REVIEW OF LITERARTURE
Gupta & Joshi (2008), concluded in their study that Job satisfaction is an important technique used to
motivate the employees to work harder. It had often said that, "A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A
PRODUCTIVE EMPLPOYEE." Job satisfaction is very important because most of the people spend a
major of their life at their work place.
Khan (2006), reveals in his study hat Hoppack brought Job satisfaction to limelight. He observed Job
satisfaction in the combination of psychological & environmental circumstances that cause person to fully
say, "I am satisfied with my job"
Rao (2005), reveal in his study that Job satisfaction refer to person feelings of satisfaction on the job,
which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the
satisfaction of the job.
According to him, there are 4 types of theories:
1. Need Fulfillment Theory
2. Equity Theory
3. Two Factor Theory
4. Discrepancy Theory
Aswathappa (2003), opines that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the system of
wage payment. Different organization adapts different type of wage payment system. Along with wages
and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and non-monetary benefits.
According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration:
A. Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory
B. Equity Theory
C. Agency Theory
Velnampy (2008), in his study "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations
in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka" concluded that job satisfaction does have impact on future performance
through the job involvement, but higher performance also makes people feel more satisfied and committed.
It is a cycle of event that is clearly in keeping with
the development perspective. Attitudes such as satisfaction and involvement are important to the employees
to have high levels of performance. The results of the study revealed that attitudes namely satisfaction and
involvement, and performance are significantly correlated.
Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008), in their study "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–2004:
evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey" examined that their
significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work between
1998 and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found to have increased
over this period as well. It also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human
resource management practices. The paper reports a weak association between formal
human resource management practices and satisfaction with sense of achievement.
Improvements in perceptions of job security, the climate of employment relations and
managerial responsiveness are the most important factors in explaining the rise in
satisfaction with sense of achievement between 1998 and 2004. We infer that the rise in
satisfaction with sense of achievement is due in large part to the existence of falling
unemployment during the period under study, which has driven employers to make
improvements in the quality of work.
Jain, Jabeen, et. al. (2007), in their study "Job Satisfaction as Related to Organisational Climate and
Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil" concluded that that there is no significant difference
between managers and engineers in terms of their job satisfaction and
both the groups appeared almost equally satisfied with their jobs. When the managers and engineers were
compared on organizational climate, it was found that both the groups differed significantly. Managers
scored significantly high on organizational climate scale than the engineers indicating that the managers are
more satisfied due to the empowerment given to them.
Shah & Shah (2008), in their study "Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Variables" concluded that relationship
between fatigue and Job Satisfaction variables which were found to be significantly negative. The study alo
founds that fatigue is negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study is clearly indicative of different
issues for Call Centre employees in Indian context. There are different ON THE JOB and OFF THE JOB
FACTORS leading to dissatisfaction and fatigue for them which were explored in this study. If fatigue can
be reduced and job satisfaction can be increased by various innovative and encouraging strategies.
Shahu & Gole (2008), in their study "Effect of Job satisfaction on Performance: An
Empirical Study" concluded that the companies that are lagging behind in certain areas of job satisfaction
& job stress need to be developed so that their employees show good performance level, as it is provided
that performance level lowers wit high satisfaction scores. The awareness program pertaining to stress &
satisfaction is to be taken up in the industries to make them aware of the benefits of knowledge of stress
and its relationship with satisfaction and achievement of goal of industries.
Job Satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job
Satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors,eg, the quality of one's relationship with their
supervisions, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of their fulfillment in their