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Chapter 1 header slide

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 16

									       Stojkovic/Kalinich/Klofas

      CRIMINAL JUSTICE
   Administration and Management

           Chapter One
BASIC CONCEPTS FOR UNDERSTANDING
  CRIMINAL JUSTICE ORGANIZATIONS
        What is an Organization?

● Weber was the first to distinguish the corporate
  group from other forms of social organization.

● He also provided a bureaucratic model of
  organizations:

 ○ a rigid hierarchy of offices
        ○ a clear division of labor
                 ○ formal rules that govern action
D
E   Barnard: An organization is a
F
    system of consciously coordinated
I
    activities or forces of two or more
N
I
    persons.
T
I
    Etzioni: Organizations are “social
O   units deliberately constructed and
N   reconstructed to seek specific goals.”
S
     Organizational Activities
● Organizations do act.
● Socialization of employees affects
  activities.
● Activities are managed by decision-
  making.
● Organizational cultures guide behaviors
  of members and the organization itself.
D
E
F   Carlisle: Management is “[t]he
I
    process by which the elements of a
N
I
    group are integrated, coordinated and
T   utilized to effectively and efficiently
I   achieve the organization’s objectives.”
O
N
          What is Management?

● Management:
○ May be associated with a particular office
○ Consists of top and mid-level managers and
 first-line supervisors
● Lipsky on management: Front-line staff in
 street-level bureaucracies, which include most
 of those working in criminal justice, determine
 organizational policy.
D
E
F
    Kotter: “Leadership refers to a process
I   that helps direct and mobilize people
N   and their ideas.”
I
T
I
O
    Leadership is tribal in nature
N
             What is Leadership?

● Managers focus on planning, budgeting, setting
 short-term goals, and developing procedures to
 meet those goals.
● Leaders:
 ○ establish a shared vision, then motivate
  and inspire group movement toward that vision;
 ○ challenge existing processes and systems;
 ○ create change; and
 ○ practice the art of statesmanship.
Stojkovic and Farkas view correctional
leadership as being linked to the
values and culture of the organization.

Schein and others say understanding
organizational leadership requires
reference to the manipulation,
management, and even the destruction
of organizational culture.
Criminal justice managers have
assumed they work in a closed system.
In closed systems:
• the environment is controlled;
• communication follows lines of
  authority;
• power and authority are a function of
  the office;
• change is slow and directed by
  management.
Criminal justice leaders must recognize
that the system in which they operate is
extraordinarily complex. . .

and that their effective leadership is
inextricably connected to the external
environment.
       Open-System Theory

• Taylor focused on increasing efficiency
  through job design, but ignored outside
  variables that influenced efficiency.

• This reflects a closed-system view (i.e.,
  organizations are self-contained and
  unresponsive to their environments.
       Open-System Theory
Katz and Kahn saw organizations as open
systems characterized by:
• inputs from the environment,
• throughput (the process of changing those
  inputs), and
• outputs (the product or service of an
  organization).
Organizations select how they will deal with
the environment.
              Complex Goals
Simon:
●   Organizations must work to meet all goals
●   Several goals may have to be met
    simultaneously
Wilson: Goals provide direction and serve
as limits and constraints.

Wright: Goal conflict is desirable, and may
promote efficiency.
        Complex Environment

Lipsky: Conflicting goals of human service
organizations are the result of unresolved
disagreements in society at large.

Walmsley and Zald: Public organizations
absorb conflict from their environment.

Criminal justice organizations are still
designed along paramilitary lines, which
indicates their focus as closed systems.
Complex Internal Constituencies


 Hall and Tolbert: There is an internal
 struggle for power in organizations.

 The work force is the major internal
 constituency.

								
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