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Stojkovic/Kalinich/Klofas CRIMINAL JUSTICE Administration and Management Chapter One BASIC CONCEPTS FOR UNDERSTANDING CRIMINAL JUSTICE ORGANIZATIONS What is an Organization? ● Weber was the first to distinguish the corporate group from other forms of social organization. ● He also provided a bureaucratic model of organizations: ○ a rigid hierarchy of offices ○ a clear division of labor ○ formal rules that govern action D E Barnard: An organization is a F system of consciously coordinated I activities or forces of two or more N I persons. T I Etzioni: Organizations are “social O units deliberately constructed and N reconstructed to seek specific goals.” S Organizational Activities ● Organizations do act. ● Socialization of employees affects activities. ● Activities are managed by decision- making. ● Organizational cultures guide behaviors of members and the organization itself. D E F Carlisle: Management is “[t]he I process by which the elements of a N I group are integrated, coordinated and T utilized to effectively and efficiently I achieve the organization’s objectives.” O N What is Management? ● Management: ○ May be associated with a particular office ○ Consists of top and mid-level managers and first-line supervisors ● Lipsky on management: Front-line staff in street-level bureaucracies, which include most of those working in criminal justice, determine organizational policy. D E F Kotter: “Leadership refers to a process I that helps direct and mobilize people N and their ideas.” I T I O Leadership is tribal in nature N What is Leadership? ● Managers focus on planning, budgeting, setting short-term goals, and developing procedures to meet those goals. ● Leaders: ○ establish a shared vision, then motivate and inspire group movement toward that vision; ○ challenge existing processes and systems; ○ create change; and ○ practice the art of statesmanship. Stojkovic and Farkas view correctional leadership as being linked to the values and culture of the organization. Schein and others say understanding organizational leadership requires reference to the manipulation, management, and even the destruction of organizational culture. Criminal justice managers have assumed they work in a closed system. In closed systems: • the environment is controlled; • communication follows lines of authority; • power and authority are a function of the office; • change is slow and directed by management. Criminal justice leaders must recognize that the system in which they operate is extraordinarily complex. . . and that their effective leadership is inextricably connected to the external environment. Open-System Theory • Taylor focused on increasing efficiency through job design, but ignored outside variables that influenced efficiency. • This reflects a closed-system view (i.e., organizations are self-contained and unresponsive to their environments. Open-System Theory Katz and Kahn saw organizations as open systems characterized by: • inputs from the environment, • throughput (the process of changing those inputs), and • outputs (the product or service of an organization). Organizations select how they will deal with the environment. Complex Goals Simon: ● Organizations must work to meet all goals ● Several goals may have to be met simultaneously Wilson: Goals provide direction and serve as limits and constraints. Wright: Goal conflict is desirable, and may promote efficiency. Complex Environment Lipsky: Conflicting goals of human service organizations are the result of unresolved disagreements in society at large. Walmsley and Zald: Public organizations absorb conflict from their environment. Criminal justice organizations are still designed along paramilitary lines, which indicates their focus as closed systems. Complex Internal Constituencies Hall and Tolbert: There is an internal struggle for power in organizations. The work force is the major internal constituency.
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