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World Religions

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					 World
Religions
   Judaism,
  Christianity,
    Islam,
  Buddhism,
  and Hindu
Why learn about the world’s religions?

• In order to learn about other cultures you must learn
  what they believe and how this governs their
  everyday life. It is vital that we make ourselves
  aware of these beliefs so that we can function better
  in a world culture.
Why learn about the world’s religions?

• RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE
  – To accept people and to not judge them – this could be the beginning
    of global peace
  – Through history there have been many battles and wars started
    because of religion
     • Historically Christians and Muslims have not gotten along
     • Historically Christians have targeted Jews
Monotheistic Religions
   Judaism
   Christianity
   Islam

Vocabulary:
Prophet: model of holiness. Chosen to convey a
  message or teaching
Monotheistic: Belief in one god
Polytheistic: Belief in more than one god
All 3 Monotheistic Religions are stemmed
from the same founder
    All 3 religions essentially came from the same founder –
     Abraham
        Judaism was started by Abraham
        Christianity branched off of Judaism around the year 0
        Islam branched off of Judaism approximately in 620
Basic background of Judaism
GOD: Jews believe in God, he is
   referred to as Yahweh

Jerusalem / Israel - the land that
   God promised to Abraham and his
   descendants.

Synagogue: The Jewish holy building
   or the equivalent of a church,
   mosque, or temple.

Torah: The first five books of the
   bible. Contains the entire body of
   Jewish teachings.

Rabbi:    A religious teacher.

Moses:   The greatest of prophets.
Judaism cont. – Interesting facts
Hebrew: Language of the Torah and orthodox Jews.

13 Principals of Faith: Basic Jewish beliefs

Bar Mitzvah:   A celebration in which a boy at the age of 13
   becomes obligated to the commandments.

Bat Mitzvah: A celebration in which a girl at the age of 12 does
   the same as a boy.

Chanukah: 8-day celebration that occurs in December. Yarmulke:
   The skullcap covering, worn by men of the Jewish faith.

Free will: Believe that we are born with an impulse to do what is
   right and an impulse to do what is wrong.

Talmud:   Collection of Jewish oral tradition.

Kosher: To make proper or ritually pure. Serving or preparing
   food in accordance to Jewish dietary laws.
CHRISTIANITY
Christianity (Catholicism)
There are Seven Sacraments or “Rites of
    passage in which God is present”

For example:
•   Baptism- Initiation into the church,
    usually occurs at infancy but can be
    done at any age.
•   Eucharist-representation of the last
    supper.
•   Confession-Takes place with a priest and
    a person confesses their sins. The sins
      can then be absolved by repentance as
    described by the priest.
•   Marriage
Christianity Cont.
• Bible: Christian holy book: they
     read both the Old Testament (The
     Jewish Torah) and the New
     Testament – stories of Jesus’
     life and teachings
• Church: Christian holy building/
     house of worship
• Crucifix: Image of Jesus on the
     cross.
• Saint: A person who performs 3
     miracles in the service of
     the church.
• The Ten Commandments: 10 Rules
     Christians live by
Christian Hierarchy
• Hierarchy - any system of persons or things ranked
  one above another
   – Pope: Head of the church. Lives in Vatican
             City. There is only one and he has the
             job for life.
   – Arch Bishop: Next step down from the Pope.
             Controls large districts of the
             church.
   – Bishop: Next step down from an Archbishop.
             Outnumber Archbishops and control
             smaller church districts.
   – Priest: Runs a community or local church.
             Performs the mass services and most
             of the sacraments.
            ISLAM
• Followers of Islam are Muslims. A Muslim is one who submits
  to the will of Allah.
• Allah is what Muslims call “God”.
• The key figure in Islam is Muhammad who was chosen by
  Allah to receive his divine message.
• This message from Allah has been written in the holy book,
  the Qur’an (Koran).
• According to Islam, Muhammad is Allah’s last and final
  prophet – after Abraham and Jesus.
• Jerusalem is important to Muslims because it is believed that
  Muhammad ascended into heaven from there.
    Islam Cont.
• Being a Muslim means practicing the Five
  Pillars of Islam.
  –1. Believe in Allah as the only God
  –2. Pray five times a day
  –3. Give to the poor (giving alms)
  –4. Fast during Ramadan
  –5. Go to Mecca on a pilgrimage (hajj)
    Interesting Facts and basic
        beliefs about Islam
•   Women are seen as equals according to the Qur’an.
•   Mosque - An Islam place of worship
•   Arab-Ethnic group based in the Middle East - Not all Arabs are Muslims
•   Imam – an Islamic prayer leader (holy man)
•    Forbidden items for Muslims: Pork, Images of God/Allah, Drinking,
    Gambling, Portraying Muhammad or any of his companions.

• There are two main factions of Muslims:
     – Sunni Muslim-      Believe that the successor of Muhammad should
       have been his uncle Abu Bakr.
    – Shiite Muslim-Believe the successor of Muhammad should have been his
      cousin Ali.
• The most misinterpreted word within Islam is Jihad.
• Jihad basically means “directed struggle”. Muhammad states that “the
  supreme jihad is against oneself.” Therefore it is a struggle against the ego,
  greed, and insatiable desires.
Buddhism
Prince Siddhartha Guatama became “The Buddha”
• He was a prince who left his palace life in search
  of Enlightenment and the meaning of life, once
  he found it - he became Buddha. His followers
  spread his message after his death. He realized
  that people suffered because they were never
  content with what they had.
• Polytheistic Religion:
   • Buddhists believe in Buddha
   as well as many of the Hindu
   gods and ancestor worship
    Here are the two sets of basic
          Buddhist Beliefs -
One must believe in “The Four Noble Truths”
1. Life is filled with suffering, pain, and sorrow
2. Suffering is caused by our desires
3. The only way to end suffering is to conquer
   desire
4. The way to conquer desire is to follow the
   Middle Path
Meditation is the key…
         Nirvana, one must follow the
1. Right belief: A personEightfold PathTruths
                         must know the Four Noble
2. Right intention: A person must commit to living by the Four Noble
   Truths
3. Right Speech: A person must always speak the truth and must not
   gossip or use bad language
4. Right behavior: A person must not kill, steal, or do anything that is not
   moral and right
5. Right occupation: A person must quit a job that is not good for him or
   her and find one that will help the person live according to Buddhism
6. Right effort: A person must develop good attitudes and behaviors and
   keep bad ones from developing
7. Right mindfulness: A person must be constantly aware of the senses in
   order to control the body
8. Right concentration: A person may receive enlightenment by
   meditating
Hindu
   World’s oldest religion
   No singular founder or text
   Started from many beliefs and
    philosophies
   Polytheistic - Many Gods that make
    up one major God
   Most people from India are Hindu
   Krishna - Widely worshipped God.
                     Accomplished many
    good                    deeds
   Guru - Spiritual Master or Leader
   Samsara - Reincarnation, cycles of
    the soul’s birth and rebirth
              Hindu continued
   Cows and Bulls:
    – Sacred animals because they were Krishna’s
      companions, plus they provide food such as milk and
      cheese. Killing them is a sin. Eating them is also
      against the religion.

				
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