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TRAFFICKING AND EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN AFRICA

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					TRAFFICKING AND EXPLOITATION OF
       WOMEN IN AFRICA

  TIME FOR REGIONAL ACTION TO STOP
     THE TRAFFIC By Joy Ngozi Ezeilo
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
 Trafficking is a complex phenomenon caused by a diverse set of
  circumstances that is related, but not limited to a person‟s status,
  income disparities, discrimination and asymmetries of information
  as well as political, social and economic disadvantages. Human
  trafficking can be considered from a number of different
  perspectives including: human rights; crime control and criminal
  justice; migration; and labour.
 Almost every country of the world is affected either as a source,
  transit, and/or destination country for women, children, and men
  trafficked for the purposes of sexual or labor exploitation
  (domestic servitude and bonded labor). Trafficking occurs within
  and across national borders, often with one consignment of people
  crossing many borders to reach their final destination.
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
 Available information suggests that trafficking in women
  especially within the West and Central Africa for sexual and
  economic exploitation is on the rise. Despite the problem of
  quality, reliable data it is widely agreed that most
  internationally trafficked people are women and children of
  low socio-economic status, and the primary trafficking flows
  are from developing countries to more affluent countries.
  Internally, numbers can be even harder to obtain, and it is
  suggested that current numbers are greatly underestimated.
SOME FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT
TRAFFICKING

 "Some 2.5 million people throughout the world are at any
  given time recruited, entrapped, transported and exploited-a
  process called human trafficking-according to estimates of
  international experts." (UNODC: 2008)
 Annually, according to U.S. Government-sponsored research
  completed in 2006, approximately 800,000 women and
  children are trafficked across national borders, which does
  not include millions trafficked within their own countries.
  Approximately 80 percent of transnational victims are
  women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors (TIP
  Report: 2007)
SOME FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT
TRAFFICKING

 Trafficking in persons has become a global business, reaping huge
  profits for traffickers and organized crime syndicates, generating
  massive human rights violations, and causing serious problems for
  governments. And what we do not know according to GAATW-
  June 2002- (website: http://www.inet.co.th/org/gaatw): How many
  people are being trafficked and the financial scale of the industry?
  It is difficult to estimate the number of people trafficked, as most
  of this movement is irregular and unregulated.
 Trafficking also differs according to region in terms of who is
  trafficked, the sectors in which they work, and their areas of
  origin and destination. Women especially younger women in West
  and Central Africa for exploitation primarily in domestic services
  and the sex industry.
SOME FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT
TRAFFICKING

 As has been observed Trafficking in the African region is at
  significant levels and takes a number of forms, such as for
  domestic work, farm labour and forced prostitution. Countries
  can be those of origin, destination and/or transit, with trafficking
  occurring within and across national borders, and to other regions
  such as Western Europe. The situation of internal conflict in some
  parts of Africa has resulted in many young girls and boys being
  abducted from areas affected by the insurgency and being forced
  to serve as soldiers or as sexual slaves to the rebel commanders
  and soldiers. – See the Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women
  (GAATW), June 2002.
TRAFFICKING &EXPLIOTATION OF
WOMEN IN AFRICA
 A Source to Europe and a Route to Asia.
 Inter-country trafficking persists
 Trafficking within national borders is on large scale.
 Internal trafficking, mostly from rural to urban areas persist
 Women & Children trafficked for various exploitative
  activities
    AFRICAN
  INMIGRATION
  AFRICANS to
 TOWARD SPAIN
EUROPE VIA The
     Desert
Principales voies d’accès




                                Nord Africains




Subsahariens
                 Subsahariens
                                          Subsahariens

                                                         Africains de
                                                             l’Est
ROUTES VIA THE SEA
ROUTES
ROUTES
                                                                            Algérie




                            Mauritania



         Senegal                                                                                     Niger

                                              MALI
Gambia

                                                                                                                                   Tchad
Guinea
Bisau                                                BURKINA FASO
             Guinea

                                                                    BENIN

                                                                                           NIGERIA
                   Sierra
                   Leone
                                          COTE
           Liberia                       D’IVOIRE     GHANA




                                                                                                                               Central African Republic
                                                                                                          CAMEROUN




                                                                                      Equatorial Guinea
                                                                                                                   Congolese Repulic
                                                                                                                        Congo

     •        Red: domestic work + informal urbain                                                         GABON
              sector,
     •        Blue: fishing sector (sea, lake, river),
     •        Brown: mining sector,
     •        Green:agricultural sector                                                                                  Démocratic Republic
                                                                                                                             of Congo
     •        White: other sectors of activity
FACTORS THAT PROMOTES
TRAFFICKING IN AFRICA
 Africa has become a major source and supplier of trafficked persons around the
   world and increasing number of women and girls, men and boys are trafficked
   within and outside the region. The following are some of the root causes and
   factors that promotes trafficking especially on women and children:

 Poor governance that creates a climate in which traffickers can prosper, due to
   an ineffective, absent or corrupt public administration;

 Cultural and religious practices of fostering children in Africa which promotes
   trafficking especially the practice of sending children to other relatives for
   purposes of education or apprenticeship;

 Conflicts that has engulfed most part of Africa has increased vulnerability of
   persons to trafficking especially women and children;
FACTORS THAT PROMOTES
TRAFFICKING IN AFRICA
 Poverty/High unemployment and human insecurity- freedom from fear and
    want and livelihood challenges. Economic pressures and persistent poverty in
    Africa are leading to a resurgence of human trafficking especially on women and
    children for forced prostitution, domestic labour and sexual exploitation;
   Gender inequalities- sex discrimination in employment and stereotypes about
    women as sex objects and chattels to be bought and sold;
   Role of ICT: Use of information technology, including internet, for the
    purposes of exploitation of the prostitution of others, for trafficking in women,
    for sex ;
   Tourism exploiting women and children and for child pornography, paedophilia
    and any other forms of sexual exploitation of children;
   Illiteracy coupled with lack of awareness
International Frameworks for Combating
Trafficking in Women and Girls

 The UN Convention Against Transnational and organized
  Crime and the supplementary Protocol to Prevent, Suppress
  And Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women And
  Children 2000 (known as Palermo Protocol), The Protocol
  came into force 25th December 2003 and specifically
  addresses trafficking in persons and defines “Trafficking in
  Persons” in its Article 3 as follows:
TRAFFICKING DEFINED
The recruitment, harbouring, transportation, transfer,
harbouring or receipt of persons, be means of the threat or
use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of
fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of
vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or
benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control
over another person, for the purpose of exploitation shall
include at minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of
others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or
services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or
the removal of organs.
RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL HUMAN
RIGHTS LAW ON TRAFFICKING
 Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) ; The International
  Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966): specifically articles
  2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14,and 26; The International Covenant on
  Economic Social and Cultural Rights (1966): specifically articles
  2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, and 12; The Convention on elimination of all
  forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979): specifically
  articles 2, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, and 16 ; The UN Convention on
  the Rights of the Child (1989): specifically articles 7, 16, 19, 28,
  31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, and 39;The Optional Protocol to the
  Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children,
  Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2000): specifically
  articles 1, 2, 3, 8.
   RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL HUMAN
   RIGHTS LAW ON TRAFFICKING
   Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
    Punishment (1984) specifically articles 1, 3, 13, and 14
   The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (1965)
    specifically articles 2, 5,and 6
   The ILO Convention on Forced or Compulsory Labour No C.29 (1930)
    specifically articles 1, 2,and 6;
   The UN General Assembly Declaration on Violence Against Women (1993)
    specifically articles 2 and 3;
 The UN resolution adopted by the General Assembly (A/61/144) 19th
  December 2006 on Trafficking in Women and girls particularly the need for
  global efforts, including international cooperation and technical assistance
  programmes, to eradicate trafficking in persons, especially women and
  children, demand the strong political commitment, shared responsibility and
  active cooperation of all Governments of countries of origin, transit and
  destination;
INTERNATIONAL ACTION/COOPERATION
 Establishment in 2007 of the United Nations Global Initiative
  to Fight Human Trafficking (UNGIFT) to coordinate actions
  among governments, United Nations Organs, Civil Society,
  Non-Governmental Organizations and the Private Sector in
  order to fully ensure protection, prosecution and prevention
  in dealing with human trafficking.
COMMITMENTS OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES ON
TRAFFICKING AND ACTION TAKEN TO MEET THOSE
COMMITMENTS
 Regional Frameworks and Initiatives for Combating Human
  Trafficking especially on Women and Children
 Trafficking is a grave violation of human rights especially the right to
  liberty, and the right not to be held in slavery or involuntary servitude;
  the right to be free from cruel and inhumane treatment, the right to be
  free from violence, and the right to health;
 Thus, there are regional legal frameworks designed to fight trafficking in
  women

    The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (1981) – see articles: 2,
     5, 15, 18, 60 and 61;
    The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, (1990)- see
     articles: 3, 15, 16, 21, 24, 25, 27, and 29;
    The Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa
     (2003)- see articles: 2, 3, 4, 11, 13 and 24.
COMMITMENTS OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES ON
TRAFFICKING AND ACTION TAKEN TO MEET THOSE
COMMITMENTS
 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1990- Art
  29) and the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of
  Women in Africa- Article 4 (2) (g) prohibits trafficking in children
  and women and require state to prosecute the perpetrators of such
  trafficking and protect those at risk.

 Article 18 (3): The State shall ensure the elimination of every
  discrimination against women and also ensure the protection of
  the rights of women and the child as stipulated in international
  declarations and conventions.

 2006 AU/EU Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in
  Human Beings, especially women and children.
COMMITMENTS OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES ON
TRAFFICKING AND ACTION TAKEN TO MEET THOSE
COMMITMENTS
 Revised AU Plan of Action on Drugs Control and Crime Prevention
  (2007 – 2012) Adopted a the 3rd Session of the AU Conference of
  Ministers for Drug Control and Crime Prevention held 3- 7th
  December, 2007 is aimed at combating trafficking from crime control
  perspectives. The Plan recognized that in a number of African countries,
  drugs, crime and corruption are undermining development efforts.
  High levels of income inequality, a high share of youth in population,
  high rates of urbanization, low levels of criminal justice resources,
  firearms proliferation, wars and civil conflicts as well as weak controls
  over criminal activities leave Africa vulnerable to organized crime, drug
  trafficking, trafficking in human beings, money laundering and
  corruption. Crime, in a broad sense, inhibits development in Africa by
  destroying human and social capital, drives away business and
  investments, and undermines the ability of the State to promote
  development1
COMMITMENTS OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES ON
TRAFFICKING AND ACTION TAKEN TO MEET THOSE
COMMITMENTS
 DECISION ON STRENGTHENING THE COOPERATION
 BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE AFRICAN
 UNION IN COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS
 Adopted at the Assembly of the African Union, 11th Ordinary
 Session, 30 June – 1 July 2008, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt (
 Assembly/AU/Dec.207(XI)

 The Recent Resolution DIRECTS the Permanent
 Representatives of the Member States of the African Union to the
 United Nations in New York to propose and start negotiations on a
 Global Action Plan for combating trafficking in human beings
 under the auspices of the President of the United Nations General
 Assembly,
DECISION ON STRENGTHENING THE COOPERATION
BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE AFRICAN UNION
IN COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS
 taking the 2006 Ouagadougou Action Plan and other regional Action
  Plans, in particular the ECOWAS Initial Action Plan Against Trafficking
  in Persons as a basis for the African position, and to coordinate with
  other interested Member States with similar action plans or similar
  positions towards achieving our objectives- See Paragraph 7

 And REQUESTS the Commission to provide all necessary support to
  the Permanent Representatives in New York throughout the negotiation
  process and to intensify its interaction with all organs and stakeholders
  dealing with this issue with a view to ensuring the early adoption of the
  proposed Global Action Plan, and to present a Progress Report, to the
  next Ordinary Session of the Assembly in January 2009. (See paragraph
  8)

 Also relevant is the AU Migration Framework for Africa;
Sub Regional Initiatives- examples from
West Africa- ECOWAS and SADC Regions

 ECOWAS Declaration to combat Trafficking in Persons
  (2001) and the ECOWAS Initial Action Plan Against
  Trafficking in Persons Adopted on the 17th of December
  2001at a Ministerial meeting in Dakar Senegal Ministers of
  Foreign Affairs of the ECOWAS countries.
 The Plan of Action commits ECOWAS countries to urgent
  action against trafficking in persons in 2002 – 2003, setting
  achievable goals and objectives. It calls for countries to ratify
  and fully implement crucial international instruments of
  ECOWAS and the United Nations that strengthen laws
  against human trafficking and protect victims of trafficking
  especially women and children.
Sub Regional Initiatives- examples from
West Africa- ECOWAS and SADC Regions

 The Action Plan calls for new special police units to combat
  trafficking of persons. It also aims for training for police, customs
  and immigration officials, prosecutors and judges; this training
  will focus on the methods used in preventing such trafficking,
  prosecuting the traffickers and protection of the rights of victims,
  including protecting the victims from the traffickers.

 It takes into account human rights and child and gender – sensitive
  issues, and encourages cooperation with non – governmental
  organizations and other elements of civil society. Under the Plan,
  ECOWAS States will set up direct communication between their
  border control agencies and expand efforts to gather data on
  human trafficking. The information gathered will be shared
  between all ECOWAS countries and the United Nations.
Sub Regional Initiatives- examples from
West Africa- ECOWAS and SADC Regions

 States will create a task force or agency on trafficking in
  persons, as focal points to direct and monitor the ongoing
  implementation of the Plan of Action at the national level and
  report on a bi – annual basis, to the ECOWAS coordination
  structure set up within the ECOWAS Secretariat.

 The ECOWAS/ECCAS Joint Plan of Action against
  Trafficking in Persons, especially women and
  children in West and Central Africa (2006-2009).
Sub Regional Initiatives- examples from West
Africa- ECOWAS and SADC Regions

 The Draft Southern African Development Community (SADC) being
  proposed by the SADC region has adopted definition similar to Palermo
  Protocol 2000 to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons,
  Especially Women and Children- SADC/CM/2/2008/8.2
 In its Article 20 is on Gender Based Violence and 20 (5) stipulates that:


(5) State Parties shall, by 2015:
(a) enact and adopt specific legislative provisions to prevent human
   trafficking and provide holistic services to survivors, with the aim of
   reintegrating them into society;
(b) put in place mechanisms by which all relevant law enforcement
authorities and institutions may eradicate national, regional and
international human trafficking networks;
Sub Regional Initiatives- examples from
West Africa- ECOWAS and SADC Regions

(c) put in place harmonised data collection mechanisms to improve data
   collection and reporting on the types and modes of trafficking to ensure
   effective programming and monitoring;
 (d) establish bilateral and multilateral agreements to run joint actions
   against human trafficking among countries of origin, transit and
   destination countries; and
(e) ensure capacity building, awareness raising and sensitisation campaigns
   on human trafficking are put in place for law enforcement officials all
   parties.

 Furthermore, Article 20 (7) provides that State Parties shall establish
  special counselling services, legal and Police units to provide dedicated
  and sensitive services to survivors of gender
  based violence.
Country Level Actions:

 Nigeria: National Agency on Trafficking in Persons and Related
  Matters (NAPTIP) established by an Act of Parliament in 2003 and
  further amended in 2005 to establish Victims Funds amongst
  others. NAPTIP remains a shining example from Africa that needs
  to be replicated. It is indeed a new approach to combating
  trafficking through victim centered approach- For more
  information see www.naptip.gov.ng
 Ghana: Has started action similar to that of NAPTIP. Nigeria
 Egypt: “End Human Trafficking Now” Initiative of Suzan Mubarak
  Women‟s International Peace Movement” Has raised awareness on
  the issue of trafficking in Africa in cooperation with AU and the
  UN.
WHAT HAS WORKED WELL?
Some Examples of What Works:
 Multi- Agency Task Force on Trafficking- for better coordination
    and there must be good communication strategy
   Special Anti- Trafficking Unit or Agency- like NAPTIP in Nigeria
   National Rapporteurs to gather, exchange, and process
    information on human trafficking as well as monitor action.
   Specific legislation to deal with issue of trafficking in persons and
    related matters
   Training for Law enforcement agencies to identify cases of human
    trafficking, investigate them and prosecute as the case may be. To
    facilitate their work, the Law enforcement agencies particularly
    the Police must be equipped including ability to use high tech to
    track and arrest offenders.
WHAT HAS WORKED ?
Some Examples of What Works:
 Victims of Trafficking Funds- has been set up by Nigeria- NAPTIP
 Tracing and ceasing money made by traffickers from the illicit
  trade in human beings
 To enhance information-sharing and data-collection capacities as a
  way of promoting cooperation to combat trafficking in persons,
  including through the systematic collection of sex- and age-
  disaggregated data”.
 Human Rights Standards for treatment of victims of trafficking
 Counselling, Psycho- social support, medical and legal services are
  required towards victims rehabilitation and re-integration
CHALLENGES/OBSTACLES AND
CONSTRAINTS
 When it comes to the challenges associated with tackling human
    trafficking, lack of reliable and complete data are a major problem,
    especially in Africa. Other challenges include:
   Since trafficking is mostly a cross border phenomenon, no one state can
    tackle it alone and cooperation is therefore required;
   When trafficking is internal, cultural and historical internal migratory
    patterns and family/community support systems intersect to make
    identification and intervention difficult;
   Movement or operations of traffickers is clandestine which makes
    detection difficult;
   Often community or family are involved in the trafficking, making the
    situation more complex;
   Victims are often hidden in the unregulated sectors of the community
    and economy doing sex work, domestic work, begging, armed conflicts,
    or farm labour;
CHALLENGES/OBSTACLES AND
CONSTRAINTS
 Trafficking is intertwined with other criminal activities such as
    smuggling, drugs and arms trafficking;
   There exists limited political will to combat trafficking. There are
    for example many agreements and conventions signed, but little is
    generally being done on implementation;
   Many countries have limited resources for law enforcement and
    re-integration of victims;
   The root causes of trafficking, such as wide spread poverty, gender
    discrimination, conflicts, corruption and restrictive immigration
    policies of favored countries for migrants, are insufficiently
    tackled;
   Other crimes are involved in trafficking (e.g. falsification of travel
    documents and smuggling) which often criminalizes actual
    victims.
Critical Issues on Trafficking that should be
considered in setting an Agenda

 Migration and Linkages to Trafficking;
 Linkages to HIV and AIDS;
 Linkages to Conflict;
 Linkages to Growing Poverty/Economic Recession worldwide;
 Linkages to other forms of gender based violence and gender
    inequality;
   The problem of demand that encourages trafficking needs to be
    studied more deeply;
   The Root Causes of Trafficking that needs to be addressed;
   Dearth of Research; and
   International regional and sub- regional Cooperation's- context
    and coordination.
Lessons Learned
 International Cooperation and coordination is critical and no
  one country can go it alone;
 Crime alone perspective would not work in combating
  human trafficking. We need multi-levels approach that will
  focus on perspectives including: human rights; crime control
  and criminal justice; migration; and labour;
 Victims centered approach is crucial for rehabilitation and
  full integration of victims to assume constructive roles in the
  society.
RECOMMENDATIONS

 African governments should ratify the Palermo Protocol and other
  human rights instruments at international and regional levels that
  is aimed at combating human trafficking especially the Protocol on
  the Rights of Women in Africa;
 Member states to have effective law that to tackle all aspects and
  forms of trafficking including related criminal activity that may
  occur at different stages of trafficking;
 National Plan of Action to combat trafficking: The African Union
  should encourage countries in Africa to develop and implement
  comprehensive national plan of action on combating all forms of
  trafficking and provide necessary technical assistance towards that;
 Sub regional cooperation and coordination is required to combat
  inter- state trafficking within the continent. A good model is
  action taken by ECOWAS.
RECOMMENDATIONS

 AU to Increase cooperation and capacity of member states to handle
    readmission and reintegration of trafficking victims in line with human
    rights
   Establish dedicated Anti- trafficking agencies/units in every country and
    inter-agency working group for coordination of all efforts aimed at
    combating trafficking. Such Anti- agency must have specialized units on
    counseling medical, legal and psychosocial support for victims;
   Specialist trainings on law enforcement especially for investigators,
    immigration officials, prosecutors and judges;
   Strengthening of border and immigration control including sharing of
    intelligence through Interpol while adopting fairer immigration laws and
    policies to encourage legal migration;
   Increase public awareness about trafficking in women and children and
    condemning it as an act of violence.
RECOMMENDATIONS

 Also, there is need to increased education and awareness at source,
    transit and destination countries to expose the risks involved;
   Africa Countries acting in concert and as individual countries should
    take urgent action to address the root causes of trafficking such as
    growing poverty and youth unemployment and gender inequalities that
    increases women and girls vulnerability to trafficking;
   The African Union should map out resources for applied research to
    gather quantitative and qualitative data on the scale, seriousness and
    trends on trafficking in the African region;
   Governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations
    should collaborate and take steps to ensure that measures adopted for
    the purpose of preventing and combating trafficking in persons does not
    have an adverse impact on the rights and dignity of persons, including
    those who have been trafficked.
   Governments of Africa must pay attention to internal trafficking, which
    is currently being neglected due to pressure from Europe and America.
CONFISCATING PROCEEDS OF CRIME

 The Recommended principles and guidelines on human
  rights and human trafficking (2002) developed by the Office
  of the High Commissioner on Human Rights provide that
  effective and proportionate sanctions shall be applied to
  individuals and legal persons found guilty of trafficking or of
  its component or related offences. States shall, in appropriate
  cases, freeze and confiscate the assets of individuals and legal
  persons involved in trafficking. To the extent possible,
  confiscated assets shall be used to support and compensate
  victims of trafficking. In order to deal with the proceeds of
  the crime we need:
 See Guidelines 15 and 16
CONFISCATING PROCEEDS OF CRIME

 Effective Proceeds of Crime laws aimed at depriving
  criminals of the proceeds of their crimes;
 In order to confiscate the proceeds of a trafficker in the home
  country, cooperation has to be strengthened between the
  local police and other more specialized institutions, such as
  the Nigeria Economic and Financial Crimes Commission
  (EFCC), to investigate it and track these proceeds.
 For proceeds in a foreign country, Police has to cooperate
  with foreign police to share information and intelligence.
 For tracking proceeds across several countries work with
  Interpol, Europol or its equivalent in any region to trace and
  confiscate such proceeds of crime.
SOME CONCLUSIONS
 Africa has become a major source and supplier of trafficked
  persons around the world and increasing number of women
  and girls, men and boys are trafficked within and outside the
  region; and we need to battle and change this reality and
  image of Africa concerning human trafficking;
 There is need for AU to enhance cooperation and
  coordination between it and the Africa Commission on
  Human and Peoples Rights and all other organs and
  stakeholders dealing with this important issue in the
  continent and beyond.
SOME CONCLUSIONS
 Africa leaders should tackle with determination some of the
  influencing factors in trafficking such as growing poverty and low
  standard of living; gender Inequality and the low status of women;
  demand for commercial sex (sex tourism) and cheap labour; the
  inadequacy of laws and law enforcement. We now need refreshing
  new ideas and insights into this phenomenon. I hope that together
  we can examine our „solutions‟ of the past and begin to try to
  propose better ways of looking to the future.


Stop the Traffic! Together We
 Can!
THANK YOU FOR TAKING ACTION TO
STOP THE TRAFFIC!
JOY NGOZI EZEILO

 United Nations Special Rapporteur on Trafficking
  especially on women and children
 Founding Director, Women Aid Collective (WACOL)
 Also: Senior Lecturer, Department of Public &
  Private Law, Faculty of Law, University of Nigeria,
  Enugu Campus.

				
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