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_Cassata__Non-Ionizing_Radiation_Branch_of_Navy_Medicine

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 40

  • pg 1
									          The Non-Ionizing Radiation
           Branch of Navy Medicine
                LCDR Jim Cassata
                  22 March 2006



22 Mar 2006                            1 of 40
                             Outline
The Wonderful World of Electromagnetic Radiation
(From Radio Frequencies to Lasers to X-rays to Gamma-rays)

Health Physics Work Model
  1. Organizational Relationships/Professional
      Associations
  2. Health and Technical Information
          •   Radio Frequency Radiation Health
          •   Non-Lethal RF Directed Energy Update
          •   Laser Radiation Health
     3. Instructions, Standards, and Policies


22 Mar 2006                                             2 of 40
          The Wonderful World of Electromagnetic Radiation




22 Mar 2006                                                  3 of 40
                               Health Physics Work Model
                                                           Health Physics Areas You May Find Yourself In:
                                                           •   Internal/ External Dosimetry
                                                           •   Radiation Biology and Human Effects
                                                           •   Regulatory Roles in NRC/ OSHA/ EPA/
              Instructions/Standards/Policies                  FDA/ DOT
                                                           •   Radiation Risk (BEIR V, VII)
                                                           •   Consensus Standards and Guides (NCRP,
    Certification                        Advanced              ICRU, ICRP, ISO, ANSI, NUREG, AAPM,
                                          Degrees              ACR)
                                                           •   Weapons Design and Detection
                                                           •   Statistics and Epidemiology
                                                           •   Instrumentation and Measurements
                                                           •   Low Level Wastes, Fuel Cycle,
                                                               Transportation

                                          Organizational   •   Medical Physics
   Technical                              Relationships/   •   Shielding and Activation
   Knowledge                               Professional    •   Air Sampling, Environmental Monitoring,
                                           Associations        Radiation Surveys
                                                           •   Reactor Physics/ Criticality/ Power
                                                           •   Accelerator Physics
      Investing in each of these three areas is
                                                           •   Radon Assessment (BEIR IV, VI)
        necessary to be effective in the RHO
                                                           •   Decontamination/ Emergency Response
         billet you may find yourself holding.
                                                           •   Lasers and Radio Frequency

22 Mar 2006                                                                                          4 of 40
         Head, Non-Ionizing Radiation Branch Responsibilities/Associations
     Radio Frequency                   Laser Radiation (LR)        Special Projects
   Radiation (RFR) Health                     Health

  BUMED RFR Administrative            BUMED LR Administrative       Depleted Uranium
     Lead Agency (ALA)                  Lead Agency (ALA)          Surveillance Program
      Program Manager                    Program Manager                 Manager

                                     Navy Laser Safety Review       Code 342 NMO and
                                     Board (LSRB) - Secretariat      NKO Web Master

                                      DOD Laser System Safety        Radiation Branch
    DOD Radio Frequency
                                      Working Group (LSSWG)           Technical and
   Working Group (RFRWG)
                                        Standards and Sub-         Administrative Support
          Chairman
                                       Committee Work (SCW)
    DOD Electromagnetic                                            DT-702/PD Technical
  Environmental Effects (E3)                                        and Administrative
  Participate Annual Reviews                                             Support
     Institute of Electrical and      Laser Institute of America           HPSSC
   Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
                                     (LIA) Accredited Standards        ANSI HPS N13.32
    International Committee on
 Electromagnetic Radiation Safety     Committee (ASC) Z136 -              ISCORS
         (ICES) - Member                      Member
                                                                       NVLAP Assessor

 C95 RF Standards - SCW             Z136 Laser Standards - SCW
22 Mar 2006                                                                             5 of 40
                Radio Frequency Health and Technical Information
   •   RF Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits established by IEEE C95.6 (0 to
       3 kHz) and IEEE C95.1 (3 kHz to 300 GHz) Standards Adopted by DODI 6055.11
       and BUMEDINST 6470.23.
   •   MPE established to prevent potential harmful acute deterministic effects. No
       known chronic stochastic cancer effects correlated to date. The type of biological
       effect to humans from RFR depends on the frequency of the electromagnetic wave.
       The severity of the biological effect depends on the intensity (strength) of the RFR.
   •   Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel (HERP) include; involuntary
       muscle contraction (electrostimulation), electrical shocks/burns (from contact
       currents by touching metal objects in RFR fields), and excessive heating of
       tissue/skin (thermal damage from absorption of energy and induced electrical
       currents).
   •   Healthy people are able to maintain thermal regulation fairly robustly when
       stressed by exercise, environmental temperatures, or RF exposure.
   •   Different limits have been established for “Controlled” and “Uncontrolled” areas as
       part of the “Precautionary Principle”. While the weight of scientific evidence
       supports the conclusion that there is no measurable risk associated with RF exposure
       below controlled area levels, it is scientifically impossible to prove absolute
       safety (the null hypothesis) of any physical agent. Therefore, a controlled area
       (lower) limit, with an additional safety factor, is justified.
   •   Also Concerned with Hazards to Fuel (HERF) (ignition) and Ordnance (HERO)
       (detonation).


22 Mar 2006                                                                               6 of 40
       DoDI 6055.11 RADHAZ Document
  • Two Tier Document
            - Controlled Environment
            - Uncontrolled Environment
  • Addresses:
       – Whole-Body Exposure
       – Partial-Body Exposure
       – Spatial Averaging of Fields
       – Induced/Contact Current
       – Max Permissible Exposure (MPE) as a function of
         Frequency and Time
       – Electric (E) and Magnetic Fields (H)
  • Under Revision

22 Mar 2006                                                7 of 40
Spectrum Coverage - 3 kHz-300 GHz

   • < 0.1 MHz - Electro-stimulation of tissue

   • 0.1 MHz - 6 GHz - Specific Absorption Rate.

   • 6 GHz - 300 GHz - Surface heating, body is
     quasi-optical.




22 Mar 2006                                        8 of 40
     Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
 •     Expressed as SAR
     - It is the average value of energy absorbed by the whole body.
     - Power per unit body weight (watts) / kilogram (W/kg)

 •    SARs above 4 W/kg have Potential for Harmful Effects

 • 4 W/kg has been Established as the Working Threshold for
   Unfavorable Effects in Human Beings.

     (Associated with a increase of 1 degree Celsius in rectal temperature for
     whole body exposure (Ref: Ronald Kitchen, RF and Microwave Radiation
     Safety, 2nd Ed., ISBN 0 7506 43552, 2001).

 • However, SAR is impossible to practically measure. Instead the
   Electric Field (E) in V/m, the Magnetic Field (H) in A/m, and Power
   Density (S) in mW/cm2 are measured with limits that would result in a
   SAR of no more than 0.4 W/kg for controlled environments.


22 Mar 2006                                                                9 of 40
               Controlled Exposure Standards
• Safety Margin (a factor of 10) is applied to the
  accepted threshold of effect (4W/kg)
• SAR Exposure criterion of 0.4 W/kg (0.1 MHz - 6
  GHz)

              UnControlled Exposure Standards
• Safety Margin (a factor of 50) is applied to the
  accepted threshold of effect (4W/kg)
• SAR Exposure criterion of 0.08 W/kg (0.1 MHz - 6
  GHz)


22 Mar 2006                                     10 of 40
              Controlled Environment




22 Mar 2006                            11 of 40
                  Local Exposure
              (Partial Body Exposure)
• Controlled Environment: Partial Body SAR ―shall
  not exceed‖ 8 W/kg except for the wrist, hand, ankle,
  and foot which ―shall not exceed‖ 20 W/kg

   - Below 300 MHz - The peak value of the E-Field or H-
     Field shall not exceed “20 times” the spatial average of
     the E-Field or H-Field squared.

   - Between 300 MHz and 6 GHz - A PEL or MPE of 20
     mW/cm2 applies

   - Above 6 GHz - A PEL or MPE of <20(f/6)1/4 mW/cm2
     applies (f is in MHz)
22 Mar 2006                                             12 of 40
    Induced & Contact Current > 100kHz
• Perceived as heat.

• Threshold for perception depends upon:
   • Frequency of the current
   • Surface area of contact
   • Individual characteristics

• Perception: Just able to detect the stimulus

• Annoyance: Mild irritant if repeated

• Startle: One exposure sufficient to avoid

22 Mar 2006                                      13 of 40
              Contact Current RF Burn
     • An RF burn can occur when RF current enters
       through a small cross-section of the body.

     • RF burns can occur at any RF frequency.

     • The conditions for an RF burn can even exist
       on systems not subject to RFR control.

     • Potential locations for RF burn are: Antennas,
       cables, connectors, all RF circuits, and
       microphones - bare metal.

22 Mar 2006                                           14 of 40
              Induced and Contact Current Limit




22 Mar 2006                                       15 of 40
              Induced Current
• In Any Environment, Currents Are Limited To A
  Level That Prevents RF Burns Due To High
  Current Densities.
• Below 100 kHz in Controlled Environments :
  Current Density is a Function of Frequency.
• Above 100 kHz, 100 mA threshold applies.




22 Mar 2006                                16 of 40
              Radio Frequency Health and Technical Information

   Major Sources of RF:
   • Radars and Communication Systems.




22 Mar 2006                                                      17 of 40
              Non-lethal Weapons Using RF Directed Energy
    Long range, non-lethal, mm-wave RF delivered at the speed of light
    in a collimated beam with a large spot size and a deep magazine to
    inflict irresistible heating sensation. First system was called the
    Active Denial System (ADS).
         ADS Capabilities                         Mission Needs for ADS
•    Repel with irresistible effect               •   Control Crowds
•    Distract, disorient, confuse, delay          •   Incapacitate individuals and groups
•    Render incapable of performing an activity   •   Deny an area to personnel
•    Deny an area / Control access                •   Clear facilities and structures
•    Enable application of lethal force



    Active Denial System
     95Ghz microwave


22 Mar 2006                                                                       18 of 40
                 Mm-Wave Induced Pain Effects

Deterrence Mechanism: Energy penetrates into skin, rapidly heats skin
surface, and produces an irresistible sensation of intense burning that
stops when transmitter is switched off or subject moves out of beam.
                                     •Exploits Biological Response
                                     to painful skin heating by mm-
                                     Waves absorbed in the skin
                                     exciting resident molecules
                                     leading to localized heating




  Skin Penetration @ 95GHz
     is ~ 1/64th of an Inch



22 Mar 2006                                                       19 of 40
                   ADS Ground/Ship Variants


                        At least three
                        different systems
                                               Long Range
                        are being
                        proposed.

                        Active Denial
                        System
                        100kW system
                                                   Mid Range
                        Guardian
                        Dragon, Silent
                        Striker
                        30 kW system

                        Sheriff or Full
                                              Short Range
                        Spectrum Effects
 Active Denial System   Program (FSEP)
  95Ghz microwave       0.400 kW



22 Mar 2006                                             20 of 40
                             Maritime Use of ADS
 •   Determine Intent at range
 •   Counter small boat threat              P
 •   Protect moored / anchored ships        I
                                                              Hostile Small Boat
 •   Protect critical port facilities       E
 •   Enforce Naval Vessel Protection Zone   R
 •   Control restricted waterfront areas
                                            ADS Supporting Harbor Protection
 •   Maritime Interdiction Operations
 •   Suppress personnel on deck of target
 •   Non-Lethal module of SPS


                       Mob on Pier




                                                      ADS for Restricted Waters
          ADS Supporting Pier Protection

22 Mar 2006                                                                 21 of 40
      Health, Safety, and Surveillance Program for Assessing, Training, and
                   Demonstrating RF Directed Energy Systems

  •    The assessing, training, and demonstrating of non-lethal RF directed energy systems
       requires the exposure of our personnel to levels that exceed the MPE limits.

  •    The Under Secretary of Defense (USD) has given an exemption for exceeding MPEs
       for assessing, training, and demonstrating with the Active Denial System (18 July
       2005 Memo). This memo contained Health, Safety, and Surveillance Program
       requirements from an Armed Forces Epidemiological Board report that studied the
       bioeffects human research studies.

  •    BUMED has been asked by the Naval Directed Energy and Electric Weapons
       Program Office (PMS 405) to assist in the implementation of a Health, Safety, and
       Surveillance Program for the use of Non-lethal Weapons Using RF Directed Energy.

  •    However, 18 July Memo is specifically for the ADS. The use of other RF directed
       energy systems for assessing, training, and demonstrating would need to have a
       similar exemption for exceeding the MPE limits. PMS 405 is also asking for
       assistance with this aspect.

  •    PMS 405 has also written a request for assistance from the Department of Defense
       Radio Frequency Working Group (DOD RFRWG), which is chaired by Head, Non-
       Ionizing Radiation Branch at BUMED.



22 Mar 2006                                                                              22 of 40
22 Mar 2006   23 of 40
Human Research Participation:
                                                                                      15-40 m


                                                                               sub je ct start area
Protocol Objective: To quantify the             5-10 m
                                                              ba rrier
effects of small-diameter, 95-GHz
millimeter wave (MMW) exposure on                                                     5-10 m
non-stationary (moving) humans.                                                                       ba rrier


Specifically, we propose to test the                                                  5-10 m
effectiveness of a 400-W system in a         (1 b arrier      ba rrier
laboratory setting.                        eve ry 5-10 m)

                                                                                                                 30-100 m
Subjects will traverse a course at the
end of which they will be required to               exit
                                                   d oor
perform a task involving fine motor skills
                                                                            3-6 m
in order to exit the course, all while being
targeted by the 95-GHz system.                                           ba rrier


4 Runs, 2 with beam, 2 without                  10-20 m
                                                            1-2 m

Medical Assessment before and After.                                                transmitter




22 Mar 2006                                                                                                      24 of 40
                                  Other Recent RF Issues
•   Request by a Law Firm representing the
    largest land developer in Hawaii (Castle &
    Cooke Homes) for BUMED to make a
    statement that the radio frequency (RF)
    transmissions, from existing and future
    antenna facilities, at the Naval Computer
    and Telecommunications Area Master
    Station Pacific (NCTAMS PAC), Wahiawa,
    Hawaii, would not create Electromagnetic
    Interference (EMI) with power tools and
    medical devices with residents just
    outside the base.


•   Report of potential RF over exposure
    during a flight on a Hawkeye surveillance
    aircraft. On the flight a ditching hatch was
    not fully seated in position. A gap of
    approximately 1/4 inch remained around
    the top edge. At some point the radar
    was turned on. The crew heard a ―sizzle‖
    on the ICS and immediately secured the
    RADAR. The IFF was on throughout the
    flight. The HF radio was used periodically
    throughout the flight. The HF was in high
    power 30-40 minutes and in low power for
    40-50 minutes

22 Mar 2006                                                25 of 40
                            Laser Health
     • Navy/Marine Corps commands or activities using Class 3b or above
       (Class 4) shall establish a laser safety organization, a hazard
       control program, medical surveillance program, and assign a
       Laser System Safety Officer (LSSO) per OPNAVINST 5100.27A/
       MCO 5104.1B, ―Navy Laser Hazards Control Program‖ (except for
       medical and industrial use of lasers which follow BUMEDINST
       6470.19A and additionally for medical use of lasers in health care
       facilities follow ANSI Z136.3).

     • LSSO is a generic term to represent an Administrative Laser Safety
       Officer (ALSO), a Technical Laser Safety Officer (TLSO), a Laser
       Safety Specialist (LSS), or a Range Laser Safety Specialist (RLSS).

     • The LSSO determines personnel enrollment in the Laser Medical
       Surveillance Program with guidance in BUMEDINST 6470.23,
       ―Medical Management of Non-Ionizing Radiation Casualties‖.

22 Mar 2006                                                           26 of 40
                             Laser Health
     • The Navy has accepted the ANSI Z136.1 standard for maximum
       permissible exposure (MPE) levels to which personnel may be
       exposed.
        – MPE, expressed in J/cm2 or W/cm2, depends on
              •   the laser wavelength
              •   the exposure duration, te
              •   the pulse repetition frequency, prf
              •   the nature of the exposure (intrabeam, diffuse
                  reflection, or skin)




22 Mar 2006                                                          27 of 40
                                       Laser Health
   •   Class 1- Low power lasers or embedded higher-class laser. Can be
       pulsed or CW. No known hazards with up to 5-cm optical aids. No
       safety requirements unless performing maintenance for embedded
       higher-class laser. Ex: Laser printers.
   •   Class 2 - Visible wavelengths ONLY! Considered eye safe for
       unaided viewing because of the 0.25 second eye aversion. No
       pulsed lasers since pulsed lasers are less than 0.25 seconds by
       definition. Yellow caution label required. Examples are some bar
       code scanners.
   •   Class 3a - Caution – safe for momentary unaided viewing, but not
       for aided viewing. Example is a laser pointer used for presentation.
   •   Class 3a - Danger – exceeds MPE – not safe for momentary
       unaided viewing.
   •   Class 3b - Hazardous viewing under most conditions. Some
       have diffuse reflections. Definitely not eye safe. Greater than 5
       times Class 1 for UV/IR lasers and Class 2 for visible lasers. All
       class 3b lasers require some engineering controls and require a
       danger label/sign.                                        CLASS 3a
   •   Class 4 - Most hazardous class. Not eye safe under all viewing
       conditions. Many have a diffuse reflection hazard. Most military
       range finders and designating lasers are class 4 lasers. Class 4
       lasers require many more safety devices and engineering controls.
       Possible skin burn hazard. Wear non-flammable protective clothing




22 Mar 2006                                                                   28 of 40
  Laser Health: First Law of Photobiology - Specific tissues will either
  absorb or transmit energy. Energy must be absorbed to do damage.
  Transmitted wavelengths do no damage.

                     UV C         CORNEA                  Can be permanent.
                  100-280 nm      Painful but             Protein denaturation
                     UV B         usually heals           in cornea like frying
                  280-320 nm      in 48 hrs               “eye whites”.
Photochemical
                             CORNEA                                               Holes
   Effects           UV A
                                                                                  in Lens
                  320-400 nm LENS, long
                                term cataracts


                  VISIBLE       RETINA, scotomas
                 400-700 nm     on foveal or area
                     IR A       surrounding , blisters
                 700-1400 nm    tearing tissues.
Thermal
                                Affect Cornea, Aqueous
 Effects                        Humor, Lens, Vitreous
                     IR B
                                humor. Vitreal
                 1500-1800   nm Hemorrhages, hemoglobin
                                toxic to visual cells.

                       IR C
                3000- 1,000,000 nm CORNEA

22 Mar 2006                                                                       29 of 40
Basic Concepts: Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance and Eye Protection Optical Density




22 Mar 2006                                                                 30 of 40
22 Mar 2006   31 of 40
Other Eye Injuries
Slide Content Courtesy of Georgette Dougherty, RN COHN, Camp Lejeune, NC


  • DOE- Seven (7) injuries reported over the past 5 years
    (2001-2005)
  • Performed Root Cause Analysis
  • Findings: Inadequate training, need for better oversight
    (LSSO) and failure to wear PPE
  • A reflection bounced off a stainless mounting post
    causing retinal burns and loss in visual acuity.
  • Investigator did not believe the laser was producing laser
    light when he/she looked into the target chamber—no
    PPE and ―trusted his/her ability to avoid the hazard.‖
  • Manipulated the test sample with a set of ―stainless steel
    tweezers,‖ which produced a reflection causing
    permanent eye damage



22 Mar 2006                                                        32 of 40
OVEREXPOSURE INCIDENT Documented in NAVY MEDICINE MARCH-APRIL
1996 by CAPT Gorsuch!
Slide Content Courtesy of Georgette Dougherty, RN COHN, Camp Lejeune, NC

  • Corporal- removed lens cap from range finder
  • Pushed the “fire button” against vehicle with device approx 2 feet
    from face “a bright flash came from the lens”
  • Complained of “severe eye irritation and could not clear his
    vision; everything was blurry and he saw splotches”
  • He thought his vision would clear, e.g. “after seeing a flash bulb
    go off”
  • Corporal did not immediately report--felt “it should get better and
    really doesn’t hurt”
  • After 5 hrs., he reported to supervisor “well sleep on it and see
    how things look in the morning”
  • Following am, still “very blurry”
  • On second day, LT referred to BAS (closed)
  • Next am (third day), MD assessment: vision 20/50 OD and 20/200
    OS otherwise nothing abnormal
22 Mar 2006                                                        33 of 40
OVEREXPOSURE INCIDENT NAVY MEDICINE MARCH-APRIL 1996
Slide Content Courtesy of Georgette Dougherty, RN COHN, Camp Lejeune, NC

  • 6 days post, finally appointment with hospital Optometrists-
    noted nothing abnormal until he dilated his eyes.
  • Noted: macular hemorrhages, edema, retinal hemorrhages
  • He was then referred to ophthalmologists
  • Left eye did improve as blood dissipated. Right eye became
    increasingly worse as scarring took place and edema
    developed
  • One month later
  • Left eye (vitrectomy with no further improvement in visual
    acuity, did have some color degradation) 20/50
  • Right Eye: 20/800
  • He was discharged from USMC




22 Mar 2006                                                        34 of 40
         Top 25 Instructional and Standards Hits of our Time
   COMBINED RADIO FREQUENCY AND LASER RADIATION INSTRUCTIONS
   1. BUMEDINST 6470.23 (18 August 1999), “Medical Management of Non-Ionizing Radiation
      Casualties”
      The purpose of this instruction is to issue maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits, medical
      surveillance requirements, and casualty management procedures for personnel exposed to non-
      ionizing (Radio Frequency and Laser) electromagnetic radiation. It applies to all Departments of
      the Navy activities using sources of non-ionizing radiation that may affect the safety or health of
      personnel. Personnel not employed by the Department of the Navy must comply in all respects
      with this instruction when engaged in a Navy-sponsored program or operation, or when visiting
      Navy ships, aircraft, or stations. This instruction does not apply to the exposure of individuals to
      non-ionizing radiation when used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical or dental conditions of
      those individuals.
   2. OPNAVINST 5100.23G (30 December 2005), “Navy Occupational Safety and Health
      (NAVOSH) Program Manual”, Chapter 22, “Non-Ionizing Radiation”, and Appendix 22 A and
      B.
      This chapter implements NAVOSH procedures for non-ionizing (Radio Frequency and Laser)
      radiation protection requirements, exposure standards and safety guidelines for all levels of
      command (OPNAVINST 5100.19D is the implementing document for forces afloat). Provisions of
      this chapter do not apply to exposures administered to patients undergoing medical diagnostic or
      therapeutic procedures.
   3. OPNAVINST 5100.19D CH-1 (30 August 2001), “Navy Occupational Safety and Health
      (NAVOSH) Program Manual for Forces Afloat”, Chapter B9, “Radiation Safety”
      This chapter outlines Navy occupational safety and health policies and procedures designed for
      levels of command which comprise the Naval afloat establishment to minimize personnel
      exposure to radiation (ionizing and both Radio Frequency and Laser non-ionizing) from sources
      other than nuclear power systems and nuclear weapons that have their own radiation protection
      and control programs.




22 Mar 2006                                                                                          35 of 40
            Top 25 Instructional and Standards Hits of our Time
   LASER RADIATION ONLY STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
   4.  OPNAVINST 5100.27A / MCO 5104.1B (24 September 2002), “Navy Laser Hazards Control Program”
       The purpose of this instruction is to prescribe Navy and Marine Corps policy and guidance in the identification and control of laser radiation
       hazards. The scope and provisions of this directive are mandatory for all Navy and Marine Corps activities. They apply to the design, use,
       and disposal of all equipment and systems capable of producing laser radiation including laser fiber optics, with the exception of medical and
       industrial lasers.
   5.  BUMEDINST 6470.19A (23 May 2005), “Laser Safety for Medical Facilities”
       This instruction provides laser safety guidance for medical facilities. It applies to all medical treatment and laboratory activities using lasers or
       laser systems. This instruction does not apply to the use of lasers or laser systems for military, industrial, or non-medical research
       applications.
   6.  SECNAVINST 5100.14C (5 May 1999), “Military Exempt Lasers”
       The purpose of this instruction is to implement DODINST 6055.11, provide policy, and assign responsibilities per SECNAVINST 5100.10G for
       individual Navy Laser products that are exempt from portions of the radiation safety performance standards of Code of Federal Regulations,
       Title 21. Actions required by this instruction apply to all Navy and Marine Corps activities that procure, fabricate, possess, use, store or
       dispose of laser products that are designed for combat, combat training or classified in the interest of national security. Laser products used
       in research, development, test or evaluation and which are components of systems intended for combat, combat training or classified are
       included. All other laser products must comply fully with Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 and are not within the scope of this instruction.
   7.  MIL-HDBK-828A (31 December 1996), “Laser Safety on Ranges and in Other Outdoors Areas”
       The purpose of this handbook is to provide uniform guidance in evaluations for the safe use of military lasers and laser systems on DOD
       military reservations or military-controlled areas worldwide. It is intended to supplement each military service’s established range procedures.
       It applies to all DOD ranges or operation test facilities where lasers are used and all DOD laser operations conducted on non- DOD controlled
       ranges or test facilities and all laser systems that have been evaluated by the health and safety specialists of each Service.
   8.  21 CFR Part 1040, “FDA Performance Standards for Light Emitting Products,”
       Classifies laser products and defines design features, labeling, and test requirements. Access on line at: http://www.navylasersafety.com/

   9.    ANSI Z136.1 (01 Jan 2000 Edition), “, The American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers”
         This is the fundamental commercial user standard that has been approved and adopted by the DON. This standard is meant for users, not
         manufacturers (Commercial designers/manufacturers of lasers use FDA’s 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Chapter I, Subpart J, Part
         1040.) The ANSI standard provides guidance by defining control measures for each of the four laser classifications. It is applicable to lasers
         with wavelengths from 180 nm to 1 mm, and provides information on laser hazard evaluation.

   10.   ANSI Z136.2 (01 Sept 1997), “The American National Standard for the Safe Use of Optical Fiber Communication Systems Utilizing
         Laser Diode And LED Sources”
   11.   ANSI Z136.3 (01 Jan 2005), “The American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities”
   12.   ANSI Z136.4 (01 Jan 2005), “The American National Standard for Laser Safety Measurements and Instrumentation”
   13.   ANSI Z136.5 (2000), “The American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Educational Institutions”
   14.   ANSI Z136.6 (2005), “The American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors”
   15.   ANSI Z136.7, “The American National Standard for Laser Eye Protection and Protective Devices”

22 Mar 2006                                                                                                                                       36 of 40
          Top 25 Instructional and Standards Hits of our Time
   RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION ONLY INSTRUCTIONS AND REGULATIONS
   16. DOD Instruction 6055.11 (Ch 1, 6 May 1996), “Protection of DoD Personnel from Exposure to
       Radiofrequency Radiation”
       This instruction provides maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits to RF EMF. This instruction also covers
       training requirements and over exposure reporting procedures. This instruction applies to all DOD civilian and
       military personnel who may be exposed to RF EMF, except for patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic
       procedures in medical and dental treatment facilities. This instruction applies during peace time and to the
       maximum extent possible during wartime, to limit personnel exposure to RF EMF.
   17. NAVSEA OP 3565/NAVAIR 16-1-529/NAVELEX 0967-LP-624-6010, “Electromagnetic Radiation Hazards
       (Hazards to Personnel, Fuel, and other Flammable Material)”
       The purpose of this volume is to prescribe operating procedures and precautions to prevent injury to personnel
       and ignition of volatile vapors from exposure to environmental electromagnetic radiation (EMR) to assist
       commanding officers in carrying out their responsibilities for EMR safety. The sources of this EMR include
       communications transmitters, radars, electronic countermeasures transmitters, and lasers. This manual also
       provides technical data and information concerning non-ionizing radio frequency (RF), hazards to personnel, fuel,
       and other flammable material, as well as laser hazards to personnel. The procedures and precautions prescribed
       herein apply in every instance within the Naval establishment where a person or a flammable vapor mixture is
       exposed to RF fields of potentially hazardous intensity. Operational Commanders may waive compliance with any
       provision when essential under emergency conditions. When noncompliance with restrictions contained herein is
       essential, emergency procedures are suggested and background information is provided in order to explain and
       minimize the risks involved.
   18. MIL-STD-464A (19 December 2002), “Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Requirements for Systems”
       This standard established electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) interface requirement and verification criteria
       for airborne, sea, space, and ground systems, including associated ordnance. This standard contains two
       sections, the main body and an appendix. The main body of the standard specifies a baseline set of
       requirements. The appendix portion provides rationale, guidance, and lessons learned for each requirement to
       enable the procuring activity to tailor the baseline requirement for a particular application.
   19. OPNAVINST 5100.23G (30 December 2005), “Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program
       Manual”, Chapter 14, “Mishap Investigation, Reporting, and Record Keeping”, and Appendix 14 A.
       This chapter implements NAVOSH procedures that apply to Navy mishap investigation, reporting, and record
       keeping requirements. This instruction references OPNAVINST 5102.1D/MCO P5102.1B, ―Navy and Marine
       Corps Mishap and Safety Investigation, Reporting, and Record Keeping Manual.




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         Top 25 Instructional and Standards Hits of our Time
   RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION ONLY STANDARDS

   20. IEEE Std C95.1 (2006 Edition), “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human
       Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz”

   21. IEEE Std C95.2 (1999 Edition), “IEEE Standard for Radio-Frequency Energy and Current
       Flow Symbols”

   22. IEEE Std C95.3 (2002 Edition), “IEEE Recommended Practice for Measurements and
       Computations of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields with Respect to Human
       Exposure to such Fields, 100 kHz t 300 GHz”

   23. IEEE Std C95.4 (2002 Edition), “IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining Safe
       Distances from Radio Frequency Transmitting Antennas when Using Electric Blasting
       Caps”

   24. IEEE Std C95.6 (2002 Edition), “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human
       Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 3 kHz”

   25. IEEE Std C95.7 (2005 Edition), “IEEE Recommended Practice for Radio Frequency Safety
       Programs”



22 Mar 2006                                                                                38 of 40
        If You Call in Now These Additional 11 Ionizing Radiation
        Instructional Hits Will Be Included in Your Reference List
   IONIZING RADIATION REFERENCES
   1.    NAVMED P-5055, “Radiation Health Protection Manual”
         This manual provides the radiation health requirements applicable to Navy and Marine Corps radiation protection programs.
         A radiation protection program may be defined as the sum of all methods, plans, and procedures used to protect the health
         and environment of personnel from exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. It includes the radiation health program and
         radiological controls program. These regulations are intended for observance during peacetime by all Navy and Marine
         Corps activities possessing or using sources of ionizing radiation which may affect the health of personnel. These
         standards do not apply to the exposure of an individual to ionizing radiation when used for the diagnosis or treatment of
         medical or dental conditions of that individual. Personnel not employed by the Department of the Navy shall comply in all
         respects with these regulations when engaged in a Navy sponsored program or operation. It is recognized that these
         regulations may not be applicable to procedures initiated after an attack in which nuclear weapons are used; however, the
         provisions of these regulations, insofar as they are feasible, shall remain in effect after such an attack.
   2.    BUMEDINST 6470.10, “Irradiated or Radioactively Contaminated Personnel; Initial Management of”
         To provide direction to the Medical Department, civilian medical personnel of the naval services, and Navy and Marine
         Corps commands for the initial exposure assessment, management, and treatment of individuals who are irradiated or
         externally or internally radioactively contaminated. This instruction applies to all naval facilities or commands and Navy-
         sponsored operations in which there exists a known potential for radioactive contamination or excessive ionizing radiation
         exposure and to all medical treatment facilities (MTFs), fixed and non fixed. This instruction applies to the period from
         actual exposure, contamination, or injury to the time when the individual is either returned to full duty or, if a seriously injured
         individual is on a course of recovery at an MTF with definitive care capability. Although applicable to personnel irradiation
         or contamination following a nuclear weapon detonation in a time of war, the procedures outlined in this instruction are
         intended for use in occupational or accidental exposure environments.
   3.    NAVSEA 389-0288, “Radiological Controls for Shipyards”
         This manual presents the limits and protection measures applicable to ionizing radiation and radioactivity associated with
         constructing, servicing, and decommissioning U.S. Naval nuclear propulsion plants; it does not cover control of radiation
         from nuclear weapons, medical uses, or other employment of radiation. The procedures and limits in this manual are
         applicable to shipyards, Fleet Maintenance Activities (FMAs), and Naval Reactors prototype sites.
   4.    NAVSEA TW120-AA-PRO-010, “Nuclear Weapons Radiological Controls Program”
         This manual establishes the requirements for the Navy’s Nuclear Weapons Radiological Controls Program. This program is
         concerned with radiation exposure received during stowage, maintenance or handling of nuclear weapons and is not
         involved with radiation exposure from weapon detonation, fallout, Naval nuclear propulsion plants, industrial or medical
         sources. The requirements of this manual apply to each ship, station or facility that stows, maintains, or handles nuclear
         weapons.
   5.    NAVSEA S9213-33-MMA-000/(V), “Radiological Controls for Ships”
         This manual provides the radiological safety standards, procedures, and requirements for nuclear powered ships and in-hull
         propulsion plant operations and routine maintenance at Naval Reactor prototypes.


22 Mar 2006                                                                                                                            39 of 40
        If You Call in Now These Additional 11 Ionizing Radiation
            Instructional Hits Will Be Included in Your CD-ROM
  IONIZING RADIATION REFERENCES

  6.     NAVSEA S0420-AA-RAD-010, “Radiological Affairs Support Program (RASP) Manual”
         The RASP applies to all sources of ionizing radiation with the Navy and Marine Corps except nuclear propulsion, nuclear weapons, and
         medical-dental sources. Ships and shore stations shall comply with the standards and procedures of this manual and maintain effective
         radiation protection programs for any operation involving RASP ionizing radiation sources.
  7.     Navy Environmental Health Center Technical Manual NEHC -TM 6470.03-1, “Navy Radiological Systems Performance
         Evaluation Manual”
         This manual provides the surveyor with standard procedures for acceptance testing and periodic testing of medical diagnostic medical
         equipment that employs ionizing radiation for ships and shore stations. This manual establishes periodicity of surveys, parameters to be
         measured, training and qualification of surveyors, and reporting requirements. This manual does not address therapeutic medical
         equipment that employs ionizing radiation.
  8.     BUMEDINST 6470.22, “Navy Radiological Systems Performance Evaluation Program”
         This instruction provides guidance on the radiological safety management of all diagnostic imaging systems in Navy Medicine that use
         ionizing radiation. This instruction applies to all Naval facilities and commands, ashore or afloat, and Navy Medical Department
         sponsored operations having medical and dental radiological systems. For implementation procedures this instruction references the
         Navy Environmental Health Center Technical Manual (NEHC) TM 6470.03-1, ―Navy Radiological Systems Performance Evaluation
         Manual‖.
  9.     OPNAVINST 6470.2, “Occupational Radiation Protection Program”
         OPNAVINST 6470.2 formalizes the uniform occupational radiation protection program for the Department of the Navy, required by DoD
         Instruction 6055.8, to preserve and maintain the health of personnel while performing duties involving occupational exposure to sources
         of ionizing radiation.
  10.    DOD Instruction 6055.8, “Occupational Radiation Protection Program”
         DOD Instruction 6055.8 implements the United States Environmental Protection Agency "Radiation Protection Guidance to Federal
         Agencies for Occupational Exposure" of January 1987. Applies to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Military Departments
         (including the Reserve components), the Joint Staff, the Unified and Specified Commands, the Defense Agencies, the DOD Field
         Activities, and the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (hereafter referred to collectively as "DOD Components"). Applies during
         peacetime to all DOD civilian and military personnel who are exposed to ionizing radiation worldwide, except personnel who, as patients,
         undergo diagnostic or therapeutic radiological procedures in medical or dental treatment facilities.
  11.    OPNAVINST 6470.3, “Navy Radiation Safety Committee”
         This instruction establishes the Navy Radiation safety Committee as a means for controlling the use of radioactive material within the
         Navy and Marine Corps. This instruction applies to all Navy and Marine Corps activities engaged in the use of Nuclear Regulatory
         Commission (NRC) regulated byproduct material, special nuclear material, source material, and naturally occurring or accelerator-
         produced radioactive material. It does not apply to radioactive materials transferred from the Department of Energy (DOE) to the
         Department of Defense (DOD) in accordance with section 91B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Nor does it apply to radioactive
         materials produced as a consequence of the construction, operation, servicing or maintenance of Naval nuclear propulsion plants.


  End of Presentation
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