job satisfaction (DOC) by priyaalagar



Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job.

The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is
not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job
satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment.
Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee
involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important
attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement
is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to
rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and
co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5
scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied").


One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These
studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to
find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers‟ productivity.
These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase
productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from
the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong
evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to
investigate other factors in job satisfaction.

Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick
Winslow Taylor‟s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a
single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial
production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and
piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial
use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were
forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus
leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be

noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for
Taylor‟s work.

Some argue that Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for
job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life
– physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This
model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction

Models of job satisfaction
   Affect Theory

Edwin A. Locke‟s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction
model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy
between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how
much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates
how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren‟t met. When a person values
a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when
expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who
doesn‟t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and
Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a
position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no
autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet
will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.
   (a) Dispositional Theory

Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general
theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies
toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one‟s job. This approach became a notable
explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over
time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels
of job satisfaction.

A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-
evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core
Self-evaluations that determine one‟s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general
self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-
esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one‟s own
competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one
has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job
satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.

   (b) Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)

Frederick Herzberg‟s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to
explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and
dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively.
Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide
people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities.
These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out.
Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies,
supervisory practices, and other working conditions.
   (c) Job Characteristics Model

Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a
framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job
satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical

psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and
knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction,

absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a
motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is
to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the
framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.

(a) Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)

Frederick Herzberg‟s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to
explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and
dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively.
Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide
people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities.
These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out.
Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies,
supervisory practices, and other working conditions.

While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably
empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original
formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact.[ Furthermore, the theory does
not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical
manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticised in that it
does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.
   (b) Job Characteristics Model

Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a
framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job
satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological
states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of
the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work
motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating
potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an
employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of
the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM.

Job satisfaction and emotions

Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which form the affective element of job
satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while
emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause.

There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction.
Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job

Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job
satisfaction    than   will   intensity   of   positive   emotion   when    it   is   experienced.
Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to job satisfaction. Emotion work (or
emotion management) refers to various efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion
regulation includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease
one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional
labor emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations
suggest that the consequences of emotional labor are not uniformly negative.
It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the
amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The understanding of how emotion
regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models:

   1. Emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public
       displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the process
       of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional
       exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction.
   2. Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers‟ emotion
       regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that
       subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of
       favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job
       satisfaction performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could
       increase job satisfaction.

Relationships and practical implications

Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a
predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover.

Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and
deviant work behaviors.

One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction.[22] This
correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their
job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. However, some
research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other
variables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account.

With regard to job performance, employee personality may be more important than job
satisfaction. The link between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be a spurious
relationship; instead, both satisfaction and performance are the result of personality.
                                     1.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE:

    The history of sugar is associated with the history of civilization in the ancient time honey
was well known. Sugar is derived from the Sanskrit word sacrara begins its history in the 4 th
century B.C with the discovery by the soldiers of the great Alexander in the valley of the Indus
river of a cane yielding, honey without bees in the 7th century A.D the Arabs invade the middle
east and discover one more the sugarcane.
    They spread its cultivation in the Mediterranean basis laboratories of producing sugar out of
sugarcane are setup in rhode Cyprus Egypt in the northern islands in the southern Spain.
    Sugar appears in the central Europe in the 12th century due to the crusaders who carried it
over from the Syria. The impetration took place from the Venice port. Its sales were at a very
high price from the drug store as a precious exotic product in the form of sugarcanes broken
aggregate of sugar or in the dust.
    The discovery of the new world altered fully the geography of sugar. The sugarcane was
grown in tropical climates e.g. In the Caribbean island which are there by called sugars islands.
    Sugar was imported raw and petrified in the refineries setup mostly near the European
harbors. The French revolution and the continental embargo imposed by the France upon the
English sugarcane. These results severe constrains upon consumption.
    Its therefore necessary to find a European plan out of which to produce sugar like sugarcane.

       In1994    MARGARF a German chemist proved that in the cattle breeding beet is
contained the same sugar produced out of sugarcane.25 years later his country man ARCHARD
repeated and perfected is experiments sugar out of beet represented 63% of the universal
       Today‟s percentage is 40% for the sugar out of beet represented 60% for the sugar out of
sugarcane. The annual universal sugar production is fairly enough complicated process which
includes a great many processing stages. There follows a description in outline of the main stages
of sugar production.
       The term sugar refers to the sucrose (c12, h12. 011) which is a natural product and
contained in many plants. However it is extracted, industrially throughout the world out of to
cultivated plants. The sugarcane which is grown in the temperate zoon sucrose is composed pf
two molecules one molecule of glucose and one more molecule of fructose. Its sweetening
power is set conventionally on a par within the unit.
       There are artificial sweetening materials which have sweetening capacity multiple of
sugar (aspartame, sugaring etc) without having the qualities of sugar namely;
            Sweet and soft taste
            Capacity to give mass and volume to various preparations
            To reinforce and display the savor of the foods
            To safeguard from the onset of microorganism e.g. marmalades, sweet etc
            To protect from the less of vitamin c
            To supply energy

       It is cheapest food per calories oils and fats have greater calories power (9k cal/g)
whereas sugars and the albumen‟s have 4k cal/g. so a tea spoon of sugar with a capacity of 8gm
ha only 32kcal.
       The main activity of the company is the production and trade of sugar, as well as the
trade of the by-products of sugar. The company produces white crystal sugar. Whereas in the
course of production there results as a set of by- products which following a proper processing
are mode available in the market.

       In concrete terms the products are traded by the company as follows,
            White crystal sugar
            Molasses
            Sugar-pie
            Nutria 135
            Fresh pulp
       The sugar is sugar by- product and is used as a raw material to produce alcohol,     yeasts
and cattle feed. Sugar pie is cattle feed and is prepared by dry pulp (by- product of sugar) with
the addition of molasses.
       Nutria 135 is a short of cattle feed which is used for fattening the calves and is prepared
by dry pulp and molasses with an addition pf trace elements and vitamins
            High reliable plant require less maintenance
            Out sugar plants in corporate all the components such motors, gearboxes, bearing,
               coupling etc as per the international standards and sizes and can be replaced easily
               in any part of world
            Sugar produced is crystal white manufacture through suspiration or carbonation
            Our sugar plants are equipped with captive power generation having steam is used
               to run the turbines and the exhaust steam is used for the process requirement
               haggises being the waste of sugarcane
            Our sugar plants are equipped with both air pollution control as well as water
               pollution control equipment.

       The sugar industry in India has been playing an important role in the economic
development of the country. The sugar industry is seasonal and operators for 120 to 240 days in a
year, beginning from early November and ending in May. Large volumes of effluents are
produced during the manufacture of sugar and they contain a high pollution potential. As these
wastes are disposed of on land or into water bodies in the non-monsoon period, extreme
pollution of small rivers and foul smell in the vicinity of the sugar mills commonly noticed.
                                 3.COMPANY PROFILE:
                       Perambalur sugar mills ltd.., is a subsidiary unit of Tamil Nadu sugar
corporation Ltd.., it is situated in Eraiyur village. About20 Kms away from Perambalur on
Trichy-Chennai National Highways in an extent of 133 acres of land. This is an agro based
industry. Sugar cane being the raw material. Crushing operation will be going on for about six
months every year and the remaining period will be utilized for overhauling of the machinery.
The factory had its maiden crushing during 1977-78 season with n installed capacity of 120 tones
of cane per day.
                       Taluk                                        District

 1. Perambalur                                                      Perambalur
 2. Veppanthattai                                                   Veppanthattai
 3. Kunnam                                                          Kunnam
 4. Ariyalur                                                        Ariyalur
 5. Senthurai                                                       Senthurai
 6. Athur (Thalaivasal&Gangavalli)                                  Salem
 7. Kallakurichy (52 villages)                                      Villupuram.

       The installed capacity of the mill was expanded during 1989-90 from 1250 TCD to 3000
TCD and crushing at expanded capacity was start on 06.11.1990. The loans received from
financial institutions for expansion have been fully repaid.
       The mills is being administered by the Board Of Directors of Perambalur sugar mills
Ltd., At Unit level, the execute administration is being carried out by the Chief Executive subject
to the control and supervisions of the Chairman & Managing Director, Perambalur sugar mills
ltd., the following departments are functioning in the mills:
                            Administration
                            Accounts
                            Cane
                            Engineering
                            Manufacturing

       One sugar is 12 months from October to September. The actual crushing will depend
upon the availability of sugar cane. This will normally be about 6 months in a year.
Statutory Minimum price
       The government of India fixes the statutory minimum cane price the sugar cane control
order, 1966. This price as to be paid by the sugar mill within 14 days from the date of supply of
cane failing which interest at the rate of 15% will have to be paid to the cane growers till the date
of payment. The statutory minimum cane price is fixed by the government of India for the
recovery of 9.50%.
       The cane price is fixed for a sugar mills based on the peak period recovery of the mill.
The peak period recovery refers to the average recovery obtained from 1st December to 31st
March of the proceeding season. The statutory minimum price for 1998-99 for Perambalur sugar
mills was Rs. 539.40 per tone.
       The state government announce cane price every over and above the statutory minimum
price fixed by the government of the India and this price is the known as state advised price. The
state advised price (S.A.P) for 1998-99 for this mills was Rs.702.50 linked to 8.5% recovery.
The –cane price fixed by the government and paid by the mills since 1989-90 are furnished in
       Initially the Govt. of India fixed the statutory minimum price for sugarcane for a
particular season based on the peak period recovery of the previous season. At the end of every
season, the final cane price payable to the cane growers for a season is being computed under
clause 5A of the sugarcane control order, 1966. For working out this final price, the Govt. of
„L‟ factor.
        The sales realization of sugar out of a particular season‟s sugar is matched with the cost
of production and the surplus is being shared between the sugar producers and growers @50.50.
While announcing the final cane price, the statutory minimum price initially paid is deducted.
        The co-operative and public sector sugar ill Tamil Nadu are also in the/ practice of
declaring an incentive cane price for the cane drawn in a particular season to enthuse the growers
to bring in more area under cane cultivation. While declaring such incentive cane price, the ill
usually deducts a portion of the price towards the Area Development Fund. The corpus of the
fund is usually utilized for socially relevant schemes in the command area of the mills.

        As per the existing sugar policy (Dual control) every sugar producer shall sell 40% of
their production as levy sugar to the public distribution system through the civil suppliers
corporation / food corporation of India and the balance 60% shall be in the open market. Under
the sugar control order, 1966 the sale and dispatch of sugar (both levy &tree) is regulated by the
monthly release orders issued by Directorate of sugar. Govt. Of India. The quantity released for
a month under sale should be sole and dispatched before end that month.
    1. Levy sugar
              The price of levy sugar for a particular season os fixed by Govt. of India which is
        called “Notified Price”. The levy sugar price for the 1998-99 sugar season for Tamil
        Nadu / one is Rs.1069.82 Qtl, For Road delivery. This price is being paid for sugar
        dispatched / delivered at factory gate. While fixing the levy price, the Government of
        India takes into account the following factors:
                     The minimum price. If any fixed for sugarcane by the central government.
                     The manufacturing cost of sugar.
                     The duty or tax, if any paid or payable thereon
                     A reasonable return on the capital employed in the business of
                       manufacturing sugar.
   2. Free sale sugar
               The price of free sale sugar depends upon the supply and demand position of the
               market, its comparative price in the neighboring states and the transport charges
               involved for purchases of sugar from the neighboring states. The sale of free sale
               entitlement is being effected by Tamil Nadu co- operative sugar federation.
               The consideration for the levy and sale sugar is being received in advance by all
               the mills.

Sugar mill waste and pollution control:
       Cane sugar waste is one of the important organic industrial wastes in our country. The
effluents are rich in suspended solids, BOD and oil and grease and hence a great pollution
potential. Preventive measures for the pollution load are,
       1. Provisional of receptors during crushing
       2. Lime treatment followed by 8 hrs setting for filter cloth washing
       3. Recycling of spill- over‟s of molasses and sugar
       4. Dry cleaning of floors
       5. Proper loading of evaporators and pans
       6. Control of waste from spray ponds and
       7. Good housekeeping.
       The production of bagasse will be normally around 30% of the cane crushed. About 80%
of the bagasse will be utilized as fuel in the mills boilers for production of steam which is
utilized for generation of electricity. The remaining quantity of bagasse id being sold to Tamil
Nadu Newsprints &papers limited

Press mud
.      The production of press mud will be normally around 30 and of the cane crushed. The
entire press mud is being given to cane growers @ Rs.25 per tone.
       The production of molasses will be around 4.25% of cane crushed. The possession and
sale of molasses was 100% controlled prior to 10.06.1993. the Government of India rescinded
the molasses control order by dated /10/06.1993 and consequently the state government has also
decontrolled sale of molasses. After the decontrol, molasses is being sold in the open market by
tender system to distilleries, cattle feed manufacturing etc.
       The are 10 cane divisional offices at the following places:
                       1. Eraiyur
                       2. V. Kalathur
                       3. Labbaikudikadu
                       4. Agramseegur
                       5. Puduvettakudi
                       6. Thamaraipoondi
                       7. Veppur
                       8. Perambalur
                       9. Krishnapuram
                       10. Arumbavoor
Emphasis on sugarcane management:
       Considerable knowledge and technology on sugarcane are available. The exploitation of
such knowledge should be managed, cost effective and result oriented combining alertness,
agility, imagination and skill of the chief manager based on sound principles of good

The sugarcane management broadly cover the following areas:
           1. cane area management
           2. cane productivity
           3. varietal management
           4. cane quality management
           5. plant & Raton crop management
           6. sugar recovery management
           7. harvest management
           8. cane supply and transport
           9. 9. R&D Management

Cane Area Management:
       The required and potential cane for availability of 4.3 lakhs tones for 172 days duration in
Tamil Nadu in respect of 2500 TCD sugar mill will range from 140000 to 23000 cres depending
stabilized by efficient management.
Cane Productivity Management:
       The yield / acre of the sugar mill zone range from 70-80 The as against 100-110 the of
state average. This large gap in yield the has to be narrowed down. The strategy to be adopted is
to look for a high yielding cane variety with all other suitable filed management. Early planting
and harvest and poor plant crop will not an economic Raton crop.

Cane Quality Management:
       Cane quality improvement is possible, though difficult under prevailing tropical in Tamil
Nadu. The climate, though favorable for high cane yield potential, is a major constraint for high
sugar formation in cane sugar is a product of high variety, climate, comprising maximum and
minimum temperature, R humidity and climate before harvest at 12-13 months age.
Sugar Recovery Management:
       The sugar recovery is a function of cane quality and factory efficiency. High cane quality
with higher sugar in cane. High juice enhances efficiency.
       The factory performance consisting steady crushing, better cane preparation, maximum
mill extraction, high imbibitions, minimum down time, better clarification, lower final molasses
purity will hike the sugar recovery.

R&D Management on sugarcane:
       Top priority should be given for an efficient R&D wing both at the factory level and
TNCSE level. Seed technology, bio-fertilizers, and drip irrigation, bio agents for pest and disease
control. Tissue culture by TNCSE in its technical wings.
       Certain aspects of cane management has to be pursued by cane department if necessary
by having additional temporary staff to undertake further programmed in the field for improving
sugar production in the field.
Transport subsidy
       The transport charges only paid by the mill.
Crop Insurance
       Action being taken for insuring the crops from this season onwards.
       Roads were laid under sugarcane Road development scheme for a distance of 48.6 ICM
by spending Rs.182 lakhs to connect the villages with the main roads to enable the growers to
transport the sugar cane to the mills.
       In addition to this 54 roads for a distance of 46.6 ICMs by spending Rs.37.70 lakhs laid
by utilizing the area development fund.
       Loans were sanctioned to the cane growers under sugar development fund for digging
and deepening of open wells and bore wells, purchase of oil Engines and electric motors. So far a
sum of Rs.254.33 lakhs received from the government of India Had been sanctioned to 2828
cane growers. The loan amounts are being recovered from the cane proceeds.
        The mill is also arranging loan through nationalized banks for digging of wells, purchase
of pump sets oil engine tyre carts etc.
        Sugar at concessional rate is distributed to the cane growers at the rate of ½ Kg per tone
of cane supplied to the mills subjected to a maximum of 25 kg at levy price plus free sale excise
        A consumer diesel bunk is functioning in the mils premises for supplying diesel to the
vehicles transporting cane to the mills.
        A statement the details of rainfall for the 10 years are enclosed in annexure –V.
        The installed capacity of the mills was 1250 tones of cane per day. It was expanded to
3000 TCO and crushing at expanded capacity was commenced during 1990-1991 season. A
statement showing the physical performance from 1989-90 to 1998-1991 seasons is appended in
        The regular employees will be working throughout the year while the seasonal employees
will be normally working only during the crushing season (i.e) for about six months in a year.
However, depending upon the necessity, a portion of the seasonal employees will be recalled
during off-season for off season overhauling works. During the lay- off period the employee are
being paid retaining Allowance as detailed below:
               Unskilled employees                                                  : 30%
               Skilled employees                                                    : 40%
                             Skilled, clerical& supervisory employees


   There are 206 quarters in the mills premises all officers, supervisory staff and essential
   categories of workers and staffs have been provided with the residential quarters.


   Free electricity is supplied by the mills to the employees staying at the mills quarters as
   detailed below.

      I.    Chief executive                               -100units
      II.   Chief officer& deputy officers                -75units
     III.   Supervisory staff                               -50units
     IV.    Others                                         -40units


A canteen is function inside the mills premises.


The mills is running a higher secondary school for the benefit of the children of the employees
and growers of the mill and general public of the nearby villages at present above 2000 students
are students are studying in the school. There is about 70 staff in the school.


There is a video club functioning in the mill premises through which dish antenna is connections
are provided to the quarters.


Three sets of T.C uniforms are given to workers, employees and officers once in two years. Shoe
is being given once in two years to eligible employees and chapel is given once in year to others.

Two cups of tea are supplied every day to all the employee working in the factory and in the
office free of cost and those working in the cane divisional officers are being paid a sum of
Rs.62.50 per month as tea allowance.


The mills is paying night shift allowance to all the workers and staffs who are attending night
shifts 2 percentage per night.


The mill is paying the expansion allowance of 15 percentages per month to the employees.


All the field staff and certain category of employees working in the factory are provided with
rain cost and helmet by the mills as detailed below.

   1. Field staff like cane assistants-one rain coat once in three years and one helmet.
   2. Regular workers in cane yard-one rain coat bagasse‟ yard, security wing, once in3 years
   3. Molasses Tank,E.T.P
   4. Pump man (Dirking water supply)


       The workers inside the factory are provided with one soap every month and hand towel
       once in a quarter.


       The employees are permitted to go on education tour every years for which 3 years. Special
       casual leave with wages are allowed one sixth of the employees will be covered every years.

An advance of Rs.500 is given as special advance to the employees whose houses are
affected by fine.



         To study on job satisfaction of employee in the organization.


   •   To measure the employees job satisfaction level in “Perambalur Sugar Mills Ltd”
   •      To study the employees perception towards organizations.
   •      To study the attitude of the employees towards their work.
   •      To identify the factors that motivates the employees.
   •      This study is conducted to judge the level of Job Satisfaction of employees who are
       working in Perambalur sugar mills Eraiyur

Gupta & Joshi (2008), concluded in their study that Job satisfaction is an important technique
used to motivate the employees to work harder. It had often said that, "A HAPPY EMPLOYEE
IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLPOYEE." Job satisfaction is very important because most of the
people spend a major of their life at their work place.

Khan (2006), reveals in his study hat Hoppack brought Job satisfaction to limelight. He
observed Job satisfaction in the combination of psychological & environmental circumstances
that cause person to fully say, "I am satisfied with my job"

Rao (2005), reveal in his study that Job satisfaction refer to person feelings of satisfaction on the
job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self-
contentment but the satisfaction of the job.
According to him, there are 4 types of theories:
    1. Need Fulfillment Theory
    2. Equity Theory
    3. Two Factor Theory
    4. Discrepancy Theory

Aswathappa (2003), opines that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the
system of wage payment. Different organization adapts different type of wage payment system.
Along with wages and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and non-monetary benefits.
According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration:
   A. Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory
   B. Equity Theory
   C. Agency Theory

Velnampy (2008), in his study "Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector
Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka" concluded that job satisfaction does have impact on
future performance through the job involvement, but higher performance also makes people feel
more satisfied and committed. It is a cycle of event that is clearly in keeping with

the development perspective. Attitudes such as satisfaction and involvement are important to the
employees to have high levels of performance. The results of the study revealed that attitudes
namely satisfaction and involvement, and performance are significantly correlated.

Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008), in their study "Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–2004:
evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey" examined that their significant
increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work between 1998 and 2004; a
number of other measures of job quality are found to have increased over this period as well. It
also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human resource management practices. The
paper reports a weak association between formal human resource management practices and
satisfaction with sense of achievement. Improvements in perceptions of job security, the climate
of employment relations and managerial responsiveness are the most important factors in
explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement between 1998 and 2004. We infer
that the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement is due in large part to the existence of
falling unemployment during the period under study, which has driven employers to make
improvements in the quality of work.

Jain, Jabeen, et. al. (2007), in their study "Job Satisfaction as Related to Organisational Climate
and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil" concluded that that there is no significant
difference between managers and engineers in terms of their job satisfaction and
both the groups appeared almost equally satisfied with their jobs. When the managers and
engineers were compared on organizational climate, it was found that both the groups differed
significantly. Managers scored significantly high on organizational climate scale than the
engineers indicating that the managers are more satisfied due to the empowerment given to them.

Shah & Shah (2008), in their study "Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Variables" concluded that
relationship between fatigue and Job Satisfaction variables which were found to be significantly

negative. The study alo founds that fatigue is negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study is
clearly indicative of different issues for Call Centre employees in Indian context. There are
different ON THE JOB and OFF THE JOB FACTORS leading to dissatisfaction and fatigue for
them which were explored in this study. If fatigue can be reduced and job satisfaction can be
increased by various innovative and encouraging strategies.

Shahu & Gole (2008), in their study "Effect of Job satisfaction on Performance: An

Empirical Study" concluded that the companies that are lagging behind in certain areas of job
satisfaction & job stress need to be developed so that their employees show good performance
level, as it is provided that performance level lowers wit high satisfaction scores. The awareness
program pertaining to stress & satisfaction is to be taken up in the industries to make them aware
of the benefits of knowledge of stress and its relationship with satisfaction and achievement of
goal of industries.

Job Satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work.
Job Satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors,eg, the quality of one's relationship with
their supervisions, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of their
fulfillment in their work etc.
                                     RESEARCH METHOLOGY

       Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions. Research
methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problems.
       Descriptive research design has been used. The descriptive research design refers to the
characteristics of particular individual or group.
       Universe is the total population available for the study. In the case 119 employees of
Perambalur sugar mills ltd were identified as universe.
       Sample refers to the number of people under survey. The sample size selected for the
study was 50 respondents in random from the organization.
       Random sampling method is being used for the survey. A random sample is the one, in
which unit of the population as an equal chance of being used for the survey. A random sample
is the one in which each unit of the population as an equal chance being included in it.
       Both primary and secondary data was utilized for the purpose of the study.
            Primary data – primary data include those data which are collected for the first
               time. A well designed structured questionnaire was prepared for this purpose.
            Secondary data – It includes those data‟s which are collected for some earlier
                research work and are applicable in the study the researcher has presently
                undertaken. Secondary data was collected from encyclopedia, Magazines,
                Journals, internet etc.

       The project work use primary work uses primary data. The primary data were collected
through structured questionnaire. Personal interview technique was adopted to meet the
respondents personally. The data were collected after explaining the questions. The secondary
data were collected through employee data base (personal details of the respondents), magazines,
journals etc.

       The pilot study was undertaken prior to the main study by the researcher. The purpose is
to change the climate at work so that the human technological organization interfaces leads to
better employee attrition.
       The research had discussion with the concerned authorities so as get the first hand
information about the research problem frequent visit to the selected areas helps the researchers
to finalize the research problem.

       Pretesting was done before entering into the primary data collection. The detailed
pretending to the employee satisfaction were discussed with the chief manager it was helpful in
further designing of the questionnaire and it was helpful in conducting he interview with the
employees in the organization.
        The questionnaire was designed in English which are plan to gather data from the
employees in the supervising level of the primary data were generated through questionnaire by
soliciting the response if the employees in order to evaluate the satisfaction level and also
evaluate the performance level.

    The data collected through survey have been careful and meaningfully analyzed by using
    well-established statistical tools and techniques. Important statistical techniques like,
            Percentage analysis
            Weighted average method
            Chi square

       In this analysis the various kinds of research are summed separately and the percentage of
difference responses by the respondent in that category is found out by dividing the summed
value by the total respondents.
       % of the respondents =       Frequency of responses             X 100
                                     Frequency of the respondents
       The arithmetic mean, gives equal importance (or weight) to each value of individual
observation in the data set. However, are situation in which value of individual observation in the
data set is not of equal importance. Under these circumstances, we may attach to each
observation value a weight w1,w2… w        as an indicator of there importance perhaps because of
size or importance and compute a weighted mean or average denoted by:

       Chi-square symbolically written as is a statistical measure with the help of which it is
possible to assess the significance of the difference between the observed frequencies and
expected frequencies obtained from some hypothetical universe chi square test enable us to test
whether more two population portions‟ can be considered equal.
       In order that chi-square test may be applicable both the frequencies must be grouped in
the same way and the theoretical distribution must be adjust to give the same total frequencies
which is equal to that of observed frequencies is calculated with the help of the following
                        ᵡ = ∑(Oi-Ei)2/ Ei
O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency
Expected frequency = Total no. of rows*Total no. of columns/Grand total
Formula for chi- square test:
         a) Expected value=
                (Row total* column total)/ grand total
         b) Hypothesis testing
                Null hypothesis (HO):<condition>
         c) Significant level
                Level =<value>with degree of freedom=<value>
         d) Calculated value
                Chi-square [(observed value-expected value)2 /expected value]+……..

Table value
         By considering the table value and calculated value. Final decision wheather to accept the
Null hypothesis or rejected null hypothesis is made.

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