INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied"). History One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers‟ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor‟s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor‟s work. Some argue that Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Models of job satisfaction Affect Theory Edwin A. Locke‟s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren‟t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn‟t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. (a) Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one‟s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self- evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one‟s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self- esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one‟s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. (b) Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg‟s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. (c) Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. (a) Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg‟s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact.[ Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. (b) Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. Job satisfaction and emotions Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced. Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to job satisfaction. Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion regulation includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional labor emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional labor are not uniformly negative. It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models: 1. Emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction. 2. Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers‟ emotion regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job satisfaction performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could increase job satisfaction. Relationships and practical implications Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover. Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors. One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. However, some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account. With regard to job performance, employee personality may be more important than job satisfaction. The link between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be a spurious relationship; instead, both satisfaction and performance are the result of personality. 1.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE: The history of sugar is associated with the history of civilization in the ancient time honey was well known. Sugar is derived from the Sanskrit word sacrara begins its history in the 4 th century B.C with the discovery by the soldiers of the great Alexander in the valley of the Indus river of a cane yielding, honey without bees in the 7th century A.D the Arabs invade the middle east and discover one more the sugarcane. They spread its cultivation in the Mediterranean basis laboratories of producing sugar out of sugarcane are setup in rhode Cyprus Egypt in the northern islands in the southern Spain. Sugar appears in the central Europe in the 12th century due to the crusaders who carried it over from the Syria. The impetration took place from the Venice port. Its sales were at a very high price from the drug store as a precious exotic product in the form of sugarcanes broken aggregate of sugar or in the dust. The discovery of the new world altered fully the geography of sugar. The sugarcane was grown in tropical climates e.g. In the Caribbean island which are there by called sugars islands. Sugar was imported raw and petrified in the refineries setup mostly near the European harbors. The French revolution and the continental embargo imposed by the France upon the English sugarcane. These results severe constrains upon consumption. Its therefore necessary to find a European plan out of which to produce sugar like sugarcane. ORIGIN OF SUGAR In1994 MARGARF a German chemist proved that in the cattle breeding beet is contained the same sugar produced out of sugarcane.25 years later his country man ARCHARD repeated and perfected is experiments sugar out of beet represented 63% of the universal production. Today‟s percentage is 40% for the sugar out of beet represented 60% for the sugar out of sugarcane. The annual universal sugar production is fairly enough complicated process which includes a great many processing stages. There follows a description in outline of the main stages of sugar production. The term sugar refers to the sucrose (c12, h12. 011) which is a natural product and contained in many plants. However it is extracted, industrially throughout the world out of to cultivated plants. The sugarcane which is grown in the temperate zoon sucrose is composed pf two molecules one molecule of glucose and one more molecule of fructose. Its sweetening power is set conventionally on a par within the unit. There are artificial sweetening materials which have sweetening capacity multiple of sugar (aspartame, sugaring etc) without having the qualities of sugar namely; Sweet and soft taste Capacity to give mass and volume to various preparations To reinforce and display the savor of the foods To safeguard from the onset of microorganism e.g. marmalades, sweet etc To protect from the less of vitamin c To supply energy It is cheapest food per calories oils and fats have greater calories power (9k cal/g) whereas sugars and the albumen‟s have 4k cal/g. so a tea spoon of sugar with a capacity of 8gm ha only 32kcal. The main activity of the company is the production and trade of sugar, as well as the trade of the by-products of sugar. The company produces white crystal sugar. Whereas in the course of production there results as a set of by- products which following a proper processing are mode available in the market. In concrete terms the products are traded by the company as follows, White crystal sugar Molasses Sugar-pie Nutria 135 Fresh pulp The sugar is sugar by- product and is used as a raw material to produce alcohol, yeasts and cattle feed. Sugar pie is cattle feed and is prepared by dry pulp (by- product of sugar) with the addition of molasses. Nutria 135 is a short of cattle feed which is used for fattening the calves and is prepared by dry pulp and molasses with an addition pf trace elements and vitamins High reliable plant require less maintenance Out sugar plants in corporate all the components such motors, gearboxes, bearing, coupling etc as per the international standards and sizes and can be replaced easily in any part of world Sugar produced is crystal white manufacture through suspiration or carbonation process Our sugar plants are equipped with captive power generation having steam is used to run the turbines and the exhaust steam is used for the process requirement haggises being the waste of sugarcane Our sugar plants are equipped with both air pollution control as well as water pollution control equipment. The sugar industry in India has been playing an important role in the economic development of the country. The sugar industry is seasonal and operators for 120 to 240 days in a year, beginning from early November and ending in May. Large volumes of effluents are produced during the manufacture of sugar and they contain a high pollution potential. As these wastes are disposed of on land or into water bodies in the non-monsoon period, extreme pollution of small rivers and foul smell in the vicinity of the sugar mills commonly noticed. 3.COMPANY PROFILE: INTRODUCTION: Perambalur sugar mills ltd.., is a subsidiary unit of Tamil Nadu sugar corporation Ltd.., it is situated in Eraiyur village. About20 Kms away from Perambalur on Trichy-Chennai National Highways in an extent of 133 acres of land. This is an agro based industry. Sugar cane being the raw material. Crushing operation will be going on for about six months every year and the remaining period will be utilized for overhauling of the machinery. The factory had its maiden crushing during 1977-78 season with n installed capacity of 120 tones of cane per day. AREA OFOPERATION OF THE MILLS: Taluk District 1. Perambalur Perambalur 2. Veppanthattai Veppanthattai 3. Kunnam Kunnam 4. Ariyalur Ariyalur 5. Senthurai Senthurai 6. Athur (Thalaivasal&Gangavalli) Salem 7. Kallakurichy (52 villages) Villupuram. EXPANSION: The installed capacity of the mill was expanded during 1989-90 from 1250 TCD to 3000 TCD and crushing at expanded capacity was start on 06.11.1990. The loans received from financial institutions for expansion have been fully repaid. ADMINISTRATION: The mills is being administered by the Board Of Directors of Perambalur sugar mills Ltd., At Unit level, the execute administration is being carried out by the Chief Executive subject to the control and supervisions of the Chairman & Managing Director, Perambalur sugar mills ltd., the following departments are functioning in the mills: Administration Accounts Cane Engineering Manufacturing SUGAR POLICY: SUGAR SEASON One sugar is 12 months from October to September. The actual crushing will depend upon the availability of sugar cane. This will normally be about 6 months in a year. CANE PRICE: Statutory Minimum price The government of India fixes the statutory minimum cane price the sugar cane control order, 1966. This price as to be paid by the sugar mill within 14 days from the date of supply of cane failing which interest at the rate of 15% will have to be paid to the cane growers till the date of payment. The statutory minimum cane price is fixed by the government of India for the recovery of 9.50%. The cane price is fixed for a sugar mills based on the peak period recovery of the mill. The peak period recovery refers to the average recovery obtained from 1st December to 31st March of the proceeding season. The statutory minimum price for 1998-99 for Perambalur sugar mills was Rs. 539.40 per tone. STATE ADVISED PRICE The state government announce cane price every over and above the statutory minimum price fixed by the government of the India and this price is the known as state advised price. The state advised price (S.A.P) for 1998-99 for this mills was Rs.702.50 linked to 8.5% recovery. The –cane price fixed by the government and paid by the mills since 1989-90 are furnished in Annexure-II. GOVERNMENT OF INDIA’S FINAL CANE PRICE & ADDL.CANE PRICE AS PER BHARGAVA FORMULA Initially the Govt. of India fixed the statutory minimum price for sugarcane for a particular season based on the peak period recovery of the previous season. At the end of every season, the final cane price payable to the cane growers for a season is being computed under clause 5A of the sugarcane control order, 1966. For working out this final price, the Govt. of „L‟ factor. The sales realization of sugar out of a particular season‟s sugar is matched with the cost of production and the surplus is being shared between the sugar producers and growers @50.50. While announcing the final cane price, the statutory minimum price initially paid is deducted. INCENTIVE CANE PRICE The co-operative and public sector sugar ill Tamil Nadu are also in the/ practice of declaring an incentive cane price for the cane drawn in a particular season to enthuse the growers to bring in more area under cane cultivation. While declaring such incentive cane price, the ill usually deducts a portion of the price towards the Area Development Fund. The corpus of the fund is usually utilized for socially relevant schemes in the command area of the mills. SALE OF SUGAR As per the existing sugar policy (Dual control) every sugar producer shall sell 40% of their production as levy sugar to the public distribution system through the civil suppliers corporation / food corporation of India and the balance 60% shall be in the open market. Under the sugar control order, 1966 the sale and dispatch of sugar (both levy &tree) is regulated by the monthly release orders issued by Directorate of sugar. Govt. Of India. The quantity released for a month under sale should be sole and dispatched before end that month. PRICE 1. Levy sugar The price of levy sugar for a particular season os fixed by Govt. of India which is called “Notified Price”. The levy sugar price for the 1998-99 sugar season for Tamil Nadu / one is Rs.1069.82 Qtl, For Road delivery. This price is being paid for sugar dispatched / delivered at factory gate. While fixing the levy price, the Government of India takes into account the following factors: The minimum price. If any fixed for sugarcane by the central government. The manufacturing cost of sugar. The duty or tax, if any paid or payable thereon A reasonable return on the capital employed in the business of manufacturing sugar. 2. Free sale sugar The price of free sale sugar depends upon the supply and demand position of the market, its comparative price in the neighboring states and the transport charges involved for purchases of sugar from the neighboring states. The sale of free sale entitlement is being effected by Tamil Nadu co- operative sugar federation. The consideration for the levy and sale sugar is being received in advance by all the mills. Sugar mill waste and pollution control: Cane sugar waste is one of the important organic industrial wastes in our country. The effluents are rich in suspended solids, BOD and oil and grease and hence a great pollution potential. Preventive measures for the pollution load are, 1. Provisional of receptors during crushing 2. Lime treatment followed by 8 hrs setting for filter cloth washing 3. Recycling of spill- over‟s of molasses and sugar 4. Dry cleaning of floors 5. Proper loading of evaporators and pans 6. Control of waste from spray ponds and 7. Good housekeeping. BY PRODUCTS Bagasse The production of bagasse will be normally around 30% of the cane crushed. About 80% of the bagasse will be utilized as fuel in the mills boilers for production of steam which is utilized for generation of electricity. The remaining quantity of bagasse id being sold to Tamil Nadu Newsprints &papers limited Press mud . The production of press mud will be normally around 30 and of the cane crushed. The entire press mud is being given to cane growers @ Rs.25 per tone. Molasses The production of molasses will be around 4.25% of cane crushed. The possession and sale of molasses was 100% controlled prior to 10.06.1993. the Government of India rescinded the molasses control order by dated /10/06.1993 and consequently the state government has also decontrolled sale of molasses. After the decontrol, molasses is being sold in the open market by tender system to distilleries, cattle feed manufacturing etc. CANE DIVISIONAL OFFICE The are 10 cane divisional offices at the following places: 1. Eraiyur 2. V. Kalathur 3. Labbaikudikadu 4. Agramseegur 5. Puduvettakudi 6. Thamaraipoondi 7. Veppur 8. Perambalur 9. Krishnapuram 10. Arumbavoor Emphasis on sugarcane management: Considerable knowledge and technology on sugarcane are available. The exploitation of such knowledge should be managed, cost effective and result oriented combining alertness, agility, imagination and skill of the chief manager based on sound principles of good management. The sugarcane management broadly cover the following areas: 1. cane area management 2. cane productivity 3. varietal management 4. cane quality management 5. plant & Raton crop management 6. sugar recovery management 7. harvest management 8. cane supply and transport 9. 9. R&D Management Cane Area Management: The required and potential cane for availability of 4.3 lakhs tones for 172 days duration in Tamil Nadu in respect of 2500 TCD sugar mill will range from 140000 to 23000 cres depending stabilized by efficient management. Cane Productivity Management: The yield / acre of the sugar mill zone range from 70-80 The as against 100-110 the of state average. This large gap in yield the has to be narrowed down. The strategy to be adopted is to look for a high yielding cane variety with all other suitable filed management. Early planting and harvest and poor plant crop will not an economic Raton crop. Cane Quality Management: Cane quality improvement is possible, though difficult under prevailing tropical in Tamil Nadu. The climate, though favorable for high cane yield potential, is a major constraint for high sugar formation in cane sugar is a product of high variety, climate, comprising maximum and minimum temperature, R humidity and climate before harvest at 12-13 months age. Sugar Recovery Management: The sugar recovery is a function of cane quality and factory efficiency. High cane quality with higher sugar in cane. High juice enhances efficiency. The factory performance consisting steady crushing, better cane preparation, maximum mill extraction, high imbibitions, minimum down time, better clarification, lower final molasses purity will hike the sugar recovery. R&D Management on sugarcane: Top priority should be given for an efficient R&D wing both at the factory level and TNCSE level. Seed technology, bio-fertilizers, and drip irrigation, bio agents for pest and disease control. Tissue culture by TNCSE in its technical wings. Certain aspects of cane management has to be pursued by cane department if necessary by having additional temporary staff to undertake further programmed in the field for improving sugar production in the field. SUBSIDIES Transport subsidy The transport charges only paid by the mill. Crop Insurance Action being taken for insuring the crops from this season onwards. ROADS Roads were laid under sugarcane Road development scheme for a distance of 48.6 ICM by spending Rs.182 lakhs to connect the villages with the main roads to enable the growers to transport the sugar cane to the mills. In addition to this 54 roads for a distance of 46.6 ICMs by spending Rs.37.70 lakhs laid by utilizing the area development fund. LOANS Loans were sanctioned to the cane growers under sugar development fund for digging and deepening of open wells and bore wells, purchase of oil Engines and electric motors. So far a sum of Rs.254.33 lakhs received from the government of India Had been sanctioned to 2828 cane growers. The loan amounts are being recovered from the cane proceeds. The mill is also arranging loan through nationalized banks for digging of wells, purchase of pump sets oil engine tyre carts etc. SUGAR TO CANE GROWERS Sugar at concessional rate is distributed to the cane growers at the rate of ½ Kg per tone of cane supplied to the mills subjected to a maximum of 25 kg at levy price plus free sale excise duty. DIESEL BUNK A consumer diesel bunk is functioning in the mils premises for supplying diesel to the vehicles transporting cane to the mills. RAINFALL A statement the details of rainfall for the 10 years are enclosed in annexure –V. PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE The installed capacity of the mills was 1250 tones of cane per day. It was expanded to 3000 TCO and crushing at expanded capacity was commenced during 1990-1991 season. A statement showing the physical performance from 1989-90 to 1998-1991 seasons is appended in Annexure-VI. STORAGE FACILITY AND STOCK POSITION The regular employees will be working throughout the year while the seasonal employees will be normally working only during the crushing season (i.e) for about six months in a year. However, depending upon the necessity, a portion of the seasonal employees will be recalled during off-season for off season overhauling works. During the lay- off period the employee are being paid retaining Allowance as detailed below: Unskilled employees : 30% Skilled employees : 40% Skilled, clerical& supervisory employees WELFARE TO EMPLOYEES RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS There are 206 quarters in the mills premises all officers, supervisory staff and essential categories of workers and staffs have been provided with the residential quarters. FREE ELECTRICITY Free electricity is supplied by the mills to the employees staying at the mills quarters as detailed below. I. Chief executive -100units II. Chief officer& deputy officers -75units III. Supervisory staff -50units IV. Others -40units CANTEEN A canteen is function inside the mills premises. SCHOOL The mills is running a higher secondary school for the benefit of the children of the employees and growers of the mill and general public of the nearby villages at present above 2000 students are students are studying in the school. There is about 70 staff in the school. PROVISION DISH ANTENNA There is a video club functioning in the mill premises through which dish antenna is connections are provided to the quarters. UNIFORMS Three sets of T.C uniforms are given to workers, employees and officers once in two years. Shoe is being given once in two years to eligible employees and chapel is given once in year to others. FREE TEA Two cups of tea are supplied every day to all the employee working in the factory and in the office free of cost and those working in the cane divisional officers are being paid a sum of Rs.62.50 per month as tea allowance. NIGHT SHIFT ALLOWANCE The mills is paying night shift allowance to all the workers and staffs who are attending night shifts 2 percentage per night. EXPENSION ALLOWANCE The mill is paying the expansion allowance of 15 percentages per month to the employees. PROVISION OF RAIN COAT AND helmet All the field staff and certain category of employees working in the factory are provided with rain cost and helmet by the mills as detailed below. 1. Field staff like cane assistants-one rain coat once in three years and one helmet. 2. Regular workers in cane yard-one rain coat bagasse‟ yard, security wing, once in3 years 3. Molasses Tank,E.T.P 4. Pump man (Dirking water supply) PROVISION OF TOWELS AND SOAPS The workers inside the factory are provided with one soap every month and hand towel once in a quarter. EDUCATION TOUR The employees are permitted to go on education tour every years for which 3 years. Special casual leave with wages are allowed one sixth of the employees will be covered every years. FIRE ACCIDENT ADVANCE FACILITY An advance of Rs.500 is given as special advance to the employees whose houses are affected by fine. OBJECTIVES OF TEE STUDY PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To study on job satisfaction of employee in the organization. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: • To measure the employees job satisfaction level in “Perambalur Sugar Mills Ltd” Eraiyur. • To study the employees perception towards organizations. • To study the attitude of the employees towards their work. • To identify the factors that motivates the employees. • This study is conducted to judge the level of Job Satisfaction of employees who are working in Perambalur sugar mills Eraiyur REVIEW OF LITERARTURE Gupta & Joshi (2008), concluded in their study that Job satisfaction is an important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It had often said that, "A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLPOYEE." Job satisfaction is very important because most of the people spend a major of their life at their work place. Khan (2006), reveals in his study hat Hoppack brought Job satisfaction to limelight. He observed Job satisfaction in the combination of psychological & environmental circumstances that cause person to fully say, "I am satisfied with my job" Rao (2005), reveal in his study that Job satisfaction refer to person feelings of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self- contentment but the satisfaction of the job. According to him, there are 4 types of theories: 1. Need Fulfillment Theory 2. Equity Theory 3. Two Factor Theory 4. Discrepancy Theory Aswathappa (2003), opines that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the system of wage payment. Different organization adapts different type of wage payment system. Along with wages and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and non-monetary benefits. According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration: A. Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory B. Equity Theory C. Agency Theory Velnampy (2008), in his study "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka" concluded that job satisfaction does have impact on future performance through the job involvement, but higher performance also makes people feel more satisfied and committed. It is a cycle of event that is clearly in keeping with the development perspective. Attitudes such as satisfaction and involvement are important to the employees to have high levels of performance. The results of the study revealed that attitudes namely satisfaction and involvement, and performance are significantly correlated. Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008), in their study "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–2004: evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey" examined that their significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work between 1998 and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found to have increased over this period as well. It also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human resource management practices. The paper reports a weak association between formal human resource management practices and satisfaction with sense of achievement. Improvements in perceptions of job security, the climate of employment relations and managerial responsiveness are the most important factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement between 1998 and 2004. We infer that the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement is due in large part to the existence of falling unemployment during the period under study, which has driven employers to make improvements in the quality of work. Jain, Jabeen, et. al. (2007), in their study "Job Satisfaction as Related to Organisational Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil" concluded that that there is no significant difference between managers and engineers in terms of their job satisfaction and both the groups appeared almost equally satisfied with their jobs. When the managers and engineers were compared on organizational climate, it was found that both the groups differed significantly. Managers scored significantly high on organizational climate scale than the engineers indicating that the managers are more satisfied due to the empowerment given to them. Shah & Shah (2008), in their study "Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Variables" concluded that relationship between fatigue and Job Satisfaction variables which were found to be significantly negative. The study alo founds that fatigue is negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study is clearly indicative of different issues for Call Centre employees in Indian context. There are different ON THE JOB and OFF THE JOB FACTORS leading to dissatisfaction and fatigue for them which were explored in this study. If fatigue can be reduced and job satisfaction can be increased by various innovative and encouraging strategies. Shahu & Gole (2008), in their study "Effect of Job satisfaction on Performance: An Empirical Study" concluded that the companies that are lagging behind in certain areas of job satisfaction & job stress need to be developed so that their employees show good performance level, as it is provided that performance level lowers wit high satisfaction scores. The awareness program pertaining to stress & satisfaction is to be taken up in the industries to make them aware of the benefits of knowledge of stress and its relationship with satisfaction and achievement of goal of industries. Job Satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job Satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors,eg, the quality of one's relationship with their supervisions, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of their fulfillment in their work etc. RESEARCH METHOLOGY Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problems. RESEARCH DESIGN: Descriptive research design has been used. The descriptive research design refers to the characteristics of particular individual or group. UNIVERSE: Universe is the total population available for the study. In the case 119 employees of Perambalur sugar mills ltd were identified as universe. SAMPLE SIZE: Sample refers to the number of people under survey. The sample size selected for the study was 50 respondents in random from the organization. SAMPLE TECHNIQUES: Random sampling method is being used for the survey. A random sample is the one, in which unit of the population as an equal chance of being used for the survey. A random sample is the one in which each unit of the population as an equal chance being included in it. SOURCES OF DATA: Both primary and secondary data was utilized for the purpose of the study. Primary data – primary data include those data which are collected for the first time. A well designed structured questionnaire was prepared for this purpose. Secondary data – It includes those data‟s which are collected for some earlier research work and are applicable in the study the researcher has presently undertaken. Secondary data was collected from encyclopedia, Magazines, Journals, internet etc. DATA COLLECTION: The project work use primary work uses primary data. The primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. Personal interview technique was adopted to meet the respondents personally. The data were collected after explaining the questions. The secondary data were collected through employee data base (personal details of the respondents), magazines, journals etc. PILOT STUDY The pilot study was undertaken prior to the main study by the researcher. The purpose is to change the climate at work so that the human technological organization interfaces leads to better employee attrition. The research had discussion with the concerned authorities so as get the first hand information about the research problem frequent visit to the selected areas helps the researchers to finalize the research problem. PRETESTING: Pretesting was done before entering into the primary data collection. The detailed pretending to the employee satisfaction were discussed with the chief manager it was helpful in further designing of the questionnaire and it was helpful in conducting he interview with the employees in the organization. The questionnaire was designed in English which are plan to gather data from the employees in the supervising level of the primary data were generated through questionnaire by soliciting the response if the employees in order to evaluate the satisfaction level and also evaluate the performance level. TOOLS USED FOR ANALYSIS: The data collected through survey have been careful and meaningfully analyzed by using well-established statistical tools and techniques. Important statistical techniques like, Percentage analysis Weighted average method Chi square PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: In this analysis the various kinds of research are summed separately and the percentage of difference responses by the respondent in that category is found out by dividing the summed value by the total respondents. % of the respondents = Frequency of responses X 100 Frequency of the respondents WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD: The arithmetic mean, gives equal importance (or weight) to each value of individual observation in the data set. However, are situation in which value of individual observation in the data set is not of equal importance. Under these circumstances, we may attach to each observation value a weight w1,w2… w as an indicator of there importance perhaps because of size or importance and compute a weighted mean or average denoted by: CHI-SQUARE TEST: Chi-square symbolically written as is a statistical measure with the help of which it is possible to assess the significance of the difference between the observed frequencies and expected frequencies obtained from some hypothetical universe chi square test enable us to test whether more two population portions‟ can be considered equal. In order that chi-square test may be applicable both the frequencies must be grouped in the same way and the theoretical distribution must be adjust to give the same total frequencies which is equal to that of observed frequencies is calculated with the help of the following formula. 2 ᵡ = ∑(Oi-Ei)2/ Ei Where, O = Observed Frequency E = Expected Frequency Expected frequency = Total no. of rows*Total no. of columns/Grand total Formula for chi- square test: a) Expected value= (Row total* column total)/ grand total b) Hypothesis testing Null hypothesis (HO):<condition> c) Significant level Level =<value>with degree of freedom=<value> d) Calculated value Chi-square [(observed value-expected value)2 /expected value]+…….. Table value By considering the table value and calculated value. Final decision wheather to accept the Null hypothesis or rejected null hypothesis is made.
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