfaction of employees on various parameters.

      Working conditions
      Salary structure/ Perquisites/ Other benefits
      Relationship with employees of company
      Policies of company
                                         REVIEW OF LITERARTURE

Gupta & Joshi (2008),
          concluded in their study that Job satisfaction is an important technique used to motivate the employees to work
harder. It had often said that, "A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLPOYEE." Job satisfaction is very
important because most of the people spend a major of their life at their work place.

Khan (2006),
       reveals in his study hat Hoppack brought Job satisfaction to limelight. He observed Job satisfaction in the
combination of psychological & environmental circumstances that cause person to fully say, "I am satisfied with my job“

Rao (2005),
        reveal in his study that Job satisfaction refer to person feelings of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation
to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the satisfaction of the job.

         According to him, there are 4 types of theories:
•   Need Fulfillment Theory
•   Equity Theory
•   Two Factor Theory
•   Discrepancy Theory

Aswathappa (2003),

 opines that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the system of wage payment. Different organization
adapts different type of wage payment system. Along with wages and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and
non-monetary benefits.
      According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration:

1.   Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory
2.   Equity Theory
3.   Agency Theory

Velnampy (2008),

     In his study "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka"
concluded that job satisfaction does have impact on future performance through the job involvement, but higher performance
also makes people feel more satisfied and committed. It is a cycle of event that is clearly in keeping with
the development perspective. Attitudes such as satisfaction and involvement are important to the employees to have high
levels of performance. The results of the study revealed that attitudes namely satisfaction and involvement, and performance
are significantly correlated.

Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008),

      In their study "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–2004: evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations
Survey" examined that their significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work between 1998
and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found to have increased over this period as well. It also finds a
decline in the incidence of many formal human resource management practices. The paper reports a weak association
between formal human resource management practices and satisfaction with sense of achievement. Improvements in
perceptions of job security, the climate of employment relations and managerial responsiveness are the most important
factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement between 1998 and 2004. We infer that the rise in
satisfaction with sense of achievement is due in large part to the existence of falling unemployment during the period under
study, which has driven employers to make improvements in the quality of work.
                                         RESEARCH METHDOLGY
               Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Research Methodology
comprises of two words, research and methodology.

     Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The primary
purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement
of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.
Research may be defined as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search of new facts in any branch of
knowledge. In short, it comprises defining a refined problem's, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting,
organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and research conclusions; and lastly carefully testing the conclusion to
determine whether they fit the hypothesis

     Methodology can be defined as:
• "the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline"; or
• "the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline"; or
• "a particular procedure or set of procedures."

             Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue" that holds all of the elements in
a research project together. We often describe a design using a concise notation that enables us to summarize a complex
design structure efficiently.
      Considering the objectives of the study, sample survey was conducted and accordingly analysis of information was
made. Exploratory research design is used in present study.

• Both primary and secondary data had been used in present study.
• Primary Data collected through personal interview in the form of questionnaire.
• Secondary Data was collected from various journals, books, magazines and internet.


   In carrying out a survey relating to research, first select the problem and study its implication in different areas.
Selection of the research problem should be in line with the researchers interest, chain of thinking and existing research in
the same area and should have some direct utilities. The topic should have the practical feasibility to study feasibility,
what is important to prepare a preliminary questionnaire on research topic.
             The first and foremost task in carrying out a research is to select a sample.


   The population of the current study is the 50 executives of Perambalur sugar mills ltd.,eraiuur


   A sample design is definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the
procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample.
            The selection of employee was done on the basis of convenience sampling.

       Sample size refers to the total number of respondents targeted for collecting the data for the researcher. The sampling
size of my study is 50 respondents and this sampling size was selected on the basis of convenience sample.


       All the questionnaire received were edited. Questions having incomplete replies were kept out of the present study and
in all 50 questionnaires were taken into consideration while analyzing he data. All the information/data collected through
questionnaires' were first transferee into master table which facilitated the tabulation of data in the desired form.


       A 5-point likert scale was used to quantify each response of half of the questions. Responses on the 5-point likert
scale were highly satisfied, satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied. Highly satisfied was given score 5, satisfied
was given score 4 & so on and similarly another 5-point likert scale was used to quantify each response of rest of half of the
questions. Responses on the 5-point likert scale were very frequent, frequent, sometimes, seldom and never. Very frequent
was given score 5, frequent was given score 4 & so on.


•   The study conducted is limited to a one organization only.
•   The study conducted with the precincts of one department of organization only.
•   Time and money was major limitation, which may have affected the study.
•   Some of the respondents were reluctant to share information with us.
Name:                                                       Age:
Marital status:                                             Qualification:
Designations:                                               Sex:
•Are you satisfied with your present job?
•Yes               (b) No
(c) Can‟t say
   2. What motivates you to work more? Efficiency/ Happily
         (a) Good pay          (b) promotion
         (c) Less supervision
         (d) Good working conditions
   3. Do you feel that salary being offered at “Perambalur sugar mills Ltd” is sufficient
to lead a satisfied life?
               (a) Yes               (b) No
               (c) No comments
  4.       Do you have any other sources of income?
                (a) Yes                     (b) No
                (c) If Yes specify ……………….
  5.       since when you have seen holding this position?
                       ………… years
6.   How did you get into present position?
              (a) Promotion (b) Direct appointment           (c) Transfer
  7. If by promotion after how many years did you get it..
                     ………….. Years
  8.      Are you satisfied with employment conditions prevailing in your
              (a) Yes                              (b) No (c) If Not
 9.       Do you feel satisfied with your organization promotional & Transfer
             (a) Yes                     (b) No (c) If Not
10.       Are you satisfied with relationship existing with subordinates &
            (a) Yes                      (b) No (c) If Not
11.   Do you feel satisfied with the physical working conditions?
          (a) Yes                        (b) No (c) If Not
12.      Is your working hours satisfied?
           (a) Yes                       (b) No (c) If Not
13.      Are you satisfied with the way in which conflicts are resolved your
           (a) Always                    (b) Quite often
           (c) sometimes                 (d) Rarely                  (e)
14.      If you feel with canteen facilities?
            (a) Yes                      (b) No (c) If Not
15.        Are you satisfied with the welfare measures?
•Internal Facilities
•Medical facilities                       ( )
•Compensations for accidents ( )
•External Facilities
•Educations facilities for children ( )
•Employee educations tour           ( )
•Housing accommodations           ( )
16.        Is the bonus provided by organizations adequate
             (a) Yes                      (b) No
17.        Are you satisfied with social security measure viz…,
           (a)Provident Fund (b) pension           (c) Gratuity
18.        Does your company often any safety measures?
            (a) Yes                       (b) No
19.        Does your company pay over time allowance?
            (a) Yes                       (b) No
Date:                                                           Signature

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