RESEARCHING CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Directory and Bibliography of

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RESEARCHING CRIMINAL JUSTICE A Directory and Bibliography of Powered By Docstoc
					 RESEARCHING CRIMINAL JUSTICE
             A Directory and Bibliography of
           Research in the Criminal Justice Area


This directory was produced by the Ministry Of Justice, Wellington New Zealand
                                       January 1997
                                          INTRODUCTION

Researching Criminal Justice presents the results of a survey carried out in June, July and August 1996. A
questionnaire was circulated to major institutions and people known to be doing social science research in
areas related to the Criminal Justice system. It asked for details of completed research from the past ten
years and of work in progress. Two hundred and fifty eight projects and more than 550 planned or existing
reports are covered in this first publication. The material is presented without annotation, “in the words of
the contributors”.

INFORMATION STRUCTURE
It proved difficult to develop a questionnaire (and thus publication structure) which could cope equally well
with the varying status of research projects (completed and in progress) and of reports (completed and not
completed, published and unpublished). The format decided on is presentation by research project, with
information on the resulting books and reports being presented subsidiary to each research project entry;
information about each book is in normal bibliographic style, each with its own description and keywords.
Many thanks for their patience to those contributors who had to squeeze their responses into this format.

Example:
                                             (research project title)
                                          I250 PAROLE DECISIONS

                                              (books and reports)
I250.1 Parole decisions of district prisons boards      I250.2 Monitoring the innovations of the Criminal
                                                                 Justice Act (1985)


Each project has a code number beginning with a letter of the alphabet. Each letter of the alphabet
represents an area of the criminal justice sector. For example, A = CHILDREN AND YOUTH, I =
PRISONS AND INMATES. There are eleven such capital letters.

APPENDICES
Appendix I, Bibliographic References, contains entries with X codings. These entries refer to publications
found in library searches and other bibliographic sources for which we did not receive completed
question-naires. These entries are NOT included in the RCJFind search programme and should be
separately consulted in this document.

Appendix II, Projects List, lists the titles of all research projects covered in this publication.

Appendix III is an alphabetical list of books and report titles from the document (including Appendix I
entries).

Appendix IV is the questionnaire used for the survey. Please use a printout of this questionnaire if you
would like to provide extra information about existing entries, or information about other research projects
for inclusion in later revisions of "Researching Criminal Justice".


EDITORIAL POLICY
The underlying principle of the survey was to present information on research projects and their reports “in
the words of the contributors”. Editorial contribution has thus been minimal; editorial changes are always
marked by square brackets [ ]. Unmarked editorial changes are mainly matters of spelling and punctuation
consistency.

SEARCHING THIS DOCUMENT
You can use the search facilities of your word processor to search this Directory, or, if you are using a
Windows platform, you can use the accompanying search programme “RCJFind” to see a list of projects, a
list of projects IN PROGRESS, and lists of books sorted by keywords and/or by authors (including Boolean
AND searches). Basic information about each project or report is also presented. If you are running
Word 6.0+, RCJFind will quickly find an entry you are interested in, in this present document. The
programme is fully documented elsewhere.

NOTES
In 1995 the Department of Justice was restructured into three organisations, the Ministry of Justice, the
Department of Corrections and the Department for Courts.

The Children’s and Young Person’s Service of the Department of Social Welfare is known as CYPS, but
has recently changed to Children, Young Persons and their Families Service (CYPFS).


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our thanks go to all the contributors to this Directory, most particularly to the researchers and
representatives of large organisations and research projects who gave considerable time to providing us
with information. Judy Paulin, Senior Researcher at the Ministry of Justice has overseen this project and
provided invaluable assistance, direction and comment at all stages of the work.

David Guerin
Editor

November 1996


UPDATING – AN INVITATION
For this Directory to be of maximum usefulness for researchers, institutions and librarians, updating will be
of the greatest importance. It is hoped that yearly updates will be produced. Contributions are invited at
any time from anyone working in the area. Letting us know about new projects, and old ones you think
should be included, will help us know whether an update would be of value. It would be particularly
useful to hear about “in progress” work progressing to “completed”, and about the publication of each
report and journal article that you are involved with.

If you would like to suggest emendations to the existing Directory, please quote the appropriate reference
number. If you wish to contribute information about other research projects, please be sure to use the
Questionnaire, included as Appendix IV.

Please post your comments and contributions to:

                        Judy Paulin
                        Senior Researcher               Phone: (04) 494-9860
                        Ministry of Justice             Fax: (04) 494-9917
                        P O Box 180                     e-mail: judy.paulin@justice.govt.nz
                        WELLINGTON.
                                                                                              Children and youth




A010
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                            Abuse in intimate relationships
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Health Research Council
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date April 1998



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A010.1
Title:          Unwanted sex or is it rape?: a teenage perspective
Author(s):      Henderson, Susan M.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In process of publication in Rape: 10 years progress. Conference Proceedings, March 1996.
Description:    ABSTRACT. The format of this presentation is a discussion paper related to work in
                progress. The work presented in the paper is extracted from a recent New Zealand pilot
                study on teenagers' intimate relationships and the abuse that occurs within them. The study
                involved discussion with groups of teenagers, male and female, about various aspects of
                girlfriend-boyfriend relationships. The transcripts of the discussion sessions comprise the
                data for the study. This paper will show how teenagers in the study construct the issue of
                unwanted sex and this will be illustrated with excerpts from the transcripts. Implications for
                intervention and prevention will be discussed. The goal of the paper is to stimulate
                discussion and contributions from the audience in a way that will assist future developments
                of the research project.
Keywords:       education, sexual abuse, youth
Notes:




A010.2
Title:          Abuse in the intimate relationships of teenagers
Author(s):      Henderson, Susan M.
Completed:      NO, planned completion date April 1998
Availability:   -
Description:    This research project aims to provide information about the extent of abusive behaviour
                experienced in teenagers' intimate relationships, the context in which it occurs, factors that
                contribute to its use, how such behaviour is perceived and ways in which it could be
                prevented. Data for the research will be gathered using both qualitative and quantitative
                methodology, involving focus groups and individual interviews for the former and a school
                survey questionnaire for the latter. Outcomes of the research will be used to develop primary
                prevention programmes aimed at assisting young adults to develop healthy, non-violent
                heterosexual relationships in addition to identifying the types of intervention that would be
                easily accessed and used by those already in abusive relationships.
Keywords:       education, sexual abuse, youth
Notes:          PhD in Psychology thesis, The University of Auckland


                                                       1
Children and youth




A020
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                      Anga Atu Club, Masterton
RESEARCH
Done by:             Authors
Funded by:           Crime Prevention Unit with Masterton Safer Community Council
Method:              Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A020.1
Title:               Evaluation of Anga Atu Club for Crime Prevention Unit,
                     June 1994 - June 1995
Author(s):           Brock, Graeme and Jonathon Hooker
Completed:           YES
Availability:        Crime Prevention Unit Report. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                     P O Box 55, Wellington
Description:         Evaluation of programme operations through interviews with families, home visits, school
                     attendance record analyses, examination of networks, examination of management
                     procedures, analyses of programme diaries and attendance records.
Keywords:            crime prevention, education, truancy, youth
Notes:




A030
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                       Attitudes to child abuse
RESEARCH
Done by:             Colmar Brunton Research
Funded by:           Children, Young Persons and their Families Service (CYPFS)
Method:              Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:              IN PROGRESS




                                                             2
                                                                                              Children and youth


PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A030.1
Title:          Qualitative report "Breaking the cycle", May 1994
Author(s):      Colmar Brunton Research
Completed:      YES, May 1994
Availability:   Contact CYPFS Communications, P O Box 21, Wellington.
Description:    Objectives. The overall objective of the research is to measure long term attitude and
                behaviour change in relation to the reporting of child abuse. Specific research objectives for
                the qualitative research were: to determine what people in New Zealand recognise as child
                abuse; to determine perceptions of the effect child abuse has on immediate and ongoing
                families; to identify perceptions of who is responsible for stopping abuse; to examine what
                respondents would do if they encounter child abuse; to provide an understanding of barriers
                to breaking the cycle of child abuse; to determine awareness of CYPFS and their function.
                Methodology. The exploratory qualitative stage comprised of 24 three hour motivational, in
                depth interviews conducted with 'care-givers'. For the purposes of this research, a caregiver
                is defined as someone who has responsibility for a child or children under the age of 16
                years.
Keywords:       abuse awareness, abuse recognition, abusers, attitudes, awareness of help, breaking the
                cycle, child abuse, children, emotional abuse, harm, Maori, Pacific Islands peoples, physical
                abuse, reporting barriers, sexual abuse, youth
Notes:




A030.2
Title:          Quantitative report "Breaking the cycle" research, June 1995
Author(s):      Colmar Brunton Research
Completed:      YES, June 1995
Availability:   Contact CYPFS Communications, P O Box 21, Wellington.
Description:    Objectives. The overall objective of the research is to measure long term attitude and
                behaviour change in relation to child abuse. Specific research objectives for the quantitative
                research were: to quantify awareness of the different types of child abuse; to quantify the
                effect child abuse has on immediate and ongoing families; to quantify the awareness of help
                available generally and specific awareness of CYPFS as an organisation to contact about
                child abuse; to measure what people do if they encounter child abuse and how likely they are
                to contact an official person or organisation; to provide an understanding of barriers to
                contacting an official person or organisation about child abuse. Methodology. The
                benchmark quantitative research was conducted amongst 500 members of the general
                public aged 15 years and over. Interviews were conducted using face-to-face methodology,
                and interviews lasted 20 minutes each. The sample was nationally representative, and
                covered urban and rural areas.
Keywords:       abuse awareness, abuse recognition, abusers, attitudes, awareness of help, breaking the
                cycle, child abuse, children, emotional abuse, harm, Maori, Pacific Islands peoples, physical
                abuse, reporting barriers, sexual abuse, unwanted touching, youth
Notes:




A030.3
Title:          "Breaking the cycle" research monitor, September 1995
Author(s):      Colmar Brunton Research



                                                      3
Children and youth


Completed:           YES, September 1995
Availability:        Contact CYPFS Communications, P O Box 21, Wellington.
Description:         The monitor questions have been expanded to also measure: likely usage of 0800 number
                     services for advice or information; and reasons for using or not using 0800 number services.
                     Additional interviews were conducted with Maori and Pacific Islands people enabling more
                     in-depth analysis to be undertaken among these sub-groups of the population. The results
                     have been re-weighted so that these sub-groups are represented in their correct proportions
                     to the total population.
Keywords:            abuse awareness, abuse recognition, abusers, attitudes, awareness of help, breaking the
                     cycle, child abuse, children, emotional abuse, harm, Maori, Pacific Islands peoples, physical
                     abuse, reporting barriers, sexual abuse, unwanted touching, youth
Notes:




A040
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                        Child abuse prevention
RESEARCH
Done by:             University of Otago Department of Paediatrics
Funded by:           National Child Health Research Foundation
Method:              Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:              IN PROGRESS, expected completion date November 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A040.1
Title:               Prevention of child abuse amongst pre-school children
Author(s):           McCrimmon, Fiona M.V.
Completed:           NO, planned completion date November 1996
Availability:        Will be available on completion from University of Otago Library; journal publications are
                     planned.
Description:         Aim. The main aim of the research has been to determine an effective strategy for the
                     promotion of parenting skills aimed at decreasing the incidence of reported and other less
                     well defined indicators of child abuse and neglect in the pre-school child. Methodology. 1. A
                     review of the child abuse and prevention literature with particular focus upon the efficacy of
                     home-visiting and parent support. 2. An analysis of the legal and ethical issues involved in
                     targeting resources to a high risk group of parents and of the substantial privacy law and
                     informed consent issues which arise. 3. Consultation with disciplines and agencies directly
                     involved with child abuse management, with the promotion of women's health, and the
                     prevention of family violence. 4. An opinion survey of mothers and fathers of newborns in
                     order to determine the acceptability of various methods of identifying which families are to
                     receive the targeted assistance. It has become very clear that the area of greatest difficulty
                     is to find a process acceptable to families, so this has become the focus of concern.
Keywords:            child abuse prevention, community safety, crime prevention, domestic violence, early
                     intervention, perinatal identification of at risk families
Notes:               M.Sc. thesis at University of Otago. A further research project is now planned, for which
                     funding applications have been made, entitled "Perinatal identification of family stress to


                                                            4
                                                                                                Children and youth


                improve the well-being of children: a comparison of clinical judgement, structured interview
                and self-administered questionnaire". The purpose of this proposed research is to allow the
                investigators to proceed with testing of the client-preferred method of screening; this in turn
                is a prerequisite to a randomised controlled trial of a programme of home visiting and parent
                support.




A050
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                          Child offenders
RESEARCH
Done by:        Office of the Commissioner for Children, and Department of Justice
Funded by:      Office of the Commissioner for Children, and NZ Police
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A050.1
Title:          Child offenders: a report to the Ministers of Justice, Police and
                Social Welfare.
Author(s):      Maxwell, G.M. and J. Robertson
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Office of the Commissioner for Children, 1995. 68pp. ISBN 09 90903901-1. A summary of
                the findings and recommendations presented in Justice Matters, April 1996; Wellington:
                Ministry of Justice. Additional paper, Responding to Child Offenders, Maxwell, G.M. and J.
                Robertson, in Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 1996, In press.
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. This study was conceived as a response to questions
                about the adequacy of current responses to children aged 10-13 years who commit criminal
                offences and whether or not criminal court proceedings in such cases would be more
                appropriate than referrals for a Family Group Conference... A sample of child offenders who
                committed serious offences or were recidivist offenders in 1994 was obtained by requesting
                police, in districts selected as having reported problems with child offenders during 1993, to
                forward names and files of child offenders... Data on family backgrounds, offending, referral
                patterns and actions taken to investigate or intervene were coded and entered on a
                computer file. An analysis of data on 109 records meeting the sample criteria is the basis for
                this report. Results indicate that a relatively small number of these child offenders have been
                involved in very serious offences although many have been persistent offenders. The
                sample of 109 cases in this study can be estimated as representing approximately 80% of
                the child offenders likely to have met the sample criteria throughout New Zealand during
                1994... The study also examined the responses to the offending. Two-thirds of the cases
                were referred by the police for a Family Group Conference (FGC) or an application was
                made for a declaration... The plans that resulted from FGCs addressed issues of
                accountability in 61% of cases and interventions to meet care and protection issues were
                identified for about three-quarters. However, plans broke down or were not fully implemented
                in 72% of cases and nearly four out of five children re-offended. Some of the difficulties lie
                around referral procedures, others around co-operation between Police and CYPS, others
                around the adequacy and availability of services and supports. This analysis suggests that
                the best way to address these difficulties may lie in improving referral processes,
                inter-agency co-operation and service availability. It is difficult to envisage how court


                                                        5
Children and youth


                     procedures and orders could overcome these problems and charging these children in court
                     is not recommended. It is proposed that the responsible Government agencies examine the
                     findings of this study and consider possible changes in Police practice, CYPS practice, and
                     inter-agency co-operation. A number of possibilities are identified for further research.
Keywords:            alcohol, case processing, crime prevention, criminal behaviour, enforcement, ethnic issues,
                     gender issues, legislation impacts, Maori, offences, offenders, police, prosecution,
                     recidivism, rehabilitation, youth
Notes:




A060
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                    Child sexual abuse services
RESEARCH
Done by:             University of Canterbury
Funded by:           University of Canterbury
Method:              Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:              IN PROGRESS, expected completion date February 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A060.1
Title:               "Ambitions and realities": the co-ordination of services for child sexual abuse: an
                     enquiry into how local services interface in Christchurch, New Zealand, in the area of
                     child sexual abuse
Author(s):           Dawson, Karen
Completed:           NO, planned completion date February 1997
Availability:        In-house University of Canterbury publication, possibly also in National Association of Social
                     Work Journal.
Description:         The enquiry will begin with the Children and Young Persons Service (CYPS), and from there
                     it will become clear to whom and from whom referrals for CYPS occur, and this will indicate
                     interfaces to explore. 12-15 managers of services will be selected for interview. The aims of
                     the research will be to explore the interfaces between services for child sexual abuse,
                     develop knowledge of practice and policy issues locally in such a context, compare with
                     overseas findings for parallels and differences and draw conclusions relevant to services in
                     Christchurch. The results will be presented qualitatively.
Keywords:            child sexual abuse, community safety, collaboration, co-ordination, crime prevention,
                     domestic violence, education, inter-agency, inter-disciplinary, lawyers, legislation impacts,
                     police, restorative justice, sexual abuse, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




                                                            6
                                                                                             Children and youth



A070
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                              Children and family violence
RESEARCH
Done by:        Office of the Commissioner for Children, and Hamilton Abuse Intervention Project (HAIP)
Funded by:      Office of the Commissioner for Children
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A070.1
Title:          Children and family violence: the unnoticed victims
Author(s):      Maxwell, Gabrielle M.
Completed:      YES, May 1994
Availability:   Office of the Commissioner for Children Occasional Paper No. 3, May 1994. ISSN
                1173-0463, ISBN 0-9597995-7-5. Also published in Social Policy Journal of New Zealand,
                1994; 1(2)
Description:    This study examines the extent to which children are involved in incidents of family violence
                attended by the police. It describes how often children are present, what they are likely to
                see and hear, and what the consequences are likely to be for them. It raises policy questions
                about responses to family violence involving children.
Keywords:       domestic violence, victims, youth
Notes:




A080
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                   Discipline in the home
RESEARCH
Done by:        Office of the Commissioner for Children
Funded by:      Office of the Commissioner for Children
Method:         Literature review, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A080.1
Title:          Physical punishment in the home in New Zealand
Author(s):      Maxwell, Gabrielle M.


                                                        7
Children and youth


Completed:           YES
Availability:        Office of the Commissioner for Children Occasional Paper No. 2, September 1993. ISSN
                     1173-0463, ISBN 0-9597995-6-7. Also in Australian Journal of Social Issues, August 1995;
                     30(3) 291-209. ISSN 0157-6321
Description:         ABSTRACT. Results are reported for a national opinion poll of 1,000 adult New Zealanders
                     which focused on two questions: what are New Zealand parents currently doing to discipline
                     their children, and what are the current attitudes of New Zealanders towards physical
                     punishment in the home? Changes appear to be occurring in the attitudes and behaviour of
                     New Zealanders toward physical punishment in the home. Although smacking with the hand
                     is still both approved and used as a common parental response to the misbehaviour of
                     children of all ages, anything more severe is no longer part of the repertoire of most parents
                     or the experience of most children. Further evidence of change is provided by data on
                     difference among the groups in the sample. Younger parents, current parents and the more
                     highly educated are less likely to report using and endorsing the more severe forms of
                     physical punishment than those who are older, have never had children, or who have less
                     education. Unlike the reported child-rearing practices of 30 years ago, parents today appear
                     to be making use of a range of non-physical responses to misbehaviour and are more
                     frequently explaining or discussing matters with their children.
Keywords:            children, domestic violence, punishment, youth
Notes:




A090
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                          Discipline of children
RESEARCH
Done by:             Author
Funded by:           -
Method:              Literature review, qualitative study
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A090.1
Title:               The discipline of children: alternatives to smacking
Author(s):           Russell, Marie Louise
Completed:           YES, 1996
Availability:        Victoria University of Wellington Library.
Description:         ABSTRACT [abridged]. This thesis identifies the alternatives to smacking promoted by
                     parent-educators, and examines why parents reject smacking, and which alternatives they
                     use. Physical punishment of children by their parents is permitted in New Zealand, but in
                     recent years there has been public debate over the desirability of smacking, and promotion
                     of alternatives. A feminist approach underlies the research. Most parenting work is done by
                     women, however the research did not exclude men.... Qualitative research methods were
                     used. Thirteen parent-educators and nine parents in the Wellington area were interviewed,
                     mostly well-educated pakeha... Their children's ages ranged from one to 13 and there was a
                     range of family types...literature on problems of smacking, its connection to other violence
                     and its implications for the individual and for society is reviewed.... Suggestions are given as


                                                            8
                                                                                           Children and youth


                to how ideas about using alternatives to smacking could be disseminated.
                Recommendations conclude the report: supporting a media campaign, education about
                parenting, better services for parents and families, and repeal of S.59 of the Crimes Act.
Keywords:       attitudes, domestic violence, children, children's rights, parenting
Notes:          M.A.(applied) thesis at Victoria University of Wellington.




A100
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                 Keeping Ourselves Safe I
RESEARCH
Done by:        NZ Police Youth Education Service, and authors
Funded by:      NZ Police
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A100.1
Title:          Keeping ourselves safe: a study of New Zealand school children aged 10-12 years and
                their parents
Author(s):      Briggs, Freda and Russell Hawkins
Completed:      YES, May 1996
Availability:   Contact NZ Police College Library, Porirua.
Description:    An evaluation of the "Keeping Ourselves Safe" (Police Youth Education Service) programme
                in schools. 252 children and 142 parents were interviewed from 10 New Zealand
                intermediate schools.
Keywords:       education, Police Youth Education Service, sexual abuse, youth
Notes:




A110
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                Keeping Ourselves Safe II
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      NZ Police
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed


                                                        9
Children and youth




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A110.1
Title:               Child protection programmes: what do children learn and remember?: "Keeping
                     Ourselves Safe - an evaluation with follow-up
Author(s):           Perniskie, Louise M.
Completed:           YES, 1995
Availability:        Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:         ABSTRACT. Child sexual abuse prevention programmes, although widely implemented,
                     have lacked empirical validation. The present study evaluated the prevention programme
                     "Keeping Ourselves Safe" (KOS). A quasi-experimental untreated control group (n=55)
                     design with pre-test, post-test and follow-up (Cook & Campbell, 1976) was used to
                     determine children's learning and retention of prevention concepts after programme
                     participation. Children (n=137) from three schools participating in the programme were
                     assessed using the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire (CKAQ) (Tutty, in press).
                     In addition, vignettes determined if children could distinguish between appropriate and
                     inappropriate situations. Their verbal and behavioural responses to these situations were
                     also examined. A questionnaire for parents assessed whether children's gains in knowledge
                     were affected by their family background, previous exposure to sex education or discussion
                     about sexual abuse. Results indicated that all children involved in the programme showed
                     significant increases in knowledge at post-test, and further increases at six week follow-up.
                     When children with high pre-test scores were excluded from the analysis, it was found that
                     older children (10-12 years) learned and retained more than younger children (5-6 years).
                     Children who knew the least prior to programme participation learned and retained the most.
                     Older children (7-12 years) in the control group also made significant gains in knowledge at
                     post-test. This result suggests an effect of questioning and therefore these children cannot
                     be considered a true control group. Individual item analyses however indicate that control
                     children made gains only on a limited number of prevention concepts. Responses to the
                     vignettes demonstrate that after participating in the programme more children would tell
                     someone about inappropriate situations. Children's behavioural responses decreased.
                     "Control" children did not show any significant changes in vignette responses. Correlations
                     with the parents' responses demonstrate that children's previous exposure to sex education
                     and discussion about sexual abuse affects children's learning and retention. The present
                     study provides support for formal prevention education and for KOS. A prevention model
                     should arguably also include prior sex education and parent education.
Keywords:            education, Police Youth Education Service, sexual abuse, youth
Notes:               M.A. in Psychology thesis, Victoria University of Wellington.




A120
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                      Manaaki Rangatahi Katoa
RESEARCH
Done by:             Author
Funded by:           Crime Prevention Unit with Kere Kere Safer Community Council
Method:              Literature review, qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:              Completed




                                                           10
                                                                                               Children and youth


PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A120.1
Title:          Evaluation of the Manaaki Rangatahi Katoa Programme
Author(s):      Russell, Gaye
Completed:      YES, October 1995
Availability:   Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Evaluation of the Manaaki Rangatahi Katoa Programme, a marae-based truancy
                programme. The aim of this programme is to give identified young people the opportunity to
                learn new skills, increase self esteem, and re-engage in school. The target group is college
                students identified by college, their families, or both, as being at risk of school failure.
                Programme description: a self discovery, management and business skills programme,
                specifically designed for Rangatahi, administered by Nga Pua o te Ora Inc.
Keywords:       alternative education, alternative justice systems, attitudes, behavioural problems, crime
                prevention, criminal behaviour, drugs, education, forecasting and modelling, Maori,
                rehabilitation, truancy, youth, youth at risk
Notes:          Author is a child therapist and family counsellor employed by the Child, Adolescent and
                Family Mental Health Service, Levin.




A130
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                   Maori and youth justice
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:      Department of Social Welfare
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A130.1
Title:          Maori and youth justice in New Zealand
Author(s):      Olsen, T., G.M. Maxwell, and A. Morris
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Chapter in Popular justice and community regeneration: pathways of indigenous reform, K.
                Hazelhurst (Ed.). Chapter 3:45-66. Westport, USA: Praeger, 1995. ISBN 0-275-95131-6
Description:    INTRODUCTION. New Zealand has introduced a system of youth justice which attempts to
                integrate indigenous and western justice processes. This chapter describes this system and
                evaluates the extent to which the system has responded to the needs and wishes of Maori,
                the indigenous people of New Zealand. Attempts to incorporate elements of indigenous
                systems of justice within western systems of justice have tended to take the form of token
                gestures: for instance by allowing indigenous groups to resolve minor disputes within their
                own communities. The New Zealand system of youth justice, implemented in the Children,
                Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989, explicitly recognises cultural diversity and the
                need for criminal justice processes to be both culturally appropriate and culturally sensitive.


                                                        11
Children and youth


                     Its aim is to develop a system of justice which allows different ethnic groups to resolve
                     matters in customary settings, to use customary procedures and to have access to culturally
                     appropriate services. Although this approach is intended to apply equally to all cultural
                     groups, the focus of this article is to assess the extent to which the act has succeeded in
                     providing a justice system which is culturally appropriate and sensitive for Maori.
Keywords:            adjudication, alternative justice systems, criminal behaviour, human rights, lawyers,
                     legislation impacts, judiciary, Maori, rehabilitation, reparation, restorative justice, sentencing,
                     youth
Notes:




A140
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                              Murals programme in Marlborough
RESEARCH
Done by:             Marlborough Rural Education Assistance Programme (Ministry of Education)
Funded by:           Crime Prevention Unit via Marlborough Safer Community Council
Method:              Qualitative study
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A140.1
Title:               Murals for Marlborough Project Two evaluation
Author(s):           Marlborough REAP
Completed:           YES
Availability:        Crime Prevention Unit Report, July 1996. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                     P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:         Evaluation of a project involving youth at risk in a mural painting programme, designed to
                     enhance their self esteem and prevent future offending as well as reducing graffiti in the
                     town.
Keywords:            crime prevention, graffiti, youth
Notes:




A150
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                     New Way Skinhead Project
RESEARCH
Done by:             Author



                                                            12
                                                                                          Children and youth


Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit via Christchurch Safer Community Council
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A150.1
Title:          Evaluation of the New Way Trust Skinhead Project
Author(s):      Addison, Rasjad
Completed:      YES, September 1995
Availability:   Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Evaluation of youth worker project utilising ex-skinheads to work with skinheads not
                associated with gangs to positively address anti-social behaviour, drug and alcohol
                problems, unemployment and poor education attainment.
Keywords:       alcohol, crime prevention, drugs, rehabilitation, youth
Notes:




A160
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                            North Clyde School programme
RESEARCH
Done by:        Education Review Office
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit with Wairoa Safer Community Council
Method:         Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A160.1
Title:          Contractual report: North Clyde School home liaison service, an after-school and
                holidays activity programme
Author(s):      Education Review Office
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Crime Prevention Unit Report. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Process and outcome evaluation of service delivery, management, networking etc.
Keywords:       crime prevention, domestic violence, education, family support
Notes:




                                                      13
Children and youth




A170
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                         Otautahi school attendance programme
RESEARCH
Done by:             Crime Prevention Unit
Funded by:           Crime Prevention Unit via Christchurch Safer Community Council
Method:              Qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A170.1
Title:               Attending to truancy: a review of the school attendance programme provided by the
                     Christchurch/Otautahi Maori Wardens Sub-association during its first year
Author(s):           Kidd, J.W.
Completed:           YES, October 1995
Availability:        Crime Prevention Unit Report, October 1995. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                     P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:         Describes how service was established, its structures and their appropriateness to the
                     objectives, relationship between service and schools and efficiency of workers. Provides
                     recommendations based on evaluation findings.
Keywords:            crime prevention, education, Maori, truancy, youth
Notes:               Relates to Government funded service, Ministry of Education Contestable Truancy Fund.




A180
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                  Police Youth Education Service
RESEARCH
Done by:             Education Review Office
Funded by:           NZ Police
Method:              Established programme evaluation
Status:              [Completed]




                                                         14
                                                                                               Children and youth


PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A180.1
Title:          National overview evaluation of the New Zealand Police Youth Education Service
Author(s):      Education Review Office
Completed:      YES, June 1996
Availability:   Contact NZ Police College Library, Porirua.
Description:    Measure of the effectiveness of Youth Education Service (YES) delivered by police.
                Programme content analysis and interview based research. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                [excerpt]. The YES is designed to play a significant role in building safer communities
                through preventative and pro-active education of young people. This evaluation concluded
                that while the YES curriculum is generally of high quality and appropriate for its stated
                purpose, there are weaknesses in the management of implementation that significantly limit
                its overall impact... Recommendations are made with the intention of strengthening the YES,
                and providing personnel with strategies for managing change and enhancing service quality.
Keywords:       community safety, crime prevention, education, Police Youth Education Service, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




A190
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                Reconvictions after family group conferences
RESEARCH
Done by:        Office of Commissioner for Children, and Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of
                Wellington)
Funded by:      Office of Commissioner for Children, and Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of
                Wellington)
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A190.1
Title:          Family group conferences and reconviction
Author(s):      Morris A. and G.M. Maxwell
Completed:      NO
Availability:   Planned publication in ANZ Journal of Criminology, 1996
Description:    ABSTRACT. Reconviction information was obtained on 162 young offenders some years
                after a family group conference had been held to consider their youthful offending. The
                results showed that only 26% were reconvicted within one year. After four years and three
                months, 64% of the original sample had been reconvicted at least once but only 27% had
                been persistently reconvicted. The one year reconviction rate is better than that reported in
                many studies. On the other hand, the long term reconviction rates are not dissimilar to those
                reported in an earlier re-offending study of juveniles in New Zealand and in a study of
                reappearances among young Australian offenders. Predictors of reconviction included the


                                                      15
Children and youth


                     number and seriousness of offences, previous offending and ethnicity. In addition, some
                     support was given to the hypothesis that restorative justice processes may reduce the
                     likelihood of reconviction. Broader frameworks for conceptualising the factors underlying
                     re-offending are proposed for future research.
Keywords:            alternative justice systems, legislation impacts, Maori, recidivism, reconvictions, youth
Notes:




A200
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                         Rethinking youth justice
RESEARCH
Done by:             Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:           -
Method:              Critical comment
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A200.1
Title:               Rethinking youth justice: for better or worse
Author(s):           Maxwell, G.M. and A. Morris
Completed:           YES
Availability:        Victoria University of Wellington Institute of Criminology Occasional Paper No. 3. 177pp
Description:         Comments on proposals by the New Zealand Children and Young Persons Service to
                     amalgamate youth justice and care and protection services.
Keywords:            system efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




A205
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                              Rights, needs and responsibilities
RESEARCH
Done by:             Author
Funded by:           -
Method:              Qualitative study
Status:              Completed



                                                           16
                                                                                               Children and youth




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A205.1
Title:          Rights, needs and responsibilities of youth
Author(s):      Thom, Alison
Completed:      YES, 1995
Availability:   Social Work Now: The Practice Journal of the New Zealand Children and Young Persons
                Service, April 1996; 3:29-32. ISSN 1173-4906. Additionally published in the papers
                presented at the 5th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse, 16-19 October, 1995, on disc.
Description:    ABSTRACT. The powerlessness and restricted rights of youth is recognised throughout
                Western cultures. The argument regarding the rights versus the needs of youth continues. In
                New Zealand the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989 adds a further
                dimension to this argument with its clear principles of youth and in part family responsibility
                for offending. This legislation places value on the rights of victims of youth offences to be
                heard and compensated. While this youth offending legislation has had positive effects in the
                use of diversionary practices and inclusion of families in the process there is every sign that
                the principle of responsibility is encouraging a societal view of youth as disproportionately
                responsible for the ills of its crime and a convenient scapegoat. The responsibility factor has
                to a degree, over-ridden the attention that in the past has been given to the needs and rights
                of youth, specifically their rights to care and protection as is also defined in the Children,
                Young Persons and Their Families Act. Three case studies from my recent work experience,
                evidence some increasing resentment of youth and the system's inability to influence or quell
                that attitude. This is despite New Zealand having some effective advocates for youth through
                such offices as the Commissioner for Children, the Ministry of Youth Affairs and the Youth
                Law Project.
Keywords:       attitudes, human rights, legislation impacts, youth, youth rights
Notes:




A210
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                     Risk-taking behaviours
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Centre (The University of Auckland)
Funded by:      Northern Regional Health Authority
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A210.1
Title:          Results of a youth risk-taking survey
Author(s):      Coggan, C., P. Patterson, B. Disley and R. Norton
Completed:      YES




                                                      17
Children and youth


Availability:        Injury Prevention Research Centre Report Series No. 13, 1995. ISSN 1173-1443. Available
                     through Injury Prevention Research Centre, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019,
                     Auckland.
Description:         An initial step in designing strategies to address risk-taking requires information on the level
                     and range of such behaviours. The aim of this survey was to obtain information to assist a
                     community in developing strategies to enhance the health and well-being of its young people
                     and to provide policy makers with information on the extent and range of youth risk-taking
                     behaviours. The results of the study represent one of the most comprehensive examinations
                     of health-harming behaviours exclusively focused on New Zealand youth undertaken to date.
                     It found that many young people are engaged in high levels of risk-taking behaviours, such
                     as not wearing helmets when riding bicycles and motorcycles, consuming alcohol on a
                     weekly basis, not using contraceptives, carrying weapons, and contemplating self-harm.
Keywords:            alcohol, drugs, risk-taking behaviour, youth
Notes:




A220
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                             Sexual abuse medical assessment
RESEARCH
Done by:             Doctors for Sexual Abuse Care, Paediatric Department, Wellington School of Medicine
Funded by:           -
Method:              Quantitative study
Status:              IN PROGRESS, in planning stages



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A220.1
Title:               National database of medical assessment for alleged child sexual abuse
Author(s):           Doctors for Sexual Abuse Care
Completed:           NO
Availability:        -
Description:
Keywords:            children and young persons, health, sexual abuse, youth
Notes:




A230
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                          Te Kaupapa Whakaora
RESEARCH


                                                           18
                                                                                         Children and youth


Done by:        University of Canterbury Department of Education
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit, and University of Canterbury
Method:         Qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date late 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A230.1
Title:          Te Kaupapa Whakaora: a preliminary evaluation
Author(s):      Whelan, John and Mark Larson
Completed:      NO, planned completion date late 1996
Availability:   Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Evaluation of an alternative programme based at Papanui High School for youth at risk of
                offending or with offending history.
Keywords:       at-risk youth, education, youth
Notes:




A240
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                       Te Kuru Pounamu
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit via Christchurch Safer Community Council
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A240.1
Title:          Te Kuru Pounamu: an evaluation of the youth project, May 1996
Author(s):      MacGibbon, Lesley
Completed:      YES, May 1996
Availability:   Crime Prevention Unit Report, May 1996. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Qualitative process and outcome evaluation of Raupapa Manama course offered by Te Kuru
                Pounamu, a trust operating under Ngai Tahu Trust. Education achievement programme for
                Maori Youth.
Keywords:       crime prevention, Maori, youth, youth at risk
Notes:




                                                      19
Children and youth




A250
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                              Te Whakapakari Youth Programme
RESEARCH
Done by:             Massey University Psychology Department
Funded by:           Massey University
Method:              Literature review, qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A250.1
Title:               Wilderness therapy with Te Whakapakari Youth Programme
Author(s):           Eggleston, Erin J.
Completed:           YES
Availability:        Journal of Community Mental Health in New Zealand, 1996; 9(2):43-52
Description:         ABSTRACT. Following a month long phase of participant-observation with Te Whakapakari
                     Youth Programme this article discusses the merits and pitfalls of wilderness therapy
                     programmes for behaviourally problematic and emotionally distressed youth. Issues
                     concerning therapeutic elements of Whakapakari, problems with target populations, the
                     post-programme benefits of healthy living, the role and needs of supervisors, cultural
                     learning and personal development, programme duration and post-programme difficulties
                     are discussed. It is concluded that wilderness therapy programmes such as Whakapakari
                     provide a positive alternative for coping with such youth.
Keywords:            alternative justice systems, drugs, ethnic issues, gender issues, programmes, rehabilitation,
                     youth
Notes:




A250.2
Title:               Adolescent talk on rehabilitation: relationship centred benefits of a wilderness
                     therapy programme
Author(s):           Eggleston, Erin J.
Completed:           YES, 1996
Availability:        Under review for publication in Community Mental Health in New Zealand. Contact author,
                     Mr Erin J. Eggleston, Psychology Department, Massey University, Palmerston North.
Description:         ABSTRACT. Eighteen months after a phase of participant-observation with Te Whakapakari
                     Youth Programme (Great Barrier Island, New Zealand), 10 behaviourally problematic and/or
                     emotionally disturbed young persons were interviewed about aspects of the programme
                     which have been important in their lives. Participants describe the benefits derived from the
                     experience of whaanau, helping, talking, listening, trusting, respecting and learning
                     disciplined working.
Keywords:            alternative justice systems, ethnic issues, recidivism, rehabilitation, youth
Notes:



                                                            20
                                                                                                Children and youth




A250.3
Title:          Adolescent talk on crime, drugs and fighting
Author(s):      Eggleston, Erin J.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Under review for publication in Culture and Psychology, 1996. Contact author, Mr Erin J.
                Eggleston, Psychology Department, Massey University, Palmerston North.
Description:    ABSTRACT. Eighteen months after a phase of participant-observation with Te Whakapakari
                Youth Programme (Great Barrier Island, New Zealand), 10 young persons were interviewed
                regarding referral factors and post-programme experiences. Preliminary findings are
                presented concerning participant talk on crime, drugs and fighting.
Keywords:       alcohol, alternative justice systems, attitudes, crime prevention, criminal behaviour, drugs,
                education, ethnic issues, gender issues, Maori, Pacific Islands peoples, recidivism,
                rehabilitation, violent crime, youth
Notes:




A250.4
Title:          Boy’s talk: exploring gender discussions within the gang
Author(s):      Eggleston, Erin J.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Published as PhD thesis (November 1996); journal publication planned
Description:    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this paper is to explore how 43 Auckland based male gang
                members (mean age = 15.8) talk about their female peers. Three themes (“caring for
                women”, “gangs are for men” and “hoods and bitches”) are illustrated and discussed with
                regard to function, interaction and contradiction in gang life. It is concluded that boys talk
                within the gang, while overtly sexist, is a contextual manifestation of the cultural resources
                young men are offered to construct and act within their social world.
Keywords:       boy‟s talk, gangs, gender issues, youth
Notes:




A260
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                     Truancy in Marlborough
RESEARCH
Done by:        Marlborough Safer Community Group
Funded by:      Marlborough Safer Community Group, and Ministry of Education
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date September 1996




                                                        21
Children and youth


PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A260.1
Title:               Report on truancy at intermediate and secondary level in the
                     Marlborough District
Author(s):           Crockett, S.
Completed:           NO, planned completion date September 1996
Availability:        Will be available from Marlborough Safer Community Group, P O Box 443, Blenheim.
Description:         [Not provided]
Keywords:            attitudes, community safety, crime prevention, education, legislation impacts, Maori, school
                     attendance, system efficiency/effectiveness, truancy, youth
Notes:




A270
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                              Truancy programme in Ashburton
RESEARCH
Done by:             Author
Funded by:           Crime Prevention Unit via Ashburton Safer Community Council, and
                     Ministry of Education
Method:              Qualitative study, formative and process evaluation
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A270.1
Title:               A community initiative to enhance school attendance and reduce the incidence of
                     truancy in Mid-Canterbury
Author(s):           Kerr, Anne
Completed:           YES, May 1996
Availability:        Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:         Evaluation of Ashburton Community Education Resource Project, a community initiative to
                     enhance school attendance and reduce the incidence of truancy.
Keywords:            crime prevention, education, truancy, youth
Notes:




A280
CHILDREN AND YOUTH


                                                          22
                                                                                            Children and youth



                                  Youth gang membership
RESEARCH
Done by:        Massey University Psychology Department
Funded by:      Massey University
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date November 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A280.1
Title:          Hangin' with the gang: key themes of youth gang membership from an Auckland
                based ethnography study
Author(s):      Eggleston, Erin J.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Accepted for presentation at Psychological Society Conference 1996, Criminal Justice
                Symposium.
Description:    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the key themes of gang membership
                described by a sample of Auckland based gang members. Data drawn from 45 interviews
                with gang members in gang and institutional settings (mean age = 15.8) within an
                ethnographic framework. A thematic analysis uncovered membership themes of trouble,
                vulnerability, protection and affiliation and joining themes reflect ideas of destiny and
                decision making.
Keywords:       attitudes, gender issues, youth, youth gangs
Notes:




A280.2
Title:          Narrative of experiences with an Auckland youth gang
Author(s):      Eggleston, Erin J.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Unpublished as yet.
Description:    ABSTRACT. The aim of this narrative is to present an ethnographic slice of life and a
                reflexive account of my fieldwork with a neighbourhood gang in Auckland. This story allows
                the reader to view the gang through the eyes of a participant-observer and experience some
                of the excitement, frustration, emotion, and thought provoking experiences that ethnographic
                fieldwork engenders.
Keywords:       community corrections, offenders, parole decision making, recidivism, risk assessment,
                sentencing, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




A290
CHILDREN AND YOUTH


                                                       23
Children and youth



                                                 Youth justice
RESEARCH
Done by:             Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:           Social Policy Agency (Department of Social Welfare)
Method:              Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A290.1
Title:               Families, victims and culture: youth justice in New Zealand
Author(s):           Maxwell, Gabrielle M. and Allison Morris
Completed:           YES
Availability:        Social Policy Agency Research Series No. 14, 1993. ISBN 0-478-06002-5. Contact The
                     Secretary, Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington, P O Box 600,
                     Wellington. A summary of the findings and an account of the policy implications of the study
                     presented in Policy Issues from "Family, victims and culture: youth justice in New Zealand",
                     a paper in Social Policy Journal of New Zealand No. 1, November 1993.
Description:         The research evaluates the effectiveness of the Youth Justice provisions of the Children,
                     Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989, by collecting data on 692 young people who
                     came to police attention in 1990-91. Information was collected on 203 Family Group
                     Conferences, and young people, family members and professionals were interviewed.
                     Information is presented on 70 court cases. The research evaluates the extent to which the
                     Act is meeting objectives. Findings show families, young people, and victims are being more
                     successfully involved than in the past. Accountability is being achieved; culture is often
                     respected. However, issues of effective practice are raised.
Keywords:            adjudication, alternative justice systems, courts, criminal behaviour, enforcement, gender
                     issues, human rights, lawyers, legislation impacts, judiciary, Maori, offences, offenders,
                     Pacific Island peoples, police, property offences, prosecution, recidivism, rehabilitation,
                     reparation, restorative justice, sentence administration, sentencing, system
                     efficiency/effectiveness, victims, youth
Notes:




A290.2
Title:               Deciding about justice for young people in New Zealand: the involvement of families,
                     victims and culture
Author(s):           Maxwell, G.M. and A. Morris
Completed:           YES
Availability:        In Child welfare in Canada: research and policy implications. Toronto: Thompson
                     Educational Publishing. ISBN 1-55077-071-3. Chapter 14; 168-91. Two other similar articles
                     are (1) Morris, Allison, and Gabrielle M. Maxwell, Juvenile justice in New Zealand: a new
                     paradigm, in Australia and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, March 1993; 26:72-90.
                     ISSN 0004-8658 and (2) Maxwell, G.M. and A. Morris, The New Zealand model of family
                     group conferences, in Family group conferencing and juvenile justice: the way forward or
                     misplaced optimism?, Alder C. and J. Wundersitz (Eds). Canberra: Australian Institute of
                     Criminology, 1994. ISBN 0-642-19881-0
Description:         ABSTRACT. This study describes the system of juvenile justice adopted in New Zealand
                     under the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989. The Act sets out objectives


                                                            24
                                                                                                  Children and youth


                and principles which stress a number of innovative features including the integration of a
                western and an indigenous approach; the empowerment of families and young people; the
                involvement of victims; and group consensus decision-making. The principal mechanism for
                achieving these objectives is the Family Group Conference which replaces or supplements
                the Youth Court as the principal decision-making forum in most of the more serious cases.
                Police involvement in decision-making is also increased by a greater emphasis on diversion
                and by their role in reaching agreements in the family group conference. Research data are
                presented which enable an evaluation of the extent to which the Act is meeting its objectives.
                The tensions in the system are discussed: particularly the issue of victim involvement versus
                an offender focus and the conflict between accountability and welfare.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, offenders, prosecution, victims, youth
Notes:




A300
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                Youth justice and family group conferences
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington), in collaboration with the Office of
                the Commissioner for Children
Funded by:      Department of Social Welfare
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A300.1
Title:          Family group conferences: perspectives on policy and practice
Author(s):      Galway, B., J. Hudson, G.M. Maxwell and A. Morris
Completed:      YES
Availability:   The Federation Press, 1996. ISBN 1 86287 201 5 (paperback),
                ISBN 1 86287 208 2 (hardback)
Description:    ABSTRACT available on request. DESCRIPTION from book jacket: This book assesses the
                principles and practices of family group conferences in the juvenile justice and child
                protection systems... All the chapters emphasise the values that distinguish family group
                conferences from conventional mechanisms for making decisions about young people who
                are in need of care and protection or who commit offences. In brief, these are: respecting the
                integrity of the family unit, including the extended family; strengthening family and community
                supports; sharing power between the state and families; creating opportunities for parents to
                feel responsible for their children and themselves; and showing sensitivity and respect for
                families' cultures. For those family group conferences that deal with young offenders,
                additional key values are: providing opportunities for victims of crime to have a voice in how
                those who have offended against them should be dealt with and to receive redress; and for
                offenders to be held accountable for their actions and to make amends. Critical questions
                about the practice and potential of family group conferences are also explored.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, courts, crime statistics, crime prevention, criminal behaviour,
                enforcement, ethnic issues, gender issues, human rights, lawyers, legislation impacts, Maori,
                offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, police, recidivism, rehabilitation, reparation,


                                                       25
Children and youth


                     restorative justice, sentence administration, sentencing, system efficiency/effectiveness,
                     victims, youth
Notes:




A310
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                        Youth justice, rights and responsibilities
RESEARCH
Done by:             Office of the Commissioner for Children
Funded by:           Office of the Commissioner for Children
Method:              Literature review, qualitative study
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A310.1
Title:               Youth justice: rights and responsibilities
Author(s):           Maxwell, Gabrielle M.
Completed:           YES
Availability:        In Rights and responsibilities. Wellington: International Year of the Family Committee, in
                     association with the Office of the Commissioner for Children, 1995. ISBN 0 478 06019-X
Description:         This paper examines youth justice law and practice in relation to the United Nations
                     Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Treaty of Waitangi, and examines how current
                     economic policy is providing the required support for the youth justice policies which we have
                     either adopted or which are mandated under our international and Treaty obligations. Within
                     the youth justice system there are three principle parties to be considered: the young person,
                     the family and the state. Although little has been said about this already, the New Zealand
                     Act makes it clear that the young person has a responsibility to be accountable for offending
                     and, in particular, these obligations are spelled out with respect to the victims of any offence.
Keywords:            funding, human rights, resources, sentence administration, youth
Notes:




A320
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                     Youth legislation appraisal
RESEARCH
Done by:             Office of the Commissioner for Children
Funded by:           Office of the Commissioner for Children



                                                            26
                                                                                                 Children and youth


Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A320.1
Title:          An appraisal of the first year: of the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act
                1989
Author(s):      Hassal, Ian B., Gabrielle M. Maxwell, Jeremy P. Robertson and Allison Morris
Completed:      YES, 1991
Availability:   Wellington: Office of the Commissioner for Children, 1991. ISBN 0-9597995-1-6
Description:    This report contains three papers. The first paper [The family group conference], examines
                the family group conference as an innovative method of involving families in statutory care
                and protection and youth justice processes. It discusses some of the potential problems of
                such an approach and some of the concerns that have been expressed to date. It also
                presents some of the advantages. The second paper [Statistics on the first year] presents
                statistical data for the year 1990 on the disposition of children and young people who came
                to attention, under either the care and protection or youth justice provisions of the Act. In that
                year 3715 care and protection family group conferences and 5851 youth justice family group
                conferences were held. Agreement as to a plan, recommendation, or decision was reached
                in 91% and 94% of these family group conferences. The family group conference plans are
                categorised in the paper so that a general view of the disposition of the children and young
                people can be gained. Caution is needed, however, in interpreting these since much of the
                effectiveness of family group conference decision making rests on the detail of the plans and
                the manner in which they are carried out. The outcome in terms of the child's or young
                person's well-being or the salutary effect of the process in other respects must be
                determined by future research. The third paper [Juvenile crime and the Children, Young
                Persons and Their Families Act 1989] compares the pattern of juvenile crime in the last
                quarter of 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, with that which existed previously. The rate of
                detection and type of offending and the ethnicity, age and gender distribution of the
                offenders were unchanged, but there was a sharp reduction in the number of arrests, court
                appearances, convictions and court orders. The great majority of offenders were dealt with
                by police warnings and diversionary measures, and by family group conferences rather by
                judicial processes.
Keywords:       adjudication, gender issues, legislation impacts, Maori, offences, offenders, Pacific Islands
                peoples, sentencing, youth
Notes:




A330
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                                            Youth suicide
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Centre (The University of Auckland)
Funded by:      Northern Regional Health Authority
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



                                                       27
Children and youth




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A330.1
Title:               A qualitative investigation into youth suicide
Author(s):           C. Coggan
Completed:           YES
Availability:        Injury Prevention Research Centre Report Series No. 12, 1994; Auckland: The University of
                     Auckland. ISSN 1173-1443
Description:         The purpose of this study was to obtain from young people their own views on ways to
                     address youth suicide. In particular, this investigation illustrated the methodology of using
                     focus groups to enhance knowledge of ways to reduce youth suicide. The study highlighted a
                     range of strategies that may have implications for the planning of future health promotion
                     programmes.
Keywords:            suicide, youth
Notes:




A340
CHILDREN AND YOUTH
                              Youth worker project in Masterton
RESEARCH
Done by:             Masterton Safer Community Council
Funded by:           Crime Prevention Unit with Masterton Safer Community Council
Method:              Qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:              Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

A340.1
Title:               Masterton youth worker evaluation
Author(s):           Healthy Communities, Masterton
Completed:           YES, 1995
Availability:        Crime Prevention Unit Report. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                     P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:         Process and outcome evaluation of project.
Keywords:            crime prevention, youth, youth at risk, youth worker
Notes:




                                                          28
                                                                                                  Cohort studies




B10
COHORT STUDIES

                Christchurch Health and Development Study
RESEARCH
Done by:        Christchurch Health and Development Study, and Christchurch School of Medicine
Funded by:      Medical Research Council, Health Research Council, Lottery Health, National Child Health
                Research Foundation, Canterbury Medical Research Society, and Government Departments
Method:         Quantitative study, Cohort study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 2001



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

B10.01
Title:          A latent class model of child offending
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M. Lloyd
Completed:      YES,
Availability:   Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 1991; 1:90-106
Description:    ABSTRACT. A latent class model is proposed to estimate the magnitude and direction of
                errors of measurement in reports of young offending. It is shown that, subject to the
                availability of information from reports of offending behaviour by two sources and information
                on a known predictor of offending, it is possible to fit models which estimate the magnitude
                of errors of reporting and the true prevalence of offending. This model is applied to
                self-report data collected for over 700 New Zealand 12-year-old children. This analysis
                suggested that under-reporting of offending was very high and it was estimated that over
                50% of children who offended failed to report offending. The analysis is extended to show
                that the consequences of errors in reporting behaviour are to lead to a serious
                under-estimation of the strength of relationships between risks of offending and predictor
                variables. The implications of these results for the interpretation of report statistics are
                discussed.
Keywords:       crime statistics, criminal behaviour, offenders, reporting of offending, youth
Notes:




B10.02
Title:          Patterns of cannabis use among 13-14 year old New Zealanders
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:      YES
Availability:   New Zealand Medical Journal, 1993; 106:247-50
Description:    ABSTRACT. Aims. The aims of this study were to document the prevalence and frequency
                of use of cannabis, the sources of supply of cannabis and reactions to cannabis use in a
                sample of 949 Christchurch born children studied to the age of 15 years. Method. Data on
                cannabis use was collected on the basis of parental and self report at ages 14 and 15 years.
                Results. By the age of 15 years, 9.8% of this cohort had used cannabis on one or more
                occasions and 2.2% of the cohort reported using cannabis on more than 10 occasions.
                Rates of cannabis use amongst boys and girls were identical. Most of those using cannabis
                had been provided with the drug by same aged or older teenagers and in most cases it was

                                                      29
Cohort studies

                 supplied free. In most cases cannabis was used in small informal groups of 2-8 young
                 people. The majority of cannabis users (75.3%) reported positive reactions to cannabis use
                 and many (58%) said that they would use cannabis again. However, just under one third
                 (30.9%) of users reported some adverse reaction to cannabis use including being ill, dizzy or
                 frightened. Conclusions. By the age of 15 years approximately 10% of young people
                 reported using cannabis. This rate of utilisation appears to be supported by the presence of
                 informal peer networks which provide a source of supply and support for young people
                 experimenting with the use of cannabis. It is conjectured that the source of supply for these
                 informal networks reflects a trickle down of the relatively large amounts of cannabis which
                 circulate amongst adolescent and young adult populations.
Keywords:        criminal behaviour, drugs, offenders, youth
Notes:




B10.03
Title:           The effects of conduct disorder and attention deficit in middle childhood on offending
                 and scholastic ability at age 13
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M.T. Lynskey
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1993; 34(6):899-916
Description:     ABSTRACT. The relationship between conduct disorder and attention deficit behaviours in
                 middle childhood (6, 8 and 10 years) and juvenile offending and academic achievement was
                 examined in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The application of structural equation
                 modelling methods suggested that early behavioural tendencies are related to later
                 developmental outcomes by two highly correlated but distinct developmental progressions.
                 In the first such progression, early conduct disorder behaviours acted as a precursor of
                 future offending patterns but these behaviours were unrelated to later school performance
                 when the correlation between conduct disorder and attention deficit was taken into account.
                 In the second developmental progression early attentional/cognitive behaviours were related
                 to future school performance but were unrelated to the development of antisocial behaviours
                 when the correlations between conduct disorder and cognitive/attentional variables were
                 taken into account. The implications of these findings for validating the distinction between
                 conduct disorder and attention deficit behaviours is discussed and the problems of analysing
                 and explaining the high comorbidity between conduct disorder and attention deficit
                 behaviours are considered.
Keywords:        attention deficit disorder, conduct disorder, cognitive development, criminal behaviour,
                 juvenile offending, longitudinal study, offenders, scholastic ability, youth
Notes:




B10.04
Title:           The comorbidities of adolescent problem behaviours: a latent class model
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M.T. Lynskey
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1994; 22(3):339-54
Description:     ABSTRACT. The correlations and comorbidities of a series of adolescent problem
                 behaviours were studied in a sample of 739 New Zealand 15-year-olds. This analysis
                 revealed the presence of strong comorbidities between different problem behaviours. The
                 data were modelled using methods of unrestricted latent class analysis and this suggested
                 that the best fitting model to describe the data was one which assumed that adolescent
                 problem behaviours were described by four general classes of children. While the same
                 general four-class model applied to males and females, there were marked gender


                                                      30
                                                                                                  Cohort studies

                differences in the rates of problems. Specifically, the predominant problem behaviours in
                females were those related to an accelerated transition to adulthood marked by early sexual
                activity, alcohol abuse, and cannabis use, whereas the predominant problems for boys were
                related to antisocial and law-breaking behaviours. Rates of children with no problems (85%)
                and with multiple problems (3%) were similar for boys and girls.
Keywords:       alcohol, cannabis, criminal behaviour, drugs, offenders, youth
Notes:




B10.05
Title:          Alcohol consumption and associated problems in a birth cohort of
                15 year olds
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:      YES
Availability:   New Zealand Medical Journal, 1994; 107:167-70
Description:    ABSTRACT. Aims. This study documents patterns of alcohol consumption and alcohol
                abuse in a birth cohort of 965 Christchurch born children studied to the age of 15 years.
                Additionally, the study documents the associations between measures of alcohol
                consumption and a range of other aspects of adolescent development. Method. Data on
                patterns of alcohol use, alcohol related problems and other aspects of adolescent
                development were collected at age 15 years on the basis of self report, parental reports and
                official records. Results. For most sample members the consumption of alcohol was both
                infrequent (28.4% were classified as non-drinkers and 23.9% had drunk alcohol only once or
                twice in the preceding year) and moderate. However, 6.7% reported weekly drinking and
                3.3%-6.8% of the sample reported drinking the equivalent of at least 90 mL of pure alcohol
                on the last or typical drinking occasion. 19.1% of the sample reported experiencing problems
                as a result of their drinking and 4.9% of the sample met criteria for alcohol abuse. Measures
                of alcohol consumption were found to be highly associated with measures of daily cigarette
                smoking, cannabis use, sexual activity, police contact, and depression. Conclusions. While
                overall levels of alcohol consumption in this cohort were moderate there was evidence of a
                minority of adolescents who consumed alcohol frequently, in large amounts or who
                experienced alcohol related problems. Measures of frequent, heavy or problem alcohol use
                were found to be highly associated with a range of other aspects of adolescent development.
Keywords:       alcohol, criminal behaviour, offenders, police, youth
Notes:




B10.06
Title:          Truancy in adolescents
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:      YES
Availability:   New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1995; 30(1):25-38
Description:    ABSTRACT. This paper examines the development of truancy in a birth cohort of 935
                Christchurch born children studied between the ages of 12 to 16 years. The analyses
                showed that: a) truancy in this cohort was common with just under 40% of adolescents
                reporting truancy by the age of 16 years; b) rates of truancy rose almost exponentially during
                the period from 12 to 16 years with rates of truancy amongst 16 year olds (30.2%) being ten
                times higher than in 12 year olds (3.0%); c) there was a spectrum of truancy ranging from
                those who showed infrequent or occasional truancy to those who showed severe and
                recurrent truancy - 7.1% of the sample were identified as severe truants who had truanted
                on more than 30 occasions (median = 80) between 14 and 16 years of age; d) truancy was
                more common amongst children reared in disadvantaged or dysfunctional homes and


                                                      31
Cohort studies

                 children who showed early onset conduct problems; e) there were clear associations
                 between the extent of truancy in adolescence and other aspects of adolescent adjustment
                 including conduct problems, juvenile offending, police contact, substance use behaviours,
                 low self esteem, mood disorders and suicidal behaviours/ideation. The implications of these
                 findings for contemporary concerns about rising rates of truancy and other problem
                 behaviours in secondary school pupils are discussed.
Keywords:        criminal behaviour, drugs, police, truancy, youth
Notes:




B10.07
Title:           Childhood conduct problems and attention deficit behaviours and adolescent alcohol,
                 tobacco and illicit drug use
Author(s):       Lynskey, M.T. and D.M. Fergusson
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1995; 23(3):281-302
Description:     ABSTRACT. The relationships between conduct problems and attention deficit behaviours at
                 age 8 years and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs at 15 years were studied in a
                 birth cohort of over 900 New Zealand children. The analysis showed that while early conduct
                 problems were significantly associated with later substance use there were no significant
                 associations between early attention deficit behaviours and later substance use once the
                 correlations between conduct problems and attention deficit behaviours were taken into
                 account. These associations persisted after control for a range of potentially confounding
                 covariates. Children who showed tendencies to conduct problems at age 8 consumed 1.5 to
                 1.9 times more alcohol and had rates of alcohol-related problems, daily cigarette smoking,
                 and illicit drug use that were 1.9 to 2.0 times higher than children with low conduct problem
                 scores. It is concluded that attention deficit behaviours, in the absence of conduct problems,
                 are not associated with later substance abuse. However, even when due allowance is made
                 for social and contextual factors associated with both early conduct problems and later
                 substance use, early conduct problems are a risk factor for later substance abuse.
Keywords:        alcohol, attention deficit behaviours, cigarette smoking, drugs, youth
Notes:




B10.08
Title:           Alcohol misuse and juvenile offending in adolescence
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Addiction, 1996; 91(4):483-94
Description:     ABSTRACT. The associations between alcohol misuse and juvenile offending during the
                 period from 15 to 16 years were studied in a birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents. This
                 analysis showed that young people who misused alcohol had significantly (p<.001) higher
                 rates of both violent and property offences. These associations were similar for males and
                 females. Further analysis suggested that a substantial component of the association
                 between alcohol misuse and juvenile offending arose from shared risk factors that were
                 common to both outcomes. These risk factors included measures of family social
                 background, family and parental characteristics, individual characteristics and adolescent
                 peer affiliations. After adjustment for antecedent risk factors there was no significant
                 association between alcohol misuse and odds of property offences. However, young people
                 who abused alcohol had odds of violent offending that were 3.2 times (p<.001) the odds of
                 those offences for young people who did not misuse alcohol. It is concluded: a) that a large
                 component of the association between alcohol misuse and juvenile offending arises because


                                                       32
                                                                                                   Cohort studies

                of the effects of shared risk factors that are associated with both outcomes; b) nonetheless,
                the unexplained association between alcohol misuse and violent offending may suggest the
                presence of a direct cause and effect association in which adolescent alcohol misuse is
                associated with increased risks of violent offending.
Keywords:       alcohol, criminal behaviour, juvenile offending, offenders, violent crime, youth
Notes:




B10.09
Title:          Ethnicity and bias in police contact statistics
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M.T. Lynskey
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 1993; 26:193-206
Description:    ABSTRACT. The relationships between ethnicity, self/parentally reported offending and rates
                of police contact were examined in a birth cohort of Christchurch (New Zealand) born
                children studied to the age of 15 years. This analysis suggested that whilst children of
                Maori/Pacific Island descent offended at a significantly higher rate than European (Pakeha)
                children, there were clear differences in the magnitude of ethnic differentials in offending
                depending on the way in which offending was measured. On the basis of self/parentally
                reported offending, children of Maori/Pacific Island descent offended at about 1.7 times the
                rate of Pakeha children. However, on the basis of police contact statistics these children
                were 2.9 times more likely to come to police attention than Pakeha children. These
                differences between self/parentally reported offending rates and rates of police contact could
                not be explained by the fact that Maori/Pacific Island children offended more often or
                committed different types of offences than Pakeha children. Logistic modelling of the data
                suggested that children of Maori/Pacific Island descent were in the region of 2.4 times more
                likely to come to official police attention than Pakeha children with an identical self/parental
                reported history of offending. These results are generally consistent with the hypothesis that
                official police contact statistics contain a bias which exaggerates the differences in the rate
                of offending by children of Maori/Pacific Island descent and Pakeha children.
Keywords:       bias, ethnic issues, Maori, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, police, youth
Notes:




B10.10
Title:          Ethnicity, social background and young offending: a 14 year longitudinal study
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M.T. Lynskey
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 1993; 26:155-70
Description:    ABSTRACT. The relationship between ethnicity and rates of violent, property and other
                offences based on self-report and parental report data was studied for a birth cohort of
                Christchurch born children. The results show that on the basis of report data, children of
                Maori ethnicity had significantly (p<.05) higher rates of offending than children of Pakeha
                (European) ethnicity with these rates being from 1.45 to 2.25 times higher than for Pakeha
                children. However, after adjustment for a series of social and contextual factors including
                maternal age, maternal educational levels, family socio-economic status, family living
                standards and early childhood environment factors, these associations reduced so that
                children of Maori or Pacific Island ethnicity had risks of offending which ranged from 1.08 to
                1.55 times higher than children of Pakeha ethnicity. In four of the five comparisons made
                there was no significant relationship between ethnicity and offending after adjustment for
                these social and contextual factors. The implications of these findings for the interpretation



                                                      33
Cohort studies

                 of ethnic differences in rates of offending are examined with particular attention being given
                 to labelling, socio-economic and cultural explanations of these differences.
Keywords:        ethnic issues, Maori, offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, police, property offences,
                 violent crime, youth
Notes:




B10.11
Title:           The short term consequences of early onset cannabis use
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1996; 24(4):499-512
Description:     ABSTRACT. The associations between early onset (prior to 15 years of age) cannabis use
                 and rates of mental health or adjustment problems during the period from 15 to 16 years of
                 age were studied in a New Zealand birth cohort. Early onset cannabis users were at
                 increased risks of later substance use behaviours, conduct/oppositional disorders, juvenile
                 offending, severe truancy, school dropout, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Early
                 cannabis users had odds of these outcomes ranging from 2.7 to 30.8 times higher than the
                 odds for those who did not use cannabis prior to age 15. Most of the elevated risks of early
                 onset users were explained by the fact that they were a high-risk group of adolescents
                 characterised by family disadvantages, early adjustment problems, and high affiliations with
                 substance-using or delinquent peers. Nonetheless, even after adjustment for a wide range of
                 confounding factors, early onset users had increased risks of later cannabis use. It is
                 concluded that while most of the elevated risks of early onset users were explained by
                 social, family, and individual characteristics of this group, early onset users were at
                 increased risks of later cannabis use.
Keywords:        criminal behaviour, drugs, juvenile offending, mental health, offences, truancy, youth
Notes:




B10.12
Title:           The childhoods of multiple problem adolescents: a 15-year longitudinal study
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M.T. Lynskey
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1994; 35(6) 1123-40
Description:     ABSTRACT. This paper examines the life history of a small group of adolescents (3%) who
                 were identified during the course of a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand
                 children as displaying multiple problem behaviours at the age of 15 years. This group was
                 characterised by conduct disorder, police contact, substance abuse behaviours, early onset
                 sexual activity, suicidal ideation, mood disorders and lowered self esteem. Statistical
                 biographies of this group of young people showed that many were the offspring of seriously
                 disadvantaged, dysfunctional and disorganised home environments. The implications of
                 these findings for the understanding and treatment of multiple problem behaviours in
                 adolescence are discussed.
Keywords:        alcohol, criminal behaviour, disadvantage, drugs, offenders, mental health, substance
                 abuse, youth
Notes:




                                                       34
                                                                                                  Cohort studies


B10.13
Title:          Conduct problems and attention deficits in middle childhood and cannabis use by
                age 15
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1993; 27:673-82
Description:    ABSTRACT. The relationship between conduct problems and attention deficit behaviours at
                ages 6, 8, 10 and 12 years and the early onset of cannabis usage by the age of 15 years
                was studied in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The analysis showed that while
                conduct problems during middle childhood were significantly associated with later cannabis
                use (p<.05) there was no association between early attention deficit behaviours and
                cannabis use (p>.40) when the associations between conduct problems and attention deficit
                behaviours were taken into account. It was estimated that children who showed tendencies
                to conduct disorder behaviour in middle childhood were between 2.1 to 2.7 times more likely
                to engage in early cannabis use than children not prone to conduct problems even when a
                range of factors including family social background, parental separation and parental conflict
                were taken into account. It is concluded that early conduct disorder behaviours are a risk
                factor for later cannabis use when due allowance is made for social and contextual factors
                associated with both early conduct problems and later cannabis use.
Keywords:       attention deficit behaviour, cannabis, conduct problems, drugs, youth
Notes:




B10.14
Title:          Early disruptive behaviour, IQ and later school achievement and delinquent behaviour
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M. and L.J. Horwood
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1995; 23(2):183-99
Description:    ABSTRACT. A series of structural equation models is developed to examine the relationship
                between early externalising behaviours (conduct problems, attention deficit) and IQ
                measured at age 8 years, academic achievement over the period 10-13 years and
                delinquent behaviour to the age of 15 in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. These
                models indicated that early externalising behaviours and IQ were related to later academic
                achievement and delinquent behaviour by two quite distinct but highly correlated
                developmental sequences. In one sequence early conduct problems were predictive of later
                delinquency but were not directly related to later academic achievement. In the other
                sequence, attention deficit and IQ were prognostic of later school achievement but were not
                directly related to delinquency. Further, the apparent correlations between academic
                achievement and delinquency were adequately explained by the common and correlated
                effects of early behaviour and IQ on later achievement and delinquency. These conclusions
                remained unchanged when the sample was stratified by gender, and when further
                explanatory factors were introduced into the model.
Keywords:       attention deficit behaviours, childhood conduct problems, delinquency, criminal behaviour,
                education, youth
Notes:




                                                     35
Cohort studies


B10.15
Title:           The role of adolescent peer affiliations in the continuity between childhood
                 behavioural adjustment and juvenile offending
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M. and L.J. Horwood
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1996; 24:205-22
Description:     ABSTRACT. This research reports on a structural equation model analysis of the
                 relationships between childhood behavioural adjustment, adolescent peer affiliations, and
                 adolescent offending using data gathered during the course of a 16-year long longitudinal
                 study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The model developed contained parameters
                 that estimated (a) the continuities between early behaviour and later offending, (b) the
                 associations between early behaviour and adolescent peer affiliations, (c) the potentially
                 reciprocal relationship between adolescent peer affiliations and adolescent offending
                 behaviours. This analysis suggested that, when due allowance was made for reporting error,
                 there was evidence of relatively strong continuity (r = .50) between early behaviour and later
                 offending. The model estimates suggested that these continuities arose from both direct
                 continuities in behaviour over time and from the effects of adolescent peer affiliations in
                 reinforcing and sustaining earlier behavioural tendencies. The implications of the analysis for
                 the understanding of the role of adolescent peer affiliations in behavioural continuities and
                 discontinuities are discussed.
Keywords:        adolescent peer affiliations, childhood criminal behaviour, juvenile offending, offenders,
                 youth
Notes:




B10.16
Title:           Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part I: the
                 prevalence of sexual abuse and the factors associated with sexual abuse
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Accepted for publication in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
                 Psychiatry.
Description:     Objective. This paper presents accounts of: a) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse
                 (CSA); and b) social, family and related factors which are associated with increased risks of
                 CSA using data gathered during an 18 year longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort.
                 Method. A birth cohort of over 1,000 Christchurch (New Zealand) born children was studied
                 prospectively to the age of 16. At age 18 retrospective reports of CSA were obtained.
                 Results. 10.4% of the cohort (17.3% of females and 3.4% of males) reported having
                 experienced CSA before the age of 16 years. Rates of severe abusive experiences involving
                 intercourse were lower: 5.6% of females and 1.4% of males reported abuse involving
                 attempted or completed intercourse. Multivariate analyses suggested that risks of CSA were
                 elevated amongst females (p<.0001), those exposed to high levels of marital conflict
                 (p<.005), those reporting low parental attachment (p<.001), those reporting high levels of
                 paternal over protection (p<.005) and those with parents who reported alcoholism/alcohol
                 problems (p<.05). The level of prediction of CSA from childhood and family factors was not
                 sufficient to identify individuals at risk of CSA with any degree of accuracy. Conclusions.
                 CSA was not an uncommon experience amongst this cohort. Those most likely to be
                 exposed to CSA were girls reared in families characterised by high levels of marital conflict,
                 impaired parenting and in families having parents with adjustment problems.
Keywords:        childhood sexual abuse, prevalence, psychiatric disorder, victims, youth
Notes:




                                                       36
                                                                                                 Cohort studies


B10.17
Title:          Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part II:
                psychiatric outcomes of sexual abuse
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M.T. Lynskey
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Accepted for publication in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
                Psychiatry.
Description:    Objective. This is the second in a series of papers that describe the prevalence, correlates
                and consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a birth cohort of over 1,000 New
                Zealand children studied to the age of 18 years. This paper examines the associations
                between reports of CSA at age 18 and DSM-IV diagnostic classifications at age 18. Method.
                A birth cohort of New Zealand children was studied at annual intervals from birth to age 16
                years. At age 18 years retrospective reports of CSA prior to 16 and concurrently measured
                psychiatric symptoms were obtained. Results. Those reporting CSA had higher rates of
                major depression, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, substance use disorder and suicidal
                behaviours than those not reporting CSA (p<.002). There were consistent relationships
                between the extent of CSA and risks of disorder with those reporting CSA involving
                intercourse having the highest risks of disorder. These results persisted when findings were
                adjusted for prospectively measured childhood family and related factors. Similar but less
                marked relationships between CSA and non-concurrently measured disorders were found.
                Conclusions. The findings suggest that CSA, and particularly severe CSA, was associated
                with increased risks of psychiatric disorder in young adults even when due allowance was
                made for prospectively measured confounding factors.
Keywords:       childhood sexual abuse, mental health, victims, youth
Notes:




B10.18
Title:          Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviours and sexual revictimisation
Author(s):      Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood and M.T. Lynskey
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Submitted to: Pediatrics. Available from authors, Christchurch Health and Development
                Study, Christchurch School of Medicine, P O Box 4345, Christchurch.
Description:    Objective. The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood
                sexual abuse [CSA] was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviours
                and sexual revictimisation during adolescence. Method. A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand
                born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18
                retrospective reports of CSA were obtained from sample members. Over the course of the
                18 year study information was gathered on: a) childhood, family and related circumstances;
                and b) the young women's history of sexual experiences from 14 to 18 years. Results.
                Young women reporting CSA, and particularly severe CSA involving intercourse, had
                significantly higher rates of: early onset consensual sexual activity; teenage pregnancy;
                multiple sexual partners; unprotected intercourse; sexually transmitted disease; and sexual
                assault after the age of 16. Logistic regression analyses suggested that the associations
                between CSA and sexual outcomes in adolescence arose by two routes. Firstly, exposure to
                CSA was associated with a series of childhood and family factors including social
                disadvantage, family instability, impaired parent child relationships and parental adjustment
                difficulties that were also associated with increased sexual vulnerability in adolescence.
                Secondly, there appeared to be a causal chain relationship between CSA and sexual
                experiences in which CSA was associated with early onset sexual activity which, in turn, led
                to heightened risks of other adverse outcomes in adolescence. Conclusions. The findings of
                this study suggest that those exposed to CSA have greater sexual vulnerability during
                adolescence. This appears to arise because: a) the childhood and family factors that are
                associated with CSA are also associated with increased sexual risks during adolescence;


                                                     37
Cohort studies

                 and b) exposure to CSA may encourage early onset sexual activity which places those
                 exposed to CSA at greater sexual risk over the period of adolescence.
Keywords:        childhood sexual abuse, revictimisation, victims, youth
Notes:




B10.19
Title:           The effects of unemployment on juvenile offending
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M., M.T. Lynskey and L.J. Horwood
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Submitted to: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. Available from authors, Christchurch
                 Health and Development Study, Christchurch School of Medicine,
                 P O Box 4345, Christchurch.
Description:     ABSTRACT. This study examined the associations between duration of unemployment and
                 a series of measures of young offending in a birth cohort of New Zealand children studied to
                 the age of 18 years. Increasing duration of unemployment was significantly (p<.001)
                 associated with a series of measures of young offending including violent offending, property
                 offending, arrests, and convictions. Specifically, young people who had been unemployed for
                 six months or longer had higher mean levels of offending and rates of property offending,
                 violent offending, arrest and conviction that were 3.0 to 10.4 times higher than those of
                 young people who had not been unemployed. However, unemployment was also associated
                 with a range of adverse social, family, school, individual and related factors. When the
                 associations between unemployment and criminal offending were adjusted for a range of
                 measures assessed prior to school leaving age these associations were substantially
                 reduced. However, even after adjustment for these factors, young people exposed to
                 unemployment had significantly (p<.05) higher mean levels of property and violent offending
                 and significantly (p<.05) higher rates of property offending, arrest and conviction. It is
                 concluded that much of the association between unemployment and juvenile crime is likely
                 to reflect common life course processes and factors that make young people vulnerable to
                 both unemployment and criminal offending. However, exposure to unemployment following
                 school leaving may be associated with increased risks of juvenile offending, and particularly
                 property offending.
Keywords:        criminal behaviour, juvenile offending, property offences, unemployment, violent crime, youth
Notes:




B10.20
Title:           Early onset cannabis use and psychosocial adjustment in young adults
Author(s):       Fergusson, D.M. and L.J. Horwood
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Submitted to: Addiction. Available from authors, Christchurch Health and Development
                 Study, Christchurch School of Medicine, P O Box 4345, Christchurch.
Description:     ABSTRACT. The relationships between early onset (prior to 16) cannabis use and later
                 psychosocial adjustment was examined in a birth cohort of New Zealand children studied to
                 age 18. Early onset users had significantly higher rates of later substance abuse, juvenile
                 offending, mental health problems, unemployment and school dropout. The linkages
                 between early onset cannabis use and later outcomes were largely explained by two routes
                 that linked cannabis use to later adjustment. Firstly, those electing to use cannabis were a
                 high risk population characterised by social disadvantage, childhood adversity, early onset
                 behavioural difficulties and adverse peer affiliations. Secondly, early onset cannabis use was
                 associated with the development of anti-conventional lifestyles characterised by affiliations



                                                      38
                                                                                                  Cohort studies

                with delinquent and substance abusing peers, moving away from home, and dropping out of
                education. The implications of these results are examined.
Keywords:       cannabis, criminal behaviour, drugs, mental health, juvenile offending, school dropout,
                substance abuse, youth
Notes:




B20
COHORT STUDIES

         Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study
RESEARCH
Done by:        The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit, and the Department
                of Psychology, University of Wisconsin at Madison, USA. Injury Prevention Research Unit of
                the University of Otago Medical School.
Funded by:      The Health Research Council of New Zealand (formerly the Medical Research Council), and
                the US National Institute of Health
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, [quantitative study], pilot programme evaluation,
                established programme evaluation, cohort study. A longitudinal study of 1,037 children born
                in Dunedin between 1972/73, and followed-up regularly since birth to the present day.
Status:         IN PROGRESS, ongoing



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

B20.01
Title:          IQ and delinquency: a direct test of the differential detection hypothesis
Author(s):      Moffitt, T.E. and P.A. Silva
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988; 97:330-3
Description:    COMMENT. This study examined the IQs of 13 year olds who were classified as officially
                delinquent, delinquent but with no police record and those without a history of delinquency.
                There was no significant difference in IQs between the two delinquent sub-groups but both
                these groups gained significantly lower mean IQs than non-delinquents. These findings did
                not support the 'differential detection' hypothesis. Age of subjects: 13
Keywords:       children, delinquency, intelligence, IQ, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO115




B20.02
Title:          Self-reported delinquency: results from an instrument in New Zealand
Author(s):      Moffitt, T.E. and P.A. Silva
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 1988; 21:227-40



                                                      39
Cohort studies

Description:     COMMENT. This article describes the Self-Report Early Delinquency Scale (SRED), a
                 research instrument designed to capture self reports of illegal and norm violating behaviours
                 from New Zealand adolescents. Reliability and validity are described and were considered
                 adequate for recommending the instrument for use in social science research. Findings in
                 the predicted directions were obtained from the relations between SRED scores and gender,
                 family instability, history of behaviour disorder, social class and intelligence. Age of subjects:
                 13
Keywords:        antisocial behaviour, attention, behaviour, children, conduct disorder, crime, delinquency,
                 family characteristics, intelligence, reading tests, research methodology, socio-economic
                 status, SRED, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO125




B20.03
Title:           A prospective replication of the protective effect of IQ in subjects at high risk of
                 juvenile delinquency
Author(s):       White, J.L., T.E. Moffitt and P.A. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 1990; 57:719-24
Description:     COMMENT. This report tested hypotheses about the protective effects of a higher I.Q. in the
                 prevention of delinquency in those at high risk. The study found that male and female
                 delinquents had significantly lower I.Q.s than non-delinquents. It also found that a very high
                 I.Q. may help boys, even those at risk, to stay free of delinquency altogether. Age of
                 subjects: 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15
Keywords:        children, conduct disorder, crime, delinquency, intelligence, IQ, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO134




B20.04
Title:           The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: a 15 year longitudinal
                 study
Author(s):       Silva, P.A.
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 1990; 4:76-107
Description:     COMMENT. This article describes the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development
                 Study, a longitudinal study of 1037 children studied at birth and followed-up at age 13, with
                 the majority being followed-up every 2 years thereafter, to age 15. The paper includes a
                 description of the setting for the study, the historical background, establishment of the study,
                 the sample, follow-up rates, changes in sample characteristics over time, the procedures,
                 the data gathered at each phase and the investigators responsible. Some of the topics
                 studied over the years are set out in a table of descriptors which includes references to
                 refereed journal articles that include results relating to the topics. Plans for the future are
                 also described. Reflections on some of the reasons why the study has been successful are
                 noted. The article concludes with a full list of 328 publications and reports, current as at 1
                 July 1989. Age of subjects: birth to age 15
Keywords:        children, research methodology, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO135




                                                        40
                                                                                                  Cohort studies


B20.05
Title:          Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: boy’s developmental trajectories
                from age 3 to age 15
Author(s):      Moffitt, T.E.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Child Development, 1990; 61:893-910
Description:    COMMENT. This study described factors related to delinquency and attention deficit disorder
                over time. Those with both attention deficit and disorder and delinquency fared worst in all
                analyses. Their delinquency tended to begin early and persist to adolescence. Those who
                were delinquent but did not have attention deficit disorder showed less risk factors. The
                co-morbidity of attention deficit disorder and delinquency was considered to be a likely
                predictor of criminal offending beyond adolescence. Age of subjects: 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and
                15
Keywords:       antisocial behaviour, attention, children, co-morbidity, crime, criminal behaviour,
                delinquency, DSM-III disorder, Family Adversity Index, intelligence, males, reading, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO137




B20.06
Title:          Disentangling delinquency and learning disability: neuropsychological function and
                social support
Author(s):      Henry, B., T.E. Moffitt and P.A. Silva
Completed:      YES
Availability:   International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1992; 13:1-6
Description:    COMMENT. This study examined associations between delinquency, learning disability,
                neuropsychological functioning and social support. It concluded that both delinquent and
                learning disabled children suffer from language deficits. The results also suggested that poor
                verbal skills and poor social support are correlates of delinquency per se and not simply the
                result of the large number of learning disabled subjects found among delinquent samples.
                Age of subjects: 13
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, children, crime, delinquency, education, Family Environment Scale,
                intelligence, learning disability, neuropsychology, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO146




B20.07
Title:          Parental help seeking for behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and
                adolescence
Author(s):      Feehan, M., W.R. Stanton, R. McGee and P.A. Silva
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Community Health Studies, 1990; 14:303-9
Description:    COMMENT. This paper described the help that was sought by parents for behavioural and
                emotional problems. Some family and other characteristics of parents who sought help was
                also examined. The results are discussed in terms of service provision for these age groups
                within the present restructuring of the public health system in New Zealand. Age of subjects:
                5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15
Keywords:       behaviour, children, DSM-III disorder, emotional adjustment, family characteristics, health
                services, help seeking, parental characteristics, socio-economic status, youth


                                                         41
Cohort studies

Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO156




B20.08
Title:           How early can we tell?: predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent
                 delinquency
Author(s):       White, J.L., T.E. Moffitt, F. Earls and P.A. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Criminology, 1990; 28:507-33
Description:     COMMENT. This study examined the power of a variety of characteristics of the pre-school
                 child to predict anti-social behaviour at ages 11 and 15 years. After screening pre-school
                 measures for their predictive power, a discriminant function analysis was performed with the
                 five most promising pre-school predictors. This function correctly classified 81% of subjects
                 as anti-social at age 11 and 66% as delinquent at age 15. Having pre-school behaviour
                 problems was the best predictor of anti-social outcome. Age of subjects: 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13
                 and 15
Keywords:        anti-social behaviour, behaviour, children, conduct disorder, crime, delinquency, DSM-III
                 disorder, Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, intelligence, language, motor
                 development, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO157




B20.09
Title:           Early family predictors of child and adolescent antisocial behaviours: who are the
                 mothers of delinquents?
Author(s):       Henry, B., T.E. Moffitt, L. Robins, F. Earls and P.A. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health, 1993; 3:97-100
Description:     COMMENT. This paper described associations between a wide range of family and parental
                 characteristics, and antisocial behaviour. Nine family variables were found to be significantly
                 associated, with the most important being parental disagreement about how to discipline the
                 child at age 5 and many changes in the child‟s primary caretaker. Age of subjects: 3, 5, 7, 9,
                 11, 13 and 15
Keywords:        antisocial behaviour, children, delinquency, discipline, DSM-III disorder, family
                 characteristics, parental characteristics, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO198




B20.10
Title:           Unravelling girls’ delinquency : biological dispositional and contextual contributions
                 to adolescent misbehaviour
Author(s):       Caspi, A., D. Laynam, T.E. Moffitt and P.A. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Developmental Psychology, 29; 19-30
Description:     COMMENT. This paper described the contribution of variations in age of menarche,
                 childhood problem behaviour and socio-economic status on self-reported delinquency at age
                 15, with a special emphasis on the role of single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. Delinquency



                                                        42
                                                                                                  Cohort studies

                was found to be less common among girls from single-sex schools. Age of subjects: 9,11,
                13 and 15
Keywords:       behaviour, children, delinquency, females, menarche, schools, socio-economic status, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO200




B20.11
Title:          The neuropsychology of conduct disorder
Author(s):      Moffitt, T.E.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Development and Psychopathology, 1992; 5:133-49
Description:    COMMENT. This paper reviews the literature on relationships between a variety of
                neuropsychological factors, conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. Age of subjects: not
                applicable
Keywords:       antisocial behaviour, behaviour, children, conduct disorder, intelligence, neuropsychology,
                youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO206




B20.12
Title:          Reading attainment and juvenile delinquency
Author(s):      Williams, S. and R. McGee
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. In Press
Description:    COMMENT. This paper described a study involving structural equation modelling to examine
                relationships between reading attainment and anti-social behaviour at ages 7 and 9 years,
                and subsequent reading and delinquent behaviour in adolescence. Age of subjects: 7, 9 and
                15
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, children, delinquency, reading, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO208




B20.13
Title:          Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behaviour problems: from age 3 to
                age 15
Author(s):      Caspi, A., B. Henry, R.O. McGee, T.E. Moffitt and P.A. Silva
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Child Development, 1995; 66:55-68
Description:    COMMENT. This paper shows the relationship between early temperament as measured by
                behaviour observations and later behaviour problems. Significant associations were
                reported. Age of subjects: 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15
Keywords:       behaviour problems, children, temperament, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO212




                                                     43
Cohort studies


B20.14
Title:           The importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in predicting
                 adolescent substance use
Author(s):       Henry, B., M. Feehan, R. McGee, W. Stanton, T.E. Moffitt and P. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1993; 21:469-80
Description:     COMMENT. This paper reported the results of a study of the relative importance of conduct
                 problems and depressive symptoms for predicting substance use. Age of subjects: 11, 15
Keywords:        alcohol, behaviour problems, cannabis, children, depression, drugs, substance use, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO213




B20.15
Title:           Personality traits are linked to crime among males and females: evidence from a birth
                 cohort
Author(s):       Krueger, R.F., P.S. Schmutte, A. Caspi, T.E. Moffitt, K. Campbell and P.A. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1994; 103:328-38
Description:     COMMENT. This study showed links between personality and criminal behaviour. Age of
                 subjects: 18
Keywords:        children, delinquency, crime, criminal behaviour, personality, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO214




B20.16
Title:           "Life-course-persistent" and "adolescent-limited" antisocial behaviour: a
                 developmental taxonomy
Author(s):       Moffitt, T.E.
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Psychological Review, 1994; 100:674-701
Description:     COMMENT. This paper outlines Moffitt‟s theory of two types of anti-social behaviour and
                 sets out a developmental taxonomy. Age of subjects: not applicable
Keywords:        anti-social behaviour, children, crime, delinquency, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO221




B20.17
Title:           Neuropsychological tests predict persistent male delinquency
Author(s):       Moffitt, T.E., D.R. Lynam and P.A. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Criminology, 1993; 32:277-300
Description:     COMMENT. This article reports the first longitudinal evidence that neuropsychological status
                 can predict antisocial outcomes. Age 13 neuropsychological score predicted earlier onset


                                                      44
                                                                                                   Cohort studies

                delinquency and greater frequency of delinquent behaviours at age 18. Age of subjects:
                13-18
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, children, crime, delinquency, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO239




B20.18
Title:          Are some people crime-prone?: Replications of the personality-crime relationship
                across nation, gender, race and method
Author(s):      Caspi, A., T.E. Moffitt, P.A. Silva, M. Stouthamer-Loeber, R.F. Krueger and P.S. Schmutte
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Criminology, 1994; 32:163-95
Description:    COMMENT. This paper examines the relation between personality traits and crime in two
                studies - one in New Zealand and one in Pittsburgh, USA. High Negative Emotionality (the
                tendency to experience aversive affective states) and Weak Constraint (difficulty in impulse
                control) were related to delinquent behaviour. Evidence about the developmental origins and
                consequences of this personality configuration is reviewed and its implications for theories
                about antisocial behaviour are discussed. Age of Subjects: 12, 13, 18
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, children, crime, criminal behaviour, delinquency, ethnicity, gender,
                personality, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO265




B20.19
Title:          Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and non-violent criminal
                convictions: from age 3 to age 18
Author(s):      Henry, B., A. Caspi, T.E. Moffitt and P.A. Silva
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Developmental Psychology. In Press
Description:    COMMENT. This paper examines the relation between family characteristics, childhood
                temperament, and convictions for violent and non-violent criminal convictions in late
                adolescence. Family factors were associated with both types of convictions whereas
                childhood temperament was mainly associated with violent offences. The potentially distinct
                roles of social and self-regulation in the development of antisocial behaviour are discussed.
                Age of subjects: 3-18
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, childhood temperament, children, criminal behaviour, family
                characteristics, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code RO265




B20.20
Title:          Childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset antisocial conduct in males: natural
                history from age 3 to 18
Author(s):      Moffitt, T.E., A. Caspi, N. Dickson, P Silva and W. Stanton
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Development and Psychopathology, 1995; 8:399-424



                                                      45
Cohort studies

Description:     COMMENT. This paper reports data that support the distinction between childhood-onset
                 and adolescence-onset to conduct problems. Implications for theory, research design,
                 prevention and therapeutic treatment of conduct problems are highlighted. Age of subjects:
                 3-18
Keywords:        anti-social behaviour, children, conduct disorder, crime, delinquency, personality, research
                 design, violence, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO274




B20.21
Title:           Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21 year olds: bridging the
                 gap between clinical and epidemiological studies
Author(s):       Magdol, L., T.E. Moffitt, A. Caspi, D. Newman, J. Fagan and P.A. Silva
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. In press
Description:     COMMENT. This study bridged the gap between clinical and community studies of partner
                 violence by describing the epidemiology and correlates of partner violence in a sample of 21
                 year old men and women who completed the Conflict Tactics Scales. The study is the first to
                 compare dating, cohabiting and married couples representing the distribution of relationship
                 patterns among contemporary young adults. Partner violence was more likely among
                 individuals who lived with their partner, regardless of gender or marital status. By age 21,
                 many young adults have already become involved in intimate violence, making it imperative
                 that prevention programmes begin sooner. Age of subjects: 21
Keywords:        anti-social behaviour, domestic violence, gender, mental health, partner violence,
                 perpetrators, substance abuse, victims, violence
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RO277




B20.22
Title:           Cannabis use among New Zealand adolescents
Author(s):       McGee, R. and M. Feehan
Completed:       YES
Availability:    New Zealand Medical Journal, 1993 (letter).
Description:     COMMENT. This letter describes results from the study on cannabis use among sample
                 members at age 15 and 18 in support of the findings of Fergusson et al on cannabis use in a
                 sample of adolescents in Christchurch, New Zealand. Age of subjects: 15, 18
Keywords:        cannabis, children, drugs, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code RNZ67




B20.23
Title:           Predicting criminal violence: descriptive data and predispositional factors
Author(s):       Moffitt, T.E., S.A. Mednick and W.F. Gabrielli
Completed:       YES
Availability:    In Current Approaches to the Prediction of Violence, Brizer, D. and M. Crowner (Eds). New
                 York: American Psychiatric Association Press, 1988. pp13-34



                                                      46
                                                                                                Cohort studies

Description:    COMMENT. This is a literature review describing some data describing the problems and
                predisposing factors. Age of subjects: not applicable
Keywords:       aggression, children, criminal behaviour, delinquency, violence, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code CHAPT17




B20.24
Title:          Accommodating self-report methods to a low-delinquency culture: experience from
                New Zealand
Author(s):      Moffitt, T.E.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Cross National Research in Self Reported Crime, Klein, M.W. (Ed.). Dordrecht: Matinus
                Nijhoff Press, 1989. pp43-66
Description:    COMMENT. This chapter reviews methods of assessing self reports of delinquency from the
                perspective of various cultures, with reference to the Dunedin Early Self Report Delinquency
                measure (See RO125 [B20.02] for a description). Age of subjects: not applicable
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, crime, cultural differences, delinquency, tests, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code CHAPT18




B20.25
Title:          Neuropsychological studies of juvenile delinquency and violence: a review
Author(s):      Moffitt T.E. and B. Henry
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Neuropsychology of Aggression, Milner, J.S. (Ed). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
                Publishers, 1991. pp67-91
Description:    COMMENT. This review presents a critical discussion of research into neuropsychological
                characteristics and delinquency and violence. Age of subjects: not applicable
Keywords:       aggression, anti-social behaviour, crime, delinquency, neuropsychology, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code CHAPT25




B20.26
Title:          The continuity of maladaptive behavior
Author(s):      Caspi, A. and T.E. Moffitt
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Manual of Developmental Psychopathology, Cicchetti D. and D. Cohen (Eds). New York:
                Wiley, 1995. pp472-511
Description:    COMMENT. This chapter provides an overview of research on maladaptive behaviour, with
                a special emphasis on the issue of continuity. Age of subjects: not applicable
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, conduct disorder, crime, delinquency, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code CHAPT30




                                                      47
Cohort studies


B20.27
Title:           Neuropsychology, antisocial behavior and neighborhood context
Author(s):       Moffitt, T.E.
Completed:       YES
Availability:    In Growing up violent: contributions of inner-city life, McCord J. (Ed). New York: Cambridge
                 University Press.1996 (In press)
Description:     COMMENT. This chapter describes relationships between neuropsychology, anti-social
                 behaviour and environments. Age of subjects: not applicable
Keywords:        anti-social behaviour, delinquency, neuropsychology, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code CHAPT31




B20.28
Title:           Individual differences in personality and intelligence are linked to crime:
                 cross-context evidence from nations, neighbourhoods, genders, races, and
                 age-cohorts
Author(s):       Moffitt, T.E., A. Caspi, P.A. Silva and M. Stouthamer-Loeber
Completed:       YES
Availability:    In Current Perspectives on Ageing and the Life cycle, Blau, Z.S. (Ed), 1995; Vol. 4. And in
                 Delinquency and Disrepute in the Life Course, Hagen, J. (Ed.); 1995,
                 pp1-34. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press. ISBN 1-559348-367-4
Description:     COMMENT. This chapter shows that individual differences in personality and intelligence are
                 consistently related to crime. Age of subjects: 12-13, 18
Keywords:        anti-social behaviour, crime, delinquency, intelligence, personality, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code CHAPT35




B20.29
Title:           Self-reported delinquency at age 18: New Zealand’s Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health
                 and Development Study
Author(s):       Moffitt, T.E., P.A. Silva, D.R. Lynam and B. Henry
Completed:       YES
Availability:    In The International Self-Report Delinquency Project, Junger-Tas, J. and
                 G.J. Terlouw (Eds); pp356-68. Den Haag: Ministry of Justice of the Netherlands.
Description:     COMMENT. This chapter reports on a comparison of 18 year-old New Zealanders and
                 samples of similar-aged youth from other nations on self-reports of delinquent offending.
                 Age of subjects: 18
Keywords:        anti-social behaviour, crime, delinquency, offending, self-reporting, youth
Notes:           DMHDRU reference code CHAPT36




B20.30
Title:           Delinquency across development: the natural history of antisocial behaviour
Author(s):       Moffitt, T.E. and H.L. Harrington



                                                       48
                                                                                                   Cohort studies

Completed:      YES
Availability:   In From Child to Adult: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Silva,
                P.A. and W.R. Stanton, (Eds). Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1996. In Press
Description:    COMMENT. Based on research into the natural history of antisocial behaviour among
                members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, this chapter
                describes the development of a theory that can predict which delinquent teens are likely to
                progress to lives of crime and deviant behaviour. Age of subjects: N/A
Keywords:       anti-social behaviour, crime, delinquency, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code CHAPT47




B20.31
Title:          Progression in the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs
Author(s):      Stanton, W.R.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In From Child to Adult: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Silva,
                P.A. and W.R. Stanton, (Eds). Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1996. In Press
Description:    COMMENT. This chapter examines the extent of overlap in the use of tobacco, alcohol and
                cannabis during childhood and early adolescence. Prevention and intervention strategies are
                discussed in light of these findings. Age of subjects: 9-18
Keywords:       alcohol, cannabis, children, drugs, multi-drug use, prevention, tobacco, youth
Notes:          DMHDRU reference code CHAPT48




B20.32
Title:          Physical and sexual assault in New Zealand I: the experience of 21 year old
                men in the community
Author(s):      Nada-Raja, Shyamala, John Langley, Judy Martin et al
Completed:      YES, 1995
Availability:   Contact the authors, C/- Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago Medical School, P O Box
                913, Dunedin.
Description:    ABSTRACT. This paper describes the epidemiology of assault among 482 young men in the
                community during the previous twelve months. Forty-five percent reported a physical assault,
                attempt or threat. Five per cent reported a sexual assault. Nearly half of those assaulted
                reported multiple physical assaults. Strangers committed most physical assaults, but a
                person known to the victim committed most of the assaults where treatment was not
                received, the most common type of assault. Injuries due to assault were significantly
                associated with alcohol consumption by the assailant. The high proportion of men who
                reported multiple physical assaults, attempts, and threats warrants further study to determine
                the reasons for repeated victimisation. SEE notes, below.
Keywords:       alcohol, attitudes, community sample, men, physical assault, prevalence, sexual assault,
                victimisation, violent crime, youth,
Notes:          Judy Martin also provided information about a pilot study just starting, for a larger study
                planned in 1998; "Community attitudes to violence and victimisation persistence in young
                New Zealanders". To be carried out by the Injury Prevention Research Unit, it will involve
                literature review, qualitative study and quantitative study. Dependent on funding for main
                study.




                                                     49
Cohort studies


B20.33
Title:           Physical and sexual assault in New Zealand II: the experience of 21 year old
                 women in the community
Author(s):       Martin, Judy, John Langley, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Michael Feehan, Rob McGee, Judith
                 Clarke, Dorothy Begg, Maria Hutchinson-Cervantes, Terrie Moffitt and Frederick Rivara
Completed:       YES, 1995
Availability:    Contact the authors, C/- Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago Medical School, P O Box
                 913, Dunedin.
Description:     A birth cohort of 21 year old New Zealand women (n=462) was interviewed to ascertain rates
                 of both physical and sexual assault in the preceding 12 months. Twenty five percent of the
                 women reported at least one physical assault, either completed, attempted or threatened.
                 Most of the assaults receiving treatment were by a perpetrator who had been drinking
                 alcohol. Thirty women (6.5 per cent) reported sexual assaults involving completed or
                 attempted intercourse. Ten percent reported episodes of sexual touching or approaches by
                 authority figures. The most common perpetrator was someone who was known to the victim,
                 but not a partner. Partners carried out more of the physical assaults, especially those
                 receiving treatment, and strangers were responsible for most of the sexual touching
                 reported. Twenty three per cent of the physical assaults, most often threats, were carried out
                 by other women, but sexual episodes were perpetrated almost exclusively by males. This is
                 one of the few studies to allow a comparison of the characteristics of assaults of differing
                 severity and by a range of perpetrators.
Keywords:
Notes:




B20.34
Title:           Risk factors for physical assault victimisation in a community sample of 21-year olds
Author(s):       Nada-Raja, S., J.D. Langley, R. McGee, J. Martin and S. Williams
Completed:       NO, planned completion date end of 1996, planned publication mid-1997
Availability:    -
Description:     Aims. To identify risk factors for physical assault in early adulthood. Method. Prospectively
                 gathered data on mental health, antisocial behaviours, personal disadvantage, social
                 compliance and personal traits in adolescence were examined as potential risk factors for
                 victimisation at age 21 in a birth cohort of New Zealanders. Participants (women = 462 and
                 men = 482) provided details of their assaultive experiences during the previous 12 months in
                 a semi-structured interview. Results. Nearly half of the men and a quarter of the women
                 reported a physical assault. Results to date show that perpetration of violence towards
                 others and personal disadvantage are important risk factors for assault in men, and poor
                 mental health is strongly associated with victimisation in women.
Keywords:        alcohol, criminal behaviour, gender issues, health, mental health, offences, offenders,
                 personality, physical assault, socio-economic status, victimisation, victims, young parents,
                 youth
Notes:




B20.35
Title:           Risk factors for sexual assault in young New Zealand women: a prospective study
Author(s):       Martin, Judy, John Langley, Shyamala Nada-Raja and Mike Feehan
Completed:       YES, November 1996



                                                      50
                                                                                                  Cohort studies

Availability:   To be submitted to an international victimology journal
Description:    A small number of women in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study
                reported an unwanted sexual assault or unwanted sexual touching in the 12 months prior to
                their interview at age 21. Testing of risk variables that had been gathered at age 18 and age
                15 did not support the commonly held view of rape victims as having many sexual partners
                or being heavy drinkers. High negative emotionality and reporting their first sexual
                experience as pressured or forced were significantly related to victimisation.
Keywords:       rape, risk factors, sexual abuse, victimisation
Notes:




B30
COHORT STUDIES
                            Offending in a cohort of males
RESEARCH
Done by:        Joint Committee on Youth Offenders
Funded by:      Department of Social Welfare
Method:         Literature review, quantitative study
Status:         Completed

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

B30.1
Title:          One in four: offending from age ten to twenty-four in a cohort of
                New Zealand males
Author(s):      Lovell, Ron and Marion Norris
Completed:      YES, 1990
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Social Welfare, 1990. ISSN 0112-0549, ISBN 0-477-07298-4.
                Copies of the report may be obtained from Director Research, Head Office, Department of
                Social Welfare, Private Bag 21, Wellington.
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. One in Four provides a unique view of offending
                behaviour by New Zealand males. Based on the individual histories of over 25,000
                individuals who were born in New Zealand in 1957 and attending state schools in 1967, the
                study provides a reasonably accurate picture of just what proportion of the male population
                does appear in court as the result of offending and what proportion of this number
                subsequently reappear. The study is unusual in this country because its analyses are based
                on individual offending records, not on the usual official statistics... The study has
                investigated a number of issues of relevance to the New Zealand juvenile justice policy:...
                the impact of repeat offending on court workloads; the extent of individual specialisation in
                particular types of offending; the degree to which likelihood or reappearance was associated
                with aspects of prior offending history, or with prior experience of particular court outcomes;
                the degree of carry over between juvenile and later adult offending; the impact of first
                appearing at a young age on individual volumes of subsequent appearances; and whether
                the early offending histories of those who went on to become persistent offenders differed
                from the early histories of those who did not...
Keywords:       court appearance, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, offenders, prosecution, recidivism,
                youth
Notes:



                                                        51
                                                                                          Community Corrections




C010
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                             Client services in Invercargill
RESEARCH
Done by:        Invercargill Community Corrections
Funded by:      Invercargill Community Corrections
Method:         Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C010.1
Title:          Waiting time in waiting room of Community Corrections Clients
Author(s):      Invercargill Community Corrections
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   Apply to Invercargill Community Corrections, P O Box 1659, Invercargill
Description:    [Not supplied]
Keywords:       community corrections, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




C010.2
Title:          Exit questionnaire of those clients terminating supervisions
Author(s):      Invercargill Community Corrections
Completed:      YES, 1995
Availability:   Apply to Invercargill Community Corrections, P O Box 1659, Invercargill
Description:    [Not supplied]
Keywords:       community corrections, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




C015
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                    Community Care use
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice and Community Corrections
Funded by:      Department of Justice and Community Corrections



                                                     53
Community Corrections

Method:          Qualitative study, quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:          Unknown



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C015.1
Title:           The creative use of community care: a co-ordinated approach to stopping violence
Author(s):       Walker, Ross and Michael Webster
Completed:       YES
Availability:    In Private sector and community involvement in the criminal justice system, Biles, David and
                 Julia Vernon (Eds). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1994. ISBN 0 642 20156 0
Description:     This paper examined: 1. an overview of Community Care provisions in the Criminal Justice
                 Act 1985; 2. the use of the sentence in the Auckland region; 3. Inner City Group for Men
                 anger management programmes; 4. the critical success factors - judges/sponsors/
                 Community Corrections officers/offenders; 5. renewed focus on the sentence, Community
                 Liaison Officer job profile, Community Liaison Advisory Committee
Keywords:        community corrections, domestic violence, sentence administration
Notes:




C020
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                           Community development policies
RESEARCH
Done by:         Department of Justice
Funded by:       Department of Justice
Method:          Formative evaluation
Status:          Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C020.1
Title:           Community development and the Probation Service
Author(s):       Hall, Georgie and Bruce Asher
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Wellington: Department of Justice, June 1991. ISBN 0-477-07619-X
Description:     This report is essentially a formative evaluation of the Probation Division's community
                 development policies. That is to say, it examines the way in which the policies have been
                 implemented, rather than their effectiveness or overall impact... A central question identified
                 is whether community development work in probation should focus exclusively on the
                 development of programmes for offenders, or whether it should also be more broadly
                 preventive in its orientation... Overall, the researchers found much that is positive in the
                 current community work practice of the Probation Service. However, it also identified some
                 problems with current policy and its implementation.


                                                      54
                                                                                          Community Corrections

Keywords:       community corrections, community development policies, offenders, Probation Service,
                programmes, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




C030
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                  Community involvement
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C030.1
Title:          Community involvement with offenders; the community’s perspective
Author(s):      Searle, Wendy
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, 1990. ISBN 0-477-07661-0
Description:    This study reports the views and experiences of those groups and individuals involved in the
                care and treatment of offenders and by doing so seeks to: (a) describe the role that is played
                by a wide range of community sponsors with respect to their contact with the Probation
                Service and offenders on community based sentences; (b) examine the relationship between
                the Probation Service and community sponsors; and (c) identify those conditions which
                enhance the relationship between the Probation Service and community sponsors.
Keywords:       community corrections, community sponsors, offenders, sentence administration
Notes:




C035
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                Community service survey
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         YES



                                                        55
Community Corrections




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C035.1
Title:           Survey of people connected with the community service sentence
Author(s):       Leibrich J., B. Galaway and Y. Underhill
Completed:       YES
Availability:    In Community service orders in New Zealand, March 1984, pp29-156. Wellington:
                 Department of Justice ISSN 0110-5779. Associated journal articles are: Views and
                 experiences of community service sponsors in New Zealand, Leibrich J., B. Galaway and Y.
                 Underhill in Voluntary Action Leadership, Fall 1986; 12-15; and Community service
                 sentencing in New Zealand, Leibrich J., B. Galaway and Y. Underhill in Federal Probation,
                 March 1986; 55-64
Description:     ABSTRACT. A survey of people connected with the community service sentence in New
                 Zealand was carried out between April and May 1983 in seven of New Zealand's 35
                 probation districts. Four groups of people were interviewed - 42 probation officers, 65
                 community service sponsors, 68 offenders and 11 judges - to get an overall picture of the
                 way the sentence is operating and to gather the views of people most directly involved.
                 Nearly half of the probation officers thought the judge should decide if an offender should be
                 considered for community service, and the other half thought that this task should be
                 performed by probation. Probation officers thought that 37% of the offenders would have
                 been imprisoned without the availability of community service; 40% would have received
                 periodic detention; 19% would have been fined; and 3% would have received probation. The
                 experience of being a community sponsor varied a great deal. Most sponsors made some
                 qualification about the kind of person they would take on community service, although very
                 few had ever refused a placement because of an offender's personal characteristics. The
                 majority of sponsors had experienced some problem as a result of being a sponsor, most
                 commonly poor attendance by offenders, and a lack of information from probation officers.
                 Most sponsors saw reducing the use of imprisonment as an aim of community service,
                 although only just less than half thought this actually happened. The majority of sponsors
                 (88%) said their organisations benefited from their involvement in the community service
                 scheme. Among offenders, there was generally little knowledge of the community service
                 sentence prior to receiving it, although 87% were asked about and consented to the
                 sentence. Almost half of the offenders were involved in arranging a placement. Generally,
                 offenders completed their hours with a good impression of the community service sentence:
                 65% felt that it made up for their offence; 61% felt that it had kept them out of trouble. The
                 judges interviewed for this study made infrequent use of the community service sentence.
                 Most perceived its place in the tariff as between a fine and periodic detention. Community
                 service was used predominantly as an alternative to periodic detention and, to a lesser
                 extent, as an alternative to a fine. The courts sought indicators of stability and reliability in the
                 offenders being considered for community service, such as stable employment, stable
                 accommodation, or having responded positively to other community-based sentences. The
                 courts like community service because it is a flexible sentence which meets the needs of a
                 fairly small number of offenders who are not appropriate for other sanctions.
Keywords:        community corrections, criminal behaviour, rehabilitation, sentence administration,
                 sentencing, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




                                                         56
                                                                                            Community Corrections


C038
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                    Comparative recidivism for two sentences
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:           YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C038.1
Title:            Criminal history and reconvictions of two sentence groups: community service and
                  non-residential periodic detention
Author(s):        Leibrich, Julie
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In Community service orders in New Zealand, March 1984, pp3-26. Wellington: Department
                  of Justice ISSN 0110-5779
Description:      ABSTRACT. The study compares the criminal histories and subsequent reconviction
                  behaviour of New Zealand offenders who received a community service sentence and
                  offenders who received a non-residential periodic detention sentence during the same
                  period. The community service group consisted of every person who had received at least
                  one community service sentence between May and July 1981 (n=419). The periodic
                  detention group consisted of one-third of all offenders who had received at least one periodic
                  sentence during the same period (n=459). The average sentence length of the community
                  service group was 92 hours; the average sentence for the periodic detention group was five
                  months. Additional probation sentences were given to a quarter of the community service
                  group and just over one-third of the periodic detention group. Thirty-eight percent of the
                  community service group was reconvicted within one year after imposition of the community
                  service sentence, well within the Department of Justice's objectives; 59% of the periodic
                  detention group were reconvicted. When persons who were most and least likely to re-offend
                  were compared, there was no significant difference in reconviction rates between the two
                  groups. In moderate risk groups, however, the reconviction rates for persons sentenced to
                  community service were significantly lower than the rates for persons sentenced to periodic
                  detention.
Keywords:         community corrections, criminal behaviour, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing,
                  sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




C040
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                Contracting services and programme evaluations
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author


                                                       57
Community Corrections

Funded by:       Department of Corrections scholarship
Method:          Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation,
                 established programme evaluation
Status:          IN PROGRESS, expected completion date February 1998



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C040.1
Title:           Purchase of service contracting and programme evaluation in
                 Community Corrections
Author(s):       Campbell, Lesley
Completed:       NO, paper to be written in 1997, planned completion date February 1998
Availability:    -
Description:     Aims. 1. To examine in the New Zealand context the development of and the philosophy
                 underlying the relationship between the Department of Justice [Department of Corrections]
                 and non-statutory providers of services and programmes for offenders subject to sentence
                 of supervision, community programme and parole orders. 2. To examine the essence and
                 qualities inherent in a partnership and to determine the exact nature of the relationship
                 between the Department of Justice [Department of Corrections] and non-statutory providers
                 of services and programmes. 3. To explore the various statutory/non-statutory partnership
                 models adopted by corrections systems in overseas jurisdictions and to compare them with
                 the New Zealand model. 4. To compare and contrast the goals and objectives for the
                 partnership model from the statutory and non-statutory perspective and outline the issues,
                 including cultural issues, arising from purchase of service contracting. 5. To examine the
                 effectiveness of rehabilitative programmes and services offered by the non-statutory sector
                 in meeting penal policy objectives for the community-based sanctioning of offenders. 6. To
                 develop a statutory/non-statutory partnership model for purchase of service contracting for
                 correctional programmes, which includes standards for monitoring the effectiveness of
                 service delivery, to guide future policy and practice relating to the private contracting of
                 community-based sentence administration.
Keywords:        community corrections, contracting, programme effectiveness, sentence administration,
                 sentencing effectiveness, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:           Research undertaken in the context of study for a degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University
                 of Canterbury, Department of Legal Work.




C050
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                        Controlled drinking/cannabis education
RESEARCH
Done by:         Community Corrections
Funded by:       Community Corrections
Method:          Quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:          Completed




                                                       58
                                                                                          Community Corrections

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C050.1
Title:           Controlled Drinking/Cannabis Education Programme interim research
                 results - 1994
Author(s):       Campbell, Lesley
Completed:       YES, January 1995
Availability:    Contact author, Lesley Campbell, Christchurch East Community Corrections,
                 P O Box 32-150, Christchurch.
Description:     [abridged] In 1993 two Christchurch probation officers (Peter de Boer and Lesley Campbell)
                 designed the Controlled Drinking/Cannabis Education programme. The programme was
                 designed to meet the needs of young problem drinkers, who failed to respond to the
                 one-to-one counselling then offered by the Community Alcohol and Drug Service and yet
                 were not assessed as requiring a fully-residential alcohol treatment programme. Moreover,
                 the designers recognised that an abstinence programme was unrealistic for many young
                 problem drinkers. The Controlled Drinking/Cannabis Education Programme was initiated to
                 fill a gap in the alcohol and drug treatment services offered by community agencies... Three
                 programmes (held in March, June and September 1994) form the basis of this evaluation...
                 Three self-administered questionnaires were...given to participants pre-programme,
                 immediately following the programme and three months following treatment. Additional
                 information was gathered from referral forms, supervision files, Wanganui Computer lists,
                 and from discussions with supervising probation officers.
Keywords:        alcohol, community corrections, correctional programme evaluation, drugs, youth
Notes:




C060
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                Court report recommendations and sentencing
RESEARCH
Done by:         Author
Funded by:       -
Method:          Literature review, quantitative study
Status:          Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C060.1
Title:           Court reports: a study
Author(s):       Shadbolt, Maureen
Completed:       YES, February 1990
Availability:    Apply to the author, Maureen Shadbolt, Waitakere Community Corrections Office, P O Box
                 21050, Henderson, (09) 837-0148.
Description:     ABSTRACT. This study examines research into probation officers' recommendations in
                 pre-sentence reports and dispositions subsequently made. A sample of probation officers'
                 reports from both the Henderson and Auckland District Probation Offices, taken over a


                                                         59
Community Corrections

                 period of a year, provided basic data. The major issues addressed were whether probation
                 officers were using a range of community based sanctions in their recommendations, and
                 whether there was any consistency between probation officers' recommendations and
                 judges' sentencing. A selection of literature on sentencing policy was reviewed with
                 reference to the debate on custodial versus non-custodial penalty. This debate is highly
                 relevant for government policy, and for those charged with its implementation. Recent
                 research, mostly of overseas origin, on the nature and context of the pre-sentence report
                 was also discussed. The conclusions indicate that probation officers are not fully utilising all
                 available community based sanctions. There were very few recommendations for community
                 care. Almost one-quarter of sentences recommended and imposed were for periodic
                 detention, and it may well be that a certain proportion of these are being imposed at a
                 "higher-tariff" level than warranted. There was a strong correspondence between
                 recommendations and sentencing: the major differences lay in judges' sentencing [being]
                 more severe than the penalty recommended.
Keywords:        case processing, community corrections, courts, judiciary, offenders, sentencing, system
                 efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:           Research project for post-graduate Dip.Soc.Res. at The University of Auckland.




C063
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                  Habilitation Centres pilot
RESEARCH
Done by:         Author
Funded by:       Department of Corrections in association with the Ministry of Justice
Method:          Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:          IN PROGRESS, expected completion date July 1998



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C063.1
Title:           Evaluation of Habilitation Centres Pilot Programme [working title]
Author(s):       Dr David Yeboah
Completed:       NO, planned completion date July 1998
Availability:    Will be Department of Corrections publication
Description:     The programme is a new initiative involving the early release of certain offenders to an
                 Habilitation Centre on parole. The purposes of the centres are to provide residential
                 programmes which identify and address the causes of the individual's offending, contribute
                 to the successful re-integration of offenders into the community, foster community
                 involvement in the provision of programmes to offenders, and reduce re-offending.
Keywords:        community safety, community corrections, habilitation, offences, parole, probation,
                 rehabilitation, re-integration, sentence administration, sentencing effectiveness,
Notes:




                                                       60
                                                                                            Community Corrections


C065
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                          Home detention
RESEARCH
Done by:        Ministry of Justice
Funded by:      Ministry of Justice in association with Department of Corrections
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date February 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C065.1
Title:          Evaluation of home detention [working title]
Author(s):      Church, Alison
Completed:      NO, planned completion date February 1997
Availability:   Will be Ministry of Justice publication.
Description:    Between 1995-1997, the Department of Corrections is piloting home detention as a parole
                programme which aims to ease the transition into the community of inmates who would
                otherwise have remained in prison. The evaluation will assess the effectiveness of the pilot
                and assess whether home detention can be extended to a national system. Specific
                evaluation objectives are (a) to describe: the operation of the pilot; the views, roles, and
                relationships of key personnel; the views and experiences of detainees and their families;
                the use and impact of electronic monitoring; the rates of completions and breaches; and the
                rates of re-offending by detainees; and (b) to assess whether netwidening is occuring; to
                compare relative costs of home detention; to assess the impact on family
                members.Information will be gathered from: interviews with detainees, families, employers
                and a range of key informants; case records; activities logs; and the Wanganui computer
                database.
Keywords:       community corrections, electronic surveillance, home detention, offenders, parole, probation,
                rehabilitation, reintegration, sentence administration, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




C070
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                           Influences on sentencing trends
RESEARCH
Done by:        Community Corrections
Funded by:      Community Corrections
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed




                                                       61
Community Corrections

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C070.1
Title:           Sentencing trends: an examination of policy and other influences on the sentences of
                 periodic detention, supervision and community service
Author(s):       Campbell, Lesley
Completed:       YES, October 1995
Availability:    Contact author, Lesley Campbell, Christchurch East Community Corrections,
                 P O Box 32-150, Christchurch.
Description:     This paper focuses on the extent to which the Department of Corrections' responses have
                 influenced sentencing trends which "contain expenditure" and explores alternative, external
                 influences that may impede or enhance these strategies.
Keywords:        community corrections, sentencing trends
Notes:




C080
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                              Job Search Skills Programme
RESEARCH
Done by:         Community Corrections
Funded by:       Community Corrections
Method:          Quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:          Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C080.1
Title:           Job Search Skills Programme: October/November 1994 evaluation report
Author(s):       Campbell, Lesley
Completed:       YES, November 1994
Availability:    Contact author, Lesley Campbell, Christchurch East Community Corrections,
                 P O Box 32-150, Christchurch.
Description:     INTRODUCTION [abridged]. A prediction study, undertaken by staff at the Christchurch
                 Office of the Department of Justice's Psychological Services, concluded that employment
                 status was a principal factor resulting in recidivism for the target population. In light of this
                 information, the community liaison co-ordinators with the Christchurch East and West
                 Community Corrections Offices initiated negotiation with New Zealand Employment Service
                 staff to run an employment programme for offenders sentenced to community-based
                 sanctions. In February 1994 a Job Wise Programme was offered to Community Corrections
                 clients. Although the number of participants was small, a follow-up evaluation, based on
                 employment and recidivism outcomes indicated some positive results. As a result of these
                 outcomes, negotiations continued between Community Corrections and New Zealand
                 Employment Service staff to develop an employment programme specially designed to meet
                 the employment needs of offenders, the Job Search Skills programme... The objectives of
                 this report are three-fold: 1. To examine the target population of an employment-related


                                                       62
                                                                                         Community Corrections

                programme in terms of demographic, sentencing and employment-related information. 2. To
                evaluate the process of facilitating an employment-related programme in partnership with
                New Zealand Employment Services. 3. To examine the views of those offenders referred in
                terms of commitment to attendance and impressions of the course content... Nineteen
                offenders subject to the community-based sanctions of supervision or parole were referred
                to the Job Skills Programme... All those referred to the programme completed the referral
                form.
Keywords:       community corrections, correctional programme evaluation, crime prevention, employment,
                recidivism, rehabilitation
Notes:




C090
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                   Job-Wise Programme
RESEARCH
Done by:        Community Corrections
Funded by:      Community Corrections
Method:         Quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C090.1
Title:          Job-Wise Programme report: March 1994
Author(s):      Campbell, Lesley
Completed:      YES, March 1994
Availability:   Contact author, Lesley Campbell, Christchurch East Community Corrections,
                P O Box 32-150, Christchurch.
Description:    Developed by the New Zealand Employment Service, Job-Wise is a programme designed to
                empower the long-term unemployed. Job-wise helps participants find direction in their
                search for work. The seminar stresses assertiveness, decision making and goal setting in
                addition to job seeking skills, as a basis for increasing an individual's success in finding
                employment. In March 1994 staff from the New Zealand Employment Service facilitated a
                Job-Wise programme at the Christchurch West Community Corrections Office. The
                programme was run over two days. Essentially, this was a pilot programme with a number of
                evaluative objectives: 1. to ascertain the need for an employment-related programme; 2. to
                gauge the participants' response to the facilitation and design of the programme; 3. to
                evaluate the effectiveness of the Job-Wise programme with respect to (a) changes in
                employment-related attitudes and behaviours, and (b) changes in recidivism rates... A
                self-administered structured questionnaire was used, and additional information was
                gathered from referral forms, supervision files, Wanganui Computer lists, and from
                discussions with supervising probation officers and New Zealand Employment Services staff.
Keywords:       community corrections, correctional programme evaluation, employment, rehabilitation
Notes:




                                                    63
Community Corrections




C100
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                      Level B qualification
RESEARCH
Done by:         Author
Funded by:       -
Method:          Literature review, qualitative study
Status:          IN PROGRESS, expected completion date November/December 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C100.1
Title:           An evaluation of the level B policy as a pre-entry criteria into
                 Community Corrections
Author(s):       Wilkinson, T.
Completed:       NO, planned completion November, December 1996
Availability:    -
Description:     -
Keywords:        community corrections, Maori, qualifications for probation officers, social workers
Notes:




C120
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                   Priority projects, 1993-1994
RESEARCH
Done by:         Author
Funded by:       Department of Corrections
Method:          Pilot programme evaluation
Status:          Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C120.1
Title:           Evaluation of 1993-1994 priority projects (working title)
Author(s):       Langthaller, A.
Completed:       NO, draft report prepared, draft policy paper being written.



                                                        64
                                                                                           Community Corrections

Availability:   On completion, from Department of Corrections.
Description:    Evaluation of special driving offender and parole offender programmes funded in 1993-1994,
                including measuring re-offending rates. Analysis of descriptive and processed data returned
                by providers, and Wanganui data.
Keywords:       community corrections, recidivism, sentence administration, traffic offences
Notes:




C130
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                           Probation officers' submissions
RESEARCH
Done by:        Community Corrections, Hamilton
Funded by:      Community Corrections, Hamilton
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C130.1
Title:          Evaluation of probation officers oral submissions to court: views of officers, judges
                and probation officers
Author(s):      Driver, Ruth P., Lisa J. Hickling, Nikki D. Limmer and Rebekah J. Pratt
Completed:      YES, October 1995
Availability:   Contact Ministry of Justice Information Services Centre, Ministry of Justice, P O Box 180,
                Wellington.
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [excerpts]. The aims of the evaluation were to assess the level of:
                offender satisfaction with Hamilton probation officers' oral submissions to court, Hamilton
                District Court judges' satisfaction with the process of probation officers' oral submissions to
                court and Hamilton probation officers' satisfaction and views on oral submissions to District
                Court. In addition we aimed to document the process of probation officers' oral submissions
                to court which have been used in the Hamilton courts since 1993. Oral reporting was thought
                to save time, to make the process of the reporting more transparent, and to make the
                information more accessible for the offender. Twelve offenders participated in both the
                pre-sentence and post-sentence interviews which employed a semi-structured format.
                Twenty probation officers completed the anonymous questionnaire. Four Hamilton District
                Court judges were interviewed in the evaluation. The interviews were semi-structured and
                two researchers were present at each interview.
Keywords:       case processing, community corrections, courts, judiciary, probation officers, prosecution,
                system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:          Authors were graduate students, Department of Psychology, University of Waikato.




                                                     65
Community Corrections


C140
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                             Psychiatric clients in Waitakere
RESEARCH
Done by:         Author
Funded by:       Work related (Department of Community Corrections)
Method:          Quantitative study
Status:          Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C140.1
Title:           Psychiatric clients in the Waitakere Community Corrections District
Author(s):       Shadbolt, Maureen
Completed:       YES, late 1995
Availability:    Apply to the author, Maureen Shadbolt, Waitakere Community Corrections Office, P O Box
                 21050, Henderson, (09) 837-0148.
Description:     [abridged] Objectives. To investigate the district's psychiatric clients determining numbers,
                 demographic information, and available community resources, as well as recommending
                 guidelines for the management and supervision of such clients. Methodology. All probation
                 officers carrying a generic caseload were interviewed personally using a schedule of
                 questions; comment was also obtained from the Court Servicing Team, the Community
                 Service Team and Unit Managers.
Keywords:        community safety, community corrections, offenders, psychiatric health, rehabilitation,
                 sentence administration, sentencing, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




C145
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                      Reducing re-offending
RESEARCH
Done by:         Department of Justice
Funded by:       Department of Justice
Method:          Qualitative study
Status:          YES




                                                      66
                                                                                             Community Corrections

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C145.1
Title:          A study of the Probation Division's perception of its role in reducing reoffending
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, April 1991. No ISBN assigned.
Description:    A survey of national and regional managers, all 36 district probation officers and 55 field staff
                in 8 districts examined the role of the Probation Division in reducing re-offending. It traced
                the mission and goals of the division defined at management level and looked at how
                sensible these seemed to field staff. In virtually all interviews both management and field
                staff saw the aim of reducing re-offending as desirable. Although few could say whether the
                Division reduced re-offending, most stressed the importance of believing that the aim could
                be achieved. It is suggested that this belief is the emotional raison d‟être of the Probation
                Division. Most managers and field staff said that problems which lead to offending need to
                be identified and resolved - the rehabilitative theory. Punishment and maturity were the other
                main explanations of what reduces re-offending. Some saw this as a consequence of
                intervention, others simply as a natural phenomenon. Most said many factors were involved
                and interventions need to be matched to the person. Management and field staff described
                the work of Probation Officers as offering rehabilitative opportunities within the context of
                enforcing sentences. The professional social work skills of Probation Officers were
                described as valuable attributes in virtually all interviews. One of the most important aspects
                of case-work was thought to be the nature of the relationship between the Probation Officer
                and the client. Field staff discussed at length the kinds of qualities that are present in good
                case-work. Most field staff said they did not know if they were successful. They saw success
                with clients not merely in terms of a final outcome of not re-offending but in the many gradual
                and subtle changes that a person may make during the term of a sentence. They assessed
                the success of their work with clients mainly by intuition and guesswork.
Keywords:       community corrections, offenders, recidivism, rehabilitation, sentence administration, system
                efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




C150
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                          Remand versus same-day reports
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Department of Justice by way of part-time study assistance
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C150.1
Title:          Policy, planning, outputs and outcomes: a Community Corrections Division study
Author(s):      Garwood, Keith A.



                                                      67
Community Corrections

Completed:       YES
Availability:    Copy passed to National Manager, Community Corrections in approximately February 1994.
                 Copy available in WP6.1 for Windows format from author, 87 Maungaraki Road, Korokoro,
                 Lower Hutt.
Description:     ABSTRACT [abridged]. ... This thesis examines the topic of policy, planning, outputs and
                 outcomes by reference to a key Community Corrections Division objective which seeks
                 (under conditions of fiscal restraint) a reduction in the number of resource intensive remand
                 reports provided to courts and a commensurate increase in the number of briefer same-day
                 reports. The research method involved: (a) interviews with Departmental managers to gain
                 their views on the issues which are currently shaping Community Corrections Division
                 management planning; (b) a comparative quantitative study of compliance and conviction
                 seriousness among 230 offenders who were sentenced, following either a remand or a
                 same-day report, to periodic detention, community service or supervision in the Lower Hutt
                 and Upper Hutt District Courts between May and October 1992; and (c) interviews with
                 sub-groups of offenders and the people who supervised their sentences to provide a
                 qualitative assessment of process and sentence outcomes. Five notable findings emerged
                 from this study. First, the managers accept the prominence of fiscal restraint among the
                 environmental matters affecting strategic planning, but preferred to see this as an exercise in
                 providing value for money. Second, the offender and supervisor interviews show that
                 same-day reports were not an inferior method of providing information to courts where the
                 punitive sentence of periodic detention was clearly indicated, but that same-day reports were
                 less suitable than remand reports where the sentences of community service and
                 supervision were recommended and ordered. With community service the offender's
                 knowledge of the sentence and therefore their ability to give informed consent to the
                 sentence was of concern, while the quality of the caseplans, and the limited number of
                 positive qualitative changes which followed were noteworthy with the same-day supervision
                 sentences. Third, just under half (46.1 percent) of all the offenders in the study were
                 convicted of at least one imprisonable offence during the twelve month follow-up period, with
                 the percentages being greater for the same-day members of each sentence type group. The
                 percentages ranged from a high of 63.6 percent reconvictions for the periodic detention
                 same-day group to a low of 20.1 percent for the community service remand group. Fourth,
                 among the community service groups, more of those who had been sentenced following a
                 same-day report went on to commit offences of the same or more seriousness during the
                 follow-up period than was the case with the remand report group. This finding is the more
                 surprising because the characteristics of these recidivist same-day offenders might be
                 expected to put them in a lower risk of re-offending category than their counterparts in the
                 remand group. Fifth, compliance with community-based orders appears to have no
                 predictive value as far as subsequent reconvictions are concerned. This finding must be of
                 concern to the Government as purchaser of services, because certain levels of compliance
                 are among the outputs that they are currently purchasing from the Community Corrections
                 Division. That particular output, it appears, may be ineffective in producing the outcomes
                 which are held to be the blueprint for a better society.
Keywords:        community corrections, offenders, public policy, sentence administration, sentencing,
                 sentencing effectiveness, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:           Thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University.




C160
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                        Sentence administration effectiveness
RESEARCH
Done by:         Community Corrections
Funded by:       Community Corrections


                                                      68
                                                                                        Community Corrections

Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C160.1
Title:          Monitoring termination sheets: the quality and effectiveness of sentence
                administration
Author(s):      Campbell, Lesley
Completed:      YES, June 1995
Availability:   Contact author, Lesley Campbell, Christchurch East Community Corrections,
                P O Box 32-150, Christchurch.
Description:    Aim. To measure quality and effectiveness of sentence administration.
Keywords:       community corrections, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




C170
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS
                                 Supervision programmes
RESEARCH
Done by:        Community Corrections
Funded by:      Community Corrections
Method:         Quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

C170.1
Title:          The use of programmes in the sentence of supervision
Author(s):      Campbell, Lesley
Completed:      YES, December 1995
Availability:   Contact author, Lesley Campbell, Christchurch East Community Corrections,
                P O Box 32-150, Christchurch.
Description:    Aim. To examine the rehabilitative component of the sentence of supervision, i.e. internal
                versus external providers. Methodology. Survey questionnaire.
Keywords:       community corrections, programming, rehabilitation, sentence administration
Notes:




                                                    69
Community Corrections




                        70
                                                                                           Courts and sentencing




D010
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                             Boot camps
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D010.1
Title:          Giving boot camps the boot
Author(s):      Walters, R. and A. Morris
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Criminology No. 4, September 1995. Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria University
                of Wellington
Description:    Reviews research on the effectiveness of boot camps.
Keywords:       boot camps, recidivism, sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, youth
Notes:




D020
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                      Capital punishment
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, interviews
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D020.1
Title:          Capital punishment in New Zealand: an experiment that failed
Author(s):      Newbold, Greg
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Deviant Behaviour, 1990; 11(2):155-74


                                                       71
Courts and sentencing

Description:      ABSTRACT. In 1935 New Zealand became one of the first nations in the world to abandon
                  the death penalty for murder. Fifteen years later capital punishment was recalled before
                  being withdrawn again in 1950. Existence of the scaffold had little effect on the nation's
                  homicide figures. It did, however, impact heavily on the individuals charged with
                  administering the penalty, and through them on prison management as a whole. The current
                  research arises out of a more comprehensive study of the history of the maximum security
                  prison in New Zealand, based on archival material and on the firsthand reports of prison
                  officers and inmates. In the context of a society which is currently experiencing a "wave" of
                  violent crime, the paper questions not only the efficacy of capital punishment, but also the
                  consequences of its application for the penal system at large.
Keywords:         capital punishment, death penalty, fear of crime, murder, prison inmates, prisons, sentence
                  administration, sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, system efficiency/effectiveness, violent
                  crime
Notes:




D030
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                         Child sexual abuse expert witnesses
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D030.1
Title:            Child sexual abuse study: role of expert witnesses in criminal trials
Author(s):        Whitney, Lynne, and Angela Cook
Completed:        YES, 1988
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, 1988. ISBN 0-477-07202-X
Description:      The report has three parts: (a) a literature review to examine the "state of the art" with
                  respect to the dynamics and behavioural symptoms of sexual abuse, the diagnostic
                  interview, and developmental psychology, as they relate to evidence and/or advice given by
                  a child specialist to the court in cases of sexual abuse; (b) an investigation into what role
                  child psychologists and other child specialists are presently playing the criminal court
                  process; (c) interviewing child psychologists and others involved in child sexual abuse cases
                  to investigate the types of evidence that could be provided, the acceptability of such
                  evidence and other roles that specialists could play in the court process.
Keywords:         adjudication, child sexual abuse, courts, expert witnesses, prosecution, sexual abuse,
                  system efficiency/effectiveness, victims, witnesses
Notes:




                                                         72
                                                                                               Courts and sentencing


D040
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                    Child witnesses–registrars' perspective
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department for Courts
Funded by:      Department for Courts on behalf of the Courts Consultative Committee's
                sub-committee on child witnesses
Method:         Survey, using structured questionnaires
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D040.1
Title:          Survey of Court Registrars on the practice and facilities available for child witnesses
Author(s):      Department for Courts
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Contact Communications Manager, Department for Courts, P O Box 2750, Wellington. Fax
                (04) 494-8820
Description:    -
Keywords:       child complainants, child witnesses, closed circuit television, courts, court facilities, evidence,
                prosecution, screens, sexual abuse, system efficiency/effectiveness, victims, videotaped
                evidence, witnesses
Notes:




D050
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                   Child witnesses review
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Health Research Council
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion at end of 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D050.1
Title:          Courtroom questioning of child witnesses who allege sexual abuse
Author(s):      Davies, Emma
Completed:      YES, April 1996


                                                       73
Courts and sentencing

Availability:     Contact author, Psychology Department, The University of Auckland,
                  Private Bag 92-019, Auckland, or The Library, Department for Courts,
                  P O Box 2750, Wellington.
Description:      [Not provided]
Keywords:         child witnesses, closed circuit television, courts, education, lawyers, legislation impacts,
                  screens, sexual abuse, system efficiency/effectiveness, victims, videotaped evidence,
                  witnesses, youth
Notes:




D060
COURTS AND SENTENCING
           Child witnesses–children's and carers' perspectives
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        Health Research Council, The University of Auckland, and Department for Courts
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 1998



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D060.1
Title:            Report to Working Party on Child Witnesses
Author(s):        Davies, Emma
Completed:        YES, January 1996
Availability:     Contact author, Psychology Department, The University of Auckland,
                  Private Bag 92-019, Auckland, or The Library, Department for Courts,
                  P O Box 2750, Wellington.
Description:      Consultation with police, social workers, evidential interviewers, counsellors and medical
                  practitioners involved in cases of child sexual abuse in the Auckland region. Consultation
                  conducted for Working Party on Child Witnesses (established by Courts Consultative
                  Committee) to highlight the key issues that practitioners believe need to be addressed for
                  child witnesses within the remit of existing legislation.
Keywords:         child witnesses, sexual abuse, victims, witnesses, youth
Notes:




D060.2
Title:            Child witnesses: a review of the literature
Author(s):        Davies, Emma
Completed:        YES, April 1996




                                                         74
                                                                                               Courts and sentencing

Availability:   Contact author, Psychology Department, The University of Auckland,
                Private Bag 92-019, Auckland, or The Library, Department for Courts,
                P O Box 2750, Wellington.
Description:    1. Literature review for Working Party on Child Witnesses includes literature on education for
                court, modes of evidence, questioning of children. 2. Article linking literature on child
                witnesses to UN Convention on Rights of the Child.
Keywords:       child witnesses, courts, sexual abuse, victims, witnesses, youth
Notes:




D070
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                      Child witnesses: lawyers' perspective
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department for Courts
Funded by:      Department for Courts, Crown Law Office
Method:         Postal survey using structured questionnaires
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D070.1
Title:          Surveys of law practitioners on the law and practice for child witnesses
Author(s):      Department for Courts
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Limited - Summary of findings prepared for Courts Consultative Committee, Department for
                Courts, P O Box 2750, Wellington.
Description:    Law and practice with respect to child witnesses, particularly child complainants in sexual
                abuse cases, from the perspective of Crown Solicitors and defence counsel. Please note
                very small samples; three responses from defence counsel and 11 from Crown Solicitors.
Keywords:       child complainants, child witnesses, closed circuit television, court facilities, courts,
                legislation impacts, screens, sexual abuse, system efficiency/effectiveness, victims,
                videotaped evidence, witnesses
Notes:




D080
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                  Closed-circuit television
RESEARCH



                                                       75
Courts and sentencing

Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Qualitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D080.1
Title:            The use of closed-circuit television in New Zealand courts: the first six trials
Author(s):        Whitney, Lynne and Angela Cook
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, December 1990. ISBN 0-477-07613-0
Description:      The primary purpose of the law reforms providing for the use of closed-circuit television and
                  other modes of giving evidence is to minimise stress on the complainant in child sexual
                  abuse cases. The indications from these trials are that the use of closed-circuit television did
                  relieve some stress, allowing witnesses to give evidence more freely. Although the
                  conclusions are necessarily tentative because of the small number of occasions involved,
                  the general view from these trials has been that they have successfully piloted this method of
                  presenting evidence to court.
Keywords:         closed-circuit television evidence, courts, prosecution, child sexual abuse, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, victims, witnesses
Notes:




D085
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                         Community service sentence profile
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:           YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D085.1
Title:            Use of community service orders: offenders, offences, and sentence
Author(s):        Leibrich J., B. Galaway and Y. Underhill
Completed:        YES, 1984
Availability:     In Community service orders in New Zealand, March 1984, pp3-26. Wellington: Department
                  of Justice ISSN 0110-5779. Associated journal articles is The use of community service
                  orders, Leibrich, J. in Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 1985; 18:85-94



                                                        76
                                                                                            Courts and sentencing

Description:    ABSTRACT. The community service sentence was introduced in New Zealand in February
                1981. Community service of not less than eight hours and not more than 200 hours may be
                imposed on any person convicted of an offence punishable by imprisonment who consents
                to its use. The sentence is administered by the Probation Division of the Department of
                Justice. Data are presented to describe community service participants. The population
                studied included 50% of all persons who received a community service sentence during the
                first 21 months of its use (n=1,534). Women and Maori were over-represented in community
                service sentences. Over half the offences (55%) for which people were sentenced to
                community service were property offences, with traffic offences (27%) the second most
                common group, followed by offences against the person (16%) and against justice (2%). The
                average sentence length was 89 hours, with approximately a quarter of the group (24%)
                being given over 100 hours of community service. Women received shorter sentences than
                men. An additional sentence of probation, disqualification or fine was given to just over half
                (52%) of the group.
Keywords:       community corrections, criminal behaviour, offences, offenders, sentence administration,
                sentencing
Notes:




D090
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                               Conviction and sentencing
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice, Ministry of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice, Ministry of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, ongoing



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D090.1
Title:          Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1981 to 1990
Author(s):      Spier, Philip, Pamela Southey and Marion Norris
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, 1991. ISBN 0-477-07623-8
Description:    Analysis of trends in the types of offences resulting in convictions and the sentences
                imposed, over the last decade. Each Conviction and Sentencing report includes one or more
                special topics where an examination was made of a particular issue. The examinations are
                usually one-off, and are included in the report so that the information is available to a wider
                audience. Special topic in this edition was: trends in cases which are discharged without
                conviction under Section 19 of the Criminal Justice Act 1985.
Keywords:       adjudication, crime statistics, drug offences, drugs, fines, good order offences, legislation
                impacts, offence seriousness, offences, offences against the administration of justice,
                offenders, prison inmates, property offences, prosecution, sentencing, sex offences, traffic
                offences, traffic offences, violent crime, youth offenders
Notes:




                                                      77
Courts and sentencing


D090.2
Title:            Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1982 to 1991
Author(s):        Spier, Philip, Marion Norris and Pamela Southey
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, 1992. ISBN 0-477-07646-7, ISSN 1172-0638
Description:      Analysis of trends in the types of offences resulting in convictions and the sentences
                  imposed, over the last decade. Special topics: offenders serving a substitute sentence for
                  failing to pay a monetary penalty; sentencing for offences involving driving causing death or
                  injury over the period 1986 to 1990; and the effect on pleas of two new pieces of legislation
                  concerned with complainants' evidence in sex offence cases.
Keywords:         adjudication, crime statistics, drug offences, drugs, fines, good order offences, legislation
                  impacts, offence seriousness, offences, offences against the administration of justice,
                  offenders, prison inmates, property offences, prosecution, sentencing, sex offences, traffic
                  offences, traffic offences, violent crime, youth offenders
Notes:




D090.3
Title:            Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1983 to 1992
Author(s):        Spier, Philip and Marion Norris
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, 1993. ISBN 0-477-07667-X, ISSN 1172-0638
Description:      Analysis of trends in the types of offences resulting in convictions and the sentences
                  imposed, over the last decade. Special topics: the proportion of imposed prison sentences
                  which are served; and the effect on court statistics of the introduction of the police pre-trial
                  diversion scheme.
Keywords:         adjudication, crime statistics, drug offences, drugs, fines, good order offences, legislation
                  impacts, offence seriousness, offences, offences against the administration of justice,
                  offenders, prison inmates, property offences, prosecution, sentencing, sex offences, traffic
                  offences, traffic offences, violent crime, youth offenders
Notes:




D090.4
Title:            Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1984 to 1993
Author(s):        Spier, Philip
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, 1994. ISBN 0-477-07681-5, ISSN 1172-0638
Description:      Analysis of trends in the types of offences resulting in convictions and the sentences
                  imposed, over the last decade. Special topics: comparison of imprisonment rates in New
                  Zealand and Australia; and examination of trends in offending by "older" people i.e. aged 35
                  or over.
Keywords:         adjudication, crime statistics, drug offences, drugs, fines, good order offences, legislation
                  impacts, offence seriousness, offences, offences against the administration of justice,
                  offenders, prison inmates, property offences, prosecution, sentencing, sex offences, traffic
                  offences, traffic offences, violent crime, youth offenders
Notes:




                                                        78
                                                                                              Courts and sentencing




D090.5
Title:          Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1985 to 1994
Author(s):      Spier, Philip
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Ministry of Justice, 1995. ISSN 1172-0638
Description:    Analysis of trends in the types of offences resulting in convictions and the sentences
                imposed, over the last decade. Special topics: the use of suspended sentences of
                imprisonment in the 1994 calendar year, the first full year since the introduction of the
                sentence in New Zealand from 1 September 1993; the proportion of sentence served by
                people eligible for parole after serving one-third of the sentence imposed; the use of
                reparation as a sentence over the period 1991 to 1994; and examination of trends in
                prosecutions for young adults i.e. aged 17 to 20 years old.
Keywords:       adjudication, crime statistics, drug offences, drugs, fines, good order offences, legislation
                impacts, offence seriousness, offences, offences against the administration of justice,
                offenders, prison inmates, property offences, prosecution, reparation, sentencing, sex
                offences, traffic offences, traffic offences, violent crime, youth offenders
Notes:




D090.6
Title:          Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1986 to 1995
Author(s):      Spier, Philip
Completed:      NO, planned completion date November 1996
Availability:   Wellington: Ministry of Justice, 1996. ISSN 1172-0638
Description:    Analysis of trends in the types of offences resulting in convictions and the sentences
                imposed, over the last decade. Special topics: use of suspended imprisonment sentences;
                use of reparation; and changes in the seriousness of offending.
Keywords:       adjudication, crime statistics, drug offences, drugs, fines, good order offences, legislation
                impacts, offence seriousness, offences, offences against the administration of justice,
                offenders, prison inmates, property offences, prosecution, reparation, sentencing, sex
                offences, traffic offences, traffic offences, violent crime, youth offenders
Notes:




D110
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                      Counter customers survey, Manawatu
RESEARCH
Done by:        Team Consultants Ltd.
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, [quantitative study]
Status:         Completed



                                                          79
Courts and sentencing




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D110.1
Title:            Customer service survey in central region
Author(s):        Team Consultants Ltd
Completed:        YES, 1993
Availability:     Apply to Mike Askew, Change Project Office, Department for Courts,
                  Palmerston North.
Description:      INTRODUCTION [abridged]. In 1992, all courts in the region participated in a survey of the
                  number of attendances at the counter. That survey was completed over an eight week
                  period. The survey discloses that over this period, there were 31,441 attendances or an
                  average of 806 each day throughout the region. Of these attendances, 2,460 were by
                  customers who made enquiries on matters that did not relate to court business. Later that
                  same year, three courts participated on a survey of the number of telephone calls received
                  during a four week period. These volumes clearly indicate the volume of contact with
                  customers. It also clearly indicates that if the courts are to be successful in their operations,
                  there must be a clear focus of meeting the needs of their customers. In 1993, a survey was
                  carried out by T.E.A.M. consultants to ascertain the level of customer service provided in
                  each court to customers attending in person at the counter and to those who telephone the
                  particular office. Each court in the region was surveyed and each was visited a number of
                  times in person or staff spoken to by telephone.
Keywords:         access to justice, attitudes, courts, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D120
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                           Court customers' services review
RESEARCH
Done by:          -
Funded by:        Department for Courts
Method:           Literature review
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date, 31 July 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D120.1
Title:            The provision of court services for court customers in New Zealand: a literature
                  review and annotated bibliography
Author(s):        Knaggs, Patricia
Completed:        YES, June 1996
Availability:     Contact Communications Manager, Department for Courts, P O Box 2750, Wellington. Fax
                  (04) 494-8820




                                                        80
                                                                                            Courts and sentencing

Description:    Aim. To find out what literature said about operational needs of New Zealand court
                customers and the extent to which these needs have been addressed; a preliminary stage of
                implementing the Customer Services Improvement Programme for Department for Courts.
                Methodology. Collected literature through literature searches and written requests. Findings.
                Some groups, such as victims and judiciary had their operational needs addressed
                frequently in the literature, while other customers, such as police and defendants, had not
                been covered. However, there was a factor here - if more time available, more searches
                could have been undertaken.
Keywords:       access to justice, case processing, courts, education, ethnic issues, gender issues, human
                rights, lawyers, judiciary, juries, Maori, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, prosecution,
                system efficiency/effectiveness, victims, white-collar crime, witnesses, youth
Notes:




D120.2
Title:          The provision of court services for court customers in Australia, Canada and the
                United Kingdom: a literature review and annotated bibliography
Author(s):      Knaggs, Patricia
Completed:      YES, July 1996
Availability:   Contact Communications Manager, Department for Courts, P O Box 2750, Wellington. Fax
                (04) 494-8820
Description:    Aims. To determine the extent to which operational needs of court customers in Australia,
                Canada and the United Kingdom have been addressed in the literature. Part of development
                and implementation of Customer Services Improvements Programme for Department for
                Courts in New Zealand. Methodology. Literature searches and information requests.
Keywords:       access to justice, attitudes, bias, case processing, courts, education, ethnic issues, gender
                issues, human rights, lawyers, judiciary, juries, media, offenders, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victims, white-collar crime, witnesses, youth
Notes:




D130
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                     Courthouse facilities
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice for the Courts Consultative Committee
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D130.1
Title:          Courthouse facilities: current situation and initiatives
Author(s):      Courts Consultative Committee


                                                        81
Courts and sentencing

Completed:        YES, 1995
Availability:     Contact The Secretary, Courts Consultative Committee, Department for Courts,
                  P O Box 2750, Wellington.
Description:      1. Survey on courthouse facilities (on the provision of services and facilities in courts
                  nationwide undertaken in April 1994). 2. Report on the survey results dated 22 June 1995
                  produced. 3. Report dated 8 February discussing strategies to improve the provision of
                  services and facilities identified in the report of June 1995 on courthouse facilities.
Keywords:         case processing, community safety, courts, gender issues, health, human rights, Maori,
                  Pacific Islands peoples, prosecution, restorative justice, system efficiency/effectiveness,
                  victims, witnesses
Notes:




D140
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                          Criminal legal aid
RESEARCH
Done by:          Centre for Research, Evaluation and Social Assessment
Funded by:        Legal Services Board
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, interviews, [established programme
                  evaluation]
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D140.1
Title:            In the interests of justice: an evaluation of criminal legal aid in New Zealand
Author(s):        Saville-Smith, K., G. Newbold, G. Allan, B. Calkin, L. French, D. Young, N. Parata and B.
                  McCombs
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Legal Services Board, 1995
Description:      This project looked at the costs, effectiveness and administration of Criminal Legal Aid in
                  New Zealand. It identified the strong and weak points of the current system and made
                  numerous recommendations for change. Surveyed focus groups, key informant interviews,
                  systems review, literature search.
Keywords:         access to justice, adjudication, courts, lawyers, judiciary, legal aid, prosecution, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D140.2
Title:            Legal services needs and provision
Author(s):        -



                                                        82
                                                                                              Courts and sentencing

Completed:      NO, planned completion date January 1997
Availability:   -
Description:    The Board is seeking to create a demographic profile of those groups in the community who
                are likely to experience barriers to accessing legal services; to identify their service needs
                and to identify the location and nature of legal services currently being provided.
Keywords:       access to justice, education, legal aid, legal needs, legal services, Maori, Pacific Islands
                peoples, youth
Notes:




D150
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                       Custodial remands
RESEARCH
Done by:        Young and Cameron, Policy and Research Consultants
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D150.1
Title:          Custodial remands: practice and policy options
Author(s):      Young, W. and N. Cameron
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   Contact Ministry of Justice, P O Box 180, Wellington
Description:    Aims. To look at reform options in custodial remands - practice and policy options.
                Methodology. Empirical data obtained on nature of the custodial remand population and
                length of stay.
Keywords:       adjudication, case processing, courts, custodial remands, length of stay
Notes:




D160
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                         District Court Status Hearing Pilot
RESEARCH
Done by:        Evaluation Associates
Funded by:      Department for Courts


                                                       83
Courts and sentencing

Method:           Pilot programme evaluation
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date end of 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D160.1
Title:            Evaluation of Auckland District Court Status Hearing Pilot
Author(s):        Jakob-Hoff, Maggie and Bruce Cropper
Completed:        NO, planned completion date end of 1996
Availability:     Not decided
Description:      The objectives of the project are to evaluate: how the pilot scheme is currently operating,
                  and any possible improvements; the extent to which the stated objectives of the pilot scheme
                  are being met; overall cost effectiveness of the pilot and cost implications for professionals
                  and parties involved in the scheme; resource and other implications for possible
                  implementation in other courts (such as training needs etc.). The research will involve
                  interviews and questionnaire surveys of pilot participants and stakeholder representatives,
                  and quantitative data analysis of case based information.
Keywords:         case processing, courts, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D170
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                       District Court workload
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D170.1
Title:            Incoming district court workload
Author(s):        Hong, Bev
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, November 1988. ISBN 0-477-07242-9
Description:      The purpose of this project was to establish the recent trends in the number of incoming
                  workload items and judge sitting times, and to predict future workload figures to 1990, for the
                  various jurisdictions of the District Court. Difficulties were experienced with the accuracy of
                  the statistics collected by the courts. The study used recent incoming workload trends for
                  prediction. This assumes that factors influencing the most recent trend will remain consistent
                  over the next few years.



                                                       84
                                                                                              Courts and sentencing

Keywords:       adjudication, courts, District Court, forecasting and modelling, judiciary, prediction, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, workload
Notes:




D180
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                    Duty Solicitor scheme
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:      Legal Services Board
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study, [established programme evaluation]
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D180.1
Title:          First line of defence: the work of the duty solicitor
Author(s):      Maxwell, G.M., J.P. Robertson and A. Morris
Completed:      [YES]
Availability:   Wellington: Legal Services Board, March, 1994. 110pp. Apply to Legal Services Board, P O
                Box 5333, Wellington. Summary of the views of the 112 interviewed defendants presented in
                Criminology No. 2, October 1994.
Description:    ABSTRACT. The Duty Solicitor scheme is a central and fundamental part of access to
                justice in New Zealand. The goal for this study was to describe the way in which the scheme
                currently operates, and to evaluate its effectiveness. The study reports on observations of 43
                duty solicitors speaking to 301 defendants in 5 court areas; it reports on interviews with 112
                defendants; it presents data on observations of unrepresented defendants and interviews
                with key professionals and service providers. The findings emphasise the importance of the
                role assumed by the duty solicitor, the support systems provided by the court, the training of
                the duty solicitors, and the system of management of District Courts' criminal lists. Specific
                recommendations include detail on how changes in duty solicitor instructions and District
                Court procedures could considerably improve the quality of advice and the access to justice
                for criminal court defendants. The report also discusses particular needs for Maori and
                Pacific Islands defendants.
Keywords:       access to justice, courts, lawyers, legal aid, legal services, Maori, offenders, Pacific Islands
                peoples, prosecution, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




                                                       85
Courts and sentencing


D190
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                   Ethnicity and gender bias
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        -
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D190.1
Title:            Effect of ethnicity and gender on sentencing
Author(s):        Deane, H.
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In Criminology No. 3, 1995. Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of
                  Wellington
Description:      This article is based on part of a PhD thesis which set out to examine the effects on
                  sentencing of ethnicity and gender.
Keywords:         bias, courts, ethnic issues, gender issues, Maori, sentencing
Notes:            Also PhD thesis.




D210
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                           Impact of Criminal Justice Act 1985
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D210.1
Title:            The impact on sentencing of the Criminal Justice Act 1985
Author(s):        Spier, Philip and Francis Luketina
Completed:        YES, 1988
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, September 1988. ISBN 0-477-07231-3


                                                        86
                                                                                             Courts and sentencing

Description:    This report examines the effect of the Criminal Justice Act 1985 on sentencing, by
                comparing sentencing before and after its introduction, in particular, the sentencing of violent
                and property offenders. Since 1985 there have been some changes to custodial sentencing
                which are in line with what was expected to result from the legislative provisions introduced
                in the Act, especially in sections 5, 6, and 7. Other changes to sentencing are contrary to
                what was expected. There was an increase in the proportion of serious violent offenders
                given a custodial sentence in 1986, as expected under section 5 of the Act, but for a number
                of individual serious violent offences there were unexpected decreases in this proportion in
                1987. However, only for injuring or wounding and robbery was this decrease sufficient to
                reduce the proportion of offenders given a custodial sentence to a level below that seen prior
                to the introduction of this Act. There were increases in the average custodial sentence
                lengths imposed on serious violent offenders, as was expected under section 5, but in
                addition there were unexpected increases for most other offences. There have been
                decreases in the proportion of property offenders given a custodial sentence as expected
                under section 6 of the Act, but there had been a larger decrease in 1985, prior to the
                introduction of the new Act, and the decreases in 1987 were unexpectedly also observed for
                most other types of offence, including some violent offences.
Keywords:       crime statistics, legislation impacts, offenders, property offences, sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




D220
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                     Imprisonment trends
RESEARCH
Done by:        Victoria University of Wellington
Funded by:      Victoria University of Wellington, and E.S.R.C. (U.K.)
Method:         Literature review, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D220.1
Title:          The use of imprisonment: trends and cross-national comparisons
Author(s):      Young, Warren and Mark Brown
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Crime and justice: an annual review of justice, 1993; Vol. 17. University of Chicago Press.
Description:    Looking at trends and influences upon the use of imprisonment both within jurisdictions over
                time and between one jurisdiction and another. Attempts to advance some preliminary
                explanations for the differences in the use of imprisonment.
Keywords:       prisons, punishment, sentence administration, sentencing, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




                                                        87
Courts and sentencing


D230
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                             Juror excusals
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department for Courts Case Processing
Funded by:        Department for Courts
Method:           Literature review, quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date August 16, 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D230.1
Title:            [Juror excusals]
Author(s):        -
Completed:        NO, planned completion date 16 August 1996
Availability:     Undecided, to be reviewed on completion of the report.
Description:      The objectives of the project are to provide research findings which will inform us of the
                  manner in which the juror excusal system is currently operating in New Zealand courts. In
                  particular: to examine the rates of and categorise the excusals which are requested; to
                  examine the reasons within the categories (especially in relation to employment); to compare
                  the percentage of and categories of excusals requested and granted between courts; to
                  provide a percentage breakdown of the reasons why summonsed jurors are not
                  subsequently available to serve on a jury (summons not received, excusals (written
                  excusals, other than written), exemptions, non-attendance without notification); and if time
                  permits to consider the results with respect to the existing protections for employees
                  summonsed for jury service and whether these are adequate AND the criteria that might
                  apply for approval or denial of requests for excusal by both employers and employees. A
                  content analysis will be undertaken on court files from a sample of 10 courts from 8 court
                  regions. The information to be analysed will be for the last trial week in September 1995,
                  December 1995, January 1996 and March 1996.
Keywords:         case processing, courts, excusal criteria, excusals, exemptions, juries, jury management
                  system, jury service, jury summons
Notes:




D240
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                        Jurors’ experiences
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        -
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date February 1997


                                                          88
                                                                                              Courts and sentencing




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D240.1
Title:          A study of jurors’ experiences in New Zealand
Author(s):      Palmer, Rachel
Completed:      NO, planned completion date February 1997
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Library, P O Box 600, Wellington.
Description:    Objectives. 1. To gather a range of information from jurors who have recently served on
                juries in New Zealand. In particular, to enquire about jurors' subjective experience in relation
                to their safety and general well-being during and after jury service. 2. To determine the
                nature and extent of juror stress in a population of New Zealand jurors. In particular, to
                explore the physical, psychological and emotional impact of serving on trials involving violent
                and sexual offences. 3. To survey jurors' opinions on formal counselling and de-briefing
                services. 4 At the completion of this research, to be able to provide practical suggestions
                and recommendations which ultimately may be used to improve the experiences of jurors
                and subsequently improve the quality of the justice process. Method of data collection. A
                survey of jurors using structured anonymous postal questionnaires. The sample will consist
                of approximately 468 jurors who served on 39 trials during the year 1 August 1995 to 31 July
                1996 involving mandatory indictable violent and sexual offences.
Keywords:       counselling, courts, debriefing, evidence, health, juries, jury service, safety, sexual offences,
                stress, trauma, victimisation, victims, violent offences
Notes:          M.A.(Applied) Criminal Justice thesis, Victoria University of Wellington.




D250
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                Jurors' satisfaction survey
RESEARCH
Done by:
Funded by:      Courts Executive of the Department of Justice
Method:         Questionnaire sent to selected jurors
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D250.1
Title:          Jurors' concerns and the jury system
Author(s):      Department of Justice
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Contact Communications Manager, Department for Courts, P O Box 2750, Wellington. Fax
                (04) 494-8820
Description:    Objective was to find out reactions of jurors to serving on a jury. Jurors in a number of
                selected courts were given a questionnaire to complete. These were returned and the results
                analysed. Generally jurors were satisfied but there was room for improvement in areas such
                as information provided and payments made.

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Courts and sentencing

Keywords:         attitudes, case processing, courts, juries, jurors' concerns, jury administration, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D255
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                              Jurors’ stress
RESEARCH
Done by:          Wellington Victim Support Group
Funded by:        -
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study
Status:           Completed, December 1995



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D255.1
Title:            Jurors: victims of the criminal justice system - an issues paper
Author(s):        Palmer, Rachel
Completed:        YES
Availability:     From author, or Victim Support, Police National Headquarters, Wellington
Description:      The Wellington Victim Support Group commissioned this research after becoming
                  increasingly concerned about the level of stress and trauma experienced by jurors on certain
                  trials. Anecdotal evidence and research studies indicate that jurors may experience elevated
                  levels of stress as a result of jury service, with possible negative consequences to both their
                  physical and mental health. The researcher interviewed ten Wellington jurors and consulted
                  with court officials and victim support groups throughout New Zealand. The paper explores
                  the concept of juror victimisation by discussing the nature, extent and impact of juror stress.
                  Possible criminal justice responses are discussed in relation to improving conditions for
                  jurors and alleviating stress and trauma through assistance to distressed jurors. In particular,
                  the paper recommends the establishment of jurors‟ rights; pre-trial orientation and
                  instructions to jurors; and post-trial debriefing to minimise the impact of traumatic jury
                  service.
Keywords:         counselling, courts, debriefing, evidence, health, juries, safety, stress, trauma, victimisation,
                  victims
Notes:            Submission to the Hon. Douglas Graham, Minister of Justice on changes and additions to
                  court procedures in relation to jurors‟ rights, preparation and debriefing.




                                                         90
                                                                                           Courts and sentencing


D260
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                          Jury composition
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D260.1
Title:          Trial by peers: the composition of New Zealand juries
Author(s):      Dunstan, S., J. Paulin and K. Atkinson
Completed:      YES, July 1995
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice. ISBN 0-477-07691-2
Description:    ABSTRACT. The survey findings and interviews with judges, lawyers and court staff suggest
                that juries are not representative of our communities. Significant groups were found to be
                under-represented both because of the way the jury pool was assembled and because of the
                way challenges were used. Three quarters of the people summonsed for jury service did not
                attend. A further one third of those balloted for juries were challenged by counsel who used a
                wide range of assumptions when deciding who to challenge. Prosecution and defence
                counsel demonstrated distinctly different patterns of challenge. The results have implications
                for the way we select our juries and also for the concept of trial by peers.
Keywords:       adjudication, courts, juries, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D270
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                      Jury trials caseflow
RESEARCH
Done by:        Industrial Research Ltd
Funded by:      Department of Justice Court Executive
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed




                                                        91
Courts and sentencing

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D270.1
Title:            Trends, backlogs and clearance rates in jury trials: January 1990 - June 1994
Author(s):        Barr, Hugh and Matthew Hobbs
Completed:        YES, 1994
Availability:     Auckland: Industrial Research Limited, 1994. Contact Department for Courts Library, P O
                  Box 2750, Wellington.
Description:      Purpose of this study is to analyse, manage and reduce maximum waiting times and court
                  backlogs in the Waikato region. Attempts to determine the cause(s) of delay in jury trial
                  processing using quantitative methods. The report recommended the use of additional
                  judges to address the workload and temporary judges to bring the cases then outstanding
                  down to a more manageable level.
Keywords:         access to justice, case processing, clearance rates, court backlogs, crime statistics,
                  forecasting and modelling, judiciary, juries, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D270.2
Title:            Estimated additional judge jury days and courts required (November 1994)
Author(s):        Barr, Hugh and Matthew Hobbs
Completed:        YES, 1994
Availability:     Auckland: Industrial Research Limited, 1994. Contact Communications Manager,
                  Department for Courts, P O Box 2750, Wellington. Fax (04) 494-8820.
Description:      [See previous entry]
Keywords:         access to justice, case processing, crime statistics, forecasting and modelling, judiciary,
                  juries, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D280
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                      Maori justice practices
RESEARCH
Done by:          Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:        Legal Research Foundation
Method:           Qualitative study
Status:           Completed




                                                        92
                                                                                              Courts and sentencing

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D280.1
Title:          Maori justice practices
Author(s):      Tauri, J. and A. Morris
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Criminology No. 4, September 1995. Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria
                University of Wellington
Description:    This paper summarises the findings of a small scale qualitative project based on interviews
                with around 50 kaumatua and kuia about how Maori communities dealt with offenders in the
                recent past and how Maori justice practices might work today in urban areas.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, ethnic issues, Maori
Notes:          See also Maori justice: possibilities and pitfalls, in Rethinking Criminal Justice, May 1995;
                Vol. 1; Legal Research Foundation




D290
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                    Media access to courts
RESEARCH
Done by:        Massey University
Funded by:      Department for Courts
Method:         Pilot programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date mid-1998



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D290.1
Title:          Evaluation of television, radio and still photography of court proceedings pilot
Author(s):      Kimberley, Allan and Judy McGregor
Completed:      NO, planned completion date mid-1988
Availability:   Undecided
Description:    The objectives of the project are to evaluate the efficiency of the operating procedure
                established and the impact of television, radio and still photography coverage of court
                proceedings on the general public and trial participants. The research will involve content
                analysis of news presentations, interview and questionnaire surveys with pilot participants
                and key stakeholder representatives, and surveying of public perception of the pilot.
Keywords:       access to justice, case processing, courts, media
Notes:




                                                      93
Courts and sentencing


D300
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                        Modelling the criminal justice system
RESEARCH
Done by:          Ministry of Justice
Funded by:        Ministry of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date December 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D300.1
Title:            Modelling the criminal justice system of New Zealand (working title)
Author(s):        Triggs, Sue
Completed:        NO, planned completion date 1998
Availability:     Probable Ministry of Justice publication
Description:      The aim of this project is to produce a statistical model of the criminal justice system. The
                  model will simulate the flow of offenders through the court system from prosecution to
                  sentencing. The model examines how different offences and offenders flow through the
                  system, including their sentencing outcomes and potential 'recidivism' (reconviction) rates.
                  The model documents past trends and predicts future trends for different offence groups and
                  demographic groups.
Keywords:         adjudication, case processing, courts, crime statistics, enforcement, forecasting and
                  modelling, Maori, offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, property offences,
                  prosecution, recidivism, system efficiency/effectiveness, traffic offences, violent crime
Notes:




D310
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                            Night hearings
RESEARCH
Done by:          Rivers Buchan Associates
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation,
                  established programme evaluation
Status:           Completed




                                                        94
                                                                                             Courts and sentencing

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D310.1
Title:          Night courts: report to the Department of Justice on the evaluation of pilot night court
                hearings
Author(s):      Rivers Buchan Associates
Completed:      YES, February 1995
Availability:   Contact Communications Manager, Department for Courts, P O Box 2750, Wellington. Fax
                (04) 494-8820
Description:    INTRODUCTION [abridged]. The pilot night hearings operated from July 18 to November 18
                in Christchurch and Otahuhu District Courts. They included Disputes Tribunal and Minor
                Traffic Courts... The objectives for the evaluation were: to assess how effectively the
                programme was meeting its own objectives; to estimate the proportion of clients who would
                potentially benefit from a night court system in each piloted jurisdiction; to identify areas for
                improvement in the night court system; to identify the salient features of the night court
                system that should be extended to a national system; to identify those jurisdictions which
                could be most effectively managed within a night court system; to describe the operation of
                the night court system (including demographic information about the court clients); to assess
                the impact of the night court system on key personnel; to compare the relative costs of the
                pilots with each other and with the status quo (daytime).
Keywords:       access to justice, case processing, courts, gender issues, hearings, system
                efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




D315
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                      Offending seriousness and sentencing
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D315.1
Title:          Changes in the seriousness of offending and in the pattern of sentencing: 1979 to
                1988
Author(s):      Spier, Philip, Francis Luketina and Susan Kettles
Completed:      YES, 1991
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, August 1991. ISBN 0-477-07622-X
Description:    This report presents the development and application of a new seriousness of offence scale.
                This scale is based on court sentencing data for the period 1984 to 1987. The seriousness
                score assigned to each offence was the average number of days of imprisonment imposed
                on every offender convicted of that offence between 1984 and 1987, where the average was


                                                      95
Courts and sentencing

                  taken over both imprisoned and non-imprisoned offenders. "Seriousness" is as defined by
                  the courts, but the ranking is complicated by the fact that offender characteristics other than
                  the crime committed have not been taken into account. It is claimed, nevertheless, that the
                  offence scale is a useful tool for ranking offences, and that it can be used in applications
                  where trends in offending or sentencing over time are being examined, or where
                  comparisons are being made between the offending backgrounds of two groups of
                  offenders.
Keywords:         crime statistics, offences, offenders, sentencing, seriousness of offending
Notes:




D318
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                          Processing of sexual offence cases
RESEARCH
Done by:          Policy and research, Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D318.1
Title:            Time taken to process sexual offence cases through the courts
Author(s):        Lash, Barb
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Contact author, Ministry of Justice, P O Box 180, Wellington.
Description:      Using Wanganui Computer data, this paper examines the time that courts take to finalise
                  sexual offence cases, particularly those involving younger victims. The paper groups the
                  cases into three categories, those involving victims less than 12 years old, those involving
                  victims between 12 and 16 years old, and those involving victims over 16 years old. The
                  paper also places emphasis on cases where a not-guilty plea was entered as these cases
                  will have involved a trial or judicial hearing... It is clear that despite the judicial practice note
                  urging that cases involving a child victim be dealt with expeditiously, when a not-guilty plea is
                  entered, such cases take longer on average than those involving an older victim. It is outside
                  the scope of this research to identify the characteristics of cases involving a younger victim
                  that lead to longer court processing times.
Keywords:         case processing, courts, crime statistics, gender issues, offences, prosecution, sexual
                  abuse, victims
Notes:




                                                          96
                                                                                           Courts and sentencing


D320
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                      Psychiatric assessment of defendants
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Healthlink South
Method:         Quantitative study, retrospective study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date November 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D320.1
Title:          Psychiatric assessments and outcomes of offenders at the Christchurch District
                Court: a five year study
Author(s):      Roberts, Joan
Completed:      NO, planned completion date November 1996
Availability:   Publication date undecided, details available after November 1996.
Description:    Assessments, outcomes, referral agents, of approximately 1,000 defendants at the
                Christchurch Court, referred to court liaison nurse.
Keywords:       courts, forensic psychiatry, health, offenders, psychiatric assessment, psychiatric outcomes
Notes:




D340
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                      Public attitudes to restorative justice I
RESEARCH
Done by:        MRL Research Group
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D340.1
Title:          Public attitudes to restorative justice
Author(s):      MRL Research Ltd
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Department of Justice, September 1995. ISBN 0-477-07689-0


                                                     97
Courts and sentencing

Description:      To find out what the public think about the administration of justice, and, in particular,
                  restorative justice. Focus group discussions.
Keywords:         attitudes, restorative justice, sentencing options
Notes:




D341
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                        Public attitudes to restorative justice II
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice, Ministry of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice, Ministry of Justice
Method:           Literature review
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D341.1
Title:            Public attitudes toward restorative justice
Author(s):        Lee, Angela
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In Hudosn, Joe and Burt Galaway (Eds) Restorative justice: international perspectives
                  Amsterdam: Kugler Publications. 1996.
Description:      -
Keywords:         attitudes, restorative justice
Notes:




D350
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                            Restitution by property offenders
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study with follow-up
Status:           Completed




                                                        98
                                                                                            Courts and sentencing

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D350.1
Title:          Restitution imposed on property offenders in New Zealand courts: a study of orders
                and compliance
Author(s):      Galaway, Burt and Walton Walker
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Department of Justice Study Series 14, November 1985. ISSN 0110-5779
Description:    This research was undertaken to provide contemporary data regarding the extent to which
                restitution is imposed by New Zealand Courts. Part I principally examines the proportion of
                property offences resulting in loss to victims and the subsequent number resulting in
                restitution orders being imposed by the court. It also looks at offender characteristics and
                conviction details to assess which persons are ordered to pay restitution and to assess the
                views regarding restitution presented to judges for consideration prior to sentencing. Part II
                involves a follow-up of persons who were identified in the first study as being ordered to pay
                restitution. It looks at the status of these offenders one year after sentence, examines the
                factors relative to those who had fully complied with the order and those who had not, and
                tries to ascertain the nature of any enforcement problems.
Keywords:       offenders, property offences, reparation, restitution orders, sentence administration,
                sentence compliance, sentencing, victims
Notes:




D360
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                      Restorative justice traditional models
RESEARCH
Done by:        Office of the Commissioner for Children
Funded by:      Office of the Commissioner for Children
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D360.1
Title:          Some traditional models of restorative justice from Canada, South Africa and Gaza
Author(s):      Maxwell, Gabrielle
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Re-thinking Criminal Justice, Vol. 1, McElrea F.W.M. (Ed). Auckland: Legal Research
                Foundation. ISBN 0-908581-75-0. pp57-60
Description:    INTRODUCTION. I have recently had the opportunity to gain some knowledge of traditional
                models among indigenous peoples in several different parts of the world. They are diverse in
                the way they are organized and the psychological effects on participants both within the
                same culture and across cultures. I want to briefly describe three of these models and then
                to discuss the issues that arise from comparing them.



                                                      99
Courts and sentencing

Keywords:         alternative justice systems
Notes:




D370
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                 Samoan restorative justice
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Qualitative study, survey
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D370.1
Title:            Ifoga: a research paper conducted in Western Samoa
Author(s):        Anisi, Kisa
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Available from Waitakere Community Corrections Office, P O Box 21050, Henderson, (09)
                  837-0148.
Description:      An account of fa'asamoa which relates to the perception of reparation and the central
                  mechanism through which it is effected - Ifoga.
Keywords:         alternative justice systems, ethnic issues, Pacific Islands peoples, reparation, restorative
                  justice, victims
Notes:




D380
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                           Sentencing patterns in Henderson
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        Work related (Department of Community Corrections)
Method:           Quantitative study, survey
Status:           Completed




                                                       100
                                                                                              Courts and sentencing

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D380.1
Title:          Investigation of sentencing patterns, Henderson, 1 June 1991 - 31 May 1992
Author(s):      Shadbolt, Maureen
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   Apply to the author, Maureen Shadbolt, Waitakere Community Corrections Office, P O Box
                21050, Henderson, (09) 837-0148.
Description:    INTRODUCTION [abridged]. Objective was to investigate sentencing patterns in order to
                ascertain the feasibility of targeting those offenders suitable for community care sentences in
                Henderson, Auckland. Pre-sentence reports over a 12 month period were investigated.
Keywords:       community corrections, offenders, rehabilitation, sentence administration, sentencing,
                sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




D390
COURTS AND SENTENCING
                                 Sentencing to reparation
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

D390.1
Title:          Sentencing to reparation: implementation of the Criminal Justice Act 1985
Author(s):      Galaway, Burt and Philip Spier
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, September 1992, ISBN 0-477-07640-8
Description:    The Criminal Justice Act 1985 introduced the sentence of reparation whereby whenever
                possible the offender should compensate the offended-against for the loss or damage of
                property which occurred through the commission of the offence. In 1987, the Criminal
                Justice Act was amended so that reparation could also be ordered in cases involving
                emotional harm. These provisions, together with the provision for the payment of part or all
                of a fine to crime victims who have suffered physical or emotional harm as a result of a
                criminal act, provide a comprehensive sentencing package for compensating victims. This
                paper examines the use made of these provisions. In 1991 there were 53,732 convictions for
                property offences, 19% of which resulted in a sentence of reparation. In the same year there
                were 9,593 convictions for violent offences, 2% of which resulted in a sentence of reparation.
                A number of violent offenders were fined and the judge ordered that part or all of the fine be
                paid to the victim. This occurred for 6% of the convictions involving violent offences in 1991.
Keywords:       crime statistics, fines, legislation impacts, offenders, reparation, sentencing


                                                      101
Courts and sentencing

Notes:            First author is Professor in the Faculty of Social Work, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.




                                                      102
                                                                                            Crime prevention




E010
CRIME PREVENTION
                            A women's self defence course
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit with Christchurch Safer Community Council
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E010.1
Title:          Self defence programme evaluation, Christchurch 1995
Author(s):      MacGibbon, Lesley
Completed:      YES, October 1995
Availability:   Crime Prevention Unit Report, 1995. Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55,
                Wellington.
Description:    Research aims. An evaluation aimed to enable funders to evaluate effectiveness of self
                defence courses in reducing the level of fear in women and girls in Christchurch and to
                assess whether the self defence courses are meeting their stated objectives. Methodology.
                Used questionnaires pre- and post-course for participants with 1 year follow-up on sample.
Keywords:       crime prevention, fear of crime, self-defence, sexual abuse, victims
Notes:




E020
CRIME PREVENTION
                   Alcohol and drug services in Canterbury
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit with Christchurch Safer Community Council
Method:         Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E020.1
Title:          Canterbury Community Council on Alcohol and other Drugs: an evaluation
Author(s):      MacGibbon, Lesley


                                                    103
Crime prevention

Completed:         YES, March 1996
Availability:      Crime Prevention Unit Report, March 1996. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                   P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:       Process and outcome evaluation.
Keywords:          alcohol, co-ordination of services, drugs
Notes:




E030
CRIME PREVENTION
                        Anger management/Stopping violence
RESEARCH
Done by:           Community Corrections
Funded by:         Community Corrections
Method:            Quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:            Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E030.1
Title:             Anger management/Stopping violence programmes - evaluation report, Christchurch
                   Community Corrections
Author(s):         Campbell, Lesley
Completed:         YES, January 1995
Availability:      Contact author, Lesley Campbell, Christchurch East Community Corrections,
                   P O Box 32-150, Christchurch.
Description:       INTRODUCTION [abridged]. The present project has been designed to shed some light on
                   questions critical for policy makers, and to guide Christchurch Community Corrections
                   management. The following questions are addressed: 1. Who is the target population for
                   Stopping Violence programmes undertaken during 1992/93? 2. Are the Stopping Violence
                   programmes effective? 3. How much does it cost to provide Stopping Violence programmes
                   for offenders? 4. What are the costs of the various intervention options relative to their
                   effectiveness? The study centres on two forms of evaluation research. First, an impact
                   evaluation, which assesses the extent to which a particular programme causes changes in
                   the desired direction in the target population. Second, a cost-effectiveness analysis, which
                   studies the relationship between programme costs and outcomes, and expressed in terms of
                   costs per unit of outcome achieved.
Keywords:          community corrections, correctional programme evaluation, crime prevention, domestic
                   violence, rehabilitation, Stopping Violence programmes
Notes:




                                                        104
                                                                                         Crime prevention


E040
CRIME PREVENTION
                                Community Safety Profiles
RESEARCH
Done by:        Safer Community Councils
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, ongoing



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E040.1
Title:          Community safety profiles [generic description]
Author(s):      Safer Community Councils
Completed:      YES/NO: 45 Profiles are completed, more being produced
Availability:   Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Crime prevention local needs analyses, covering demographics, socio-economic status,
                crime statistics, activities in place to reduce/prevent crime, issues to be addressed.
Keywords:       community safety, crime prevention, crime statistics
Notes:




E050
CRIME PREVENTION
                                   Crime prevention plans
RESEARCH
Done by:        Safer Community Councils
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit
Method:         -
Status:         IN PROGRESS



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E050.1
Title:          Crime prevention plans [generic description]
Author(s):      Safer Community Councils
Completed:      YES and NO
Availability:   Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.




                                                      105
Crime prevention

Description:       Strategic crime prevention plans. Analysis of internal and external environments, set out
                   mission statements, goals, objectives, targets and performance measures, within the seven
                   key areas of the National Crime Prevention Strategy.
Keywords:          community safety, crime prevention
Notes:




E060
CRIME PREVENTION
                                 Crime reduction advertising
RESEARCH
Done by:           NZ Police and MRL Research Group
Funded by:         NZ Police
Method:            Quantitative study
Status:            Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E060.1
Title:             Recall of crime reduction advertising by New Zealand Police, November 1993
Author(s):         NZ Police and MRL Research Group
Completed:         YES, November 1993
Availability:      Contact NZ Police College Library, Porirua.
Description:       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. There is a very high recall of the recent police advertising
                   campaign among New Zealanders, with 85% recalling some advertising without any
                   prompting. The Crimeline campaign received the highest unprompted recall, reflecting the
                   timing of advertising immediately after the October phase of the freephone. One quarter of
                   those interviewed recalled the Crimeline campaign and one in five the Neighbours
                   campaign. The Victims campaign had lower unprompted recall at one in ten. However, to
                   some extent this reflects difficulty in differentiating descriptions of this advertisement from
                   other past police campaigns as well as the fact that this was the least recent campaign,
                   having been screened a couple of months before interviewing. When prompted, between
                   two thirds and 90% of respondents recalled each advertisement. As well as having high
                   recall, the three campaigns also had good impact, with each one raising awareness of what
                   can be done to reduce crime among more than half those interviewed.
Keywords:          attitudes, crime prevention, crime reduction, enforcement, media, police, publicity
                   campaigns, victims
Notes:




E060.2
Title:             Recall of crime reduction advertising by New Zealand Police, March 1994
Author(s):         NZ Police and MRL Research Group
Completed:         YES, March 1994



                                                        106
                                                                                                 Crime prevention

Availability:   Contact NZ Police College Library, Porirua.
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Overall, recall of crime reduction advertisements is high with
                between 71% to 84% of respondents recalling advertisements relating to: an alcohol and
                crime link; a woman alerting police of suspicious activity; home security whilst away on
                holiday. The Home Security Campaign received the highest level of recall with 84% mention.
                This advertisement also had the highest level of influence whereby almost half of those who
                had seen it said they had taken some action that may help reduce crime. This reflects the
                timeliness of that campaign, screening over the Christmas holiday period. Amongst those
                who were aware of the advertisements, all three campaigns raised awareness of what
                people could do to reduce crime. Up to half of those aware of each advertisement said they
                had taken some action which might help reduce crime as a result of having seen the
                advertisement.
Keywords:       alcohol, attitudes, crime prevention, crime reduction, enforcement, media, police, publicity
                campaigns
Notes:




E060.3
Title:          Recall of advertising by New Zealand Police January 1995
Author(s):      NZ Police and MRL Research Group
Completed:      YES, 1995
Availability:   Contact NZ Police College Library, Porirua.
Description:    Measure of public awareness of and responses to police advertising campaigns with respect
                to Neighbours Week, alcohol use, crime prevention, and family violence. Telephone surveys
                of national randomly selected samples. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [excerpt]: The Family
                Violence campaign has a continuing high level of awareness amongst New Zealanders, with
                90% stating they have heard or seen the campaign. This level of awareness is similar to the
                September 1994 results when the campaign was at its peak. The campaign continues to be
                successful in changing New Zealanders' attitudes to family violence, with 31% claiming a
                change in attitude. Of the other four police advertisements evaluated, the advertisement
                about home security while on holiday had the highest recall, with 88% stating they had heard
                or seen it. Recall of the advertisements about getting to know your neighbour and calling the
                police if suspicious was also high, with 76% and 72% respectively stating they had seen or
                heard them. Compared to the other three police advertisements, recall of the beach party
                advertisement was low at 41%, however awareness of the advertisement was higher
                amongst its target of young people aged 15 to 25 years (59%). This level of recall is also
                good given the shorter time frame that it has been screening compared with the other
                campaigns. As well as having high recall, these four advertisements also made a good
                impact, with each one raising awareness of what can be done to reduce crime and also in
                getting people to implement behavioural change.
Keywords:       alcohol, attitudes, community safety, crime prevention, domestic violence, enforcement,
                family violence, media, police, publicity campaigns
Notes:




                                                     107
Crime prevention


E070
CRIME PREVENTION
                            Development and political influence
RESEARCH
Done by:           Author
Funded by:         -
Method:            Literature review, qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation, established programme
                   evaluation
Status:            Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E070.1
Title:             The development of crime prevention in New Zealand: the political influence
Author(s):         Bradley, Trevor
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Request from author at Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington.
Description:       Trace development, critically appraise the role of politics/rationalities etc. Critical evaluation
                   of potential of crime prevention strategy. Literature review, interviews with policy staff, crime
                   prevention teams, focus groups etc.
Keywords:          community partnership, costs of crime, crime prevention, crime statistics, domestic violence,
                   fear of crime, government co-ordination, multi-agency, political rationalities, politics, property
                   offences, safer community councils, system efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation
Notes:




E070.2
Title:             Crime prevention research [title yet to be confirmed]
Author(s):         Bradley, Trevor
Completed:         NO
Availability:      -
Description:       Ongoing doctorate research into crime prevention in New Zealand
Keywords:          community safety, costs of crime, crime detection, crime prevention, criminal behaviour,
                   crime statistics, offences, offenders, victimisation, victims
Notes:




                                                         108
                                                                                        Crime prevention


E080
CRIME PREVENTION
                        Men For Non-Violence programmes
RESEARCH
Done by:        National Network Stopping Violence Services
Funded by:      Health Research Council (application in place)
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date -



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E080.1
Title:          MFNV programmes evaluations [title not yet decided]
Author(s):      -
Completed:      NO, planned completion date -
Availability:   -
Description:    1. Evaluation of MFNV programmes. 2. Who are the men who access MFNV programmes.
                3. Research the fit between needs and programmes (what-with-who). In planning stages.
Keywords:       community corrections, domestic violence, offenders
Notes:




E090
CRIME PREVENTION
                                Methadone and criminality
RESEARCH
Done by:        Healthcare Management Associates
Funded by:      Regional Alcohol and Drug Services (Waitemata Health)
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E090.1
Title:          Qualitative investigation into methadone maintenance programme clients and the
                resultant effect on criminal activity
Author(s):      Holibar, Francesca
Completed:      YES




                                                        109
Crime prevention

Availability:      Contact Regional Alcohol and Drug Services Research Unit, Floor 1, Toshiba House,
                   3 Ferncroft Street, Grafton, Auckland.
Description:       Objectives. The overall research objective was to gain a greater understanding of the
                   influence, if any, that being on a methadone maintenance treatment programme has on
                   involvement in criminal activity. Specific research objectives were: 1. to gain insight into the
                   day-to-day experiences of current clients prior to being on the Methadone Maintenance
                   Programme; 2. to establish clients' past involvement with the criminal justice system and
                   how this involvement progressed; 3. to gain insight into the relationship between level of drug
                   dependency (cost) and methods used to pay for illicit drugs; 4. to look at the priority given to
                   illicit drugs over other needs, such as housing and food; 5. to gain insight into changes, if
                   any, to clients' general day-to-day lifestyle since being on the Methadone Maintenance
                   Programme; 6. to establish whether being on the Methadone Maintenance Programme has,
                   for these clients, helped to reduce their intake of illicit drugs; and 7. to look at past
                   involvement with other drug rehabilitation programmes and any influence these may have
                   had on levels of illicit drug usage and criminality.
Keywords:          crime prevention, drugs, methadone
Notes:




E100
CRIME PREVENTION
                Neighbourhood support groups in Christchurch
RESEARCH
Done by:           University of Canterbury Department of Geography
Funded by:         University of Canterbury Department of Geography
Method:            Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:            Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E100.1
Title:             An evaluation of the development and functioning of Neighbourhood Support Groups
                   in Christchurch
Author(s):         Hammond, David
Completed:         YES, no date given
Availability:      University of Canterbury Library
Description:       ABSTRACT [abridged]. ... Neighbourhood Support Groups are only a single programme
                   within the wider efforts of the police and the community toward the goal of a safer
                   community...but this programme has become the driving force behind community crime
                   prevention efforts. By tracing the contexts of development and the theoretical basis of these
                   groups, an understanding may be gained of Neighbourhood Support Groups' development in
                   the Christchurch urban area...Questionnaires were sent out to residents in suburbs of high
                   and low socio-economic status and to all Community Constables in Christchurch. The aim of
                   these questionnaires was to investigate the spatial patterns of development of
                   Neighbourhood Support Groups...and to evaluate their present functioning from the
                   perceptions of Community Constables and residents. Results indicated that considerable
                   spatial variation exists in the development of Neighbourhood Support Groups in Christchurch
                   and that it is possible to build up profiles of participants and non-participants in these groups.


                                                         110
                                                                                            Crime prevention

                Evaluations of these groups indicate that a large percentage could be considered inactive.
                Implementation strategies and programme maintenance were exposed as areas to direct
                future efforts.
Keywords:       community safety, crime prevention, neighbourhood support groups
Notes:          M.Sc. thesis, University of Canterbury.




E110
CRIME PREVENTION
                          Safer Community pilot schemes
RESEARCH
Done by:        Gray Matter Research Ltd
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Pilot programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E110.1
Title:          An evaluation of Safer Community Council Pilot Schemes
Author(s):      Gray, Alison
Completed:      YES, September 1993
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice.
Description:    [abridged] When the four Safer Community Pilot Schemes were established in 1990, it was
                agreed that the programme would be evaluated towards the end of the two-year trial period.
                The evaluation was intended to contribute to the future development of crime prevention
                strategies and assist with making decisions about the future of the programme. The
                evaluation is in seven parts: the background to the pilot programme; the four pilot
                programmes; projects and activities; relationship between the pilot schemes and relevant
                government agencies; public reaction to the programme; overview; conclusion.
Keywords:       crime prevention, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




E120
CRIME PREVENTION
                                    Streets as play space
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -


                                                     111
Crime prevention

Method:            Literature review
Status:            Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

E120.1
Title:             Reclaiming the residential street as play space
Author(s):         Tranter, Paul J. and John W. Doyle
Completed:         YES
Availability:      International Play Journal, 1996; 4 :81-97. ISSN 0965-2531
Description:       ABSTRACT. This paper explains how the residential street has progressively lost its function
                   as a play space. In many cities, spontaneous informal child play on streets has been largely
                   replaced by car-dependent, adult supervised games which are more formally organised and
                   distant from the local neighbourhood. There is an assumption by many parents, politicians
                   and planners that a large number of parks, playgrounds and large back yards will satisfy
                   children's recreation needs, and there will be no requirement for children to use streets as
                   play areas. This paper argues that streets need to be reclaimed as play space. Research
                   incorporating children's views reveals that they place a high value on streets as play space.
                   Allowing children to play in the local streets has benefits not only for the children, but also for
                   parents involved in their transport, for adults of the neighbourhood concerned with building a
                   sense of community involvement, and for the community at large in terms of lowering traffic
                   congestion and related problems. Strategies that may assist the process of reclaiming
                   residential streets as play space for children are discussed.
Keywords:          children, community safety, fear of crime, personal mobility, recreation residential area, road
                   user behaviour, traffic, urban area
Notes:




E120.2
Title:             A child friendly focus for transport reform: children's travel freedoms and urban form
Author(s):         Tranter, P.J.
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Nineteenth Australasian Transport Research Forum, Melbourne, 1994; pp517-38
Description:       ABSTRACT. This paper demonstrates how a 'child friendly' transport focus has benefits for
                   the wider environment and the whole urban community. It explores levels of children's
                   independent mobility (their freedom to explore their own neighbourhood and city without
                   adult supervision) in cities in Australia, New Zealand, England and Germany. Trends
                   towards the reduction of children's independent travel freedoms are noted, even over the last
                   generation. International differences as well as local differences are also evident. The paper
                   develops the argument that urban transport and land use systems that require car
                   dependent access for children, have a range of negative economic, social and
                   environmental implications. The design of more child friendly urban environments, which
                   could facilitate higher levels of children's independent mobility, would be associated with:
                   considerable savings in the economic resource cost of transporting children; reductions in
                   the environmental costs associated with pollution and energy use from cars; and the
                   encouragement of a social environment with more meaningful local communities. An
                   important part of the argument is the link between the levels of traffic and the way in which
                   streets are used by the local community for walking, cycling, social interaction and playing
                   (all of which are important activities for children). When residential streets are seen simply
                   as corridors of movement for the car, they become deserted places, where parents' fears of
                   assault and molestation of their children are increased. The paper also explores ways in
                   which children's independent mobility may be enhanced.



                                                         112
                                                                 Crime prevention

Keywords:   children, community safety, fear of crime, traffic
Notes:




                                                  113
                                                                                                  Family violence




F010
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                    Anger management and the Family Court
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors
Funded by:      -
Method:         Quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F010.1
Title:          Anger management: what's happening? - a Family Court perspective
Author(s):      Curreen, Helen
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   Auckland University Library
Description:    ABSTRACT. The cost of violence to New Zealand is immense, as social agencies are well
                aware. Its most bewildering and insidious form occurs between people who seemingly "love"
                each other. The institutions of marriage, the family and the home, which nurture personal
                growth, love, self esteem and well-being, are for some a scene of abuse - physical,
                emotional and sexual. The Family Court in New Zealand is responsible for enforcing
                legislation intended to provide some protection for these victims. The Domestic Protection
                Act 1982 allows an abused partner, (male or female) to apply to this Court for
                Non-Molestation or Non-Violence Orders. Upon granting these orders on an interim basis, a
                judge may also direct that the abusing partner attend an anger management course. My
                intent is to establish a profile of the families involved and ascertain characteristics of them
                that relate to the impact of anger management. I examine behaviour of judges, counselling
                co-ordinators, the respondents and the anger management group facilitators. Discussion of
                the statistical data with these contributing groups helped to formulate an overall 'picture'. In
                the final analysis, however, it is the views of the women who initiated the proceedings, that
                have contributed most to the major finding. This is that: "WE ARE NOT DOING ENOUGH"
                (both in the individual and in the widest community sense): not enough to protect women
                who seek help to end the beatings, torment, threats and fear pervading their lives. This study
                uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods, presents a mixture of dry statistical
                presentation on...court process together with emotionally charged expressions from the
                women. Discussion alone has already produced some change. This shows that judges,
                counselling co-ordinators and anger management group facilitators are responsive to the
                needs of the families they work with. The conclusions contain several specific
                recommendations to the Justice Department.
Keywords:       anger management, community safety, courts, Domestic Protection Orders, domestic
                violence, Family Court, judiciary, victims, violence
Notes:          Research practicum for post-graduate Diploma in Social Science at The University of
                Auckland.




                                                     115
Family violence


F010.2
Title:            Anger management: what's happening? - a Family Court perspective: a replication in
                  part of 1989 Henderson Family Court Research
Author(s):        Shadbolt, Maureen, in collaboration with Helen Curreen
Completed:        YES, 1993
Availability:     Available from Waitakere Community Corrections Office, P O Box 21050, Henderson, (09)
                  837-0148.
Description:      INTRODUCTION. This brief survey replicates in part the research undertaken by Helen
                  Curreen, Counselling Co-ordinator at the Family Court, Henderson, as her practicum for a
                  post-graduate Diploma in Social Research (Curreen, 1990; "Anger Management: What's
                  Happening? A Family Court Perspective"). Aims. The aims of that research relevant to this
                  present project were: to develop a profile of Family Court clients affected by applications for
                  Domestic Protection Orders; to examine the response of the court system to referrals to
                  anger management programmes; to examine what happen to referrals, the response of
                  anger management groups, and the men themselves. Methodology [abridged]. This
                  research involved a quantitative examination of the Family Court files selected for the
                  sample. Some analysis of data was undertaken and, where appropriate and possible, the
                  data collected was compared with the results of the previous research. It is proposed to use
                  the data collected and comparisons thereof as a vehicle for future discussion particularly in
                  regard to the development of WAVES (Waitakere Anti-Violence Essential Services), a local
                  family violence intervention project.
Keywords:         anger management, community safety, courts, Domestic Protection Orders, domestic
                  violence, Family Court, victims
Notes:




F020
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                           Criminal justice system responses
RESEARCH
Done by:          Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:        National Police Headquarters
Method:           Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date end of 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F020.1
Title:            The police and criminal justice system response to domestic violence
Author(s):        Carbonatto, Helene
Completed:        NO, planned completion date end of 1996
Availability:     Publication is definitely planned; a summary report and journal articles will be published.
Description:      This research attempts to assess the appropriateness of the current criminal justice system
                  response to domestic violence. This is achieved through both a quantitative and qualitative
                  component. The quantitative research was based on 270 police files from 3 separate
                  districts. The aims of this component included: an overview of what an incident entails;

                                                          116
                                                                                                      Family violence

                factors associated with offending, sentencing and prosecution practices; recidivism and
                factors associated with recidivism. The qualitative component included in-depth interviews
                with a sub-sample of the above (24 women in all) to assess the victim's viewpoint on criminal
                justice practice. The research concludes by questioning the appropriateness of a criminal
                justice response to some incidents of domestic violence.
Keywords:       alcohol, alternative justice systems, case processing, domestic violence, ethnic issues,
                gender issues, offences, offenders, police, prosecution, recidivism, restorative justice,
                sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:          PhD thesis, Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington.




F020.2
Title:          Expanding intervention options for spousal abuse: the use of restorative justice
Author(s):      Carbonatto, Helene
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Institute of Criminology Occasional Paper No. 4, April 1995
Description:    Considers the possibilities of using restorative justice for family violence cases.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, courts, domestic violence, enforcement, gender issues,
                offenders, police, restorative justice, victims, violent crime
Notes:




F020.3
Title:          Dilemmas in the criminalisation of spousal abuse
Author(s):      Carbonatto, Helene
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 1994; 2:21-31
Description:    Critically examines policy changes and legal reforms relating to spousal abuse over the last
                ten years.
Keywords:       courts, domestic violence, enforcement, ethnic issues, gender issues, offenders, police,
                prosecution, restorative justice, sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, victims, violent crime.
Notes:




F030
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                            Custody and access decisions
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors (University of Waikato)
Funded by:      University of Waikato
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, 1994-1998



                                                       117
Family violence




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F030.1
Title:            “Don’t throw bouquets at me...(Judges) will say we’re in love”: an analysis of New
                  Zealand judges’ attitudes towards domestic violence
Author(s):        Busch, R. and N.R. Robertson
Completed:        YES, 1994
Availability:     In J. Stubbs (Ed) Women, male violence and the law. Sydney: Institute of Criminology;
                  104-46
Description:      Drawing on the author‟s interviews with judges in 1991 and an analysis of New Zealand case
                  law concerning domestic violence, this chapter examines judges‟ attitudes as expressed in
                  the following contexts: in Family Court protection proceedings; prosecutions and appeals
                  heard in the District and High Courts concerning breaches of non-molestation orders; cases
                  of serious violence under section 5 of the Criminal Justice Act 1985; and in custody and
                  access applications in the Family Court. The experiences of victims set a measure by which
                  the appropriateness of the justice system‟s responses to domestic violence can be judged.
                  We have called it “the gap”–that limbo between women‟s realities and the system‟s attitudes.
                  It is only by closing the gap that the wide-ranging personal and societal consequences of
                  domestic abuse can be lessened. Changes in judicial attitudes will not alone result in this
                  occurring. In the context of the present New Zealand government‟s cutbacks in spending on
                  benefits, women‟s refuge funding, health care services, legal aid, accident compensation,
                  education, and housing–can anyone believe that abused spouses and children will be
                  enabled to more easily escape from their batterers?
Keywords:         abused children, abused spouses, adjudication, attitudes, domestic violence, government
                  cutbacks, judiciary
Notes:




F030.2
Title:            Safeguarding the welfare of children
Author(s):        Busch, R. and N.R. Robertson
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Butterworths Mental Health and the Law Bulletin, 1995; 4:46-52
Description:      -
Keywords:         child, child witnessing spouse abuse, domestic violence, legislation impacts, “safety” of the
                  child, supervised access, victims
Notes:




F030.3
Title:            I didn’t know just how far you could fight: contextualising the Bristol Inquiry
Author(s):        Busch R. and N.R. Robertson
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Waikato Law Review, 1994; 2:41-68
Description:      Aims. A case study of the events leading up to the killing of three children by their father who
                  had been given custody of them by the Family Court. The killings were the subject of an
                  enquiry by Sir Ronald Davison who recommended extensive changes to the approach to
                  custody and access decision making in cases involving domestic violence. These


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                recommendations were substantially incorporated into amendments to the Guardianship Act
                passed in 1995. The case study provides an analysis of the way the Family Court largely
                ignored the existence and impact of spousal violence and describes in some detail the
                context of the case leading to Sir Ronald‟s recommendations..
Keywords:       access, access to justice, courts, custody, domestic violence, gender issues, judiciary,
                psychologists, victims
Notes:




F030.4
Title:          The 1995 Domestic Violence Bill: a reform half done?
Author(s):      Busch R. and N.R. Robertson
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Butterworths Family Law Journal, 1995; 1:216-21
Description:    Conclusion. The 1982 Act sought to close a “gap” which had been identified in the law. At
                the time, it was an important innovation. Since then, much has been learnt about how the
                law can be used to enhance the safety and autonomy of victims. Exemplary codes from
                other jurisdictions are available. The drafters of the Domestic Violence Bill have made only
                limited use of this knowledge. While the Bill is a significant advance, it really is a reform only
                half done.
Keywords:       criminal behaviour, domestic violence, legislation impacts, legislative reform, offenders
Notes:




F030.5
Title:          Supervised access: prioritising children’s safety
Author(s):      Busch, Ruth
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Proceedings of Family Violence Conference. Wellington, 30 June - 1 July, 1995
Description:    ABSTRACT. It is now beyond contention that children are significantly harmed by their
                exposure to acts and/or threats of physical and sexual violence directed either at themselves
                or at members of their family. Sinilarly, witnessing a parent or other family members being
                intimidated, harassed, and denigrated also involves harmful psychological and
                developmental consequences. The newly proposed amendments to the Guardianship Act
                1968 provide a means of minimising some of the deleterious effects of domestic violence on
                children by codifying an approach to custody and access decision making that prioritises the
                safety of the child over all other factors presented to the court. The amendments go some
                way to recognising the obvious: that spouse abuse in the presence of children, whether they
                witness it visually or hear it occurring in another room in the house, is a form of psychological
                child abuse and the prepetrator of such abuse demonstrates a significant lack of
                commitment to the best interests of the child.
Keywords:       child witnessing spouse abuse, domestic violence, legislation impacts, “safety” of the child,
                supervised access, victims
Notes:




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Family violence


F030.6
Title:            Not in front of the children: the literature on spousal abuse and its effects on children
Author(s):        Robertson, N.R. and R. Busch
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Butterworths Family Law Journal; 1994; 1(6):107-15

Description:      Aims. A review of the effects on children witnessing spousal violence and the correlations
                  between spousal violence and child abuse. The implications of this research are discussed
                  in relation to custody and access decision making in the courts. Method. Literature review.
Keywords:         access, custody, domestic violence, family, gender issues, judiciary, victims
Notes:




F040
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                         Domestic violence protection orders
RESEARCH
Done by:          University of Waikato
Funded by:        Victims Task Force, and J.R. McKenzie Trust
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F040.1
Title:            Protection from family violence: a study of Protection Orders under the Domestic
                  Protection Act 1982 (abridged)
Author(s):        Busch, R., N.R. Robertson and H. Lapsley
Completed:        YES, 1992
Availability:     Wellington: Victims Task Force, 1992. ISBN 0-477-07645-9
Description:      The Victims Task Force commissioned this study of 'continuing breaches of non-violence
                  and non-molestation orders made by the Family or District Court, with a view to improve the
                  protection offered to victims' (Victims Task Force, 1990). More specific objectives were to
                  investigate: current law; relevant laws in other jurisdictions; the ways in which current law is
                  administered, through examining archival material as well as interviewing relevant personnel
                  in the courts, police and refuges; and to examine the impact of current practices on the
                  victims of breaches and those associated with them. Three broad sources of information
                  were used in this study: 1. archival material, such as published and unreported decisions of
                  the courts, police files, and statistics compiled by relevant statutory and non-statutory
                  organisations; 2. interviews with key informants (police, judges, refuge workers, counsellors
                  and Family Court counselling co-ordinators); 3. women whose orders had been breached or
                  who were otherwise having difficulty in gaining protection from abusive partners (or
                  ex-partners). An analysis is developed of the operation of the police, the Family Court,
                  Family Court counselling, and the Criminal Court. Problems are identified and specific
                  recommendations for enhancing protection are made.


                                                        120
                                                                                               Family violence

Keywords:       access to justice, bias, community safety, domestic violence, enforcement, gender issues,
                human rights, judiciary, Maori, offenders, police, prosecution, recidivism, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victims, violent crime
Notes:




F050
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                                  DOVE
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit via Napier Safer Community Council
Method:         Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F050.1
Title:          An organisational analysis of DOVE Hawkes Bay Inc.
Author(s):      Te Nana, Rihi
Completed:      YES, January 1996
Availability:   Crime Prevention Unit Report, January 1996. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Process evaluation of services provided by Domestic Violence Education Intervention
                Project (DOVE), management systems etc. DOVE delivers men's and women's family
                violence programmes as well as taking a co-ordination role.
Keywords:       domestic violence, rehabilitation, victims
Notes:




F060
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                         Economic costs
RESEARCH
Done by:        Coopers and Lybrand
Funded by:      Department of Social Welfare
Method:         Economic analysis
Status:         Completed




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PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F060.1
Title:            The New Zealand economic cost of family violence
Author(s):        Snively, Suzanne
Completed:        YES, 1994
Availability:     Wellington: Family Violence Unit, Department of Social Welfare.
                  ISBN 0-9583357-2-9
Description:      The purpose of this assignment, The New Zealand Economic Cost of Family Violence, is to
                  provide a framework for estimating the economic cost of family violence in New Zealand.
                  Although the costings differ depending on the assumptions, the conclusion is the same in all
                  cases - the economic cost of family violence in New Zealand is significant for both the
                  individual and society. The results of the analysis indicate that the annual cost of family
                  violence in New Zealand is at least $1.2 billion.
Keywords:         costs of crime, domestic violence, economic costs, prevalence, victims
Notes:




F070
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                   Elder abuse in Manawatu
RESEARCH
Done by:          Authors
Funded by:        Mid Central Health
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F070.1
Title:            Elder abuse in New Zealand, a Manawatu study
Author(s):        Kriechbaum, Anthony J. and Barbara Simons
Completed:        YES
Availability:     New Zealand Family Physician, 1996; 23(2)
Description:      ABSTRACT. This study describes the epidemiology of reported elder abuse in the greater
                  Manawatu region. It also profiles current clinical management preferences. No New Zealand
                  studies were forthcoming from a literature search. A total of 108 case reports were identified
                  by the study; this may include some double reporting. A GP recognition-prevalence or
                  presentation-prevalence of less than 0.4 per cent was demonstrated (c.f. OECD prevalence
                  estimate 3-5 per cent). This strongly suggests that elder abuse is a "hidden problem" and a
                  "gate-keeper" issue. Significant risk factors were identified and confirmed by the study. The
                  epidemiologic profiles were very similar to those of recent Australian studies. Involvement of
                  domiciliary support services was the most preferred management option. Provision of respite
                  care was also used very widely. Admission to secondary care and rest-home placement of
                  victims were options that were frequently used, as was the provision of counselling.
                  Significantly, the use of legal intervention and support for mandatory reporting was very low.


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                                                                                                 Family violence

Keywords:       domestic violence, elder abuse, health, sexual abuse, victimisation, victims
Notes:




F080
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                    Elder abuse services
RESEARCH
Done by:        Age Concern New Zealand
Funded by:      Lottery Aged funded the pilots, Social Policy Agency (DSW) is funding research data
                collection and analysis.
Method:         Pilot programme evaluation, comparison with other family violence services
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 30 June 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F080.1
Title:          Elder abuse and neglect in New Zealand
Author(s):      National Advisory Group, for Elder Abuse and Neglect (Age Concern New Zealand)
Completed:      YES, September 1995
Availability:   Contact Age Concern NZ, P O Box 10-688, Wellington.
Description:    Five pilot programmes were initiated by Age Concern in response to professional and public
                demand for the intervention and prevention strategies to combat elder abuse and neglect.
                The report identifies the major findings from the pilot programmes. The report also
                recommends the introduction of elder abuse and neglect services throughout New Zealand
                and the setting up of an officials group to decide which government agency will have policy
                and funding responsibility for elder abuse and neglect services. An independent evaluation
                (by Patricia Knaggs) of the five pilot programmes is included as an appendix.
Keywords:       crime prevention, domestic violence, elder abuse, financial abuse, older person, seniors
Notes:          A further report with improved data and analysis is expected to be provided to the
                Government early next year (February 1997).




F090
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                         Emergency department protocols
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Centre (The University of Auckland), and Alcohol and Public
                Health Research Unit
Funded by:      Health Research Council of New Zealand, and North Health



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Family violence

Method:           Qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F090.1
Title:            Emergency Department protocols of care for women abused by partners: formative
                  evaluation report
Author(s):        Spinola, Carla and Janet Fanslow
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Auckland: Alcohol and Public Health Research Unit, The University of Auckland, 1995. ISBN
                  0 908970-55 2
Description:      This report describes some of the issues pertinent to the development of an emergency
                  department protocol of care for women abused by their partners.
Keywords:         domestic violence, emergency department protocols, health, victims
Notes:




F090.2
Title:            Emergency Department protocols of care for women abused by their partners: final
                  process evaluation report
Author(s):        Stewart, Liz and Sue Loughlin
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Auckland: Alcohol and Public Health Research Unit, The University of Auckland, 1995. ISBN
                  0 908970 56 0
Description:      This report describes some of the issues encountered when implementing a protocol of care
                  for women abused by partners.
Keywords:         domestic violence, emergency department protocols, health, victims
Notes:




F090.3
Title:            An Emergency Department protocol study on partner abuse: results from the
                  formative, process and outcome evaluations
Author(s):        Fanslow, J.L., C. Spinola, L. Stewart and R. Norton
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Injury Prevention Research Centre Report Series No. 19, ISSN 1173-1443
Description:      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. Background. Partner abuse of women results in a
                  considerable number of deaths, injuries, long-term physical and mental health
                  consequences and considerable economic costs. Despite this, health care professionals
                  have been slow to develop and utilise appropriate, proactive responses to the issue of
                  abuse. Aims...To evaluate the development, implementation and outcomes of an Emergency
                  Department (ED) protocol of care for the identification and treatment of women abused by
                  their partners... Methods. The protocol was adapted from models developed overseas, in
                  collaboration with local emergency department staff and community group representatives.
                  Formative evaluation was undertaken through consultative input from key stakeholders and
                  information collection from ED staff... Process evaluation primarily involved the conduct of


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                key informant interviews with ED staff and other relevant stakeholders. Outcomes were
                assessed through the conduct of pre- and post-intervention assessments of ED staff
                identification and acute care of abused women at one intervention ED (Middlemore Hospital)
                and one comparison ED (Auckland Hospital). Results. Issues associated with the
                development of the protocol included the importance of ensuring that the guidelines
                developed were appropriate and safe for the women presenting to the ED and appropriate
                for ED staff, in terms of the time and physical constraints in which they worked... Issues
                identified during implementation of the protocol included the need for flexible delivery of the
                initial training. Staff responses to the protocol and training were positive, but they reported
                initial difficulties with asking women about abuse, and with the recommendation to conduct
                routine screening for abuse. When the recommendation was modified so that staff only
                assessed for abuse when they felt conditions warranted, implementation of the protocol
                proceeded smoothly. Staff reported that provision of the guidelines facilitated their response
                to the issue of abuse, and reinforced provision of good clinical care. On-going evaluation
                suggests that the protocol has subsequently become well-integrated into standard ED
                procedures. Results of the outcome evaluation indicated that implementation of the protocol
                was successful in improving identification of abused women... Improved identification was
                accompanied by improved acute management of women by ED staff, including better
                documentation of injuries and increased use of appropriate interventions...
Keywords:       domestic violence, emergency department protocols, health, victims
Notes:




F090.4
Title:          Emergency Department protocols of care for women abused by their partners:
                one-year follow-up
Author(s):      Fanslow, J., R. Norton and E. Robinson
Completed:      NO, planned completion date December 1996
Availability:   -
Description:    This study reports on the one-year sustainability of an emergency department protocol for
                women abused by their partners.
Keywords:       domestic violence, emergency department protocols, health, victims
Notes:




F093
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                         Family Court custody and access
RESEARCH
Done by:        Policy and Research Division, Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed




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Family violence

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F093.1
Title:            Moving apart: a study of the role of Family Court counselling services
Author(s):        Maxwell, Gabrielle M. and Jeremy P. Robertson
Completed:        YES, 1990, revised 1993
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, December 1994. ISBN 0-477-07671-8
Description:      Aim. From 1987-1989 the Family Court counselling services were studied: the way they
                  operated; who went and why; and most importantly their impact and effectiveness. This is
                  the main report and provides an overview and summary of findings of the principal study...
                  drawing on other reports from the project. Method. Material drawn from population statistics,
                  Justice statistics, records held by Courts Division of the Department of Justice, and files held
                  in Family Courts on 492 cases which first came to attention of the Family Court in 1988 and
                  1989. But the primary source was from the clients themselves...a random sample of those
                  who first approached the Family Courts in Otahuhu, Hamilton, Wellington or Christchurch; ...
                  528 people were interviewed as soon as possible after their first approach to the court, and
                  429 were again interviewed six months later.
Keywords:         case processing, children, courts, domestic violence, family courts, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




F093.2
Title:            The welfare of the child: a literature review
Author(s):        Hall, Georgie
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 1. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                  1989
Description:      This review follows the custody and access debate of the last two decades, and focuses
                  primarily on research findings about the effects of different custody arrangements on
                  children.
Keywords:         access, children, custody, domestic violence, family courts, system efficiency/effectiveness,
                  youth
Notes:




F093.3
Title:            A counsellors perspective on the Family Court and its clients
Author(s):        Maxwell, Gabrielle M., Rhonda Pritchard and Jeremy Robertson
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 2. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                  1990
Description:      ABSTRACT. Family Court counsellors have emerged during the last eight years as a group
                  numbering at least 500 people including psychologists, social workers, Marriage Guidance
                  trained counsellors and people with a background of community experience. One hundred
                  and fifty eight counsellors from four Court areas were surveyed to establish their
                  backgrounds and their views on how best they could be supported in providing a service for
                  clients. Their replies point to general satisfaction with most aspects of arrangements with the
                  Family Court but specify needs in the areas of training, professional support, and feedback


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                and monitoring of effectiveness. The need to improve information services to clients is also
                expressed.
Keywords:       children, counsellors, domestic violence, family courts, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




F093.4
Title:          The views of counsel for the child, specialist report writers, and Department of Social
                Welfare report writers
Author(s):      Hong, Bev
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 3. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                1991
Description:    The purpose of this study was to provide general information about the three professional
                services (counsel for the child, Department of Social Welfare report writers, and specialist
                report writers) and the roles they performed in custody and access cases in the Family
                Court.
Keywords:       access, children, custody, counsel, domestic violence, family courts, lawyers, reports,
                system efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




F093.5
Title:          Custody and access orders: interviews with parents about their court experience
Author(s):      Harland, Anne
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 4. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                1991
Description:    This paper presents the findings of a number of in-depth interviews with people who have
                obtained a final custody and/or access order through a Family Court
Keywords:       access, children, custody, domestic violence, family courts, parents, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




F093.6
Title:          Counselling co-ordinators’ group discussion
Author(s):      Harland, Anne
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 5. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                1991
Description:    The role of counselling co-ordinator was created by the Family Courts Act 1980. This report
                presents the findings of a group discussion held with six counselling co-ordinators from three
                courts. The objective of this discussion was to gain an understanding of the co-ordinator‟s
                opinions on issues concerned with custody and access cases in the family courts.




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Family violence

Keywords:         access, children, counsellors, custody, domestic violence, family court, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




F093.7
Title:            A survey of Family Court Judges
Author(s):        Policy and Research Division, Department of Justice
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 6. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                  1993
Description:      This study describes the views of Family Court Judges on the issues of custody and access
                  within the Family Court. A written questionnaire...was sent to the 27 Family Court Judges
                  and the Principal Family Court Judge in September 1988. There was a response rate of
                  64%. The questionnaire included questions on the administration and performance of the
                  Family Courts in relation to custody and access issues; the specialist services available to
                  the court; issues concerning the children who are the subjects of custody and access
                  disputes; violence between spouses; and the appropriateness of Family Court procedures
                  for Maori and Pacific Island clients.
Keywords:         access, children, custody, domestic violence, ethnic issues, family courts, judiciary, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




F093.8
Title:            The lawyers’ perspective
Author(s):        Hall, Georgie, Angela Lee and Anne Harland
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 7. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                  1993
Description:      This publication presents the views of Family Court lawyers involved in custody and access
                  proceedings. A questionnaire was sent to 138 lawyers who acted on a regular basis for
                  parents in custody and access disputes in the Otahuhu, New Plymouth/Hawera and
                  Christchurch Family Court districts. A 67% response rate was achieved.
Keywords:         access, custody, children, domestic violence, family courts, lawyers, parents, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




F093.9
Title:            Family Court custody and access research: discussion paper
Author(s):        Hall, Georgie and Angela Lee
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Family Court Custody and Access Research Report 8. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                  1994
Description:      This report is the culmination of an extensive programme of research on Family Court
                  proceedings... Many issues have been examined leading in this report to a considerable


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                                                                                                  Family violence

                number of suggestions for change to aspects of Family Court proceedings... It deals only
                with subjects that emerged as major issues and does not draw together all the important and
                interesting findings of the research projects.
Keywords:       access, counsellors, custody, children, domestic violence, ethnic issues, family courts,
                judiciary, lawyers, parents, system efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




F095
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                     Family Court issues
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F095.1
Title:          The Family Court: a discussion paper
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie and Suzette Holm
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Monograph Series No. 6: August 1984. Wellington: Department of Justice. See also Content
                analysis of submissions on Family Court discussion paper, Holm, S. and J. Leibrich.
                February 1984. Wellington: Department of Justice (unpublished)
Description:    This paper summarises the main issues which have emerged from changes to the family law
                legislation passed in 1980 and brought into action by the new Family Court in October 1981.
                Its aim is to identify those issues which need research - both explorations and evaluations,
                and serve as an impetus for those issues which need action. 70 people were interviewed,
                including people who had [and had not] used the Court during a marriage or de facto
                marriage break-down, ...departmental staff, judges, lawyers, counsellors, specialists and
                people who represent specific interest groups. The issues identified included violent
                relationships.
Keywords:       courts, domestic violence, Family Court, policy development
Notes:




                                                     129
Family violence


F100
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                            Family violence research review
RESEARCH
Done by:          Family Violence Unit (Department of Social Welfare), in conjunction with Te Puni Kokiri
                  (Ministry of Maori Development)
Funded by:        Family Violence Unit (Department of Social Welfare)
Method:           Literature review, key informant interviews, questionnaire, workshop
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date end of 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F100.1
Title:            Gaps and priorities in family violence research
Author(s):        Family Violence Unit
Completed:        NO, planned completion date end of 1996
Availability:     Planned to be published by Social Policy Agency (Department of Social Welfare) and will be
                  available on request. Results published in Social Policy Journal of New Zealand No. 4, July
                  1995.
Description:      Aims. 1. To report on priorities for family violence research in New Zealand. 2. To investigate
                  issues on family violence research, including policy/research/ programme interface. 3. To
                  produce an annotated bibliography and list of work in progress. 4. To maintain a database of
                  current and planned research on family violence.
Keywords:         costs of crime, domestic violence, family violence
Notes:             [Bibliographic details for many of the research projects and publications listed in Gaps and
                  Priorities and not otherwise covered in this present Directory are reprinted in Appendix 1 (X
                  codes), with kind permission from the Family Violence Unit.]




F110
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP)
                              [also known as HAIP]
RESEARCH
Done by:          University of Waikato
Funded by:        Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee, and the University of Waikato
Method:           Pilot programme evaluation, established programme evaluation
Status:           IN PROGRESS, ongoing




                                                       130
                                                                                                 Family violence

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F110.1
Title:          The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: the first three months
Author(s):      Robertson, Neville, Ruth Busch, Karen Ave and Roma Balzer
Completed:      YES, October 1991
Availability:   Report #1 for the Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee. 14pp.
Description:    The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP) was officially launched in July 1991.
                Modelled on the Duluth (Minnesota) Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP), the project provides
                an integrated approach to domestic violence. This report, the first in a series of regular
                evaluation reports, describes the implementation of the project over the first three months
                and provides preliminary comment on the successes and problems encountered.
Keywords:       adjudication, domestic violence, enforcement, gender issues, HAIPP, human rights,
                judiciary, Maori, police, prosecution, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:




F110.2
Title:          The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: six month evaluation report
Author(s):      Robertson, Neville R. and Ruth Busch
Completed:      YES, February 1992
Availability:   Report #2 for the Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee. 58pp.
Description:    The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP) was launched in July 1991 with the
                aim of providing an integrated approach to domestic violence. This report is the second of a
                series of regular evaluation reports describing the progress of the pilot.
Keywords:       adjudication, domestic violence, enforcement, gender issues, HAIPP, human rights,
                judiciary, Maori, police, prosecution, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:




F110.3
Title:          The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: nine month progress report
Author(s):      Furness, Jane A., Marewa P. Glover, Saskia M. Schuitemaker, Neville R. Robertson and
                Ruth Busch
Completed:      YES, June 1992
Availability:   Report #3 for the Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee. 12pp.
                ISSN 1172-5982
Description:    This report describes important developments in the project since the six month evaluation
                report.
Keywords:       adjudication, domestic violence, enforcement, gender issues, HAIPP, human rights,
                judiciary, Maori, police, prosecution, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:




                                                    131
Family violence


F110.4
Title:            The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: the first year
Author(s):        Robertson, Neville R., Ruth Busch, Marewa P. Glover and Jane A. Furness
Completed:        YES, October 1992
Availability:     Report #4 to the Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee. 54pp.
Description:      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. Under the sponsorship of the Family Violence
                  Prevention Co-ordinating Committee (FVPCC), the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project
                  (HAIPP) was launched in July 1991. By providing an integrated response to family violence,
                  the intervention protocols are designed to maximise the safety of victims and ensure
                  abusers are held accountable for their use of violence. Key aspects of the intervention
                  include: an active policy of arresting abusers; support and advocacy services for victims;
                  better prosecution strategies; and court-mandated attendance at a men's education
                  programme for abusers with penalties for non-compliance. A crucial aspect of the project is
                  monitoring the performance of agencies to ensure compliance with intervention protocols.
                  Significant achievements in the first year of HAIPP are highlighted and recommendations are
                  provided in relation to policing, to Family Court, to the Criminal Court, and to the pilot project.
Keywords:         adjudication, domestic violence, enforcement, gender issues, HAIPP, human rights,
                  judiciary, Maori, police, prosecution, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:




F110.5
Title:            The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: two year review
Author(s):        Robertson, Neville R. and Ruth Busch
Completed:        YES, August 1993
Availability:     Report #5 to the Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee. 41pp.
                  ISSN 1172-5982
Description:      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [excerpts]. The first year of the project saw dramatic changes in
                  the operation of participating agencies as the intervention protocols were implemented.
                  Changes have been less dramatic during the second year during which the protocols have
                  continued to be implemented with a high degree of consistency... While the review has
                  identified some problems, these need to be put into the context of the dramatic changes
                  which have occurred in Hamilton over the past two years. None of the people interviewed in
                  preparing this report doubted that intervention has enhanced the safety of women and
                  children victims of family violence and none doubted that abusers are now more accountable
                  for their violence. The basic goals of intervention are being achieved.
Keywords:         adjudication, domestic violence, enforcement, gender issues, HAIPP, human rights,
                  judiciary, Maori, police, prosecution, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:




F110.6
Title:            From a victim's perspective: a multiple case study evaluation of the men's education
                  programme
Author(s):        Furness, J.A.
Completed:        YES, January 1994
Availability:     Hamilton: The HAIP Monitoring Team, University Of Waikato, Report No. 6. 244pp.


                                                        132
                                                                                                  Family violence

Description:    ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the impact of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot
                Project men's education programme on participants' partners. A secondary objective was to
                investigate the relative usefulness of qualitative and quantitative methodologies in
                understanding programme outcomes. The case study participants were nine Pakeha women
                whose partners were court-mandated or self-referred to the 26 week (52 hour) programme
                and were either living with their partners or retained an interest in the relationship.
                Face-to-face and telephone interviews using schedules of open-ended questions were
                conducted every two or three weeks for the duration of the programme or at other times as
                some women's circumstances changed. Behaviour checklists measuring the frequency of
                physical and psychological abuse tactics were administered to participants and partners at
                programme entry and exit. The evaluation found that men stopped the worst of their physical
                abuse but were less successful at stopping their psychological abuse. Women reported
                more serious abuse in interviews and on checklists than the men reported on checklists
                suggesting that victims' perspectives must be included if programme outcomes are to be
                reliably evaluated. The women's involvement with HAIPP was positive and supported the
                need for a co-ordinated community intervention to combat domestic violence. In-depth
                studies of men's programme content and process, and longitudinal studies to understand
                men's and women's programme effects are suggested.
Keywords:       domestic violence, gender issues, HAIPP, offences, offenders, sentence administration,
                victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:          M.Soc.Sc. thesis




F110.7
Title:          What's love got to do with it?: an analysis of an intervention approach to domestic
                violence
Author(s):      Busch, R. and N.R. Robertson
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   Waikato Law Review, 1993; 1:109-40
Description:    ABSTRACT [abridged]. The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP), launched in
                July 1991, represents an attempt to reform the justice system's response to domestic
                violence, particularly the violence of men directed against their women partners. In this
                article, we outline the philosophy of intervention, describe the intervention protocols which
                have been developed in Hamilton, analyse their operation and assess some of the impacts
                the intervention approach has had on the administration of justice. The data collected so far
                is encouraging. For example, although some abusers may continue to use violence, 71% of
                women interviewed for the six month evaluation reported that their partners had shown
                clearly positive changes (the rest reported either limited changes, no change or ambiguous
                changes). The majority of women interviewed as part of the twelve-month evaluation
                reported that they felt safer and that their partners (or ex-partners) were less controlling, In
                addition, the increased number of women who telephone the police when they have been
                assaulted suggest that there is a perception that women are being taken more seriously by
                the justice system. We have anecdotal evidence of men wanting to move out of Hamilton
                because it has become too "hot" for them. This suggests the power of an integrated
                approach to domestic violence.
Keywords:       domestic violence, gender issues, HAIPP, judiciary, offenders, police, recidivism, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victims
Notes:




F110.8
Title:          Response to the Ministry of Health Evaluation Report of the Hamilton Abuse
                Intervention Pilot Project
Author(s):      HAIP Monitoring Team


                                                     133
Family violence

Completed:        YES, September 1995
Availability:     Hamilton: The HAIP Monitoring Team, University Of Waikato, Report No. 7.
                  ISSN 1172-5982
Description:      This paper is an attempt to: 1. highlight some crucial findings of the evaluation as defined
                  from an intervention perspective; 2. answer some criticisms made in the evaluation; 3. raise
                  other issues not adequately covered in the evaluation; and 4. summarise the main
                  implications for intervention in Hamilton and other communities.
Keywords:         domestic violence, HAIPP, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




F110.9
Title:            "Ain't no mountain high enough (to keep me from getting to you)": an analysis of the
                  Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project
Author(s):        Busch, R. and N.R. Robertson
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In Women, male violence and the law, Stubbs, J. (Ed). Sydney: Institute of Criminology,
                  1994. pp34-63
Description:      In its third year the HAIPP evaluation process has begun to focus on the impact of an
                  intervention approach for individual abusers and victims. The data collected so far is
                  encouraging. For example, although some abusers may continue to use violence, 71 per
                  cent of women interviewed for the six month evaluation reported that their partners had
                  shown clearly positive changes... The majority of women interviewed as part of the 12-month
                  evaluation reported that they felt safer and that their partners (or ex-partners) were less
                  controlling. Comments from interviews conducted as part of the recent evaluations are also
                  positive... In addition, the increased number of women who ring the police when they have
                  been assaulted suggests that there is a perception that women are being taken more
                  seriously by the justice system. We have anecdotal evidence of men wanting to move out of
                  Hamilton because it has become too "hot" for them. This suggests the power of an
                  integrated approach to domestic violence.
Keywords:         domestic violence, gender issues, HAIPP, offenders, victimisation, victims
Notes:




F111
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                         HAIPP evaluations
RESEARCH
Done by:          Ministry of Health, Department of Justice, Rivers Buchan Associates, Gray Matter Research,
                  Coopers and Lybrand
Funded by:        Multi-agency funding including Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee,
                  Department of Social Welfare, Department of Justice and NZ Police
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:           Completed




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                                                                                                    Family violence

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F111.1
Title:          Overview of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Programme (HAIPP) evaluation
Author(s):      Dominick, Clare
Completed:      YES, April 1995
Availability:   Wellington: Health Research and Analytical Services, Ministry of Health; confidential report
Description:    The report outlines the problems that prompted HAIPP‟s introduction, describes how HAIPP
                addressed these problems and discusses the intended and actual implementation of HAIPP.
                It goes on to review the extent to which each of the intervention elements contributed toward
                achievement of project goals and to review the costs of HAIPP. Finally it considers the
                implications of the evaluation results for family violence policy development.
Keywords:       crime prevention, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, education, HAIPP
                men‟s education programme, HAIPP model, inter-agency co-ordination, monitoring,
                offences, offenders, police, recidivism, rehabilitation, sentencing effectiveness, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, victim safety
Notes:          As well as the following reports, the evaluations referred to in this present report include
                Snively, Suzanne The New Zealand economic cost of family violence (F060.1).




F111.2
Title:          Intervention programmes for domestic violence abusers: a literature review
Author(s):      Gray, Alison
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee, 1994
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




F111.3
Title:          An evaluation of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Programme (HAIPP): analysis
                of Department of Justice statistics
Author(s):      Edgar, N. and J. Paulin
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, September 1993. Contact Judy Paulin,
                (04) 494-9860, fax (04) 494-9917, e-mail judy.paulin@justice.govt.nz
Description:    The study examines national trends in conviction for 'male assaults female', rates and
                patterns of reconviction among a sample convicted of 'male assaults female' in three
                locations, and compares reconviction rates among a sample attending an HAIPP
                programme who did and did not complete the programme. The sample of HAIPP
                programme completers were less likely than non-completers to be reconvicted within 3 years
                for an offence of any type, for a violence offence, or for 'male assaults female'.
Keywords:       crime prevention, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, education,
                offences, offenders, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




                                                      135
Family violence


F111.4
Title:            Women's experiences of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP)
Author(s):        Dominick, Clare, Alison Gray and Melissa Weenink
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Ministry of Health, 1995
Description:      Objectives. The objectives were to document women‟s experiences of abuse prior to and
                  following contact with HAIPP; to describe women‟s contact with HAIPP and with other
                  relevant agencies; and to document their perceptions of the usefulness of interventions in
                  reducing or eliminating abuse for themselves, their children and their partners... Method. The
                  victims‟ survey was a retrospective sample survey of women victims who came to the notice
                  of HAIPP during 1992 and 1993... Results. The results are indicative rather than conclusive.
                  Most (89%) women considered that overall, the level of violence/abuse they experienced
                  decreased over the survey period. Most (83%) felt safer than they did two years before.
                  Contact with women who used HAIPP services was often the result of their partner‟s contact
                  with the justice system or attendance at the men‟s programme. For some women the justice
                  system may not be their preferred option for dealing with family violence. Therefore
                  alternative access routes to groups providing specialist support, practical help, advice and
                  education about family violence may need to be strengthened in an inter-agency approach.
                  This could include Department of Social Welfare services and Health Sector services.
Keywords:         crime prevention, domestic violence, education, gender issues, HAIPP model, inter-agency
                  approach, system efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, women‟s experiences
Notes:




F111.5
Title:            The costs of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project
Author(s):        Green, F.T.
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Health Research and Analytical Services, Ministry of Health, April 1995
Description:      Objectives. The objective was to estimate the cost and level of resources dedicated to the
                  HAIPP activities by both the HAIPP office and outside agencies involved in the programme:
                  the police, Community Corrections, the courts and women‟s refuges. Results. The cost
                  information in this report may be considered in conjunction with the results of the other
                  evaluation studies which relate to outcomes (for victims, assailants and to the system
                  response to domestic violence). In addition, comparisons may be made with the costs and
                  outcomes of other domestic violence intervention programmes. Estimated costs relate to the
                  year 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1994 and are exclusive of GST. The direct costs of HAIPP were
                  $430,000. Sixty two per cent of this was on salaries of HAIPP staff. A total of 7 full-time
                  equivalent staff were employed by HAIPP.
Keywords:         costs, domestic violence, programmes, resources, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




F111.6
Title:            HAIPP evaluation: experiences of men’s education programme participants
Author(s):        Health Research and Analytical Services
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Health Research and Analytical Services, Ministry of Health, April 1995




                                                         136
                                                                                               Family violence

Description:    Aims. The study was designed to gather information about participants‟ perceptions of the
                HAIPP men‟s education programme and assess to what degree the programme had
                contributed to any changes in these men‟s behaviours and beliefs. Method. Personal
                interviews were conducted with 77 men who attended the HAIPP men‟s education
                programme between 1992 and 1994. Results. Overall, men reported a substantial reduction
                in the frequency of abuse. Prior to contact with HAIPP, 86 per cent of the men reported
                using some form of physical abuse. At the time of the interview, 15 per cent reported using
                physical abuse. Emotional abuse dropped from being reported by almost all of the men to
                two thirds of them. Controlling behaviours reduced from 87 to 43 per cent. Notably, sexual
                abuse, although only reported by about one third of the men, dropped to a very low level at
                the time of the interview. These changes were aligned with changes women reported in the
                victims‟ study. A significant proportion of men specifically attributed these changes to the
                HAIPP men‟s education programme.
Keywords:       crime prevention, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, education, gender issues,
                programme effectiveness
Notes:




F111.7
Title:          The relationship between Judges and the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project
                (HAIPP)
Author(s):      Lungley, S.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Ministry of Health, April 1995
Description:    Aims. The research was designed to determine the impact that HAIPP had on sentencing
                patterns of Judges in Hamilton and to establish ways that future judicial support for
                intervention programmes could be developed. Method. Phone interviews were conducted
                with all current Hamilton based judges, one retired judge and another judge who frequently
                sat in Hamilton.
Keywords:       criminal behaviour, domestic violence, education, judiciary, programmes, sentence
                administration, sentencing, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




F111.8
Title:          Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP): evaluation of Family Court to the
                men’s education programme
Author(s):      Williams, Bob
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Rivers Buchan Associates, April 1995
Description:    Aims. The evaluation sought to: (i) determine the number of referrals and rate of compliance
                of men referred to the HAIPP men‟s education programme through self-referral, the
                Hamilton Family Court, and the Hamilton District Court; (ii) investigate factors which
                influence the levels of referrals and compliance in the Hamilton Family Court as compared
                with Family Courts in other selected centres. Method. The evaluation used two main
                information gathering methods. An analysis of existing numerical databases, and a series of
                semi-structured interviews with Court Officers and members of men‟s education groups. In
                addition to Hamilton, the evaluation covered Courts and programmes in seven other areas.
                Results. Within the constraints of the system the combined efforts of Hamilton judiciary,
                Hamilton Family Court, HAIPP and the Hamilton men‟s education programme result in
                relatively high rates of referral, engagement and completion. The major problems are related
                to engagement. Many of these problems are endemic, and rely on national initiatives to


                                                     137
Family violence

                  resolve. However, rates of engagement could be improved by the following local initiatives:
                  serving the 37a referral with the Court Orders; training bailiffs; the men‟s education group
                  directly contacting referred men; individual induction sessions; paying the travelling
                  expenses of men living over 15K from Hamilton; improvements to the process of prosecuting
                  men.
Keywords:         courts, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, offenders, referrals, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




F130
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                 Maori women's experiences
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        Manaaki Tauira Funding, Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee grant, and
                  The Health Research Council of Aotearoa
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F130.1
Title:            Te puna roimata: Maori women's experience of male partner violence: 7 case studies
Author(s):        Glover, Marewa
Completed:        YES
Availability:     ISBN 0-473-03514-6
Description:      CONCLUSION. In this thesis I have presented a review of the literature pertaining to Maori
                  women's experience of male partner violence. Using a qualitative grounded theory appraoch,
                  I asked seven Maori women to talk about their experience of male partner violence. Their
                  stories have been presented in narrative form and in their final form the stories can be used
                  as a resource by workers and agencies working to stop Maori men's violence or helping the
                  victims of that violence. The methodology adds to the range of proven appropriate methods
                  that can be used when working with Maori participants in research. A cross case analysis of
                  the stories was completed and this was used to draw tentative conclusions about the
                  appropriateness of using certain imported theories on wife abuse in Maori stopping violence
                  programmes. Implications for emerging theory of local origin was also discussed in light of
                  the results.
Keywords:         case studies, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, ethnic issues, gender issues, male
                  partner violence, Maori, Maori women's experience, offenders, stories, victimisation, victims
Notes:            Abridged version of M.Soc.Sc. in Psychology thesis, University of Waikato, 1993.




                                                         138
                                                                                                    Family violence


F140
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                          Men speak about domestic abuse
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F140.1
Title:          Hitting home: New Zealand men speak about domestic abuse
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie M., Judy Paulin and Robin Ransom
Completed:      YES, July 1995
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice in association with AGB McNair.
                ISBN 0-477-07690-4
Description:    The problem of domestic abuse is widespread and severe in New Zealand. This research
                looked at what men say about domestic abuse: what they know about the problem, whether
                they condone it, and what they do themselves. The research was based on two studies
                conducted in New Zealand in 1994. The first was a survey of a nationally representative
                sample of 2,000 men and the second was a follow-up survey of 200 of those 2,000 men. In
                the first survey, 70% said domestic violence was a major problem, 87% knew that hitting a
                women is a crime and 67% have some personal knowledge of men hitting women. Yet 25%
                said that physical abuse and 58% said that psychological abuse of women partners is okay
                in some circumstances. Men who tend to condone abuse are older, have less egalitarian
                views of women, and higher anger levels. Asked about 11 types of physical abuse and 11
                types of psychological abuse, 21% reported at least one physically abusive act in the last
                year and 53% reported at least one psychologically abusive act. The most commonly
                reported acts of physical abuse are pushing, grabbing or shoving, slapping, and throwing
                something at a woman. The most commonly reported acts of psychological abuse are
                insulting or swearing at a woman, putting down her family or friends, trying to prevent a
                woman from doing something she wanted to do, and throwing, smashing, hitting or kicking
                something. Men who were physically abusive are almost always also psychologically
                abusive. Men who reported at least one abusive act of any kind are more likely than men
                who reported none to be younger and unmarried but were no different in terms of education,
                income and employment. Attitudes towards abuse were not related to personal behaviour. In
                the second study men talked about causes of abuse in greater depth. The overall model of
                causality which emerged is that when social expectations about 'what it is to be a man'
                cannot be met, there is distress, a sense of powerlessness and a wish to regain power.
                Where a man cannot free himself from society's expectations, alter the frustrating
                circumstances, or communicate and deal with his stress, he is likely to be abusive towards
                his partner.
Keywords:       attitudes, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, victimisation
Notes:




                                                      139
Family violence


F150
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                         Responding to Maori family violence
RESEARCH
Done by:          Hamilton Abuse Intervention Project (HAIP)
Funded by:        Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori Development)
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F150.1
Title:            Maori Family Violence
Author(s):        [Not supplied]
Completed:        YES, 1996
Availability:     Currently being prepared for publication.
Description:      To identify strategies for addressing family violence within Maori families. Research included
                  interviews with abusers, service providers within New Zealand and overseas, and those with
                  knowledge of Maori traditions and philosophies.
Keywords:         domestic violence, Maori
Notes:




F160
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                            Rhetoric men use about violence
RESEARCH
Done by:          Authors (The University of Auckland)
Funded by:        Health Research Council of New Zealand
Method:           Qualitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date January 1999



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F160.1
Title:            Dominance and entitlement: the rhetoric men use to discuss their violence towards
                  women
Author(s):        Adams, Peter, Alison Towns and Nicola Gavey
Completed:        YES



                                                        140
                                                                                                  Family violence

Availability:   Discourse and Society, 1995; 6(3):387-406
Description:    ABSTRACT. Academic interest in applications of rhetoric to social issues is undergoing a
                revival. This paper develops a rhetorical analysis of discourse generated by men who have
                been recently violent towards women. The texts have been drawn from transcribed
                interviews with 14 men who had recently begun or were about to attend stopping violence
                programmes. Each 90-minute interview prompted the men on their views towards women,
                violence and relationships. A range of rhetorical devices within the text were identified and
                their effect was analysed. This paper focuses on five devices: reference ambiguity, axiom
                markers, metaphor, synecdoche and metonymy. The strategic effects of each device are
                discussed with close reference to sample passages from the transcripts. The paper explores
                how these rhetorical devices resource discourses of male dominance and entitlement to
                power, and how these in turn resource men in their violence towards women. Increased
                sensitivity to the nuanced effects of the rhetoric is seen to improve understanding of how
                men justify, camouflage and maintain positions of dominance within relationships with
                women.
Keywords:       ambiguity, attitudes, crime prevention, discourse analysis, domestic violence, dominance,
                education, feminism, gender issues, health, offenders, markers, qualitative, rehabilitation,
                sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, victims, violence, violent crime
Notes:          This article emerged from an earlier research project, "Interpretive repertoires that support
                violence against women", by Peter Adams, Nicola Gavey and Alison Towns.




F160.2
Title:          Silencing talk of men's violence against women
Author(s):      Towns, Alison, Peter Adams and Nicola Gavey
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Contact Alison Towns, Psychology Department, University of Auckland. E-mail
                a.towns@auckland.ac.nz. It will be a chapter in a book edited by Lynn Theismeyer for which
                production details are not yet finalised; probable publication date is end of 1996.
Description:    ABSTRACT. Secondary prevention of male violence towards female partners requires early
                intervention to stop such violence. Research suggests that often friends and family may be
                aware of the violence. Nevertheless, reporting rates of those affected by violence are very
                low. Reasons for this are unknown. This paper discusses the discursive contexts which
                support silence about the violence. In this study, each of 18 men who had been violent
                towards their partners participated in a 90 minute interview with an interviewer who had had
                considerable experience in working with men who had been violent to their partners. The
                interviews were then transcribed and analysed using discourse analysis. The transcripts
                were read for the ways in which the men employed common-sense understandings which
                might silence talk about the violence. For example, discourses of privacy were identified as
                providing the discursive context within which silence about violence might occur.
Keywords:       access to justice, attitudes, community corrections, crime prevention, discourse analysis,
                domestic violence, education, fear of crime, gender issues, health, offenders, qualitative,
                rehabilitation, sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, victims, violent crime, witnesses
Notes:          This article emerged from an earlier research project "Interpretive repertoires that support
                violence against women" by Peter Adams, Nicola Gavey and Alison Towns.




                                                     141
Family violence


F170
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                  Risk assessment by MFNV
RESEARCH
Done by:          Men For Non-Violence
Funded by:        Men For Non-Violence
Method:           Literature review, quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date February 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F170.1
Title:            Risk assessment of family violence
Author(s):        McMaster, Ken
Completed:        NO, planned completion date February 1997
Availability:     -
Description:      To survey MFNV member groups to see how they currently assess risk and dangerousness,
                  and to develop a risk assessment tool.
Keywords:         criminal behaviour, domestic violence, offenders, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:            Masters thesis, Massey University.




F180
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                  Social understandings which support violence
RESEARCH
Done by:          Authors
Funded by:        Health Research Council of New Zealand
Method:           Qualitative study, prevention and early intervention research
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 1999



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F180.1
Title:            Social understandings and family violence [No titles decided yet, working title]
Author(s):        Towns Alison, Peter Adams and Helen Curreen
Completed:        NO, planned completion date 1999
Availability:     -




                                                          142
                                                                                                   Family violence

Description:    As yet there are no titles for the publications/reports from this research, which is in its early
                stages. Nevertheless, 3 or 4 papers are planned
Keywords:       attitudes, crime prevention, domestic violence, gender issues, police, sentencing
                effectiveness, victimisation, victims, witnesses
Notes:




F185
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                      Violence against women and children
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors
Funded by:      Health Research Council
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 31 December 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F185.1
Title:          Social adjustment of children of battered women: a pilot project
Author(s):      Pocock, Tania and Fiona Cram
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Submitted for publication; available from Dr Fiona Cram, Department of Psychology,
                University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland.
Description:    ABSTRACT. The present study compared 17 male and female Refuge children between the
                ages of five and eleven years with a Representative Population Subsample (RPS) of 127
                male and female children aged between five and eleven years over three important and
                interrelated areas: children‟s behavioural functioning (Rutter Child Behavioural Scale A);
                children‟s perceived quality of social support (Social Support Appraisal Scale); and children‟s
                personal approach to interpersonal problem solving. The present study gathered „normative‟
                information from a RPS so that explorations could be made as to where, and to what extent,
                Refuge children differed from their peers. Differences were found between the two samples
                in all three areas. Refuge children were reported as exhibiting more behavioural difficulties
                than children in the RPS. This finding held for aggressive behaviour even when parents‟
                mental and general health was taken into consideration. Refuge children perceived their
                family and friends as significantly less supportive than did RPS children. In addition, Refuge
                children were found to be significantly less resourceful in their approach to interpersonal
                problem solving. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords:       behaviours, children, domestic violence, problem solving, refuges, social support,
                victimisation, victims, witnesses, youth
Notes:




                                                      143
Family violence


F185.2
Title:            Child witnesses to violence: the risks associated with exposure to violence and their
                  implications for supervised access
Author(s):        Pocock, Tania and Fiona Cram
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In press, Waikato Law Review
Description:      Children of battered women are worried, frightened, confused and vulnerable: they are
                  worried about the safety of their mothers, themselves, and their siblings; they are frightened,
                  not just by what they have seen and heard, but by what is yet to come; they are confused
                  about what is happening and all the conflicting emotions they have both around the abuse
                  and the abuser; and they are vulnerable; vulnerable because if the lack of stability, security,
                  and protection afforded by their environment, and vulnerable because of the lack of power
                  they have over the onset or outcome of the violence. You do not need to have an intimate
                  knowledge of abuse, or to have grown up in a violent home in order to have some
                  understanding or sense of how traumatic and disruptive witnessing the abuse of your mother
                  and living with the myriad forms of fallout, could be, for any child. Common sense alone tells
                  us that the impact is likely to be profound.
Keywords:         community safety, domestic violence, supervised access, victimisation, victims, witnesses
Notes:




F190
FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                       WAVES programme
RESEARCH
Done by:          Authors
Funded by:        Crime Prevention Unit and Waitakere Safer Community Council
Method:           Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

F190.1
Title:            Waitakere Anti-Violence Essential Services (WAVES) evaluation
Author(s):        Gray, M. (report), Anne-Marie Wilson-Salt (research)
Completed:        YES, October 1995
Availability:     Crime Prevention Unit Report, October 1995. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                  P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:      Evaluation of WAVES processes, management structures, networking, service delivery
                  effectiveness.
Keywords:         access to justice, court advocacy, domestic violence, victims
Notes:




                                                       144
      Family violence




145
                                                                                          Offenders and offending




G010
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                     Crime and deviance
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G010.1
Title:          Crime and deviance
Author(s):      Newbold, Greg
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-19-558232-2
Description:    Since the last comprehensive survey of crime was attempted in 1968, the face of offending
                in New Zealand has changed dramatically. Reported violence has rocketed, illegal drug use
                has become epidemic, and white collar crime has emerged as an issue of serious concern.
                This book traces the major changes which have occurred in New Zealand, not only in crime
                itself, but in patterns of behaviour (such as homosexuality and gang membership) which,
                although not illegal, are still seen by society as deviant. Without knowing a community's
                economic and social dynamics, its patterns of crime and deviance cannot be understood. In
                following the altered profiles of crime and deviance in this country, Greg Newbold makes
                close reference to the other social, economic, and political changes of the past three
                decades.
Keywords:       alcohol, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, drugs, enforcement, ethnic
                issues, hate crimes, Maori, offences, offenders, police, sexual abuse, violent crime,
                white-collar crime
Notes:




G020
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                      Crime seriousness
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors
Funded by:      -
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         [Completed]




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PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G020.1
Title:            Judged seriousness of crime in New Zealand
Author(s):        Davis, Stephen A.B. and Simon Kemp
Completed:        YES, 1994
Availability:     Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, December 1994; 27(3):250-63
Description:      One hundred and fifteen Christchurch residents judged the seriousness of 25 crimes,
                  identified either by labels or vignettes, using the method of magnitude estimation.
                  Judgements of the labels and vignettes were highly correlated, and overall the results
                  suggested a social consensus on the relative seriousness of the crimes. The median
                  estimates were highly correlated with the average sentences imposed by New Zealand
                  courts and moderately correlated with the maximum sentences prescribed by legislation and
                  police clearance priorities.
Keywords:         attitudes, police, punishment, sentencing, seriousness
Notes:




G030
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                           Criminal careers
RESEARCH
Done by:          Ministry of Justice
Funded by:        Ministry of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date December 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G030.1
Title:            Criminal careers of New Zealand offenders (working title)
Author(s):        Lash, Barb and Sue Triggs
Completed:        NO, planned completion date December 1997
Availability:     Ministry of Justice publication
Description:      The criminal careers of convicted offenders will be examined. Analysis will include the
                  standard measures of criminal careers (e.g. age of first conviction, peak age of conviction,
                  career length and offending frequency, offence specialisation) as well as recidivism and
                  sentencing effectiveness.
Keywords:         crime statistics, criminal behaviour, criminal careers, offenders, prosecution, recidivism,
                  sentencing, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




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G040
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                Criminal records disposal
RESEARCH
Done by:        Movement for Alternatives to Prison
Funded by:      Movement for Alternatives to Prison
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G040.1
Title:          On completion of sentence
Author(s):      Movement for Alternatives to Prison
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Send S.A.E. to Movement for Alternatives to Prison, P O Box 77-039, Mt Albert,
                AUCKLAND.
Description:    This paper was prepared for M.A.P. It contains eight proposals for changes to legislation
                dealing with criminal records (which differ from changes proposed in 1983 and 1989).
                Discussion of Canadian and N.S.W. legislation is included.
Keywords:       criminal records, legislation impacts
Notes:          An earlier publication from the Law Reform Division, Department of Justice was Living down
                a criminal record: problems and proposals: a discussion paper, 1985.




G050
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                           Dangerousness
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Self-funded except for small grant from Victoria University Internal Grants Committee
Method:         History
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G050.1
Title:          Dangerous, inadequate, invisible, out: episodes in the criminological career of
                habitual criminals
Author(s):      Pratt, J. and M. Dickson


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Completed:        YES
Availability:     To be published in Theoretical Criminology, 1997.
Description:      A history of changing perception and ways of seeing habitual criminals.
Keywords:         fear of crime, offences, offenders, prison inmates, property offences, sentence
                  administration, sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




G050.2
Title:            Dangerousness in historical context
Author(s):        Pratt, John
Completed:        YES
Availability:     University of Sydney Criminology Conference Report, June 1995
Description:      [Not provided]
Keywords:         fear of crime, offences, offenders, sentence administration, sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




G050.3
Title:            Reflections on recent trends towards the punishment of persistence
Author(s):        Pratt, John
Completed:        YES
Availability:     To be published in Crime, Law and Social Change, 1996 or 1997.
Description:      An analysis and explanation of the current trend towards punishing offenders for their
                  persistence in crime.
Keywords:         fear of crime, forecasting and modelling, media, offences, offenders, prisons, recidivism,
                  sentence administration, sentencing, violent crime, youth
Notes:




G050.4
Title:            Dangerousness, risk and technologies of power
Author(s):        Pratt, John
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Australia and New Zealand Criminology, March 1995
Description:      Examines history of dangerous offender legislation and deals with some of the issues that
                  this approach reveals and problematises.
Keywords:         crime statistics, criminal behaviour, fear of crime, forecasting and modelling, prison inmates,
                  prisons, property offences, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




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                                                                                            Offenders and offending


G050.5
Title:          Governing the dangerous: a history of dangerous offender legislation
Author(s):      Pratt, John
Completed:      YES, June 1991
Availability:   Will be published by Federation Press.
Description:    To explain changes in the way in which 'dangerousness' has been conceptualised in western
                jurisdictions and changes in the strategies invoked to control dangerous behaviours.
Keywords:       attitudes, costs of crime, courts, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, fear of crime, fines,
                forecasting and modelling, legislation impacts, media, offences, offenders, prison inmates,
                prisons, property offences, recidivism, rehabilitation, sentence administration, sentencing,
                sentencing effectiveness, violent crime
Notes:




G050.6
Title:          Governing the dangerous: an historical overview of dangerous offender legislation
Author(s):      Pratt, John
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Social and Legal Studies, 1996; 5:21-36
Description:    Historical analysis of changes in dangerous offender legislation.
Keywords:       adjudication, criminal behaviour, fear of crime, forecasting and modelling, legislation
                impacts, offences, offenders, prison inmates, property offences, recidivism, sentence
                administration, sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




G050.7
Title:          Criminology and history: understanding the present
Author(s):      Pratt, John
Completed:      YES
Availability:   To be published in Current Issues in Criminal Justice, July 1996.
Description:    An examination of the importance of historical research for understanding current trends in
                penal policy, using dangerous offender laws as a case study.
Keywords:       courts, criminal behaviour, judiciary, property offences, recidivism, sentence administration,
                sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, violent crime
Notes:




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Offenders and offending


G060
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                        Factors in homicide
RESEARCH
Done by:          Police National Headquarters Health Services Group (main research), and authors
                  ('domestic' and 'child' reports).
Funded by:        -
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, presently at data gathering stage, expected completion date January 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G060.1
Title:            Homicide in New Zealand 1988-1995
Author(s):        Eriksen, Sonja, Tracy Anderson and Nestor Russell
Completed:        NO, planned completion date January 1997
Availability:     Will be available from Police National Headquarters or authors.
Description:      Homicide, "the killing of a human being by another, directly or indirectly, by any means
                  whatsoever" (Crimes Act 1961 s159) is arguably the most serious of all crimes yet little has
                  been written on homicide in New Zealand. This study proposes to look at the area of
                  homicide between the years 1988 and 1994 (and 1995 if information is available) and extract
                  details from Police files on when and where the homicides took place, the weapons used,
                  the characteristics of the offenders and victims, the relationship that existed between them,
                  the circumstances of the crimes, the motives involved and how this information compares to
                  data from other countries.
Keywords:         alcohol, bias, child abuse, child homicide, crime detection, crime statistics, criminal
                  behaviour, defences used in murder trials, domestic homicide, domestic violence, drugs,
                  ethnic issues, firearm licensing, gender issues, hate crimes, mental health, legislation
                  impacts, Maori, offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, police, prosecution, recidivism,
                  sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, sexual abuse, suicide following homicide, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims, violent crime, weapons information, youth
Notes:




G060.2
Title:            Domestic Homicide 1988-1995
Author(s):        Anderson, Tracy
Completed:        NO, planned completion date January 1997
Availability:     Will be available from Police National Headquarters or author.
Description:      [abridged] The focus in this report will be on the characteristics of murder as it pertains to the
                  "domestic" area. Of particular focus will be the characteristics between sexual intimates and
                  differences in sentencing patterns between genders.
Keywords:         alcohol, bias, crime detection, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, drugs,
                  ethnic issues, gender issues, hate crimes, mental health, legislation impacts, Maori,
                  offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, police, prosecution, recidivism, sentencing,
                  sentencing effectiveness, sexual abuse, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:


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                                                                                            Offenders and offending




G060.3
Title:          Child homicide in New Zealand 1988-1995
Author(s):      Eriksen, Sonja
Completed:      NO, planned completion date Jan/Feb 1997
Availability:   Will be available after completion from Institute of Criminology or Victoria University of
                Wellington Library.
Description:    This is part of a report carried out by Police National Headquarters Health Services Group
                which looked at the area of homicide in New Zealand - 1988-1995. This study covers child
                homicide: the age of children killed, bi-modal aspects of child homicide, the issues of
                gender, relationship between offender and child, method of killing, motives for the murder,
                the sentences given, defences made, the various child homicides, conviction bias in relation
                to gender or relationship of offender to victim, evidence of child homicide as a part of family
                violence, social welfare intervention/participation. This study covers all children aged 0-16 as
                per the definition of the Children and Young Persons Act 1989. Data will be extracted from
                police files, court files and various other sources. All information will be compared and
                related to data from literature search of overseas reports and research.
Keywords:       alcohol, child abuse, child homicide, costs of crime, crime prevention, crime statistics,
                criminal behaviour, domestic violence, drugs, ethnic issues, gender issues, health, Maori,
                offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, police, recidivism, sexual abuse, victimisation,
                victims, youth
Notes:          Part of M.A. (Crim. Justice) thesis, Victoria University of Wellington.




G065
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                           Fire awareness and intervention
RESEARCH
Done by:        New Zealand Fire Service (Auckland)
Funded by:      New Zealand Fire Service
Method:         Pilot programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS started in 1993 and ongoing



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G065.1
Title:          Fire awareness and intervention program: helping parents to overcome the problem
                of child firelighting
Author(s):      Coleman, Ray
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Contact NZ Fire Service, Auckland, Document No. 0012126
Description:    ABSTRACT. An initiative of the Fire Safety section of the New Zealand Fire Service to aid
                parents and educate children who set fires. Records the survey results of an anti-arson




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Offenders and offending

                  initiative and provides statistical data–case studies for evaluation to help reduce the number
                  of incidents of juvenile fire setting.
Keywords:         arson programmes, Auckland Metropolitan Fire Brigade, case studies, children, fire safety
                  education programmes, juvenile arson, New Zealand Fire service, parents, youth
Notes:




G070
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                Firearm homicide 1992-1994
RESEARCH
Done by:          Authors, for Public Health Association of New Zealand
Funded by:        Authors and The Gunsafe Trust
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G070.1
Title:            Firearm homicide in New Zealand: victims, perpetrators and their weapons 1992-94
Author(s):        Alpers, Philip and Barbara Morgan
Completed:        YES, June 1995
Availability:     Most metropolitan public libraries, or contact Philip Alpers, P O Box 90-227, Auckland, ph.
                  (09) 376-3999, fax (09) 376-4212, e-mail alpers@iconz.co.nz
Description:      ABSTRACT. Aim. To determine the firearms licensing status and mental and criminal history
                  of perpetrators in firearm homicide, plus the legal status of the firearms used. The location of
                  the shooting, its motivation and the relationship between perpetrator and victim were
                  determined, as well as the type, ownership, origin and security storage of the firearms
                  involved. Method. All New Zealand firearm homicides in the three-year period 1992-1994
                  were identified. Case summaries were obtained from the New Zealand Police under the
                  provisions of the Official Information Act. A standardised questionnaire was then used to
                  obtain additional data from the case file. All the questionnaires were completed. Results.
                  Most victims were killed by a licensed gun-owner, while 62.5% (and ten out of eleven female
                  victims) were killed with a legal firearm from the collection of a licensed gun-owner. Almost
                  all victims (95%) were killed by a familiar person. Half were shot by their partner, an
                  estranged partner or a member of their own family. Of all the dead, 63% were shot during
                  family violence, 91% of these with a legal firearm. Of the perpetrators, 82% had no predictive
                  history of violent crime, while none had a history of mental illness. Conclusion. These results
                  contradict the suggestion that efforts to reduce firearm violence should be directed only at
                  "criminals and the mentally ill", rather than "law-abiding gun-owners".
Keywords:         community safety, crime prevention, crime statistics, domestic violence, firearm homicide,
                  gender issues, gun injury, offences, offenders, victims, violent crime
Notes:




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                                                                                         Offenders and offending


G080
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                     Firearm-related crime
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Centre (The University of Auckland) and Injury Prevention
                Research Unit (University of Otago)
Funded by:      Injury Prevention Research Centre (The University of Auckland)
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed, November 1995



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G080.1
Title:          Non-fatal firearm misuse: licence status of perpetrators and legality of the firearms
Author(s):      Gardiner, James, Robyn Norton and Philip Alpers
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Contact Injury Prevention Research Centre, The University of Auckland, or Philip Alpers, P O
                Box 90-227, Auckland, ph. (09) 376-3999, fax (09) 376-4212, e-mail alpers@iconz.co.nz
Description:    ABSTRACT. The primary aim of this study was to identify the licence status of those
                involved in incidents of non-fatal firearm related misuse and to determine the involvement of
                "legal" firearms in such incidents. Firearm related attempted suicides were excluded. The
                study also sought to identify the types of firearms most likely to be misused. Over a three
                month period in early 1994, all non-fatal firearm related incidents reported in any New
                Zealand newspaper were identified by a commercial clipping bureau. Data pertaining to the
                licence status and the legality of the firearm involved in these incidents were obtained from
                the police who completed a standardised questionnaire under the Official Information Act
                1982. Over the study period, 78 incidents yielded information on 97 perpetrators and 100
                firearms. Of the 97 perpetrators, 66.0% were unlicensed, 19.6% were licensed, the licence
                status of 8.3% of the perpetrators was unknown and the remaining 7.2% were using air-guns
                and therefore a licence was not required. Half of the perpetrators involved in domestic
                disputes were licensed. Of the 100 firearms, 44.0% were classified as "legal firearms" and
                56.0% were classified as "illegal firearms". Handguns were disproportionately used in
                incidents of firearm misuse compared with their assumed prevalence in the New Zealand
                population. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at reducing or preventing injury due
                to firearm misuse must focus on both licensed and unlicensed individuals and both legal and
                illegal firearms, particularly handguns.
Keywords:       community safety, crime prevention, crime statistics, domestic violence, enforcement,
                firearm crime, offences, offenders, violent crime
Notes:




G080.2
Title:          Non-fatal firearm injuries in New Zealand, 1979-1992
Author(s):      Langley, J., S. Marshall and R. Norton
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In press, Annals of Emergency Medicine
Description:    ABSTRACT. Aim. To describe the epidemiology of serious non-fatal firearm injury in New
                Zealand. Method. Cases were selected from the New Zealand Health Information Service's


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Offenders and offending

                  hospital inpatient files for the period 1979 to 1992 inclusive. Result. There were 1,239
                  firearm related injuries resulting in 2.7 injuries per 100,000 population per year. Males,
                  persons aged 15-24 years, certain occupational groups, and persons living in rural
                  environments had higher rates of injury. Unintentional incidents accounted for 64% of the
                  injuries. At least 25% of the incidents involved shotguns and a further 20% involved rifles.
                  Conclusions. The results presented here serve to support the attention which has been
                  given to preventing firearm injuries in New Zealand. Priority needs to be given to establishing
                  a surveillance system which would provide uniform data on firearm related mortality and
                  morbidity to aid in risk factor research and developing and evaluating intervention
                  programmes.
Keywords:         firearms, health, victims
Notes:




G080.3
Title:            Airgun injuries in New Zealand, 1979-1992
Author(s):        Langley, J., R. Norton, J. Alsop and S. Marshall
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Injury Prevention, 1996; 2:114-7
Description:      ABSTRACT. Objectives. To describe the epidemiology of serious airgun injury in New
                  Zealand. Methods. Cases were selected from the New Zealand Health Information Services'
                  hospital inpatient morbidity data files for the period 1979 to 1992 inclusive. Results. There
                  were 718 airgun related injuries resulting in 1.56 injuries/100,000 population/year. Males and
                  10-14 year olds had higher than average rates of injury. The majority of the incidents were
                  unintentional. There has been a marked decline in injury rates since 1989. Conclusions.
                  Airgun injuries, while not as serious as powder firearm injuries, account for a significant
                  personal and societal burden. The results suggest that strategies aimed at controlling these
                  injuries, especially those pertaining to children are in need of review.
Keywords:         airguns, firearms, health
Notes:




G080.4
Title:            Firearm related deaths in New Zealand, 1978-1987
Author(s):        Norton, R. and J. Langley
Completed:        YES
Availability:     New Zealand Medical Journal, 1993; 106:463-5
Description:      ABSTRACT. Aims. To identify the role of firearms as a public health issue in New Zealand
                  and to consider this information in the context of international research on potentially
                  effective interventions for the prevention of firearm deaths. Methods. National data on
                  firearm related mortality for the period 1978 to 1987 were abstracted to identify all firearm
                  deaths categorised as unintentional, suicide, homicide and of undetermined intent. Results.
                  Over this 10 year period, there were an average of 91 deaths annually, accounting for 0.3%
                  of all deaths. Suicides accounted for 75.5% of these deaths, unintentional deaths for 11.6%
                  and homicides for 10.6%. No significant temporal changes were observed. Conclusions.
                  While deaths from firearms are not a major public health problem in New Zealand, there is
                  still a need to identify strategies likely to lead to reductions in the current levels of firearm
                  deaths. Appropriately targeted legislative and educational strategies may be effective in
                  reducing such deaths.
Keywords:         firearms, health, suicide, victims, violent crime
Notes:



                                                        156
                                                                                          Offenders and offending




G080.5
Title:          Non-fatal firearm injuries: New Zealand compared with USA
Author(s):      Langley, J., J. Annest, S. Marshall and R. Norton
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Proceedings of the 25th Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics, Washington
                D.C., July 17-19, 1995. Or through Injury Prevention Research Centre, The University of
                Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland.
Description:    ABSTRACT. Aim. To compare the epidemiology of serious non-fatal firearm injury in New
                Zealand to that in United States of America. Method. New Zealand cases were selected from
                the New Zealand Health Information Service's hospital inpatient data files for the period 1979
                to 19992 inclusive. USA inpatient cases were selected from the USA National Centre for
                Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) Firearm Injury Surveillance Study. Results. At 22.0
                per 100,000 population, the USA has an inpatient injury rate for non-fatal firearm injuries 8
                times that of New Zealand. In the NCIPC inpatient series 35% of the incidents involved
                handguns whereas in the New Zealand series less than 2% involved handguns. In the New
                Zealand series, 64% of the injuries were considered to be due to unintentional events
                whereas they accounted for only 13% in the NCIPC series with assault being the main
                contributor at 61%. Conclusions. The differences between USA and New Zealand in
                inpatient rates for overall non-fatal firearm injuries and for those associated with assaults
                may be related to firearm policies and socio-cultural differences. This needs to be
                investigated further through epidemiologic studies and international comparisons.
Keywords:       firearms, health, victims
Notes:




G090
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                        Forecasting crime
RESEARCH
Done by:        Ministry of Justice
Funded by:      Ministry of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date April 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G090.1
Title:          Forecasting and interpreting crime in New Zealand (working title)
Author(s):      Triggs, Sue
Completed:      NO, planned publication date April 1997
Availability:   Ministry of Justice publication
Description:    This project examines the factors influencing crime in New Zealand and will attempt to
                forecast crime rates. Multiple regression models will be developed to examine the social,


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Offenders and offending

                  demographic, economic and justice factors significantly correlated with crime rates for major
                  offence groups, both across geographic areas and through time. Time series models will
                  also be developed for forecasting.
Keywords:         crime statistics, enforcement, forecasting and modelling, offences, offenders, police,
                  property offences, violent crime
Notes:




G095
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                             Going straight
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G095.1
Title:            Straight to the point: angles on giving up crime
Author(s):        Leibrich, Julie
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1993. ISBN 0 908569 78 5
Description:      This study analyses why people desist from committing crime. Interviews with a random
                  sample of 50 former offenders in New Zealand included open-ended questions about why
                  and how respondents stopped offending. The stories of 12 respondents are reproduced in
                  detail. Change was prompted by a revision of personal values, reassessing what is
                  important, and acquiring things of value in life (family, self-respect) and fear of
                  consequences and shame. Going straight was accomplished by tackling personal problems
                  using interpersonal resources, accompanied by a sense of life management. Continuing
                  offenders blamed addiction or financial stress as a motivation for their behaviour, reinforced
                  by beliefs that the chance of detection was small, that they had little to risk, and that what
                  they were doing was not really a crime. In giving up crime, probation supervision was
                  perceived as beneficial if the relationship with the probation officer was good. Findings
                  suggest the need to emphasise supervision quality rather than quantity.
Keywords:         criminal behaviour, offenders, recidivism, rehabilitation, reparation, sentence administration,
                  sentencing effectiveness, supervision, victims
Notes:




G095.2
Title:            The voice of crime
Author(s):        Leibrich, Julie
Completed:        YES

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                                                                                            Offenders and offending

Availability:   Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, December 1994; 3:107-20
Description:    This research into desistance from crime gives a warning that in the policy field of social
                change, if we define our terms too tidily we will not grasp reality. And if we expect change to
                be precise and orderly we will miss the point entirely. The crime problem in New Zealand is
                most easily described in numbers, statistics, graphs and trends. But it is best understood in
                the voices of individuals and the meaning of life to each person. The implication of this for
                social policy is that criminal justice programs which focus narrowly on stopping criminal
                behaviour will not nearly be so effective as social programs in the field of education, health,
                employment cultural equality, and the strengthening of personal relationships, which will
                enrich lives of the individuals in our society.
Keywords:       attitudes, crime prevention, criminal behaviour, offenders, recidivism, rehabilitation
Notes:




G095.3
Title:          The role of shame in going straight: a study of former offenders
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Restorative justice: theory, practice and research, Galaway, Burt and Joe Hudson (Eds).
                New York: Criminal Justice Press. In Press. See also Accountability in the community:
                commentary in Re-thinking Criminal Justice Vol I: Justice in the Community McElrea F.W.M.
                (Ed). Papers presented at a conference held by the Legal Research Foundation in
                association with the Institute of Criminolgy, Victoria University of Wellington, at Auckland,
                New Zealand on 12 and 13 May 1995.
Description:    A study of former offenders found that people decided to go straight and that shame was a
                significant feature in their decision. It was the most commonly mentioned reason for going
                straight and the most commonly mentioned cost of offending. Three kinds of shame were
                evident: public humiliation, personal disgrace, and private remorse. Private remorse was the
                most influential and was triggered by an individual offending their personal morality - coming
                to think that their offending was wrong. There are important implications for a restorative
                model of justice. There needs to be a strategic framework which simultaneously increases
                the costs of offending and benefits of desisting, and decreases the benefits of offending and
                costs of desisting. Restorative programmes need to encourage offenders to evaluate a
                cost-benefit analysis of continuing to offend. Braithwaite‟s "reintegrative shaming" can be
                part of this process and is likely to be most effective when it results not only in personal
                disgrace but also private remorse. Offenders need support to go straight and shaming which
                continues beyond their decision to go straight may well impede them.
Keywords:       attitudes, crime prevention, criminal behaviour, offenders, recidivism, rehabilitation,
                restorative justice, sentence administration
Notes:




G095.4
Title:          What do offenders say about supervision and going straight?
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Federal Probation: a Journal of Correctional Philosophy and Practice, June 1994;
                58(2):41-6.
Description:    The features which the offenders identified as being important in a good probation
                officer/offender relationship were the mirror images of the features which were identified by
                probation officers ... Where people were negative about probation officers, it was because
                they felt merely “processed”, the officer had been late or not kept appointments and had


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Offenders and offending

                  given the impression of being curious rather than genuinely concerned. In general
                  discussions on the role of probation in reducing reoffending, the offenders here, like
                  probation officers, made the point that the influence probation officers might exert is clearly
                  related to the quality of the relationship they have with the offender. The relationship
                  between probation officer and offender was a crucial factor in whether people got anything
                  out of a sentence of probation. They emphasised the need to find and deal with the cause of
                  offending and stressed that people would only change if they themselves wanted to.
                  Offenders also made the point that the goal of reducing re-offending could only be realised in
                  a limited way, given the many other influences on people‟s lives. But they were very aware
                  that people will only change if they want to change. These findings have important
                  implications for any corrections system. Given the strength of other influences on an
                  individual‟s course of change, the extent to which the goal of reducing the likelihood of
                  reoffending can be realised must be seriously questioned. And consequently the setting of
                  specific goals in terms of reducing recidivism must be realistic.
Keywords:         attitudes, community corrections, criminal behaviour, offenders, rehabilitation, sentence
                  administration, sentencing effectiveness, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




G098
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                          Handgun misuse
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        -
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS started 1993, finish 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G098.1
Title:            Compliance with firearms legislation in New Zealand
Author(s):        Alpers, Philip
Completed:        YES
Availability:     NZ Police Association, Wellington, October 1996
Description:      Aims. To examine the rates of non-compliance with gun laws and to compare there with
                  compliance rates among other user groups. Method. Data collection from NZ Police and
                  other agencies, literature review and interviews.
Keywords:         attitudes, community safety, compliance, crime prevention, firearms, handguns, legislation
                  impacts, police, violent crime
Notes:




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G100
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                 Hate crime - Homophobia
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, critical comment
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G100.1
Title:          Hate crime: homophobia as an example
Author(s):      Mason, Gail
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Criminology No. 4, September 1995. Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria
                University of Wellington
Description:    From a recently completed PhD on homophobic violence against women.
Keywords:       gender issues, hate crimes, victimisation
Notes:          Also a PhD thesis.




G110
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                         Insurance fraud
RESEARCH
Done by:        Insurance Council of New Zealand
Funded by:      Insurance Council of New Zealand
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date early 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G110.1
Title:          Insurance Fraud [working title, title not yet decided]
Author(s):      [Insurance Council of New Zealand]
Completed:      NO, planned completion date early 1997
Availability:   [No publication plans]




                                                        161
Offenders and offending

Description:      The Insurance Council is currently surveying companies to try to gauge the extent of
                  insurance fraud. This will be followed up by a public survey on attitudes to insurance fraud.
Keywords:         attitudes, criminal behaviour, insurance fraud
Notes:




G120
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                          Locking up guns
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        NZ Police Association
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G120.1
Title:            Locking up guns: foiling thieves, children and the momentarily suicidal
Author(s):        Alpers, Philip
Completed:        YES, February 1996
Availability:     Contact Tui Hunter, New Zealand Police Association, Wellington, or Philip Alpers, P O Box
                  90-227, Auckland, ph. (09) 376-3999, fax (09) 376-4212, e-mail alpers@iconz.co.nz
Description:      In New Zealand, 250,000 licensed shooters own an estimated 1.1 million firearms, enough
                  for one in each occupied dwelling and sufficient to outnumber the combined small-arms of
                  the police and armed forces by a ratio of 30 to 1. We own 16 times as many guns per capita
                  as the English and the Welsh, 60% more than the Australians, but less than half as many as
                  the residents of the United States. An additional 14,000 guns are imported to New Zealand
                  in a typical year. Each day an average of seven firearm offences involving danger to life are
                  reported to the police, while one in five homicides are committed with a firearm. On average,
                  one person dies by gunshot in New Zealand every four days. Despite a common certainty
                  that firearms are increasingly misused, there has been little local research. Although critical
                  data on the misuse of firearms are collected by police, these are not made available... In
                  New Zealand, the overwhelming majority of firearm fatalities have nothing to do with crime.
                  Nine-tenths of our fatal shootings are the result of suicide and accidents, four-fifths of
                  non-fatal firearm injuries are self-inflicted or unintentional. This study shows that the illegal
                  "crime gun" and the common "sporting gun" are one and the same, separated only by a
                  change of intent or a lapse of security.
Keywords:         attitudes, community safety, crime prevention, crime statistics, enforcement, fines, firearm
                  licensing, firearm theft, offences, police, property offences, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




                                                       162
                                                                                           Offenders and offending


G130
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                               Male survivors of sex abuse
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Accident Compensation Commission
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date December 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G130.1
Title:          Non-offending factors in male survivors of sexual abuse
Author(s):      Lambie, Ian
Completed:      NO, planned completion date February 1997
Availability:   -
Description:    The findings of the research project are not available at this time [June 1996]. It is envisaged
                that they will be available late 1996 or early 1997.
Keywords:       crime prevention, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, offenders, sexual abuse, victims,
                violent crime
Notes:




G140
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                      Maori and the criminal justice system
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, Maori-specific methodology
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G140.1
Title:          The Maori and the criminal justice system: a new perspective: He Whaipaanga Hou
Author(s):      Jackson, Moana
Completed:      YES, 1987




                                                      163
Offenders and offending

Availability:     Department of Justice Study Series 18, February 1987. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                  ISSN 0113-0234
Description:      FOREWORD [excerpt]. This paper is the first stage of an attempt to address the problem of
                  criminal offending by Maori youths and the subsequent imprisonment of a disproportionately
                  high number of these youths when they appear before the courts. It is te tahu tuatahi or the
                  first thread of a research weave from which some understanding may hopefully be gained.
                  The paper seeks to develop a research methodology which can explore the much objectified
                  field of Maori crime from a different and possibly more effective perspective. It is a
                  perspective which takes strands from the extant research and weaves them around a
                  conceptual framework that is especially Maori. The existing research is analysed to elicit
                  responses to certain broad questions: what perspective is the research based on; what facts
                  does it present; what conclusions does it reach; what solutions, if any, are proffered? From
                  each of these questions arise concerns which illustrate the need to adopt a different
                  research viewpoint. These concerns, and the methodology which may be developed from
                  them, are the focus of this paper.
Keywords:         access to justice, adjudication, bias, criminal behaviour, enforcement, ethnic issues, Maori,
                  Maori framework of whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro (shared thought), offenders, prosecution,
                  research methodology, sentence administration, sentencing, youth
Notes:




G140.2
Title:            The Maori and the criminal justice system: a new perspective: He Whaipaanga Hou
                  Part 2
Author(s):        Jackson, Moana
Completed:        YES, 1988
Availability:     Department of Justice Study Series 18, November 1988. Wellington: Department of Justice.
                  ISSN 0113-0234, ISBN 0-477-07247-X
Description:      This report is the second stage of a research project which attempts to provide some
                  insights into the complex questions of why some Maori men become criminal offenders and
                  how the criminal justice process responds to them. It approaches the topic from within a
                  Maori conceptual framework and seeks to explain Maori perceptions of the causes and
                  consequences of criminal offending. It endeavours to do so within the context of three broad
                  aims: (a) to clearly facilitate a valid explanation of Maori offending from a Maori point of view;
                  (b) to use a Maori research perspective to consider structural, social, and cultural factors
                  within New Zealand society that may lead to criminal offending by young Maori men; and (c)
                  to elicit perspectives on the relationship between the Maori and the criminal justice process,
                  and to ascertain what influence the operations of the process may have on the rate of Maori
                  conviction and imprisonment. The key cultural and philosophical issue in the need for a
                  parallel Maori system [of criminal justice] was the need for Maori people to be able to assert
                  their own rangatiratanga and their own control over the consequences of wrongdoing by their
                  young. That need is part of the indigenous rights of a tangata whenua to make their own
                  decisions in a way that is relevant to them. It is a rejection of the monoculturalism which has
                  tried to turn Maori into non-Maori, and which always assumed that Pakeha models were
                  suitable and appropriate to them. Indeed, if the idea of tangata whenua status, and the
                  guarantee of rangatiratanga in the Treaty is to have meaning, it follows that Maori-based
                  judicial structures are a natural development of the rights implicit in those concepts. The
                  need for research and development to establish such a structure is long term; the need for
                  commitment to its validity is immediate.
Keywords:         access to justice, adjudication, bias, criminal behaviour, enforcement, ethnic issues, human
                  rights, Maori, Maori-based judicial structures, offenders, prosecution, restorative justice,
                  sentencing effectiveness, sentence administration, sentencing, system
                  efficiency/effectiveness, youth
Notes:




                                                        164
                                                                                       Offenders and offending




G150
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                            Maori responses to alcohol use
RESEARCH
Done by:        Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori Development), and Alcohol Advisory Council of New
                Zealand
Funded by:      Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori Development), and Alcohol Advisory Council of New
                Zealand
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G150.1
Title:          Te Maori me te Waipiro
Author(s):      Te Puni Kokiri and Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand
Completed:      YES, October 1995
Availability:   ISBN 0-478-09103-6
Description:    Aims. To highlight the effects of alcohol use and the need for Maori communities to be
                resourced to develop their own strategies to manage consumption of alcohol and its related
                effects, and to implement their own research. Methodology. Consulted with a number of
                Kaumatua, Maori service providers, trainers, and policy makers. An analysis of current data
                was then undertaken.
Keywords:       alcohol, Maori
Notes:




G160
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                          Mass shootings
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed




                                                      165
Offenders and offending

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G160.1
Title:            A decade of mass gun killings in Australia and New Zealand 1986-1996
Author(s):        Alpers, Philip
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In press. Contact Philip Alpers, P O Box 90-227, Auckland. Ph. (09) 376-3999, Fax (09)
                  376-4212, e-mail alpers@iconz.co.nz
Description:      A survey of police files and coroners' records covering all firearm-related mass homicides in
                  Australia and New Zealand in the past ten years. In these 14 mass shootings (including the
                  Port Arthur killings) 124 people died by gunfire. Some of the findings: 73% of the killers are
                  known to have had no previous history of mental illness; 87% of the killers had no previous
                  history of violent crime; two-thirds of the killers were licensed gun-owners; 64% of victims
                  died in a shooting where a military-style semi-automatic rifle was used.
Keywords:         attitudes, community safety, crime prevention, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, domestic
                  violence, fear of crime, firearm homicide, gender issues, mass shootings, offences,
                  offenders, victims, violent crime
Notes:




G170
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                          Offence base rates
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice Psychological Services
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G170.1
Title:            Report on offence base rates and offender characteristics (1988)
Author(s):        Bakker, Leon
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Apply to Psychological Service, Department of Corrections, P O Box 1206, Wellington.
Description:      This paper outlines research undertaken to establish person-based data and to highlight the
                  deficiencies of present official statistics and the need for person-based data to enable
                  decision making about prioritisation of psychological treatment. The 558 offenders that
                  formed the database represented all court appearances that occurred in one week of 1980.
                  The importance of recidivism to the justice system was highlighted by these 588 offenders
                  accounting for over 5,000 court appearances in the five year follow-up.
Keywords:         criminal behaviour, offences, offenders, psychological treatment, recidivism, sentence
                  administration, sentencing
Notes:


                                                      166
                                                                                            Offenders and offending




G180
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                   Offence base rates 1995
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Corrections Psychological Service
Funded by:      Department of Corrections
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G180.1
Title:          Offence base rates 1995 [title not yet decided]
Author(s):      [Department of Corrections]
Completed:      NO, planned completion date August 1996
Availability:   There will be a detailed electronic publication, and a summary hard copy.
Description:    Wide-ranging analysis of data on offenders convicted in each police offence code.
Keywords:       crime statistics, offences, offenders
Notes:




G190
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                       Offenders, victims, and their families
RESEARCH
Done by:        Community Theatre Trust
Funded by:      Department of Justice, and Creative New Zealand
Method:         [Qualitative study], oral archival interviews, oral history
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G190.1
Title:          Verbatim [AND] Touch and go
Author(s):      Brandt, William and Miranda Harcourt
Completed:      YES


                                                        167
Offenders and offending

Availability:     Verbatim, Victoria University Press, 1995. ISBN 0 86473 276 7
                  Touch and go, contact Community Theatre Trust, P O Box 11-596, Wellington.
Description:      In developing material for the plays Verbatim and Touch and go, the writers/ devisors
                  undertook freely-structured oral history interviews with many inmates from prisons
                  throughout the country about their experiences of violent crime, particularly murder and
                  sexual assault. Both male and female inmates took part as volunteer interviewees. Further
                  interviews with family members of offenders, victims of violent crime and families of victims
                  bring the total of interviews in the 'Verbatim' files to about 45. Both plays have been toured
                  through every prison in New Zealand, and "Verbatim" has toured in Australia, Hong Kong,
                  Britain, Scotland, and in the USA.
Keywords:         alcohol, attitudes, criminal behaviour, domestic violence, drama, drugs, education, families,
                  fear of crime, media, offenders, prison inmates, prisons, rehabilitation, restorative justice,
                  victims, violent crime, youth
Notes:




G190.2
Title:            A walk in someone else's shoes
Author(s):        Harcourt, M. and B. Pike
Completed:        YES
Availability:     New Zealand Monthly Review, 1994; 6:14-22, ISSN 01135376
Description:      Interviews the actor and producer about her use of oral interviews with prisoners convicted of
                  murder and rape, their families and families of their victims. Describes her use of the
                  material in the plays 'Verbatim' and 'Touch and go', which she co-wrote with William Brandt.
Keywords:         crime, crime victims, criminals, drama, oral history, research methodology
Notes:




G200
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                       Offending while on bail
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G200.1
Title:            Offending while on bail
Author(s):        Lash, Barb and Francis Luketina
Completed:        YES, 1990



                                                       168
                                                                                            Offenders and offending

Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, July 1990. ISBN 0-477-07608-4
Description:    This study looks at 3,850 cases in five court districts in which bail was granted at some stage
                of proceedings. On average 14% of those persons who were bailed offended while on bail.
                Key predictors of whether a person was more likely to offend while on bail were found to be
                "the number of charges faced by the person when they were bailed", "the number of
                previous offences committed by the person", "whether the person had previously served a
                custodial sentence", and the person's age.
Keywords:       adjudication, bail, crime statistics, criminal behaviour, offenders, recidivism, system
                efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




G210
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                  Parole and re-offending
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G210.1
Title:          Reoffending and parole: a study of recidivism before and after the Criminal Justice
                Act 1985
Author(s):      Asher, Bruce
Completed:      YES, 1988
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, July 1988. ISBN 0-477-07246-1
Description:    This research attempted to assess some of the possible effects of the parole provisions of
                the Criminal Justice Act 1985 on re-offending. In doing so, two central questions were
                addressed: (1) Have the new provisions affected the overall recidivism rate among released
                prisoners? and (2) is the recidivism rate for those granted early release under the new
                provisions significantly different from that of offenders not granted early release? The answer
                to the first question is a qualified "no". On none of the measures of re-offending was there a
                statistically significant difference between the 1986 sample and the 1985 sample, and in
                general the patterns of recidivist offending are very similar. The answer to the second
                question is a definite "yes". Those granted early release on parole in 1986 were less likely to
                re-offend, and had fewer reconvictions and court appearances, than were those released
                unconditionally or under supervision on their remission date.
Keywords:       legislation impacts, parole, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




                                                      169
Offenders and offending


G220
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                              Predicting violent re-offending
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Literature review
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G220.1
Title:            Background paper: the prediction of violent reoffending
Author(s):        Vasil, Latika
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, December 1987. ISBN 0-477-07240-2
Description:      This paper reviews studies of prediction techniques. It concludes that there is no sure means
                  of predicting who will re-offend and who will not, but that predictions of re-offending for
                  violent crimes made on the basis of the methods reviewed are only likely to be accurate in
                  one case out of three.
Keywords:         crime statistics, criminal behaviour, forecasting and modelling, prediction, recidivism, violent
                  crime
Notes:




G230
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                             Prediction model of re-offending
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice Psychological Services, and Department of Corrections
Funded by:        Department of Justice, and Department of Corrections
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G230.1
Title:            The measurement of risk among offenders
Author(s):        Bakker, Leon, David Riley and James O'Malley
Completed:        NO, planned completion date July 1996


                                                       170
                                                                                              Offenders and offending

Availability:   Publication planned; apply to Psychological Service, Department of Corrections,
                P O Box 1206, Wellington.
Description:    Criminal histories of all offenders convicted in the 1983, 1988 and 1989 years were obtained
                from the Wanganui computer. This allowed a minimum of four years and nine months
                opportunity for reconviction. A number of variables were derived and a model developed
                which accurately predicted the probability that offenders would re-offend. Further models
                were derived which accurately predicted the seriousness of subsequent offending (high,
                medium, low), the probability of re-offenders receiving a prison sentence, and whether the
                sentence would be short or long.
Keywords:       criminal behaviour, offenders, forecasting and modelling, recidivism, sentence
                administration, sentencing
Notes:




G240
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                          Prior injury risk factor for assault
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Unit (Univeristy of Otago) and Injury Prevention Research Centre
                (The University of Auckland)
Funded by:      -
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G240.1
Title:          Hospitalizations for injury in New Zealand: prior injury as a risk factor for assaultive
                injury
Author(s):      Dowd, M. Denise, John Langley, Thomas Koepsell, Robert Soderberg and Frederick P.
                Rivara
Completed:      YES
Availability:   American Journal of Public Health, July 1996; 86(7):929-34
Description:    ABSTRACT. Objectives. This study sought to determine the degree to which injury
                hospitalisation, especially for assaultive injury, is a risk for subsequent hospitalisation due to
                assault. Methods. A New Zealand hospitalisation database was used to perform a
                retrospective cohort study. Exposure was defined as an injury hospitalisation, stratified into
                assaultive and non-assaultive mechanisms. Hospitalisations for an assault during a 12
                month follow-up period were measured. Results. Individuals with a prior non-assaultive injury
                were 3.2 times more likely to be admitted for an assault than those with no injury admission
                (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7, 3.9). The relative risk associated with a prior assault was
                39.5 (95% CI = 35.8, 43.5), and the subsequent admission rate did not vary significantly by
                sex, race, or marital or employment status. Among those re-admitted for an assault, 70%
                were re-admitted within 30 days of the initial hospitalisation. Conclusions. Prior injury is a risk
                for serious assault, and the risk is even greater if the injury is due to assault. Risk of
                re-admission for assault is largely independent of demographic factors and greatest within
                30 days of the initial assault.
Keywords:       domestic violence, gender issues, health, victimisation, victims


                                                      171
Offenders and offending

Notes:




G250
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                 Profiling of serial offenders
RESEARCH
Done by:          Regional Forensic Psychiatry Services, Auckland, in conjunction with NZ Fire Services,
                  Auckland
Funded by:        Regional Forensic Psychiatry Services, Auckland
Method:           Literature review, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:           IN PROGRESS, ongoing since 1993



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G250.1
Title:            From arson to murder: the Auckland Youth Liaison Project
Author(s):        Albrecht, H., R. Coleman and D. Chaplow
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Please contact principal author at Regional Forensic Psychiatry Services, Private Bag
                  19-986, Auckland. Phone (09) 849-7789, fax (09) 815-5163. Publication in Australasian
                  Psychiatry, October 1996; ISSN 1039-8562.
Description:      Aims. 1. Describes the Auckland Youth Liaison Project (YLP). 2. Identify, assess, treat youth
                  at risk to set fire, and progress to murder (Auckland 1993-1995 inclusive). Findings. Core
                  group of fire-setting youth in Auckland, at risk to progress to murder, depending on exclusion
                  inclusion of variables, this group consists of a set of 3-5% of all youth examined 1993-1995.
Keywords:         arson, case processing, community safety, costs of crime, crime detection, crime prevention,
                  crime statistics, criminal behaviour, drugs, education, ethnic issues, forecasting and
                  modelling, hate crimes, health, Maori, offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, property
                  offences, recidivism, rehabilitation, risk assessment, sexual abuse, violent crime, youth
Notes:            [There are a number of reports and 5 yearly publications and presentations on this on-going
                  research on profiling, risk assessment and crime prevention. Much of this work is done with
                  Ray Coleman, Youth Liaison Officer of the Fire Service, Auckland.]




G260
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                Reconviction study 1990-91
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice Psychological Services
Funded by:        Department of Justice


                                                      172
                                                                                           Offenders and offending

Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G260.1
Title:          Reconviction study 1990/91
Author(s):      Bakker, L. and D. Riley
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   Apply to Psychological Service, Department of Corrections, P O Box 1206, Wellington.
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. The reconviction study was undertaken to ascertain whether the
                Psychological Services Division had met its Management Plan Performance Indicator of a
                5% reduction in frequency, or seriousness or rate of re-offending. Four comparison groups
                were obtained to measure the relative impact of intervention for persons who completed
                treatment between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 1991. The results indicate that of those who
                completed treatment only 37% were reconvicted in the subsequent two years. This was
                significantly lower than for the control group, and the difference represented a 30% reduction
                by comparison to the control group and up to 18% reduction when compared to the other
                groups who had had contact with Psychological Services. Seriousness of offending was
                reduced by approximately 40% when compared with the control group. When a measure of
                the rate of reconviction between the groups was evaluated, the control group was found to
                display a greater reduction in this measure than the group which received treatment.
                However, the utility of this measure was restricted by the short follow-up period which meant
                that a small number of highly atypical individuals disproportionately influenced the results.
                Additionally, the different levels of seriousness of offending between the groups may have
                biased the results in the direction of a greater reduction in rate of offending for the control
                group. Other information of significance was that, while Maori appear to benefit from
                treatment to the same extent as Caucasians, they are referred at a lower rate than other
                racial groups. Those persons on Community Corrections re-offend at lower levels than those
                in prison. Also, females re-offend at a lower level than males...
Keywords:       criminal behaviour, offences, offenders, recidivism, rehabilitation, sentence administration,
                sentencing
Notes:




G260.2
Title:          Base rates and reconviction rates for New Zealand violent offenders
Author(s):      Mulligan, Andrea and Anthony P. McLean
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Apply to Psychological Service, Department of Corrections, P O Box 1206, Wellington.
Description:    Information about base rates and reconviction rates for offenders is important in guiding
                offender management practices and in deciding priorities for use of limited resources in the
                criminal justice system. However, assessing these rates is difficult because it requires
                person-based information about offenders which is not readily accessible from official
                statistics. The present study formed a person-based database on violent offenders, a group
                who arouse a great deal of concern both in the justice system and in the community. A
                sample of offenders convicted in New Zealand for violent offences during a three-year period
                between 1979 and 1981 was studied to provide information about the nature of their violent
                offences, the rate of reconviction and the nature of subsequent offences. Base rates for
                different types of violent offences, and the sentences imposed for these offences, indicate
                that the vast majority were convicted of relatively minor offences. The reconviction rates
                were studied over a six-year follow-up period starting at the expected date of release from
                imprisonment, and indicate that much of the concern about these offenders is indeed


                                                     173
Offenders and offending

                  warranted. The rate in the whole sample was close to 50% for subsequent violent offences
                  and close to 75% for any offence. Different subcategories of violent offenders had violent
                  reconviction rates ranging from 15.5% for homicide offenders to 83% for unlawful assembly
                  offenders. Risk of reconviction appeared highest soon after release from imprisonment. The
                  high reconviction rates for most violent offenders confirms that substantial reductions in
                  violent-crime rates could be achieved by effective rehabilitative work with individual
                  offenders.
Keywords:         criminal behaviour, offences, offenders, recidivism, rehabilitation, sentence administration,
                  sentencing
Notes:




G270
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                      Reducing re-offending
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Literature review
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G270.1
Title:            Reducing reoffending: what works now
Author(s):        McLaren, Kaye
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, May, 1992. ISBN 0-477-07631-9
Description:      This paper examines the evidence for and against the existence of correctional
                  interventions. This evidence includes literature reviews of large groups of studies, individual
                  studies and statistical analyses of groups of studies covering the period 1974 to 1991. The
                  paper asks two questions. Firstly, are there any effective interventions? Secondly, if there
                  are, do such interventions have anything in common?
Keywords:         community corrections, correctional interventions, education, "principles of effectiveness",
                  programmes, recidivism
Notes:




                                                       174
                                                                                             Offenders and offending


G280
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
         Review of the implementation of the 1988 Mason Report
RESEARCH
Done by:        Ministry of Health
Funded by:      Ministry of Health
Method:         Qualitative study, formal questionnaire and informal feedback
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G280.1
Title:          Five years out
Author(s):      Ministry of Health
Completed:      YES, December 1994
Availability:   Available from Ministry of Health on request.
Description:    Aim. To complete a comprehensive review of the implementations of the 1988 Mason
                Report into forensic psychiatric services. Method. Questionnaire survey of forensic services,
                general mental health services and regional health authorities, plus extracts from a survey by
                Department of Justice of its services. Findings. Most of the recommendations of the Mason
                Report in respect of forensic services have been implemented; service gaps which exist are
                identified.
Keywords:       forensic psychiatry, health, mental health, mentally ill offenders, system
                efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




G290
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                     Serious fraud policing
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, interviews
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G290.1
Title:          Policing serious fraud
Author(s):      Newbold, Greg, and Robert Ivory

                                                     175
Offenders and offending

Completed:        YES
Availability:     Crime, Law and Social Change, 1993; 20:233-48,
Description:      ABSTRACT. The discovery of a serious fraud problem in New Zealand is very recent. Prior
                  to the 1980s, there had been only three prosecutions for serious fraud in the history of the
                  country, and penalties for those convicted were small. But a corporate boom in the 1980s,
                  followed by the share market crash of 1987, revealed extensive serious fraud. Initial
                  attempts to combat the problem through the Commercial Affairs Division of the Department
                  of Justice failed. But in 1990 a Serious Fraud Office was established, with powers greater
                  than those ever given before to a New Zealand law-enforcement agency. Three years later,
                  the SFO had been notified of possible frauds totalling $2.5 billion. This represents many
                  times what is reported stolen in all other property crime, but the SFO budget is only 1% of
                  that devoted to ordinary policing. Since 1990, only one prosecution out of the seventeen
                  completed has failed. Prison sentences of up to seven years and averaging almost four
                  years, have been awarded. As the SFO nears the end of its third year, and its net gradually
                  widens, its influence on illegal activity continues to grow.
Keywords:         costs of crime, crime detection, crime prevention, crime statistics, criminal behaviour,
                  enforcement, fear of crime, system efficiency/effectiveness, white-collar crime
Notes:




G300
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                Services for Maori offenders
RESEARCH
Done by:          Te Tira Whakaemi, Victoria University of Wellington (contracted to Te Puni Kokiri)
Funded by:        Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori Development)
Method:           Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G300.1
Title:            Data collation exercise on programmes/services to Maori offenders
Author(s):        Te Tira Whakaemi
Completed:        YES, 30 November 1996
Availability:     Contact Communications, Te Puni Kokiri, P O Box 3943, Wellington.
Description:      Aim. To develop a nation-wide inventory or directory of non-government individuals and
                  groups currently delivering or developing a programme for Maori offenders. Data collation
                  exercise on programmes/services for Maori offenders.
Keywords:         Maori, offenders
Notes:




                                                          176
                                                                                          Offenders and offending


G310
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                  Sex offender base rates
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice Psychological Services
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G310.1
Title:          Base rates and characteristics of convicted sexual offenders: a New Zealand study
Author(s):      McLean, Anthony P. and Christina A. Rush
Completed:      YES, 1990
Availability:   Apply to Psychological Service, Department of Corrections, P O Box 1206, Wellington.
Description:    Information on all sexual offenders convicted between 1978 and 1985 was obtained from the
                Wanganui computer. This comprised offence records and a small number of personal
                characteristics. The data was analysed to provide information about: 1. the incidence of
                various types of sexual offending; 2. the personal characteristics of different types of
                offender; 3. the reconviction rates for each type of offence; and 4. the offence patterns of
                individuals.
Keywords:       criminal behaviour, offences, offenders, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing,
                sexual offending
Notes:




G315
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                            Sex offenders and their families
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 2001




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Offenders and offending

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G315.1
Title:            Male sex offenders in a community treatment programme: an evaluation of treatment
                  gains and family experience
Author(s):        Vivian, Mark
Completed:        NO, planned completion date 2001
Availability:     -
Description:      Relevant attitudes, beliefs and ascription of responsibility for offending of male sex offenders
                  will be assessed pre- and post-treatment. Comparisons will be made with the attitudes,
                  beliefs and ascription of responsibility of their significant family members.
Keywords:         attitudes, evaluation, offenders, sex offenders, sexual abuse, treatment
Notes:




G318
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                            Sexual offending self-disclosure
RESEARCH
Done by:          STOP (Christchurch) [Working to STOP sexual abuse for a safer community]
Funded by:        -
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G318.1
Title:            The public and the private record: self-disclosure of undetected sexual offences
Author(s):        Vivian, Mark
Completed:        NO, planned completion date 1996
Availability:     To be submitted to Australasian journals
Description:      127 sex offenders in a community based treatment programme completed a questionnaire
                  examining differences between conviction rates and unconvicted sexual offences. Although
                  they reported an average (mean) of 1.6 convictions for sex offences per man, participants
                  disclosed 13,130 (mean=103.4) sexual offences for which they have not been charged in
                  court. Total victims number 4,708, a mean of 37 victims per man. Comparisons between
                  victim gender, relationship to perpetrator and detections are also reported.
Keywords:         crime detection, offences, offenders, sex offenders, sexual abuse, undetected offending
Notes:




                                                       178
                                                                                           Offenders and offending


G320
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                               Sexual violation recidivism
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G320.1
Title:          Rape recidivism and sexual violation
Author(s):      Southey, Pamela, Beverley Braybrook and Philip Spier
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, April 1994. ISBN 0-477-07674-2
Description:    CONCLUSION [abridged]. In the first part of the report, conviction and sentencing statistics
                are given for cases involving sexual violation for the years 1983 to 1992. Secondly, previous
                and subsequent convictions are examined for offenders released from a custodial sentence
                for rape between 1979 and 1981, and between 1984 and 1986. The third part presents
                information on inmates imprisoned for sexual violation in the year prior to the 1991 census of
                prison inmates... This report shows that convictions for violent sexual offences typically form
                only part of a history of violent and other offending. Rape offenders were much more likely to
                have a number of convictions for property offences. These findings support the suggestion
                that most offenders imprisoned for rape are "generalists" rather than primarily sex
                offenders... A large number of offenders were reconvicted for offences within five or ten
                years of their release from a custodial sentence for rape, with 59% of offenders in the
                1979/81 group and 67% of offenders in the 1984/86 group being charged within five years of
                their release and subsequently convicted. The highest risk period for re-offending was within
                the first year following release, and over half of those who re-offended did so within one year.
                However, the study indicated that there was a continued risk of re-offending even after
                several years free from further convictions since a third of those not reconvicted after five
                years were reconvicted between five and ten years after their release. In the first five years
                following their release, approximately one third of rape offenders in each group were
                charged and convicted for a subsequent violent offence, and more than one third of the rape
                offenders in each group were incarcerated at some stage during the next five years following
                their release. Six percent of the 273 people in this study were reconvicted for rape within five
                years of their release.
Keywords:       adjudication, criminal behaviour, offenders, prosecution, recidivism, sentencing, sexual
                abuse, violent crime
Notes:




                                                     179
Offenders and offending


G340
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                   Traffic–Accident survivors later convictions
RESEARCH
Done by:          Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd
Funded by:        Foundation for Research, Science and Technology
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G340.1
Title:            Follow-up convictions for survivors of fatal road accidents
Author(s):        Bailey, John P.M.
Completed:        YES 1996
Availability:     ESR Publication Series No. 22. ESR, Porirua, August 1996
Description:      Compares traffic convictions of drivers surviving fatal road accidents in 1991 with those of
                  similar drivers in 1986 fatal accidents, using data from Wanganui computer. Involvement in
                  fatal accidents has little impact on subsequent recidivism when compared with drivers in
                  injury (non-fatal) accidents.
Keywords:         alcohol, recidivism, road accidents, traffic offences
Notes:            Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                  (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




G350
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                           Traffic–Compulsory breath testing
RESEARCH
Done by:          Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd
Funded by:        Foundation for Research, Science and Technology
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G350.1
Title:            An evaluation of compulsory breath testing in New Zealand using data from an
                  in-depth study of fatal road accidents
Author(s):        Bailey, John P.M.
Completed:        YES



                                                        180
                                                                                            Offenders and offending

Availability:   ESR Publication Series No. 19, ESR, Porirua. May 1996
Description:    SEE following Abstract for Comparison of compulsory breath testing in New Zealand and
                random breath testing in Victoria, Australia.
Keywords:       alcohol, traffic offences
Notes:          Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




G350.2
Title:          Comparison of compulsory breath testing in New Zealand and random breath testing
                in Victoria, Australia
Author(s):      Bailey, John P.M.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   ESR Publication Series No. 15, ESR, Porirua. 1995
Description:    ABSTRACT. Compulsory Breath Testing (CBT) was introduced in New Zealand on 1 April
                1993, in an attempt to minimise the costs, both human and monetary, associated with
                drinking and driving. This report studies its impact on reported injury accidents and
                breath-tested drivers using data sourced from a number of agencies. It also compares the
                impact in New Zealand with that in the Australian State of Victoria following the intensification
                of Random Breath Testing in late 1989. CBT was initially associated with a continuation of
                the reduction in the proportion of injury accidents that were alcohol-related or occurred at
                night, that apparently began in December 1992. The reduction was much greater for
                alcohol-related accidents or night time accidents than other accidents. However, the
                reduction in the first few months after the introduction of CBT was not sustained in later
                months. This was partly associated with an increase in traffic in 1993 and 1994. The ratio of
                alcohol-related to non alcohol-related accidents remained approximately constant through
                1994, after a short-lived reduction when CBT was introduced. Initially the impact of CBT was
                greatest in the main centres. Later, the provincial cities and rural areas showed reductions.
                The decrease in alcohol-related accidents in New Zealand, upon the introduction of CBT,
                was appreciably less than that achieved in Victoria. CBT needs to be better tailored to
                impact on those drivers who have not responded to the existing campaign. In particular,
                more enforcement is needed in the rural areas and in the early morning. Publicity and
                education campaigns need to be targeted to groups such as those aged 35 to 44, and the
                lower socio-economic groups.
Keywords:       alcohol, traffic offences
Notes:          Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




G360
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                         Traffic–Convictions and accidents
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd
Funded by:      Foundation for Research, Science and Technology
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed




                                                     181
Offenders and offending

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G360.1
Title:            Traffic convictions and reported injury accidents for drinking and sober drivers
                  involved in accidents or convicted in 1988
Author(s):        Bailey, John P.M.
Completed:        YES
Availability:     ESR Publication Series No. 20. ESR, Porirua. 1996
Description:      ABSTRACT. This study compares drinking and sober drivers involved in reported injury
                  accidents or those convicted after being apprehended by the police for the year 1988. The
                  drivers‟ offending records and involvement in reported injury accidents are studied both prior
                  to, and subsequent to, the event that brought each driver into the study. The data obtained
                  from the study are used to test ten hypotheses. The outcome is: 1. drinking and sober
                  drivers differ demographically and in patterns of offending and involvement in accidents; 2.
                  drinking drivers in reported injury accidents and those convicted of an offence differ; 3.
                  drinking drivers in fatal accidents, in reported injury accidents and apprehended by the police
                  differ in some important respects, but have many similarities; 4. there are differences in the
                  traffic conviction patterns and patterns of involvement in reported injury accidents, both prior
                  to and subsequent to the event in 1988 which brought the drivers into the study; 5. the
                  penalties given to drinking drivers appear to be associated with a reduction in subsequent
                  drink driving convictions in the following year, relative to later years; 6. the accident, or more
                  likely the conviction, appears to reduce the subsequent conviction or accident rates for
                  hard-core drivers compared with other drinking drivers. Hard-core drinking drivers are
                  characterised by their prior offending and/or blood alcohol concentration in the accident; 7.
                  some groups of drinking drivers are at higher risk of an accident or committing an offence; 8.
                  recidivistic drivers seem to commit a number of different types of offences, not just the type
                  they were previously involved in.
Keywords:         alcohol, traffic offences
Notes:            Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                  (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




G370
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                Traffic–Convictions for causing death or injury
RESEARCH
Done by:          Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd
Funded by:        Foundation for Research, Science and Technology
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G370.1
Title:            Convictions for causing death or injury
Author(s):        Bailey, John P.M.
Completed:        YES 1996
Availability:     ESR Publication Series No. 21. ESR, Porirua. August 1996


                                                        182
                                                                                          Offenders and offending

Description:    Compares traffic conviction histories of drivers causing death or injury in 1992/93 with those
                given by Parsons in a similar study for 1965-1969. Large increase in number of prior
                convictions.
Keywords:       alcohol, traffic offences
Notes:          Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




G380
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                             Traffic–Drink driving by Maori
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd
Funded by:      Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori Development)
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G380.1
Title:          A study of drinking and driving by Maori drivers
Author(s):      Bailey, John P.M.
Completed:      YES, June 1996
Availability:   ESR client report to Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori Development).
Description:    ABSTRACT. The aim of the study is to provide Te Puni Kokiri with information to assess the
                ways in which Maori drinking drivers differ from European ones. This will assist in
                formulating policy to address these differences. The Maori community can then take action
                to reduce the costs of drinking and driving, by addressing those issues likely to lead to the
                greatest reductions in death and injury for Maori. Analysis of data from an in-depth study of
                fatal road accidents shows that, when comparing like groups, a similar proportion of Maori
                and European drivers at fault in their accidents were drinking drivers. However, Maori have a
                higher overall rate of drinking and driving, and a higher proportion of Maori drivers appear to
                drive after drinking heavily. This probably explains why an appreciably higher proportion of
                drinking drivers were Maori than the proportion of Maori in Census data. Of particular
                concern is the low rate of wearing of seat belts by Maori drinking drivers in the fatal
                accidents. Appropriate interventions may well lead to a substantial reduction in drink driving
                deaths among Maori, without requiring any changes in drinking or drink driving behaviour.
                The report concludes with eleven recommendations to reduce the cost of drink driving to
                Maori.
Keywords:       alcohol, ethnic issues, Maori, offences, traffic offences
Notes:          Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




                                                      183
Offenders and offending


G390
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                           Traffic–Drink-driving in rural areas
RESEARCH
Done by:          Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd
Funded by:        Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G390.1
Title:            A study of drinking and driving in rural areas
Author(s):        Bailey, John P.M.
Completed:        YES, July 1995
Availability:     ESR report to Alcohol Advisory Council.
Description:      ABSTRACT. Three different classifications of rural accidents are applied to data on fatal
                  road accidents occurring in the years 1991-1993: 1. by the speed zone where the accident
                  occurred; 2. by grouping the local bodies in which the accident occurred, into main centres,
                  provincial cities and rural areas; 3. by the home address of the driver, into main urban,
                  secondary urban, minor urban and rural areas. The third classification provided the greatest
                  insight into the characteristics of drinking drivers and their accidents in rural areas. There are
                  clear differences between those drinking drivers who live in rural areas and those who live in
                  the main urban areas: 1. the number of drivers involved in fatal accidents per population is
                  greater for those who lived in rural areas; 2. there are demographic differences involving age
                  and ethnicity; 3. higher proportions of accidents for drivers living in rural areas occur in areas
                  with speed limits of 80-100 km/hr than those with limits of 50 km/hr, with the result that a
                  higher proportion of more severe accidents occur for drivers in these areas; 4. an
                  appreciably lower proportion of drivers involved in fatal accidents and living in rural areas
                  were using seat belts; 5. it appears that a higher proportion of drinking drivers in rural areas
                  had been drinking at a hotel than was found for drivers in other areas. This suggests a ready
                  point of intervention for a campaign against drinking and driving in rural areas. Maori
                  ethnicity was not included in a logistic regression model of the fatally injured drinking drivers,
                  when comparing those domiciled in main urban and rural areas. This may be a consequence
                  of confounding in the data or of missing data on ethnicity. Analysis of the domicile of the
                  drivers in fatal accidents has provided insight into differences between drinking and driving in
                  rural areas and the main urban areas. The method has drawn heavily on data acquired by
                  the author for other studies and shows the value of an in-depth approach to studying drinking
                  and driving.
Keywords:         alcohol, ethnic issues, Maori, traffic offences
Notes:            Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                  (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




                                                        184
                                                                                           Offenders and offending


G400
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                        Traffic–Drinking and fatal accidents
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd
Funded by:      Foundation for Research, Science and Technology
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G400.1
Title:          Alcohol and fatal road crashes
Author(s):      Bailey, John
Completed:      YES
Availability:   New Zealand Public Health Report, September 1995; 2(9):73-4 ISSN 1173-0250
Description:    Drinking drivers were compared with sober drivers involved in fatal road crashes over the
                three years 1991 to 1993. Drinking drivers were more likely to be young, male, Maori,
                unemployed, and disqualified or unlicensed drivers. They were also more likely to have had
                a prior criminal or driving conviction than sober drivers. Most fatal crashes involving drinking
                drivers occurred at night, and excessive speed and loss of control on corners was common.
                While persistent drinking drivers are a well defined group, they are also a difficult group to
                effectively target. New measures to reduce drink driving, specifically aimed at persistent
                offenders, need to be tried and evaluated.
Keywords:       alcohol, Maori, traffic offences
Notes:          Contact author, Bailey Partnership Ltd, 15 Spinnaker Drive, Whitby, Porirua; phone and fax
                (04)234-8298, e-mail baileyjm@actrix.gen.nz




G410
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                        Traffic–Drive Plan
RESEARCH
Done by:        Drive Plan Committee
Funded by:      Community Corrections (Department of Corrections), COGS, Marlborough Safer Community
                Group, Road Safety Trust, Trustbank
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date September 1996




                                                     185
Offenders and offending

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G410.1
Title:            Drive Plan evaluation
Author(s):        Barrer, Anne, and Martin White
Completed:        NO, planned completion date September 1996
Availability:     Will be available from Marlborough Safer Community Group, P O Box 443, Blenheim.
Description:      Courses held for first time driving offenders, considered to be at risk of re-offending. Referral
                  by courts. 12 week programme at end of which evaluations carried out regarding attitudes,
                  driving skills, alcohol and drug use awareness, risk perception, and social conditioning.
Keywords:         alcohol, alternative justice systems, attitudes, community safety, community corrections,
                  courts, crime prevention, drugs, education, offenders, recidivism, sentence administration,
                  traffic offences, youth
Notes:




G420
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                          Trends and international comparisons
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G420.1
Title:            Offending in New Zealand: trends and international comparisons
Author(s):        Norris, Marion and Simon MacPherson
Completed:        YES, 1990
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, August 1990. ISBN 0-477-07610-6
Description:      This report uses police statistics and conviction statistics to monitor trends in offending and
                  in sentencing since 1981. Police statistics have been used to examine trends in the number
                  of offences reported to or detected by the police, and to make some comparisons between
                  rates of reported offending in New Zealand and rates in other countries. Conviction statistics
                  have been used to examine trends in the number of convictions for particular types of
                  offences, and in sentencing of offenders. The final section of the report compares New
                  Zealand imprisonment rates with those found in other countries.
Keywords:         adjudication, crime statistics, drug offences, imprisonment rates, international comparisons,
                  offences against justice, offenders, property offences, prosecution, sentencing, sex
                  offences, traffic offences, violent offences
Notes:




                                                       186
                                                                                                Offenders and offending




G430
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                       Violence base rates
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice Psychological Services
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Literature review, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G430.1
Title:          New Zealand violent offenders: priority decisions
Author(s):      Mulligan, Andrea
Completed:      YES, 1990
Availability:   Apply to Psychological Service, Department of Corrections, P O Box 1206, Wellington.
Description:    ABSTRACT [abridged]. Violent offending is of concern to both the public in general and the
                justice system in particular. Increasing trends in the numbers of offenders convicted of
                violent offences have placed increasing pressures on the Justice Department to address the
                problem and make decisions concerning possible solutions. The main aims of the present
                study were to, firstly, assess the extent to which violent offenders present a problem to the
                justice system using base rates, reconviction probabilities and seriousness data, and
                secondly, to outline how this information can be used to develop priority guidelines for
                rehabilitative efforts with violent offenders. Utilising information from the Wanganui
                computer, criminal histories of a randomly selected sample of 950 violent offenders were
                obtained. All offenders selected had a conviction for a violent offence between the dates, 1st
                January and 31st December 1981... Data analysis was designed so as to address base
                rates, reconviction probabilities and seriousness of subsequent offending for each category
                of violent offender. Predictor variables related to re-offending were also examined and
                evaluated using discriminant function analysis…
Keywords:       criminal behaviour, offenders, recidivism, sentence administration, sentencing, seriousness,
                violent crime
Notes:          Available as short report, or full (thesis, University of Canterbury) report.




G440
OFFENDERS AND OFFENDING
                                Violent offences legislation
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study


                                                        187
Offenders and offending

Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

G440.1
Title:            The violent offences legislation Part 1: possession of knives and other offensive
                  weapons
Author(s):        Kettles, Susan
Completed:        YES, 1989
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, October 1989. ISBN 0-477-07234-8
Description:      The main findings. (1) The introduction of s13A of the Summary Offences Act did not appear
                  to lead to an overall increase in the number of convictions for possession of knives and other
                  offensive weapons. It seemed to cause a movement of convictions from s202A of the
                  Crimes Act to s13A. (2) Apart from an increase in the average custodial sentence length for
                  possession of an offensive weapon following the doubling of the maximum penalty under
                  s202A of the Crimes Act, the legislative changes have had no clear effect on custodial
                  sentencing. (3) There is no conclusive evidence to show that possession of a knife is being
                  treated in the same way as possession of an offensive weapon since the legislation was
                  changed to include knives under s202A. (4) The legislative changes do not appear to have
                  had a measurable deterrent effect. (5) There has not been a significant increase in the
                  imprisonment of re-offenders convicted for possession of an offensive weapon as a result of
                  the introduction of s202BA of the Crimes Act. This section requires that such re-offenders
                  are imprisoned unless there are special circumstances which make this sentence
                  inappropriate. Evidence from court files suggests that this requirement has not been given
                  specific consideration during sentencing in many cases dealing with these re-offenders.
Keywords:         adjudication, knives, legislation impacts, offenders, offensive weapons, prosecution,
                  sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




G440.2
Title:            The violent offences legislation Part 2: the imprisonment of offenders who used
                  serious violence
Author(s):        Kettles, Susan
Completed:        YES, 1989
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, October 1989. ISBN 0-477-07239-9
Description:      Amendments to the Criminal Justice Act 1985 introduced on 1 August 1987 examined in this
                  paper arose from recommendations made by the Ministerial Committee of Inquiry into
                  Violence ("the Roper Committee"). These recommendations in turn arose from public
                  concern about the sentencing of violent offenders. Many submissions to the Roper
                  Committee criticised such sentencing as being too lenient... Following the legislative
                  changes, there was an insignificant increase in the proportion of custodial sentences
                  resulting from violent offences with a maximum sentence of imprisonment for two to five
                  years (23.0% to 23.9%) and a slight increase for offences with a maximum sentence of
                  imprisonment for five years or more (62.6% to 64%)... Using data up until February 1988,
                  there is no evidence that the amendments to the legislation have made an observable
                  overall difference to the sentencing of offenders convicted of offences involving violence and
                  subject to a maximum sentence of imprisonment for two to five years.
Keywords:         adjudication, crime statistics, imprisonment, legislation impacts, offenders, prosecution,
                  sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




                                                       188
                                                                                            Offenders and offending




G440.3
Title:          The violent offences legislation Part 3: the eligibilty of violent offenders for parole
Author(s):      Kettles, Susan
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, October 1989. ISBN 0-477-07216-X
Description:    On 1 August 1987 the Criminal Justice Amendment (No.3) [Act] amended section 93 of the
                Criminal Justice Act 1985, relating to eligibility for parole. This paper contains an analysis of
                the impact of the amendment on the prison muster. Overall, combining all three categories
                of offenders affected (life prisoners, preventive detainees and inmates sentenced to more
                than two years imprisonment for a "specified offence"), it is predicted that the change will
                begin to have an impact on the prison muster in 1989. In this year there could be 11 inmates
                who would not have been in prison under the previous legislation. There could be 123 extra
                inmates in 1991. With low initial release, it is predicted that this will increase to reach 230
                extra inmates in 2000. With high initial release, it could reach 178.
Keywords:       adjudication, crime statistics, forecasting and modelling, legislation impacts, offenders,
                prosecution, sentencing, violent crime
Notes:




G440.4
Title:          The violent offences legislation Part 4: the commission of a crime with a weapon AND
                Part 5: miscellaneous provisions
Author(s):      Kettles, Susan and Francis Luketina
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, September 1992. ISBN 0-477-07638-6
Description:    The first part of this report contains an examination of the effect of the introduction of four
                new offences on 28 October 1986: using a firearm against a law enforcement officer (s198A,
                Crimes Act 1961); commission of a crime with a firearm (s198B, Crimes Act 1961); assault
                with a weapon (s202C, Crimes Act 1961); and aggravated burglary (s240A, Crimes Act
                1961). It also examines the effect of changes to s45 and s46 of the Arms Act 1983 made on
                1 August 1987. These sections relate to the carrying of firearms, airguns, pistols, restricted
                weapons, explosives or imitation firearms without lawful purpose. The maximum penalties
                for these offences were increased from three months to two years imprisonment. The
                second part of this report examines those provisions of the violent offences legislation
                passed in 1986 and 1987 which were not dealt with in the first four parts of the evaluation.
                Since 1 August 1987 there has been an increase in orders for the payment of all or part of a
                fine to the victims of common assault under the Crimes Act 1961. This increase appears to
                be attributable to the legislative change made to section 28 of the Criminal Justice Act 1985.
                The new offence of failure to answer bail has been extensively used.
Keywords:       adjudication, crime statistics, legislation impacts, offenders, prosecution, sentencing, violent
                crime
Notes:




                                                      189
                                                                                                  Police and policing




H010
POLICE AND POLICING
                               Community panel diversion
RESEARCH
Done by:        Research Unit for Maori Education (The University of Auckland)
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date June 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H010.1
Title:          Evaluation of the community panel [pre-trial] diversion pilot programme
Author(s):      Smith, Linda and Fiona Cram
Completed:      NO, planned completion date mid-1997
Availability:   Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington for information.
Description:    Evaluation of three community based pre-trial community panel diversion programmes
                (Waitakere, Rotorua and Timaru), effectiveness, utility and operation. Supported and
                developed by Safer Community Councils.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, diversion, Maori, prosecution, restorative justice
Notes:




H020
POLICE AND POLICING
                              Diversion scheme 1992-1994
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed




                                                      191
Police and policing

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H020.1
Title:                The Police Adult Diversion Scheme: trends in the use of diversion 1992-1994,
                      Wellington Central and Manukau Districts and beyond
Author(s):            Laven, Christine
Completed:            YES, January 1996
Availability:         Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:          Analysis of diversion trends.
Keywords:             diversion, offenders, police, prosecution
Notes:




H030
POLICE AND POLICING
                          Maori and police perceptions of each other
RESEARCH
Done by:              -
Funded by:            Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori Development), and NZ Police
Method:               Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:               IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H030.1
Title:                Maori perceptions of police and police perceptions of Maori
Author(s):            -
Completed:            NO, planned completion date 1997
Availability:         -
Description:          Aim. To identify the underlying factors that affect the police/Maori relationship and to develop
                      appropriate policy responses.
Keywords:             attitudes, Maori, police
Notes:




                                                            192
                                                                                                Police and policing


H040
POLICE AND POLICING
                                    New models of policing
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H040.1
Title:          Post-Keynesian policing: the emergence of a new model
Author(s):      Bradley, Trevor
Completed:      YES, Oct 1995
Availability:   Request from author at Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington.
Description:    An analysis of the emerging mode of policing in late modernity, an analysis of policing in a
                post-Keynesian society; including examination of political rationalities and policing, and links
                between them. An examination of private policing and personnel (growth, nature, culture,
                future). Methodology: Literature/theory based - i.e. desktop methodology, due to theoretical
                orientation of paper/topic.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, expertise, fear of crime, governmentality, keynesianism,
                neo-liberalism, police, welfare state
Notes:




H050
POLICE AND POLICING
                            Police and university education
RESEARCH
Done by:        Police Studies Programme (Massey University)
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed




                                                     193
Police and policing

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H050.1
Title:                Police attitudes, work performance and the effects of higher education: a review of
                      the literature
Author(s):            Burns, David E.
Completed:            YES, 1989
Availability:         Apply to the author, David Burns, Police Studies Programme, Massey University, Palmerston
                      North.
Description:          A literature review to examine the relationships between university trained police officers and
                      [their] work performance. Police officers with tertiary qualifications are "better" workers than
                      police officers without tertiary qualifications.
Keywords:             attitudes, education, police
Notes:




H060
POLICE AND POLICING
                                   Police service delivery survey
RESEARCH
Done by:              Police, MRL Research Group Ltd, and Business Research Centre
Funded by:            NZ Police, LTSA
Method:               Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:               Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H060.1
Title:                Police services evaluation survey, 1993, 1995
Author(s):            Planning and Policy Division, Police National Headquarters
Completed:            YES
Availability:         Apply to Planning and Policy, Police National Headquarters, P O Box 3017, Wellington, or
                      the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:          Objectives [abridged]. ...To conduct a statistically sound survey to measure client
                      satisfaction with Police service...to assess the satisfaction levels of crime victims and
                      complainants (i.e. 'clients') with respect to both the way each was dealt with by the Police
                      and the way that the Police handled their respective situations. Survey specifications
                      [abridged]. Mail survey during April/May 1995, sample of 1,861 from survey population.
                      Summary results [abridged]. ...There was a high level of initial satisfaction with the way the
                      Police dealt with the respondent or the situation: 82.4% of respondents answered either
                      'satisfied' or 'very satisfied', an increase of 1.2% from the 1992 survey... As in 1992, the level
                      of overall satisfaction, at 78.5%, was slightly lower than the level of initial satisfaction. The
                      gap between initial satisfaction and overall satisfaction was narrower in 1994 than in
                      1992...11.1% compared to 3.9%.
Keywords:             offences, police, system efficiency/effectiveness, victims


                                                              194
                                                                                                  Police and policing

Notes:




H060.2
Title:          Judicial satisfaction with police prosecution services survey 1993/94
Author(s):      Planning and Policy Division, Police National Headquarters
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Apply to Planning and Policy, Police National Headquarters, P O Box 3017, Wellington, or
                the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. The survey was designed to assess the satisfaction of
                District Court judges with police prosecution services in the areas of police preparedness for,
                and presentation of, prosecutions, as well as to compare overall judicial satisfaction with the
                levels reported in a similar survey conducted in 1991/2. A mail survey, conducted 4 March to
                29 April 1994; 64 judges responded, a response rate of 70.2%... District Court judges' overall
                level of satisfaction with police prosecution services fell from 79% in 1991/92 to 68% in
                1993/94... Advocacy and knowledge of law were two factors which received very low ratings
                from judges... Fairness and objectivity on the part of prosecutors when presenting cases was
                still rated highly by the majority of judges.
Keywords:       case processing, judiciary, police, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




H060.3
Title:          Coroners' satisfaction with police services survey - 1993/94
Author(s):      Planning and Policy Division, Police National Headquarters
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Apply to Planning and Policy, Police National Headquarters, P O Box 3017, Wellington, or
                the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. As part of the 1993/94 Corporate Plan process, the
                Research and Statistics Section conducted a survey of all coroners in New Zealand to
                determine their level of satisfaction with police services during the 1993 calendar year. The
                results from this survey were compared with an identical survey conducted in 1991/92... A
                mail survey, conducted 5 March to 30 April 1994; 67 of the 81 coroners responded, giving an
                82.7% response rate... A high level of satisfaction was recorded by coroners in all aspects of
                coronial procedures and duties during 1993 but these results were generally lower than
                those recorded in the 1991 survey. Investigations of deaths by the police gained the highest
                level of satisfaction by the coroners, whereas the quality of evidence given by the police at
                inquests was given the lowest satisfaction rating... There was a higher level of satisfaction by
                coroners in 1993 compared with 1991 in terms of 'culturally-sensitive' practices and
                procedures in performing coronial duties... Many coroners considered the police
                performance...was affected by the highly variable abilities of different police officers... A large
                number of coroners stated that they had received good service from the Police and that they
                were impressed by the sensitive way the police dealt with the family and friends of the
                bereaved.
Keywords:       coroners, police, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




                                                      195
Police and policing


H060.4
Title:                Safety (Administration) Programme 1994/95: survey of local authorities and
                      community clients
Author(s):            Business Research Centre
Completed:            YES, August 1995
Availability:         Apply to Planning and Policy, Police National Headquarters, P O Box 3017, Wellington, or
                      the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:          The Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA) and Police combined to survey Local
                      Authorities on the S(A)P programme. LTSA also surveyed community clients. A summation
                      of the findings from this survey is included in this report. A second part of the publication is
                      the responses by both survey groups in the following categories: Local Authorities - national
                      survey, LTSA regional reports, Police regional reports; Community clients - national
                      summary, LTSA regional reports.
Keywords:              community clients, LTSA, police
Notes:                There is a second publication with same title plus sub-title "regional reports".




H070
POLICE AND POLICING
                                      Policewomen's experience
RESEARCH
Done by:              Author
Funded by:            NZ Police
Method:               Literature review, quantitative study
Status:               Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H070.1
Title:                A case study of policewomen's experience in New Zealand
Author(s):            Waugh, Alec
Completed:            YES
Availability:         Victoria University of Wellington Public Policy Research Paper, January 1994. Contact RNZ
                      Police College Library, Porirua.
Description:          In 7 chapters: 1. Outline of history of New Zealand's police women. 2. Examination of
                      Section 16(3) of the Human Rights Act 1993. 3. The theme of brute strength. 4-7.
                      Discrimination and a survey of the perceptions of 84 ex-policewomen. Recommendations
                      made, based on the issues raised by the survey as they impact upon policewomen's
                      performance.
Keywords:             attitudes, bias, gender issues, police
Notes:




                                                              196
                                                                                                Police and policing




H080
POLICE AND POLICING
                                        Pre-trial diversion
RESEARCH
Done by:        Young and Cameron, Policy and Research Consultants
Funded by:      Department of Justice, and Victims Task Force
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H080.1
Title:          Adult pre-trial diversion in New Zealand
Author(s):      Young, W. and N. Cameron
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, April 1992. ISBN 0-477-07630-0
Description:    Evaluation of police diversion scheme, involving process and outcome evaluation and
                including interviews with offenders, victims, police officers, and judges. The report has both a
                descriptive and an evaluative component. The descriptive component provides both a
                general overview of diversion practice throughout New Zealand and a more detailed
                discussion of practice in three selected police prosecution districts - Wellington, Hamilton
                and Manukau. It also highlights and discusses variations in practice between prosecution
                districts and assesses, by reference to issues raised in the literature, the theoretical and
                practical implications of the various procedures identified. The evaluative component
                attempts to determine whether diversion is achieving its claimed objectives. The most
                important questions here, from the point of view of systematic evaluation and measurement,
                are: the extent to which diversion schemes are in fact diverting offenders from the formal
                court process; the extent to which they are having a greater impact upon re-offending rates
                than formal court processes and sanctions; and the extent to which they are meeting the
                needs of victims more effectively and expeditiously than the formal court system.
Keywords:       adjudication, offenders, police, prosecution, recidivism, sentence administration, system
                efficiency/effectiveness, victims
Notes:




H090
POLICE AND POLICING
                            Public attitudes towards policing
RESEARCH
Done by:        MRL Research Group Ltd
Funded by:      NZ Police
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study


                                                        197
Police and policing

Status:               Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

H090.1
Title:                Public attitudes towards policing, 1993 and 1995
Author(s):            MRL Research Group Ltd
Completed:            YES, June 1995
Availability:         Apply to Planning and Policy, Police National Headquarters, P O Box 3017, Wellington, or
                      the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:          INTRODUCTION [abridged]. In 1993 a benchmark survey was undertaken amongst the
                      public to measure their attitude towards policing and crime...to enable monitoring of success
                      of the Police in their strategic plan [goals] identified in 1992/93... This [1995] study monitors
                      changes in public attitudes since the 1993 benchmark, and comparisons with a 1991 study
                      are also made, where possible. The 1995 research also involves the additional investigation
                      of the public's opinions of what the priorities in policing should be. Research method
                      [abridged]. Questionnaire was developed based on the 1993 research and on-going needs
                      within the Police; fieldwork [and analysis] was conducted by MRL...15 April to 30 May, 1995.
                      Interviews lasted on average 40 to 50 minutes. 1,200 interviews conducted. Looked at
                      incidence of crime, reporting crime, fear of victimisation, public attitudes to police,
                      perceptions of police priorities, gaps in service.
Keywords:             attitudes, community safety, fear of crime, police, system efficiency/effectiveness,
                      victimisation
Notes:




H090.2
Title:                Determining service attributes, prepared for the New Zealand Police
Author(s):            MRL Research Group Ltd
Completed:            YES, July 1995
Availability:         Apply to the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:          Understanding attributes of service quality, exploring extent to which these vary according to
                      situation, understanding perceptions of service groups. General impressions of police are
                      favourable; public question police priorities, report examines public perceptions of service
                      quality attributes.
Keywords:             attitudes, police
Notes:




H090.3
Title:                Developing a customer focus in the delivery of police services: the staff and the
                      customer perspective
Author(s):            MRL Research Group Ltd
Completed:            YES, April 1994
Availability:         Apply to the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:          A qualitative study examining understanding of police personnel and customers -
                      expectations and views on current performance.



                                                           198
                                                                                              Police and policing

Keywords:       attitudes, police
Notes:




H090.4
Title:          Attitudes towards the strategic plan among police staff
Author(s):      MRL Research Group Ltd
Completed:      YES, May 1993
Availability:   Apply to the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:    Face-to-face interviews of 500 staff, quantitative semi-structured questionnaire. Attitudes of
                police staff towards police strategic goals, likelihood of success of implementation, attitude
                towards community orientated policing and to customer service.
Keywords:       attitudes, police,
Notes:




H090.5
Title:          Young people's attitudes toward policing
Author(s):      MRL Research Group Ltd
Completed:      YES, August 1993
Availability:   Apply to the Library, Royal NZ Police College, Porirua.
Description:    -
Keywords:       attitudes, police, youth
Notes:




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                                                                                           Prisons and inmates




I010
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                               Age-mixing
RESEARCH
Done by:        Gray Matter Research Ltd
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I010.1
Title:          Age-mixing in New Zealand prisons
Author(s):      Gray Matter Research Ltd
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Ministry of Justice, 1996. ISBN 0-478-20107-9
Description:    Aims. To establish the effects of mixing sentenced and remand inmates aged under 20 with
                those aged over 20, and to provide information on the effects of age-mixing and segregation.
                Methodology. Census of young inmates, interviews with staff, young inmates, and other
                inmates.
Keywords:       prison inmates, prisons, sentence administration, youth
Notes:




I020
PRISONS AND INMATES
                               Alcohol and drug disorders
RESEARCH
Done by:        Otago University, and Department of Justice Psychological Services
Funded by:      Otago University, and Department of Justice Psychological Services
Method:         Quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation for a programme that has not happened
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I020.1
Title:          Prevalence of substance use disorders in New Zealand prisons
Author(s):      Bushnell, J.A. and L. Bakker
Completed:      YES


                                                        201
Prisons and inmates

Availability:     Presently submitted for journal publication (June 1996).
Description:      [Not supplied, due to up-coming publication]
Keywords:         alcohol, alcoholism, drugs, drug dependence, health, prison inmates, sentence
                  administration
Notes:




I030
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                  Alcohol and drug services
RESEARCH
Done by:          Regional Alcohol and Drug Services (Waitemata Health)
Funded by:        Regional Alcohol and Drug Services (Waitemata Health)
Method:           Literature review
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I030.1
Title:            Literature review on the provision of alcohol and drug services in prisons in New
                  Zealand
Author(s):        Maingay, Samantha and Grant Paton-Simpson
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Contact Regional Alcohol and Drug Services Research Unit, Floor 1, Toshiba House,
                  3 Ferncroft Street, Grafton, Auckland.
Description:      Key questions: Why provide treatment? Which treatment models? Who should be eligible for
                  treatment? How should treatment be organised? Who should be involved in providing
                  treatment?
Keywords:         alcohol, drugs, prison inmates, rehabilitation
Notes:




I040
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                                 Censuses
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study


                                                       202
                                                                                                Prisons and inmates

Status:         IN PROGRESS, ongoing



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I040.1
Title:          Census of prison inmates 1989
Author(s):      Braybrook, Beverley
Completed:      YES, no date
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice. ISBN 0-477-07607-6
Description:    This report presents some of the information collected during a census of inmates carried
                out on 16 November 1989. The information was obtained directly from the prisons or
                extracted from the Wanganui Computer. In total there were 3084 inmates in the prisons on
                the day of the census. The muster figures for that week indicate there were 375 remand
                prisoners within the prisons. In addition, there was one male remand prisoner held in a police
                jail.
Keywords:       classification status, crime statistics, offenders, fine-defaulters, gang association, health
                status, inmate profile, periodic detention, prison inmates, prisons, property offences,
                recidivism, remand, traffic offences, violent crime
Notes:




I040.2
Title:          Census of prison inmates 1991
Author(s):      Braybrook, Beverley and Pamela Southey
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, December 1992. ISBN 0-477-07647-5
Description:    This report presents some of the information collected during a census of inmates carried
                out on 14 November 1991. The information was obtained directly from the prisons or
                extracted from the Wanganui Computer. In total there were 3821 sentences inmates in the
                prisons on the day of the census. In addition, there were 411 remand prisoners within the
                prisons, and a further 19 in police jails.
Keywords:       classification status, crime statistics, gang association, health status, inmate profile,
                offences, offenders, payment defaulters, periodic detention, prison inmates, prisons,
                programmes, property offences, recidivism, remand, sentence administration, sentencing,
                traffic offences, violent crime
Notes:




I040.3
Title:          Census of prison inmates 1993
Author(s):      Southey, Pamela, Philip Spier and Nicolette Edgar
Completed:      YES, 1995
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, July 1995. ISBN 0-477-07687-4,
                ISSN 1173-5422
Description:    A census of prison inmates was carried out on 18 November 1993. Information was
                collected for sentenced inmates and remand prisoners from three sources: prison staff,
                inmates, and the Wanganui Computer. On the day of the census there were: 3761
                sentences inmates (117 females and 3644 male) and two payment-defaulters (one female


                                                      203
Prisons and inmates

                  and one male); and 500 remand prisoners (14 female and 486 male) within the prisons.
                  Comparison with previous prison censuses: (1) There were fewer inmates than in 1991. (2)
                  The trend towards an older prison population continued. Sixty-five percent of inmates were
                  aged 25 and over in 1993 compared with 52% in 1987. The number of young offenders aged
                  between 15 and 19 in prison decreased from 447 in 1987 to 299 in 1993. (3) The number of
                  male inmates serving sentences of life imprisonment or preventive detention has continued
                  to increase. (4) Since 1987 there has been an increase in the proportion of inmates in prison
                  for the first time. (5) Inmates are more likely to be in prison for violent offences and less
                  likely to be in prison for property offences. (6) The proportion of male inmates in protective
                  custody has increased from 9% in 1987 to 16% in 1993. (7) The number of remand
                  prisoners has increased from 303 in 1987 to 500 in 1993.
Keywords:         classification status, crime statistics, gang association, health status, inmate profile,
                  offences, offenders, payment defaulters, periodic detention, prison inmates, prisons,
                  programmes, property offences, recidivism, remand, sentence administration, sentencing,
                  traffic offences, violent crime
Notes:




I040.4
Title:            Census of prison inmates 1995
Author(s):        Braybrook, Beverley and Pamela Southey
Completed:        YES,
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, December 1996
Description:      This report presents some of the information collected during a census of inmates carried
                  out in November 1995.
Keywords:         classification status, crime statistics, education, ethnic issues, gang association, health
                  status, inmate profile, Maori, offences, offenders, Pacific Islands peoples, payment
                  defaulters, periodic detention, prison inmates, prisons, programmes, property offences,
                  recidivism, remand, sentence administration, sentencing, traffic offences, violent crime
Notes:




I050
PRISONS AND INMATES
                               Child sex offender treatment I
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Corrections Psychological Service
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Literature review, quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:           Completed




                                                       204
                                                                                             Prisons and inmates

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I050.1
Title:          Assessment and modification of sexual arousal in child sex offenders
Author(s):      Johnston, Peter
Completed:      NO, expected completion date December 1996
Availability:   For publication in professional literature.
Description:    ABSTRACT. Sexual preference has been identified as an important component in the
                motivational matrix of many sexual offenders against children. Deviant sexual cues or
                behaviours are understood to elicit maximal arousal in the offender, who then experiences a
                preference for these cues or for behaviour motivated by the stronger sexual arousal. This
                preference for sexual interaction with children is understood to be a learned phenomenon,
                and thus modifiable. In recent years there has been a huge expansion in knowledge of the
                assessment and treatment of sex offenders. One aspect of treatment is techniques designed
                to alter sexual preference. A number of procedures have been developed, but controlled
                outcome evaluations are sorely needed. The present study employed a combination of two
                techniques - directed masturbation and verbal satiation - and utilised phallometry to assess
                the degree of change. Three groups, each of ten child sex offenders, underwent phallometric
                assessments and treatment in a multiple base-line, across groups design. Results suggest
                that directed masturbation, as conducted here, was not effective in enhancing the level of
                arousal of offenders towards adult stimuli. Verbal satiation however appears to have resulted
                in a significant reduction in arousal to deviant stimuli. The use of repeated phallometric
                assessments with some participants in this study also permitted an investigation into the
                reliability of phallometric measurement. Results indicate, on the whole, that phallometry is a
                somewhat unreliable form of assessment with child sex offenders. Implications of these
                findings, with respect to the underlying theoretical assumptions of phallometry, are
                discussed.
Keywords:       offenders, rehabilitation, sexual abuse
Notes:




I060
PRISONS AND INMATES
                             Child sex offender treatment II
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Author/Department of Corrections
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date 1999/2000



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I060.1
Title:          Salient experience in child sex offender treatment groups: an analysis of the
                interpersonal factors contributing to therapeutic engagement of offenders involved in
                a treatment programme
Author(s):      Frost, Andrew



                                                       205
Prisons and inmates

Completed:        NO, planned completion date 1999/2000
Availability:     -
Description:      Grounded theory-based study involving comparative analysis of data culled from video taped
                  treatment sessions and subsequent interviews etc. of men participating in treatment for child
                  sex offending.
Keywords:         engagement, grounded theory, group treatment, offenders, prison inmates, rehabilitation,
                  sentence administration, sexual abuse
Notes:            To be submitted as PhD thesis, Canterbury University.




I070
PRISONS AND INMATES
                      Child sex offender treatment–Kia Marama
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Corrections Psychological Service
Funded by:        Department of Corrections
Method:           Established programme evaluation
Status:           IN PROGRESS, expected completion date (for report) July 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I070.1
Title:            Evaluation of Kia Marama [working title]
Author(s):        [Psychological Service, Department of Corrections]
Completed:        NO, planned completion date July 1997
Availability:     [Not provided]
Description:      Evaluation of a special unit for the treatment of child sex offenders at Rolleston Prison,
                  Christchurch.
Keywords:         [Not provided]
Notes:




I080
PRISONS AND INMATES
                               Children of mothers in prison
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        Ministry of Justice, Department of Social Welfare, and Crime Prevention Unit
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study

                                                        206
                                                                                               Prisons and inmates

Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date late 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I080.1
Title:          Children of mothers in prison (working title)
Author(s):      Kingi, Venezia M.
Completed:      NO, planned for late 1997
Availability:   -
Description:    To interview women in prison, to find out where their children were, who was caring for them,
                and what problems mothers, children and caregivers faced. Face-to-face interviews with
                sample of 56 women from the three prisons, and 11 caregivers. Qualitative interviewing of
                women in prison about their ongoing relationship with their children, how they are sustained,
                the difficulties of managing them from within the prison environment. Follow-up underway.
Keywords:       at-risk families, prison inmates, prisoners' children, prisons, sentence administration, youth
Notes:          PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington




I080.2
Title:          Mothers in prison
Author(s):      Kingi, Venezia M.
Completed:      YES and NO - see below
Availability:   Not published, not available (due to overlap with the doctoral thesis). First phase of work
                summarised in: Criminology No.4, September 1995; Wellington: Institute of Criminology,
                Victoria University of Wellington.
Description:    Initial report from author's thesis, looking at female primary care-givers in prison. Policy
                recommendations made. Looking at demographics and the concerns the women had about
                their children and the ideas they had for improvement.
Keywords:       prisoners' children, prison inmates, prisons, sentence administration, youth
Notes:




I085
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                      Correctional history
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, interviews, observation
Status:         Completed




                                                      207
Prisons and inmates

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I085.1
Title:            History and development of modern correctional practices in New Zealand
Author(s):        Newbold, Greg and Chris Eskridge
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In Comparative Criminal Justice. Moore, K. and C. Fields (Eds). Project Heights, Illinois:
                  Waveland
Description:      This chapter looks at the history and development of correctional practices in New Zealand.
                  It commences in 1840, but concentrates on trends which followed the Criminal Justice Act
                  1985.
Keywords:         community corrections, offences, prisons, sentence administration, sentencing
                  effectiveness, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




I090
PRISONS AND INMATES
                              Corrective Training for females
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I090.1
Title:            An evaluation of reconviction rates for female corrective trainees
Author(s):        Harland, Anne
Completed:        YES, 1987
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, October 1989. ISBN 0-477-07235-6
Description:      The study examines re-offending among females sentenced to corrective training. The
                  primary objective of a corrective training sentence is to reduce re-offending by the
                  experience of a punitive but fair sentence. Sixty-three percent of female trainees were
                  reconvicted within the first year following their release from corrective training. The female
                  corrective trainees studied were socially disadvantaged in terms of their educational
                  achievement, level of unemployment, and their history of juvenile offending. They generally
                  had fewer previous convictions than male corrective trainees (21.5% of females had no or
                  one previous conviction compared with 7.0% of males). Seventy-one percent were classified
                  as Maori. The study concludes that the corrective training sentence is failing to meet its
                  primary objective among female trainees.
Keywords:         crime statistics, criminal behaviour, offenders, recidivism, sentence administration,
                  sentencing, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:


                                                       208
                                                                                               Prisons and inmates




I095
PRISONS AND INMATES
                         Driving while disqualified prisoners
RESEARCH
Done by:        Policy and Research, Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I095.1
Title:          Those in prison for driving while disqualified
Author(s):      Lash, Barb
Completed:      YES, May 1995
Availability:   Contact author, Ministry of Justice, P O Box 180, Wellington
Description:    Information from censes of prison inmates 1993. Identified all offences for which driving
                while disqualified offenders were in prison, patterns of previous offending, previous
                sentences, and demographic information.
Keywords:       crime statistics, offences, prison inmates, sentence administration, traffic offences
Notes:




I100
PRISONS AND INMATES
                     Drug programmes in USA and Canada
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Winston Churchill Fellowship Fund, and Department of Corrections
Method:         Established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed




                                                     209
Prisons and inmates

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I100.1
Title:            Drug treatment programmes for prisoners and parolees in USA and Canada
Author(s):        Grenfell, Fleur
Completed:        YES, 1995
Availability:     Available through Department of Internal Affairs, Winston Churchill Fellowship Division.
Description:      [abridged]. Introduction. The purpose of my five week study tour [July/August 1994] to USA
                  and Canada was to investigate effective prison based treatment programmes and more
                  specifically to: identify those programmes which reduce drug dependency and therefore
                  re-offending; and identify programmes and programme components which could effectively
                  be applied to New Zealand prisons... Conclusions. Details of the 13 programmes I spent
                  time in follow, and the critical success factors I identified with the enthusiastic assistance and
                  concurrence of my various hosts were as follows: programme integrity, programme
                  autonomy, programme flexibility, a therapeutic setting/community, programme duration of 6
                  to 9 months, separated facilities/units, confrontation and support merged, cross training,
                  selected custodial staff, cognitive skills training, programme phases/stages, treating
                  addiction and criminality, transition and after care/post release treatment, research and
                  evaluation, getting started.
Keywords:         drugs, prison inmates, programmes, recidivism, rehabilitation
Notes:            "I have also reviewed re-offending rates of inmates released from Arohata at various
                  intervals over the past 10 years." Contact Fleur Grenfell, General Manager, Arohata Prison,
                  Private Bag 51-901, Tawa, Wellington.




I110
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                    Effective administration
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        -
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, interviews
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I110.1
Title:            What works in prison management
Author(s):        Newbold, Greg
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Federal Probation, 1992; 56(4):53-7
Description:      This paper uses the history of maximum security prison management in New Zealand to
                  discuss some of the factors involved in effective prison administration.
Keywords:         prison inmates, prisons, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:


                                                        210
                                                                                              Prisons and inmates




I120
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                  Female inmate forecasts
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I120.1
Title:          The recent increase in the female prison muster
Author(s):      Kettles, Susan
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, 1989. ISBN 0-477-07209-7
Description:    Although any long term trends are somewhat obscured by fluctuations from year to year in
                the female prison muster, this research identifies a long term gradual increase in the muster,
                caused by long term changes in: the number of women sentenced to imprisonment, their
                average sentence lengths, and the proportions of their sentences served.
Keywords:       female inmates, forecasting and modelling, prison inmates, sentence administration
Notes:




I130
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                 Female prisoners' needs
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington), and University of Cambridge
Funded by:      Home Office, London
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed




                                                        211
Prisons and inmates

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I130.1
Title:            Re-offending by female prisoners: preventable or predictable?
Author(s):        Morris, A., C. Wilkinson, A. Tisi, J. Woodrow and A. Rockley
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In Criminology No. 3, 1995. Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of
                  Wellington
Description:      Research project on the needs of female prisoners, examining the adequacy of
                  arrangements for through-care and after-care. Sample of 200 women in three prisons in
                  England.
Keywords:         gender issues, prison inmates, recidivism, sentence administration
Notes:




I140
PRISONS AND INMATES
                              Forecasting prison populations
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I140.1
Title:            Forecasting New Zealand's prison population
Author(s):        Triggs, Sue
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Ministry of Justice, 1995. ISBN 0-478-20101-X
Description:      This report introduces a new model to forecast the number and type of inmates in New
                  Zealand prisons. It outlines the structure of the model, details the key factors that determine
                  the model's assumptions, and presents forecasts of the size and composition of the prison
                  population for a range of scenarios... The model simulates the flow of inmates through
                  prison. Three key variables determine inmate numbers: the number of new receptions into
                  prison, the length of the imposed sentence, and the proportion of the sentence served.
                  Projections of these variables are based on past trends, modified by analysis of the causes
                  of these trends, the impact of legislative and policy changes, and expert opinion. The report
                  includes information on trends in reported crime, convictions, prison receptions, and
                  sentencing.
Keywords:         crime statistics, forecasting and modelling, offences, offenders, prison inmates, prisons,
                  sentence administration, sentencing,
Notes:




                                                       212
                                                                                                Prisons and inmates




I140.2
Title:          Forecasting the number of people in prison using time series techniques from July
                1989 to December 1992
Author(s):      Lash, Barb
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Contact author, Ministry of Justice, P O Box 180, Wellington
Description:    The report presents results of using ARIMA and OLS methods to forecasrt the number of
                people in prisons.
Keywords:       crime statistics, forecasting and modelling, prison inmates, sentencing
Notes:




I160
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                  Habilitation of offenders
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Churchill Fellowship
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study, established programme evaluation, experiential study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I160.1
Title:          The habilitation of offenders
Author(s):      Dyer, Bruce D.
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   Auckland: Mental Health Foundation, (P O Box 10-051). Cost $12.00.
                ISBN 0-908727-66-6
Description:    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. Habilitation means to equip and make fit for life. A
                central issue of habilitation is enabling offenders to reclaim their humanity. This is largely
                negated in the prison system in which they are seldom treated as human beings...New
                Zealand's legislative provision for Habilitation Centres is likely to attract world-wide attention
                and deserves maximum community and Government support. In all, 19 programmes were
                visited during the course of 1991 and 1992 [in New Zealand and overseas]. In order to gain
                familiarity with different treatment approaches and to develop awareness of the primary
                issues involved, approximately 11 months was spent working in five of these programmes.
                Assessment of their performance objectively was possible in respect of those that had been
                the subject of research and evaluation...
Keywords:       crime prevention, offenders, rehabilitation, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




                                                      213
Prisons and inmates




I170
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                      HIV/AIDS and prisons
RESEARCH
Done by:          Health Research Services (Department of Health)
Funded by:        Department of Health, and Department of Justice
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I170.1
Title:            HIV/AIDS and prisons: a study of knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours
Author(s):        Patten, Dean (with a contribution from Alison Gray)
Completed:        YES, 1991
Availability:     Department of Health Discussion Paper 16, 1991. ISSN 1170 263X
Description:      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY [abridged]. HIV/AIDS presents a major policy and management
                  challenge to prisons systems in many countries. This report offers considerable insight into
                  the issues of HIV/AIDS and New Zealand prisons. It presents the findings of the first
                  empirical study of the risk of HIV (the AIDS virus) transmission in New Zealand prisons...
                  This paper presents the findings of research conducted during 1990 with inmates and prison
                  personnel about: knowledge and attitudes about AIDS and possible risk behaviours;
                  perceptions and experiences of possible risk behaviours for HIV transmission among
                  inmates, particularly tattooing, injecting drug use and unsafe sexual practices; and attitudes
                  and concerns about HIV/AIDS policies and practices in prisons... Research was conducted
                  in two women's and five men's prisons. Interviewer-administered questionnaire interviews
                  with 190 [sentenced] inmates, individual interviews with 24 inmates, 7 group discussions;
                  individual interviews with 28 custodial staff and 14 management staff, seven group
                  discussions with custodial staff, written questionnaires completed by 34 specialist staff. The
                  findings are considered indicative, rather than representative, of the knowledge and attitudes
                  of inmates and prison personnel and the risk behaviours of inmates in the seven prisons
                  studied. No attempt has been made to generalise the results.
Keywords:         attitudes, criminal behaviour, drugs, health, HIV/AIDS, prison inmates, prisons, sentence
                  administration
Notes:




                                                         214
                                                                                            Prisons and inmates


I180
PRISONS AND INMATES
                             Inmate classification systems
RESEARCH
Done by:        Health Research and Analytical Services (Ministry of Health)
Funded by:      Ministry of Justice
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I180.1
Title:          Assessing the validity and reliability of objective inmate classification systems
Author(s):      Lange, Craig and Ray Kirk
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Ministry of Justice, May 1996. ISBN 0-478-20110-9
Description:    A review of the literature assessing the validity and reliability of objective inmate
                classification systems.
Keywords:       prison inmates, prisons, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




I190
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                    Inmate prediction model
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I190.1
Title:          Impact of age shifts in the New Zealand population on the inmate population:
                1989-1998
Author(s):      Braybrook, Beverley
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, October 1989. ISBN 0-477-07201-1


                                                    215
Prisons and inmates

Description:      This paper estimates the effect that age shifts in the New Zealand population will have on
                  the prison population for the ten year period 1989 to 1998. Over this time period the total
                  population is expected to become progressively older with a median age of 33.4 years in
                  1998 compared with 30.4 years in 1988. For the sub-population aged 15 years and over, the
                  proportion of females and males between 15 and 29 years is expected to decline. Age shifts
                  are expected to have little effect on female inmate numbers with only small increases and
                  decreases being apparent over the ten year period. The level of change that can be
                  attributed to age shifts for male inmates is expected to increase from 25 in 1989 to a peak of
                  90 in 1993, then decline to 38 in 1998. Overall the inmate populations are expected to
                  become older with a smaller proportion of inmates under 30 years of age in 1998 than in
                  1988.
Keywords:         crime statistics, demography, forecasting and modelling, prison inmates
Notes:




I190.2
Title:            Influence of demographic changes and other factors on prison receptions: 1978-1987
Author(s):        Braybrook, Beverley
Completed:        YES, 1989
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, October 1989. ISBN 0-477-07206-2
Description:      This paper examines trends in the number of prisoners received over the ten year period
                  1978 to 1987, and estimates the influence of demographic changes and other factors. Since
                  reaching a peak in 1983, the number of 15-19 year olds entering prison has generally been
                  declining. In comparison, more 25-29 year olds have entered prison than in the years prior to
                  1983, with more receptions in 1987 than in any previous year. Similar trends have occurred
                  in the prison reception rates, that is, in the number of receptions per 100,000 population.
                  More males aged between 30 and 34 years have entered prison since 1983 than in previous
                  years, with more receptions in 1987 than in any other year. Reception rates for inmates aged
                  30 years and over are generally much less than for other inmates. In general, demographic
                  changes accounted for a smaller proportion of changes in prison receptions than other
                  factors. For example, demographic changes accounted for 24.6% of the decrease in the
                  number of 20-24 year old males received between 1984 and 1987, The amount of change
                  attributable to demographic changes varied across age groups and comparison years.
Keywords:         crime statistics, demography, forecasting and modelling, prison inmates
Notes:




I200
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                         Mana Programme
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Corrections
Funded by:        Department of Corrections
Method:           Pilot programme evaluation
Status:           Completed




                                                      216
                                                                                            Prisons and inmates

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I200.1
Title:          The Mana Programme: a preliminary evaluation
Author(s):      Asher, B. and A. Langthaller
Completed:      YES, December 1995
Availability:   Apply to author, Bruce Asher, Department of Corrections, P O Box 1206, Wellington.
Description:    Evaluation of a programme for inmates at Tongariro/Rangipo prison, delivered by inmates
                themselves, aiming to raise self-esteem and life-skills. Inspection of documents and
                interviews with key people.
Keywords:       alcohol, drugs, prison inmates, rehabilitation, sentence administration
Notes:




I210
PRISONS AND INMATES
                          Maximum security prison history
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      University Grants Committee, Auckland
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, interviews
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I210.1
Title:          Punishment and politics: the maximum security prison in New Zealand
Author(s):      Newbold, Greg
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Oxford University Press, 1987
Description:    This book is an enquiry into the history of prison security in New Zealand. It reviews the
                establishment and development of Mt Eden and Paremoremo, from 1880 to the present, and
                gives a detailed account of the policy and practice of prison management in New Zealand
                over the last forty years. The author evaluates the many factors which contributed to
                changes in penal policy and prison practice. Some, such as the move back to capital
                punishment in the fifties, were the product of political and social forces outside gaol; some
                were caused by administrators (and Newbold's analysis is penetrating, and often damning);
                while others were forced by action from the prisoners themselves. 'Governments', said
                Hegel, 'have never learned anything from history'. But the story told here, of outmoded
                policy, bureaucratic ineptitude, administrative bungles, corruption, and scandal, contains
                some important lessons for penal administrators and politicians.
Keywords:       prison inmates, prisons, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




                                                      217
Prisons and inmates




I220
PRISONS AND INMATES
                           Mental health de-institutionalisation
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        -
Method:           Literature review
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I220.1
Title:            Deinstitutionalisation and the criminalisation of the mentally ill
Author(s):        Hartley, Anne
Completed:        YES, February 1995
Availability:     Available from libraries at Victoria University of Wellington, and Ministry of Justice, P O Box
                  180, Wellington.
Description:      ABSTRACT. This paper considers by way of a literature review whether the trend towards
                  community care of the mentally ill and the mentally handicapped has any relationship to the
                  increasing size of New Zealand's correctional population and whether it has affected its
                  composition. Similarities of experience in a number of jurisdictions are identified but there
                  are difficulties in reaching firm conclusions about links between de-institutionalisation and
                  the numbers of former patients and those with a current mental illness in the criminal justice
                  system. These difficulties are compounded by the lack of robust data and the clear belief of
                  correctional staff that they are experiencing increased numbers of disturbed offenders.
                  Recommendations to address these difficulties are made.
Keywords:         community corrections, courts, de-institutionalisation, legislation impacts, mental health,
                  police, prison inmates, prisons
Notes:




I230
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                      NZPARS and their clients
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        NZPARS
Method:           Qualitative study
Status:           Completed




                                                       218
                                                                                            Prisons and inmates

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I230.1
Title:          PARS: what the inmates say
Author(s):      New Zealand Prisoners Aid and Rehabilitation Society (Inc.)
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Contact NZPARS, P O Box 9186, Wellington.
Description:    A survey of prison inmates' opinions about the services provided by New Zealand Prisoners
                Aid and Rehabilitation Society (Inc.) (NZPARS), a community group offering support services
                to prisoners and their families.
Keywords:       prison inmates, prisons, service evaluation
Notes:          Research done by two social work students from Victoria University.




I235
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                  Paremoremo described
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice Penal Division
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study, historical research
Status:         YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I235.1
Title:          Paremoremo: New Zealand’s maximum security prison
Author(s):      Meek, John
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, June 1986. ISBN 0-477-07206-2
Description:    This study 1. provides an overview of the prison‟s facilities, functions and operational
                methods; 2. describes its history; 3. investigates problems associated with inmates who are
                gang members and inmates suffering from some form of psychiatric or emotional
                disturbance; and 4. profiles the inmate population in terms of race, age, offence and length
                of sentence, previous prison sentences, escapes records, classification, length of continuous
                residence at Paremoremo, inmates‟ home regions and some social characteristics.
Keywords:       classification, gang members, health, inmate profile, maximum security prison, prison
                inmates, prisons, psychiatrically disturbed inmates, sentence administration
Notes:




                                                     219
Prisons and inmates


I240
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                     Parole decision making
RESEARCH
Done by:          Author
Funded by:        -
Method:           Literature review, quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I240.1
Title:            Decision making in District Prisons Boards
Author(s):        Brown, Mark M.
Completed:        YES, 1992
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice. pp 160. Contact Ministry of Justice,
                  P O Box 180, Wellington.
Description:      ABSTRACT. The Criminal Justice Act 1985 substantially expanded the system of parole
                  release in New Zealand. At the time of this study, approximately 90% of offenders serving
                  custodial sentences were eligible to be considered for early release by one of the country's
                  17 District Prisons Boards. The aim of the present study was to examine the system of
                  District Prisons Boards parole release, providing a full description of boards' operations and
                  procedures and evaluating inmates' post-release performance using a traditional parole
                  outcome measure - re-offending. With regard to boards' operations and procedures, results
                  showed that board members lacked any clear conception of an over-arching framework
                  guiding their operations, that members were broadly oriented towards reducing re-offending,
                  but that a strong rehabilitative ethic found them regarding parole as providing an opportunity
                  to reduce risk of re-offending through the provision of release programmes rather than
                  through the identification and prolonged detention of high risk inmates. Examination of
                  decision making criteria showed members to over-report the numbers of factors commonly
                  considered. A statistical model based upon seven biographical variables was able to
                  accurately predict 77% of release decisions made by boards. The proportion of inmates
                  released on parole was found to vary widely between boards, and these substantial
                  variations were found to be robust when controlling for inmates' custodial security level. A 30
                  month follow-up found 77% of all inmates to have been reconvicted and 45% to have been
                  returned to prison during the period. No difference was found in the reconviction rates of
                  inmates denied parole and released at 2/3 of sentence on remission, and inmates granted
                  parole and released at an earlier date. However, remission release inmates tended to be
                  reconvicted earlier than parolees and, when reconvicted, were more likely to receive a
                  further sentence of imprisonment. Ten biographical factors were found to differentiate
                  reoffenders and non-reoffenders and, when combined in a prediction model, knowledge of
                  these factors allowed approximately 80% of re-offenders to be correctly predicted. These
                  findings are discussed and their implications for District Prisons Board policy outlined.
Keywords:         community corrections, offenders, parole decision making, recidivism, risk assessment,
                  sentencing, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:            SEE "description" field of associated thesis "An analysis of decision making in District Prison
                  Boards" for a list of journal publications. This publication is from the thesis: "...chapters 3,4
                  and 5...reproduced here in their entirety"(Preface).




                                                          220
                                                                                            Prisons and inmates


I240.2
Title:          An analysis of decision-making in District Prison Boards
Author(s):      Brown, Mark
Completed:      YES, 1991
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Library, P O Box 600, Wellington.
Description:    SEE "Description" for preceding "Decision-making in District Prisons Boards". Other
                publications directly related to this research include the following. 1. Brown, M. Improving
                decision making in community corrections: a decision-making styles approach. In
                Community corrections in the 21st century: challenge, choice and change, Wortley, R. and
                A. Stewart (Eds). Brisbane: Centre for Crime Policy and Public Safety. In press. 2. Brown, M.
                A test of high risk principle for rehabilitation programming. In Community corrections in the
                21st century: challenge, choice and change, Wortley, R. and A. Stewart (Eds). Brisbane:
                Centre for Crime Policy and Public Safety. In press. 3. Brown, M. Community protection and
                indefinite sentencing. In VACRO Reporter, 1995; 3(1-3). 4. Brown, M. and N. Cameron. A
                critique of dangerous offender provisions in the Criminal Justice Amendment Act 1993. In
                New Zealand Law Journal, December 1995; 419-24.
Keywords:       community corrections, offenders, parole decision making, recidivism, risk assessment,
                sentencing, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:          Unpublished PhD thesis.




I250
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                        Parole decisions
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I250.1
Title:          Parole decisions of district prisons boards
Author(s):      Asher, Bruce
Completed:      YES, 1988
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, July 1988. ISBN 0-477-07207-0
Description:    The purpose of this study was to monitor the parole provisions of the Criminal Justice Act
                1985, as applied by District Prisons Boards. The period covered by the study was October
                1986 to March 1987. In this time, District Prisons Boards considered 2193 cases, of whom
                26% did not want to be released on parole. Of those who did apply for parole, 62% were
                released, 16% had their cases postponed and 22% were refused. In all 981 prisoners were
                granted release, 81% of these being ordered to undergo a programme. Treatment for
                alcohol or drug dependency was the main type of programme ordered. Inmates not wishing




                                                    221
Prisons and inmates

                  release on parole cited concerns about post-release supervision and short lengths of time
                  between board date and 2/3 date as their major reasons.
Keywords:         legislation impacts, parole, prison inmates, prisons, programmes, sentence administration
Notes:




I250.2
Title:            Monitoring the innovations of the Criminal Justice Act (1985)
Author(s):        Whitney, Lynne and Keith Sullivan
Completed:        YES
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, 1989. ISBN 0-477-07233-X
Description:      This report examines the use of some provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 1985 over the
                  three years since its introduction. It covers: offers to make amends (s12), witnesses as to
                  cultural and family background (s16), deferred commencement of imprisonment or
                  corrective training on humanitarian grounds (s78(2)), breaches of parole conditions (s105),
                  recalls of offenders released on parole (s106(4)), and case studies of parolees who have
                  completed programmes. This research report describes the way in which and extent to
                  which these provisions have been utilised, and, in the case of parolees who have been
                  allocated to programmes, provides evaluation data on the effectiveness of those
                  programmes.
Keywords:         cultural background, ethnic issues, family background, legislation impacts, parole,
                  programme effectiveness, recidivism, witnesses
Notes:




I260
PRISONS AND INMATES
                      Parole recommendations and decisions
RESEARCH
Done by:          Department of Justice
Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I260.1
Title:            Parole board recommendations and subsequent release decisions
Author(s):        Oxley, Prue
Completed:        YES, 1985
Availability:     Department of Justice Study Series No. 16, November 1985. ISSN 0110-5779
Description:      This report examines the relationship between Parole Board recommendations and the
                  Minister‟s decision whether to release prisoners or not. A survey of Parole Board


                                                      222
                                                                                           Prisons and inmates

                recommendations was conducted and this report summarises: (a) Parole Board
                consideration of cases and recommendations; (b) subsequent release decisions; (c)
                consequent time served in custody. Overall, 15% of life and preventive detention Parole
                Board reviews resulted in a positive release recommendation compared with 31% for finite
                sentences. The Minister approved only 70% of release recommendations in life and
                preventive detention cases compared with 97% in finite sentences. In life and preventive
                detention cases, the Minister approved release after the Board‟s first release
                recommendation 81% of the time compared with 97% in finite cases. On average life
                sentences were 9 years 2 months in custody and preventive detention served 10 years 3
                months in custody.
Keywords:       life sentence, parole board recommendations, preventive detention, prison inmates, release
                decisions, sentence administration
Notes:




I270
PRISONS AND INMATES
                               Primary care-giver inmates
RESEARCH
Done by:        Gray Matter Research Ltd
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I270.1
Title:          Male inmates who were primary care givers of their children before reception
Author(s):      Gray Matter Research Ltd
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Ministry of Justice, May 1996. ISBN 0-478-20108-7
Description:    Aims. To describe the care arrangements that have been made for the children of sentenced
                male inmates who were primary care givers. To identify any issues related to that care, and
                to contact between the children and the inmate. Methodology. Survey of sentenced inmates
                to identify the sample population. Face to face interviews with inmates who said they were
                care givers.
Keywords:       children of inmates, prison inmates, sentence administration
Notes:




                                                    223
Prisons and inmates


I280
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                         Prison privatisation
RESEARCH
Done by:          Authors
Funded by:        -
Method:           Literature review, qualitative study, interviews, field observation
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I280.1
Title:            The privatization of corrections in New Zealand
Author(s):        Newbold, G. and M. Smith
Completed:        YES
Availability:     In Privatization and the provision of correctional services. Cincinnati: Anderson, 1996
Description:      This chapter surveys the current status of private corrections in New Zealand and discusses
                  the prospects for the future. It considers why the move towards privatisation has been made
                  in New Zealand, and what the consequences may be.
Keywords:         prisons, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




I290
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                         Psychiatric disorders
RESEARCH
Done by:          Christchurch Medical School
Funded by:        Department of Justice, Ministry of Justice
Method:           Quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I290.1
Title:            Psychiatric morbidity in prisons: an investigation of the prevalence of psychiatric
                  disorders among New Zealand prisoners - Pilot Study
Author(s):        Brinded, D.P. et al.
Completed:        YES, December 1995



                                                        224
                                                                                               Prisons and inmates

Availability:   Apply to Angela Lee, Ministry of Justice, P O Box 180, Wellington.
Description:    To ascertain the prevalence of psychiatric disorder among New Zealand prison inmates,
                both remand and sentenced. Diagnostic interviews in Christchurch prisons with all remand,
                all female, and one-in-four sentenced male inmates.
Keywords:       alcohol, drugs, mental health, prison inmates, psychiatric disorder, psychiatric morbidity,
                sentence administration
Notes:




I300
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                     Reasons for escapes
RESEARCH
Done by:        Centre for Research, Evaluation and Social Assessment
Funded by:      Department of Justice, and Ministry of Justice
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I300.1
Title:          Escapes pressures: inside views of the reasons for prison escapes
Author(s):      Centre for Research, Evaluation and Social Assessment
Completed:      YES, June 1996. Will be published soon by Ministry of Justice and Department of
                Corrections.
Availability:   Ministry of Justice and Department of Corrections. ISBN 0-478-20113-3
Description:    Study to investigate reasons given by inmates for escapes. Also whether post-escape
                interviews were being administered by prison management. Data was collected from the
                international and NZ based literature; escape-specific administrative documentation,
                interviews with inmates who had escaped and been recaptured, and a survey of prison
                management staff.
Keywords:       escapes, prison inmates, prisons, sentence administration, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




I310
PRISONS AND INMATES
                                        Substance abuse
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice


                                                       225
Prisons and inmates

Funded by:        Department of Justice
Method:           Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:           Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

I310.1
Title:            Substance abuse: a survey of the treatment needs of prison inmates
Author(s):        Whitney, Lynne
Completed:        YES, 1992
Availability:     Wellington: Department of Justice, September 1992. ISBN 0-477-07639-4
Description:      The aims were: to identify the extent of alcohol and drug abuse in the lifestyles of those who
                  become inmates in New Zealand prisons; to examine the need for education, support and
                  treatment for substance abuse within prisons; and, to identify strengths and weaknesses in
                  the existing services provided to prisons for substance abuse. Information was drawn from
                  two sources: interviews conducted with inmates identified by prisons as substance abusers,
                  and a questionnaire sent to all prisons. Over two thirds of female inmates and about six in
                  ten male inmates are likely to be affected by drugs or alcohol abuse to some degree. The
                  inmate‟s age, the inmate‟s ethnic origin, and the inmate‟s level of motivation are
                  characteristics that might be useful to help identify inmates at greater risk with respect to
                  substance abuse, and inmates who are less likely to have had some assistance. Information
                  supplied by prisons pointed to two factors which both have implications for service providers.
                  These were: the wide variability in the rate of identification of substance abuse among
                  inmates, and the variability of services for substance abuse.
Keywords:         alcohol, drugs, education, prevalence, prison inmates, programmes, sentence
                  administration, treatment needs
Notes:




                                                          226
                                                                                                  Victims




J010
VICTIMS
                                A victim support network
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit with Hutt Safer Community Council
Method:         Qualitative study, established programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J010.1
Title:          Lower Hutt victim support network evaluation
Author(s):      Roguski, M.
Completed:      YES, August 1995
Availability:   Crime Prevention Unit Report, August 1995. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Process and outcome evaluation of service delivery, management, networking etc.
Keywords:       victims
Notes:          Relates to Government funded service, NZCFA.




J013
VICTIMS
                  Child sexual abuse in a sample of women
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Psychological Medicine of the Dunedin School of Medicine
Funded by:      Health Research Council, New Zealand Lottery Grants Commission
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J013.1
Title:          Sexual abuse in childhood and deliberate self-harm
Author(s):      Romans, S.E., J.L. Martin, J.C. Anderson, G.P. Herbison and P.E. Mullen
Completed:      YES, 1995
Availability:   American Journal of Psychiatry; 1995; 152:1336-42


                                                   227
Victims

Description:    ABSTRACT. Objective. The authors investigated the association between sexual abuse in
                childhood and subsequent incidents of deliberate self-harm in women. Method. A random
                community sample of women (N=252) that reported having been sexually abused as
                children was interviewed and compared to a similarly sized group (N=225) that did not report
                abuse. The subgroup of women sexually abused as children who reported subsequent
                incidents of deliberate self-harm was then contrasted with abused women who did not report
                self-harm. Results. There was a clear statistical association between sexual abuse in
                childhood and self-harm that was most marked in those subjected to more intrusive and
                more frequent abuse. Self-harm was also associated with major interpersonal problems in
                the subject‟s family of origin and with becoming involved in further abusive relationships as
                an adult. Conclusions. Sexual abuse in childhood is associated with later incidents of
                deliberate self-harm and may well be an etiologic factor in its development.
Keywords:       child sexual abuse, gender issues, health, offences, offenders, self-harm, sexual abuse,
                victimisation, victims
Notes:




J013.2
Title:          The effect of child sexual abuse on social, interpersonal and sexual function in adult
                life
Author(s):      Mullen, P.E., J.L. Martin, J.C. Anderson, S.E. Romans, G.P. Herbison
Completed:      YES 1994
Availability:   British Journal of Psychiatry, 1994; 165:35-47
Description:    ABSTRACT. Background. The association was examined between reporting child sexual
                abuse (CSA) and a range of social, interpersonal and sexual difficulties in adult life. Method.
                A random sample of 2,250 women were posted a questionnaire exploring a range of abuse
                experiences. All 248 reporting CSA were invited for interview, together with an equal number
                of controls. At interview a detailed inquiry was made into the CSA and into current
                interpersonal, social and sexual function. Results. Significant associations emerged between
                reporting CSA and a decline in socioeconomic status, increased sexual problems, and the
                disruption of intimate relationships by difficulties with trust as well as a propensity to perceive
                their partners as uncaring and overcontrolling. CSA was more common in those from
                disturbed and disrupted families and in those who also reported physical and emotional
                abuse. This explained part, but not all, of the apparent association between CSA and
                negative outcomes. Conclusions. Those reporting CSA are more likely to suffer social,
                interpersonal and sexual difficulties in adult life.
Keywords:       child sexual abuse, gender issues, health, offences, offenders, sexual abuse, victimisation,
                victims
Notes:




J013.3
Title:          Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse experiences in a community sample of women
Author(s):      Anderson, J.C., J.L. Martin, P.E. Mullen, S.E. Romans, G.P. Herbison
Completed:      YES 1993
Availability:   Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1993; 32(5):911-9
Description:    ABSTRACT. Objective. The study was designed to ascertain the prevalence and nature of
                sexual abuse in childhood for a community sample of women. Method. A two-stage design,
                using questionnaires and face-to-face interviews was employed, providing information on
                prevalence rates, types of abuse, ages of victims, relationship to the abuser, and cohort
                effects. Results. Nearly one woman in three reported having one or more unwanted sexual
                experiences before age 16 years. A significant number of these experiences (70%) involved


                                                      228
                                                                                                          Victims

                genital contact or more severe abuse, and 12% of those abused were subjected to sexual
                intercourse. The abusers were usually known to the victim, being family members in 38.3%
                of cases and acquaintances in another 46.3%. Stranger abuse accounted for 15% of all
                abuse experiences. Most of the abusers were young men, disclosure of the abuse was
                infrequent, and only 7% of all abuse was ever officially reported. Prevalence rates showed
                no urban/rural differences, no cohort effect with subject age, and no age differences in
                disclosure rates. Conclusions. Child sexual abuse is common, serious, infrequently reported,
                and the abuser is usually known to the child. Preadolescent girls are at greatest risk.
Keywords:       child sexual abuse, disclosure, gender issues, health, offences, offenders, prevalence,
                sexual abuse, victimisation, victims
Notes:




J013.4
Title:          Childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life
Author(s):      Mullen, P.E., J.L. Martin, J.C. Anderson, S.E. Romans, G.P. Herbison
Completed:      YES 1993
Availability:   British Journal of Psychiatry, 1993; 163:721-32
Description:    ABSTRACT. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life
                was investigated in a random community sample of women. There was a positive correlation
                between reporting abuse and greater levels of psychopathology on a range of measures.
                Substance abuse and suicidal behaviour were also more commonly reported by the abused
                group. Childhood sexual abuse was more frequent in women from disrupted homes as well
                as in those who had been exposed to inadequate parenting or physical abuse. While
                elements in the individual‟s childhood which increased the risks of sexual abuse were also
                directly associated to higher rates of adult psychopathology, abuse emerged from logistic
                regression as a direct contributor to adult psychopathology. The overlap between the
                possible effects of sexual abuse and the effects of the matrix of disadvantage from which it
                so often emerges were, however, so considerable as to raise doubts about how often, in
                practice, it operates as an independent causal element. Further, many of those reporting
                childhood sexual abuse did not show a measurable long-term impairment of their mental
                health. Abuse correlated with an increased risk for a range of mental health problems, but in
                most cases its effects could only be understood in relationship to the context from which it
                emerged.
Keywords:       child sexual abuse, disclosure, gender issues, health, mental health, offences, offenders,
                prevalence, psychopathology, sexual abuse, victimisation, victims
Notes:




J015
VICTIMS
                             Confident Living Programme
RESEARCH
Done by:        Research International New Zealand
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit with Christchurch Safer Community Council
Method:         Qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



                                                    229
Victims




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J015.1
Title:          Evaluation of the Confident Living Programme
Author(s):      Research International New Zealand
Completed:      YES, November 1995
Availability:   Crime Prevention Unit Report, November 1995. Contact Crime Prevention Unit,
                P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Process and outcome evaluation of service delivery, management, networking etc.
Keywords:       community safety, crime prevention, elderly, fear of crime, personal safety, victims
Notes:




J020
VICTIMS
                           Discrimination against lesbians
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors
Funded by:      Lesbian Community Sources, and Project Foundation
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date end of 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J020.1
Title:          Discrimination against lesbians
Author(s):      Rankine, Jenny et al
Completed:      NO, planned completion date end of 1996
Availability:   Will be available from Auckland Pride Centre, P O Box 5426, Wellesley Street, Auckland.
Description:    To investigate lesbian and bisexual women's experience of discrimination (including violence
                and hate crime). A written questionnaire was distributed to bisexual and lesbian groups in
                Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington and other centres. More than 200 surveys were returned,
                showing a high level of discrimination.
Keywords:       attitudes, fear of crime, gender issues, hate crimes, human rights, lesbians, victims
Notes:




                                                        230
                                                                                    Victims


J030
VICTIMS
                                 Families of murder victims
RESEARCH
Done by:        Not yet decided
Funded by:      Crime Prevention Unit
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date late 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J030.1
Title:          Evaluation of counselling for families of murder victims
                [working title, title not yet decided]
Author(s):      Not contracted
Completed:      NO, planned completion date early 1997
Availability:   Contact Crime Prevention Unit, P O Box 55, Wellington.
Description:    Evaluation of Counselling for Families of Murder Victims Scheme
Keywords:       victims
Notes:




J040
VICTIMS
                                 Fear of crime in Manurewa
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J040.1
Title:          Fear of crime in Manurewa: a study of two neighbourhoods
Author(s):      Knock, Grant
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   Available by interloan from The University of Auckland Library




                                                      231
Victims

Description:    ABSTRACT. The study of fear of crime is one example of the change of focus from the
                traditional emphasis on offenders and offending in criminological research; an emphasis
                which has been increasingly recognised to have resulted in the relative neglect of the victims
                of crime. The salience of neighbourhoods as potential mediators of this phenomenon is
                apparent in official initiatives directed at the local community level emphasising social control
                of the environment. In New Zealand, studies oriented towards an examination of
                neighbourhood differences in the fear of crime have been conducted in Christchurch and in
                Lower Hutt. This research is intended to contribute further understanding by examining two
                neighbourhoods in the Manukau City ward of Manurewa. The assumption that differences in
                neighbourhood fear levels exist led to the formulation of two hypotheses: first, that
                differences in fear would be greater between contrasting neighbourhoods than between
                contrasting street types; and second, that fear in peripheral zones of neighbourhoods would
                be greater than in the core areas. A household survey of a sample of 94 residents in both
                neighbourhoods confirmed the first hypothesis and failed to confirm the second. The
                difference in fear of crime between neighbourhoods was found to be linked to: the spatial
                incidence of residential burglary, perception that crime was increasing, dissatisfaction with
                neighbourhood as a place to live, poor home maintenance, the ability to recognise strangers,
                and risk of becoming a victim of burglary or assault. A model is proposed by means of which
                the relative importance of these factors may be better assessed and, if more fully developed,
                may be of some utility to those charged with the responsibility of reducing fear of crime in the
                community. The relative incidence of residential burglary in the two neighbourhoods
                appeared to be aligned with relative perceptions of the incidence of this offence suggesting
                that the influence of the media in aggravating fear levels may need to be tempered with an
                appreciation of the role of the local social and physical environment as a source of
                information about crime and the risk of victimisation.
Keywords:       attitudes, criminal behaviour, fear of crime, victimisation, victims
Notes:          M.Sc. thesis in Geography at The University of Auckland.




J050
VICTIMS
                                    Giving victims a voice
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:      Social Policy Agency (Department of Social Welfare)
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J050.1
Title:          Giving victims a voice: a New Zealand experiment
Author(s):      Morris, Allison, Gabrielle M. Maxwell and Jeremy P. Robertson
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   The Howard Journal, November 1993; 32(4):304-21
Description:    ABSTRACT. More weight is now being given in many criminal justice systems to the needs
                and wishes of victims. Few jurisdictions, however, have gone as far as the recently
                introduced system of youth justice in New Zealand. There, a meeting is arranged between
                the victim (or their representatives), the young person who committed the offence, his or her


                                                      232
                                                                                                       Victims

                family and a police officer to decide the appropriate response to the offending. The
                arguments behind this were that it would increase victim's satisfaction, enhance the
                prospects of reconciliation and provide a more effective means of restitution and reparation.
                In this article, we examine the extent to which these objectives have been met.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, offenders, prosecution, reparation, victims, youth
Notes:




J060
VICTIMS
                                       Injury from assault
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Unit (University of Otago)
Funded by:      Alcohol Liquor Advisory Council
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J060.1
Title:          Injury from assault: a public health problem
Author(s):      Fanslow, J.L., D.J. Chalmers and J.D. Langley
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Otago University Injury Prevention Research Unit Occasional Report No. 5.
                ISBN 0-908958-03-X
Description:    ABSTRACT. Injury purposely inflicted by other persons is a significant public health problem
                as well as a problem of law and order. It accounts for approximately three per cent of all
                injury deaths and four per cent of all injury hospitalisations in New Zealand. National injury
                mortality data for the period 1978-1987, supplemented by reference to files of the Coroners
                Court and the High Court, and injury morbidity data for 1988 were examined. These data
                were used to identify the characteristics of victims of assault who died or were hospitalised,
                the nature of the injuries they sustained, and the circumstances in which the injuries were
                inflicted. The overall homicide rate was 1.6 per 100,000 persons per year and the overall
                incidence rate for hospitalisations was 73.7 per 100,000 persons per year. The rates for
                males for both homicides and hospitalisations were the highest, with those 20-24 years of
                age most at risk (5.0 and 350.6, respectively). Maori had higher rates of both homicide and
                hospitalisation than non-Maori. Homicides were most frequently committed with cutting and
                piercing instruments, while most hospitalisations resulted from fights or brawls. For those
                cases for which the place of occurrence was known, most occurred in private homes,
                followed by streets and highways, and licensed premises. Homicides were most likely to
                occur on Fridays or Saturdays, between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. In fifty-five percent of
                homicides the victims and assailant were previously known to one another. Significant
                increases in the rate of both homicide (1978-87) and assaults resulting in hospitalisation
                (1979-1988) were identified. Significant differences were found between assaults occurring
                in and around licensed premises and those occurring in other locations. The implications of
                these findings for the prevention of injury from assault are discussed.
Keywords:       alcohol, crime statistics, domestic violence, health, victims, violent crime
Notes:


                                                      233
Victims




J060.2
Title:          Homicide in New Zealand: an increasing public health problem
Author(s):      Fanslow, J.L., D.J. Chalmers and J.D. Langley
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Australian Journal of Public Health, 1995; 19:50-7
Description:    ABSTRACT. Injury purposely inflicted by other persons is a significant public health problem
                as well as a criminal problem. It accounts for approximately 3 per cent of all deaths from
                injury in New Zealand. National injury mortality data for the period 1978 to 1987,
                supplemented by reference to files of the Coroner's Court and the High Court, were used to
                identify the characteristics of victims of homicide, the nature of the injuries they sustained,
                and the circumstances in which the injuries were inflicted. The mortality rate from homicide
                for the 10-year period was 1.6 per 100,000 persons per year. A significant increase in the
                rate of homicide was identified. The rates for males were higher (2.0) than those for females
                (1.2), with those 20 to 24 years of age most at risk. Maori had higher rates than non-Maori.
                Homicides were most frequently committed with cutting and piercing instruments, and most
                commonly occurred in private homes. Homicides were most likely to occur on Fridays or
                Saturdays, between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. In 55 per cent of homicides the victim
                and assailant were known to one another. Unemployment, membership of ethnic minority
                groups, availability of weapons, the private nature of interactions in the home, alcohol
                consumption, and stress in personal relationships were all identified as factors associated
                with homicide in the decade under study. The implications of these findings for the
                prevention of injury from assault are discussed.
Keywords:       health, homicide, Maori, victims, violent crime
Notes:




J060.3
Title:          Injury from assault in New Zealand: an increasing public health problem
Author(s):      Chalmers D.J., J.L. Fanslow and J.D. Langley
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Australian Journal of Public Health, 1995; 19:149-54
Description:    ABSTRACT. Injury purposely inflicted by other persons is a significant public health problem
                accounting for approximately 4 per cent of all injury hospitalisations in New Zealand. National
                injury morbidity data for the years 1979-1988 were examined. These data were used to
                identify the characteristics of victims of assault who were hospitalised, the nature of the
                injuries they sustained, and the circumstances in which the injuries were inflicted. The
                incidence of hospitalisations in 1988 was 73.7 per 100,000 persons per year. A significant
                increase in the rate of hospitalisations over the decade 1979-1988 was identified. The rates
                for males were higher than those for females, with males 20-24 years of age most at risk.
                Maori had higher rates than non-Maori. Fights or brawls were the leading cause of
                hospitalisation. The most common place of occurrence was private homes, followed by
                streets and highways, and licensed premises. The findings with regard to age, sex
                employment status and use of weapons were consistent with earlier studies. A higher
                proportion of incidents occurring in the home was attributed to differences in selection of
                cases between studies. An indication of under-reporting by women was attributed to
                concealment of intentionality, possibly owing to fear of reprisal. Standard hospital procedures
                were proposed as a means of improving identification.
Keywords:       assault, health, victims, violent crime
Notes:




                                                      234
                                                                                                        Victims


J060.4
Title:          Morbidity and death due to child abuse in New Zealand
Author(s):      Kotch, J.B., D.J. Chalmers, J.L. Fanslow, S. Marshall and J.D. Langley
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Child Abuse and Neglect, 1993; 17:233-47
Description:    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to explore under-diagnosis and racial bias
                among child abuse morbidity and mortality data from New Zealand. Computerised files of all
                intentional injury fatalities among children 16 years of age and under for 1978-87, and all
                hospital discharges for intentionally injured children 16 and under for 1988, were analysed
                for evidence of physical abuse and sexual abuse. Among the 92 fatalities, only 21 of 68
                deaths due to physical and/or sexual abuse were so coded. In both the mortality and the
                morbidity data, there was an association between the diagnosis of child abuse and race. In
                the case of fatalities, Maori and Samoan abuse victims were more likely to be assigned an
                E-code of E967 ("child battering and other maltreatment") than were "others" (p = 0.04),
                controlling for sex. In the case of hospitalisations, the association between E967 and
                whether or not the victim was European was significant for physical abuse only (p = 0.05).
                Assignment of N-code = 995.5 ("child maltreatment syndrome") as the reason for admission
                was significantly associated with race for those cases considered by us to have been
                abused, controlling for age (p = 0.002) or sex (p = 0.004).
Keywords:       child abuse, ethnic issues, health, sexual abuse, victims
Notes:




J070
VICTIMS
                                         Intentional injury
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Centre (The University of Auckland)
Funded by:      Public Health Commission
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J070.1
Title:          Intentional injury in New Zealand
Author(s):      Coggan, C., J. Fanslow and R. Norton
Completed:      YES, June 1995
Availability:   Available from Bennett‟s Government Bookstore. Wellington: Public Health Commission.
                ISBN 0-478-08551-6
Description:    OVERVIEW. The purpose of this report was to provide an overview of intentional injury
                (injury as a result of assault, homicide, attempted suicide or suicide) in New Zealand. It has
                sought to do so by the analysis of up-to-date, routinely collected data on deaths and
                hospitalisations resulting from suicide and attempted suicide, and homicide and assault, in
                order to describe the incidence and groups at highest risk of intentional injury. It looks at
                which sectors of the population are most at risk with regard to various types of violence, the

                                                      235
Victims

                economic costs of these injuries, the impact on the individual and others, current policies
                and presents some recommendations aimed at bringing about interventions to reduce injury
                in this area. In addition, the scientific literature was reviewed in order to delineate the risk
                factors, impact, economic costs, interventions and policy issues associated with intentional
                injury. Given the paucity of literature on economic costs, an attempt was made to determine
                some estimated costs in this area. Key informant interviews were also conducted to assist in
                the identification of policy issues.
Keywords:       assault, attempted suicide, costs of crime, domestic violence, economic costs, health,
                homicide, impact, interventions, Maori, risk factors, suicide, victims, youth
Notes:




J080
VICTIMS
                                 Mediation and reparation
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      Department of Justice, and Winston Churchill Trust
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J080.1
Title:          An investigation of victim-offender mediation and reparation schemes in the United
                Kingdom
Author(s):      Shadbolt, Maureen
Completed:      YES, January 1995
Availability:   Apply to the author, Maureen Shadbolt, Waitakere Community Corrections Office, P O Box
                21050, Henderson, (09) 837-0148.
Description:    ABSTRACT [excerpt]. The New Zealand Community Corrections Service (formerly the
                Probation Service) works with victims through the medium of preparing reparation reports on
                the victims of offences. These reports canvass the physical and emotional effects of
                offences on victims as well as the offenders' willingness and ability to make recompense. At
                an early stage a model of advocating and mediating through face-to-face meetings of victims
                and offenders was developed, given research findings that showed both parties could gain
                from this process. Such meetings have been found to have beneficial effects on
                characteristic offender behaviours such as depersonalisation of victims and a denial of
                responsibility; these behaviours need to be addressed if recidivism is to be significantly
                reduced. Overseas research into the process of mediated meetings has also indicated
                positive outcomes for victims in regard to empowerment, and a reduction in emotional fears.
                The likelihood of financial compensation being paid to victims is also substantially increased
                through such participation. In recent years in this country, there has been little
                encouragement for probation officers to arrange such meetings. Negotiations are frequently
                undertaken by telephone or "shuttle" diplomacy. There are also new innovations proposed
                that will further reduce the opportunities for mediation. The intent was to investigate whether
                to continue Community Corrections involvement with victims, or to support appropriate
                community groups such as a proposed victims' service, in the facilitation of victim-offender



                                                      236
                                                                                                         Victims

                mediation and reparation, from the experience of victim-offender mediation and reparation
                projects in Great Britain.
Keywords:       alternative justice systems, community corrections, crime prevention, offenders, reparation,
                restorative justice, sentencing, sentencing effectiveness, victims
Notes:




J090
VICTIMS
                              Older women's fear of crime
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J090.1
Title:          Older women's fear of crime: contributing factors and effects
Author(s):      Knaggs, Patricia
Completed:      YES, February 1996
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:    ABSTRACT [abridged]. This exploratory qualitative study seeks to identify the extent to
                which women over the age of 65 are fearful or concerned about crime. The women's level of
                personal vulnerability is also examined. It is argued that the range of precautionary
                behaviours employed by women of this age are very costly in terms of restricting their
                lifestyles. Factors which contribute to this behaviour and the extent to which these
                precautionary behaviours occur form the basis of this study. To explore these issues seven
                focus group discussions and 11 individual interviews were conducted over a period of
                several months. The sample consisted of 73 reasonably active older women who lived in
                Wellington and the Hutt Valley. Rural women and those who were socially isolated were not
                included in this sample. Further studies are required to determine the extent to which these
                women are concerned or anxious about their personal vulnerability... A major finding which
                emerges from this study is that the majority of the sample were very concerned about crime
                and most believe that they could easily become a victim. A wide range of precautionary
                behaviours were employed by the women as a way of reducing the likelihood of them
                becoming a victim. Women who live alone and who do not have private transport feel
                particularly vulnerable after dark and some of these practised a high level of precautionary
                behaviour. Implications for further research and for policy makers and programme planners
                are discussed. These include identifying reasons why older women appear to be reluctant to
                attend self defence courses, the role of the media on older women's fears and concerns
                about crime, the effect of fear of crime on the health of older women, and ensuring that
                programmes run for older women empower them rather than increase their existing fears
                about being a victim of crime.
Keywords:       attitudes, community safety, domestic violence, fear of crime, gender issues, media, police,
                victimisation, victims, youth
Notes:          M.A. (applied) in Social Science Research thesis at Victoria University of Wellington.


                                                     237
Victims




J100
VICTIMS
                                   Rape and fear of crime
RESEARCH
Done by:        University of Canterbury Department of Geography
Funded by:      University of Canterbury Department of Geography
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J100.1
Title:          Rape and fear in a New Zealand city
Author(s):      Pawson, Eric and Glenn Banks
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Area, 1993; 25.1:55-63
Description:    ABSTRACT. This paper constructs a geography of rape in a New Zealand city and explores
                the distribution of fear of violence. It demonstrates that such fear is widespread, particularly
                amongst women and the elderly. However, many younger women, those most at risk of
                rape, exhibit patterns of fear that indicate that they do not assume that private space is safer
                than public space in this respect.
Keywords:       Christchurch, fear of crime, media, rape, victimisation
Notes:




J100.2
Title:          A geography of rape and fear: a case study of Christchurch
Author(s):      Pawson, Eric and Glenn Banks
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Proceedings of the Fifteenth NZ Geography Conference, NZ Geographical Society,
                Christchurch, 1989; 118-22
Description:    ABSTRACT. SEE “Description” for Rape and fear in a New Zealand city, above.
Keywords:       Christchurch, fear of crime, rape, victimisation
Notes:




                                                        238
                                                                                                      Victims


J110
VICTIMS
                                 Recall of child sexual abuse
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors
Funded by:      University of Waikato Research Committee
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date December 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J110.1
Title:          Language and repressed memory [working title]
Author(s):      [Goldsmith, Mike and Catherine Pelissier]
Completed:      NO, planned completion date December 1997
Availability:   This research is still in the early stages, no reports/publications as yet.
Description:    [Not provided]
Keywords:       child sexual abuse, language, repressed memory
Notes:




J130
VICTIMS
                                      Repeat victimisation
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J130.1
Title:          Repeat victimisation: a preventable phenomena?
Author(s):      Bradley, Trevor
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Request from author at Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington,
                P O Box 600, Wellington.




                                                       239
Victims

Description:    To examine extent/prevalence and nature of phenomena, and to critically evaluate the
                prevention initiatives developed as a response to repeat victimisation and compare/contrast
                N.Z. and British programmes. Interviews (Government department staff) for primary
                material; desktop based research (literature review, discourse analysis etc.) for secondary
                material.
Keywords:       bias, community safety, crime prevention, crime statistics, domestic violence, fear of crime,
                gender issues, recidivism, victimisation, victims
Notes:




J140
VICTIMS
                      Research on violence against women
RESEARCH
Done by:        Injury Prevention Research Centre (The University of Auckland)
Funded by:      Health Research Council of New Zealand
Method:         Qualitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J140.1
Title:          Violence against women: priorities for public health research in New Zealand
Author(s):      Fanslow J.L. and R.N. Norton
Completed:      YES
Availability:   New Zealand Medical Journal, 1994; 107:63-4
Description:    ABSTRACT. Violence against women is a significant public health problem. However, little is
                known about the most effective ways of reducing the consequent mortality, morbidity and
                disability. Given both the paucity of research in this area and limited resources, there is a
                need to identify priorities for research that have the support of caregivers, survivors of
                violence, policy makers and researchers. This paper presents the results of a national
                process of consultation, which was successful in identifying five priority areas for research in
                New Zealand. These areas are as follows: primary prevention; improving the responsiveness
                of health care professionals; economic costs of violence; incidence and prevalence; and
                secondary prevention.
Keywords:       costs of crime, domestic violence, health, research priorities, victims
Notes:




J140.2
Title:          Violence towards women as a health issue: report on the consensus meetings
Author(s):      Fanslow, J.L. and R.N. Norton
Completed:      YES
Availability:   The University of Auckland Injury Prevention Research Centre Report No. 2, 1992.


                                                     240
                                                                                                          Victims

Description:    A national process of consultation was conducted involving survivors of violence, caregivers,
                policy makers, and researchers working in the area of violence against women. The process
                was successful in identifying five priority areas for research in New Zealand: primary
                prevention (stopping violence before it starts); improving the responsiveness of health care
                professionals; estimating the economic costs of violence; establishing better estimates of the
                incidence and prevalence of violence; and secondary prevention (stopping violence from
                recurring).
Keywords:       costs of crime, domestic violence, gender issues, health, research priorities, research
                questions, victims
Notes:




J150
VICTIMS
                                 Rights and compensation
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date end of 1996



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J150.1
Title:          Victims rights and compensation
Author(s):      Miller, John
Completed:      NO, planned completion date 1997
Availability:   -
Description:    A handbook for victims of crime.
Keywords:       victimisation, victims
Notes:




J160
VICTIMS
                                         Safety in Wellington
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:      -
Method:         Quantitative study

                                                      241
Victims

Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J160.1
Title:          Perceptions of safety in Wellington
Author(s):      Beckett, L.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Criminology No. 5, 1996. Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of
                Wellington
Description:    250 questionnaires on perceptions of safety were distributed to groups in Wellington. 170
                were returned. The article presents a summary of the findings.
Keywords:       community safety, fear of crime
Notes:          From an Honours paper.




J170
VICTIMS
                                    Suicide in Wellington
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J170.1
Title:          Suicide in Wellington: a research paper covering services offered for persons in acute
                suicidal crisis; including recommendations
Author(s):      Eriksen, Sonja
Completed:      YES January 1996
Availability:   Available from Victim Support, Police National Headquarters, Wellington.
Description:    A research paper which identifies the services available for people in suicidal crisis; covering
                both 24 hour and working hour services, availability based on consumer identification (i.e.
                specific group - Maori, women, children, A.A.). Results found a large gap in 24 hour
                services, despite the hours of early morning being the most crucial hours for suicidal people.
                There were also few services available for people who did not belong to a specific group, or
                who did not have a primary issue which was allocated a service (i.e. Schizophrenia
                Fellowship, Alcoholics Anonymous, Child, Adolescent Health Services etc.).
                Recommendations have been made for the setting up of a Suicide Prevention Centre in
                Wellington. Every counselling/welfare agency in Wellington was contacted and given a
                scenario from which to provide responses to the services they could provide in that situation.



                                                        242
                                                                                                         Victims

Keywords:       attitudes, crime prevention, ethnic issues, health, human rights, legislation impacts, Maori,
                Pacific Islands peoples, rehabilitation, suicide prevention, victimisation, victims, youth
Notes:




J180
VICTIMS
                                 Traumatisation case study
RESEARCH
Done by:        Author
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date November 1997



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J180.1
Title:          "To speak of an unspeakable act": the experience of a homicide survivor and victim
                of elder rape
Author(s):      Teppett, Robert
Completed:      NO, planned completion November 1997
Availability:   -
Description:    A life history study.
Keywords:       victims
Notes:          Towards a Masters Thesis in Social Policy.




J190
VICTIMS
                                        Victimisation survey
RESEARCH
Done by:        Victoria Link, and AGB McNair
Funded by:      NZ Police, Ministry of Justice, Crime Prevention Unit, Te Puni Kokiri (Ministry of Maori
                Development), Ministry of Youth Affairs, Ministry of Women's Affairs, Department of Social
                Welfare
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         IN PROGRESS, expected completion date December 1996




                                                        243
Victims

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J190.1
Title:          Victimisation survey [working title]
Author(s):      -
Completed:      NO, planned publication March 1997?
Availability:   -
Description:    Objectives. To provide an alternative measure of the incidence and effects of crime
                victimisation for comparison with other indicative measures of crime and social well-being.
                To provide additional measures of the incidence, prevalence and effects of, and responses
                to, family violence. To identify barriers that inhibit reporting of victimisation to support
                agencies, the reasons for non-reporting, and any shortcomings in the services provided by
                support agencies. To evaluate the achievements of Government with respect to crime
                prevention priorities, victim support mechanisms, and related strategies in order to develop
                more effective and efficient services and programmes. To ensure a standard of research
                methodology and practice that will guarantee the maximum safety and well-being of every
                participant in the project. Survey method. The survey comprises two major parts (with
                supplementary surveys planned for the future) as follows: 1. A general victimisation survey
                that will cover those basic areas of crime victimisation usually canvassed in modern sample
                surveys on crime victimisation (such as the British Crime Survey). The survey will cover a
                representative national sample of the population aged 15 years and over, with an adequate
                sample of Maori population to allow a separate analysis for Maori and comparison between
                Maori and non-Maori. ABG McNair interviewers are currently [June 1996] working around the
                country completing interviews for this part of the project. 2. A family violence survey that will
                comprise an additional measure of victimisation from a randomly selected sub-sample of the
                women in the general victimisation survey sample, further exploring the incidence,
                prevalence and effects of, and responses to, family violence. Although family violence will be
                canvassed in the general victimisation survey it will also be the subject of a separate survey
                owing to the high level of concern about it that currently exists in New Zealand society and in
                an attempt to overcome methodological difficulties associated with the measurement of this
                type of victimisation. Pilot-testing this part of the survey is currently under action by Victoria
                Link and AGB McNair.
Keywords:       community safety, domestic violence, ethnic issues, fear of crime, Maori, offences,
                offenders, police, system efficiency/effectiveness, victimisation, victims
Notes:




J200
VICTIMS
                                  Victims court assistance
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study, quantitative study, pilot programme evaluation
Status:         Completed




                                                       244
                                                                                                             Victims

PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J200.1
Title:          Victims court assistance: an evaluation of the pilot scheme
Author(s):      Church, Alison, Kate Lang, Jennifer Leigh, Patricia Te Wairere Ahiahi Young, Alison Gray
                and Nicolette Edgar
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, February 1995. ISBN 0-477-07684-X
Description:    During 1994, the Department of Justice piloted and evaluated a new scheme to provide
                assistance to victims in the courts. The evaluation investigated the effectiveness of the
                Victims Court Assistance scheme, and identified the salient features to be introduced in a
                proposed nation-wide scheme. The evaluators compared the experiences of victims who
                were clients of the scheme with the experiences of victims who had not had access to a
                Victims Court Assistant. They found that the scheme in general met its objectives, by
                informing victims about the progress of their case, and by assisting victims to participate in
                the criminal justice system. A Maori researcher carried out a parallel study of
                appropriateness of the scheme for Maori victims. This study found that Maori clients needed
                longer term support than was available through the scheme. The evaluators also gathered
                information from a range of key informants, from the records of the Victims Court Assistants,
                and from court records. This information identified a need for improvements to the scheme.
                The evaluators concluded that the scheme should be extended and made recommendations
                on the future implementation, operation and management of a nation-wide scheme.
                Recommendations were also made to improve the effectiveness of assistance for Maori
                victims.
Keywords:       access to justice, courts, evaluation, information to victims, Maori, pilot scheme, victim
                participation, victims, Victims Court Assistance
Notes:




J210
VICTIMS
                                          Victims' needs
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Qualitative study, quantitative study
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J210.1
Title:          Victims' needs: an issues paper
Author(s):      Lee, A. and W. Searle
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, September 1993. ISBN 0-477-07656-4




                                                        245
Victims

Description:    Mail out questionnaire to groups and individuals who provide services to victims of crime, or
                whose work is associated with or has an impact on victims. The survey focused on areas
                where victims come into contact with the criminal justice system and other governmental or
                voluntary agencies.
Keywords:       system efficiency/effectiveness, victims
Notes:




J210.2
Title:          Victims' needs: the results of the survey
Author(s):      Lee, A., W. Searle and K. Atkinson
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, September 1993. ISBN 0-477-07659-9
Description:    To find out what victims' needs are and to find out how well legislative provisions which are
                concerned with victims are functioning. Surveyed groups and individuals who provide
                services to victims of crime or whose work is associated with or has an impact on victims.
Keywords:       system efficiency/effectiveness, victims
Notes:




J220
VICTIMS
                              Victims' needs bibliography
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Bibliography compilation
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J220.1
Title:          A select bibliography of New Zealand research on the needs of victims
Author(s):      Atkinson, K., A. Lee and W. Searle
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice, March 1993. ISBN 0-477-07652-1
Description:    A select bibliography of New Zealand Research on the needs of victims and the services
                provided to victims.
Keywords:       victims
Notes:




                                                     246
                                                                                                           Victims




J230
VICTIMS
                                    Violence against seniors
RESEARCH
Done by:        University of Canterbury Department of Geography, for the Planning and Research Unit,
                Christchurch Criminal Investigation Branch (C.I.B.) (NZ Police)
Funded by:      Senior Citizens Unit (of Social Policy Agency, Department of Social Welfare), and NZ Police
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J230.1
Title:          Violence against seniors: a literature review
Author(s):      Planning and Research Unit, Christchurch C.I.B. - Written by Eric Pawson and Sarah Clark
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   Access via Planning and Research Unit, Christchurch C.I.B., or contact Police College
                Library, Porirua.
Description:    ABSTRACT. The review demonstrates that the available international research about
                seniors and violence is extensive, but that both research and data for the New Zealand
                situation is limited. There is clearly scope for more detailed and focused work on a number
                of themes. Notwithstanding this caution, however, it is established that seniors are less likely
                to be victims of crime, including violent crime, than people in younger age groups. In
                contrast, a high proportion of seniors, particularly women, fear crime. This proportion often
                exceeds that for people in younger age groups. However, establishing the incidence of
                senior abuse within the family and within institutions is not possible on the basis of presently
                available material on the subject. It is generally agreed that there are a number of factors
                that contribute to much of such abuse being hidden from view. Future policy development
                should be articulated at two levels. Firstly, it is necessary to establish a framework for policy.
                This must be based on agreement that the issue of violence against seniors is one worthy of
                immediate policy attention, as well as on a workable definition of such violence. It is
                recommended that the framework adopted focuses on four themes: identification,
                prevention, recovery and evaluation. Secondly, specific policy initiatives are then proposed in
                respect of each of these themes.
Keywords:       access to justice, fear of crime, senior abuse, seniors, victimisation, victims, violent crime
Notes:




J235
VICTIMS
                                    Violence against women
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Psychological Medicine, Otago Medical School


                                                      247
Victims

Funded by:      Health Research Council, N.Z. Lottery Grants Commission
Method:         Quantitative study
Status:         COMPLETED



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J235.1
Title:          Adult sexual assault in a community sample of women
Author(s):      Martin, Judy, Sarah Romans, Jessie Anderson and Paul Mullen
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Proceedings of the OSAC Conference on Rape, April 1996
Description:    The 497 Otago women who were interviewed as part of the Otago Women‟s Health Survey
                Abuse Study were asked about their experiences of sexual assault since the age of 15. The
                prevalence rate for the community was 19.6%. Over half of this was forced intercourse. Half
                of the women experienced an assault before the age of 20, and close to half were by
                partners.
Keywords:       sexual assault, victims
Notes:




J235.2
Title:          Domestic violence in a community sample of Otago women
Author(s):      Martin, Judy, Sarah Romans and Taraneh Bashir-Elahi
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Unpublished paper available from the first author, Department of Psychological Medicinem
                Otage Medical School.
Description:    The 497 Otago women interviewed as part of the Otago Health Survey Abuse Study were
                asked about their experiences of physical violence from a male partner. Women ranged in
                age from 18 to 64. Women reported a high rate of physical violence from partners.
                Information on demographic correlates and risk factors is available..
Keywords:       domestic violence, victims
Notes:




J240
VICTIMS
                       Violence against women law reform
RESEARCH
Done by:        Institute of Criminology (Victoria University of Wellington)
Funded by:      -
Method:         Literature review
Status:         Completed


                                                      248
                                                                                                          Victims




PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

J240.1
Title:          Law reform initiatives on violence against women: successes and pitfalls
Author(s):      Morris, Allison
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Institute of Criminology Occasional Paper No. 1, 1993
Description:    Literature review of law reform initiatives on violence against women.
Keywords:       domestic violence, gender issues, legislation impacts, victimisation
Notes:




                                                     249
                                                                                              Other research




K10
OTHER RESEARCH
                                        Alcohol research
RESEARCH
Done by:        Authors (Ministry of Health)
Funded by:      Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand
Method:         Literature review, survey of researchers
Status:         Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

K10.1
Title:          Directory of New Zealand alcohol research and researchers, 1990-1995
Author(s):      Middleton, Lesley and Ian Hodges
Completed:      YES, 1996
Availability:   ISSN 0073-8618
Description:    To provide a detailed overview of alcohol research in New Zealand. Survey of researchers,
                literature etc. Very detailed, including much out of the way material. A resource to guide
                ALAC's policy on research and development of a national strategic plan for research on
                alcohol.
Keywords:       alcohol, health
Notes:




K20
OTHER RESEARCH
                         Developing research for policy use
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of Justice
Method:         Quantitative study, research development
Status:         YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

K20.1
Title:          Researching for relevance: the Family Court project
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie
Completed:      YES


                                                    251
Other research

Availability:    In Seminar series on social research: 1985 proceedings. 1986. Wellington: Social Sciences
                 Research Fund Committee
Description:     A discussion of the development of a research project, explaining choice of information
                 sources and attempts to link research design to later policy etc.
Keywords:        courts, methodology, policy development
Notes:




K30
OTHER RESEARCH
                                   Linking research and policy
RESEARCH
Done by:         Ministry of justice
Funded by:       N/A
Method:          Qualitative study
Status:          YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

K30.1
Title:           The chasm between research, policy and practice
Author(s):       Leibrich, Julie
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Invited keynote address, Public Health Association Conference, Dunedin, June 1995.
                 Contact Public Health Association.
Description:     Research can help policy develop on a sound basis. It can examine old ideas, explore new
                 ones and evaluate policy initiatives. Yet often, there is a rift between research and policy
                 units. Policy makers tend to think research takes too long and is too vague. Researchers
                 tend to think policy makers ignore their work. This looks at some of the communication and
                 planning problems involved in the research-policy link and suggests ways to overcome them.
Keywords:        methodology, policy development, system efficiency/effectiveness
Notes:




K40
OTHER RESEARCH
                           Methodology of follow-up studies
RESEARCH
Done by:         Department of Justice
Funded by:       Department of Justice

                                                    252
                                                                                                   Other research

Method:         Literature review, developmental
Status:         YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

K40.1
Title:          Improving the success rate in follow-up studies with former offenders
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Evaluation Review: A Journal of Applied Social Research, 1994; 18:613-26.
Description:    Studies of former offenders are few and far between. Partly, this is because of the difficulties
                of research in such a sensitive area, such as: deciding how to sample, persuading them to
                take part in the research, creating conditions for honesty, protecting both the participants
                and the researcher, establishing the conditions of the interview, making the research have
                value for the participants, recording and analysing complex and sensitive data, and caring for
                and sharing the findings. This article describes how a success rate of 78% was achieved in
                a study of desistance from crime in which a sample of 50 people last sentenced to
                supervision and conviction free for 3 years were interviewed. The methodology designed
                for this work used some orthodox techniques but also crossed some boundaries into the
                unorthodox. The researcher took many calculated risks, and had to develop extensive
                networks to get support and co-operation for this study. It was also important that the
                methodology was strong and transparent as the research was conducted for a government
                department where qualitative research is sometimes dismissed as anecdotal. The full
                methodology therefore was published as part of the resulting book and was later used as a
                university teaching text for qualitative methodology.
Keywords:       criminal behaviour, methodology, recidivism, sentence administration
Notes:




K50
OTHER RESEARCH
                                  Pitfalls in crime research
RESEARCH
Done by:        Department of Justice
Funded by:      Department of justice
Method:         Literature review, qualitative study
Status:         YES



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

K50.1
Title:          Pitfalls in criminal justice evaluation research: sampling, measurement, and design
                problems
Author(s):      Leibrich, Julie
Completed:      YES


                                                       253
Other research

Availability:    Federal Probation: a Journal of Correctional Philosophy and Practice, September 1986;
                 L(3):31-5. See also Pitfalls and problems in evaluation research, Leibrich, Julie. In
                 Proceedings of the Pacific Statistical Congress - 1985. Francis, I.S., B.F.J. Manly and F.C.
                 Lam (Eds), 1985. Amsterdam: North Holland
Description:     There are many pitfalls and problems in evaluation research. This paper focuses on some of
                 the more common problems in sampling, measurement and design and draws on examples
                 from recent research in the area of justice in New Zealand.
Keywords:        crime statistics, methodology, sentencing effectiveness
Notes:




K55
OTHER RESEARCH
             Public attitudes towards crime and criminal justice
RESEARCH
Done by:         Department of Justice
Funded by:       Department of Justice
Method:          Literature review
Status:          Completed



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

K55.1
Title:           Public attitudes towards crime and criminal justice
Author(s):       Lee, Angela
Completed:       YES
Availability:    Criminal Justice Quarterly, 1994; 8
Description:     A review of overseas and New Zealand research on public attitudes towards crime,
                 offenders and the criminal justice system.
Keywords:        attitudes, criminal behaviour, offenders, criminal justice system
Notes:




K60
OTHER RESEARCH
                                 Psychologists and the law
RESEARCH
Done by:         New Zealand Psychological Society
Funded by:       -



                                                       254
                                                                                                  Other research

Method:         Development of practice guidelines
Status:         [Completed]



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

K60.1
Title:          The practice of psychology and the law: a handbook
Author(s):      Maxwell, G.M., F. Seymour and P.M. Vincent (Eds)
Completed:      YES
Availability:   2nd edition, Wellington: New Zealand Psychological Society, 1996. 230pp.
                ISBN 0-473 015692
Description:    Brings together various guidelines useful to psychologists practising in law-related areas.
Keywords:       adjudication, courts, prosecution, psychology, sentencing, sexual abuse, witnesses, youth
Notes:          1st edition, 1992, G. Maxwell (Ed.) 79pp.




                                                     255
                                                                                  Appendix I: Bibliographic references




                                        APPENDIX I

X
                      References from bibliographic sources
RESEARCH
Done by:        Library searches by Helen Gardiner, Senior Adviser, Ministry of Justice Information Services
                Centre.
Funded by:      -
Method:         Database searches using a variety of appropriate keywords in KIWINET and
                AUSTROM:CINCH CD-Rom to produce the following list of probably apposite references,
                not mentioned elsewhere in this Directory. References from Gaps and Priorities (q.v.) and
                other material from bibliography lists also included. A very substantial listing of holdings at
                the NZ Police College Library has been supplied for this Directory, unfortunately too late for
                inclusion in this edition. Material will be included at a later date.
Status:         -



PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS

X0010
Title:          A comparison of domestically violent and non-violent men on a number of measures
                including need for power, sex role attitudes, and spouse specific assertion
Author(s):      Seminiuk, Danielle
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Sc. thesis




X0020
Title:          A difficult mix: imprisonment and the right to parent
Author(s):      Sinclair, Sarah
Completed:      YES, 1991
Availability:   Auckland: Youth Law Project (Inc.). 14pp. zbn93-026234
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                     257
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0030
Title:             A parallel criminal justice system for New Zealand: reform in the public interest?
Author(s):         Eagleson, Wayne C.
Completed:         YES, 1990
Availability:      zbn91-039554
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0040
Title:             A poison in the bloodstream
Author(s):         Consedine, Jim
Completed:         YES, 1990
Availability:      Whatamongo Bay N.Z.: Cape Catley. ISBN 090856127X
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             Prisons




X0050
Title:             A qualitative study of intentional injury in general practice
Author(s):         Kljakovic, Marjan and Ciandra Keenan
Completed:         YES
Availability:      New Zealand Family Physician, 1995; 22(2):59-63
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0060
Title:             A quantitative and qualitative investigation of the experiences of battered women and
                   their children
Author(s):         Shepherd, Paula
Completed:         NO
Availability:      -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             Author is masters student in Psychology Department, Victoria University of Wellington




                                                      258
                                                                              Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0070
Title:          A review and evaluation of three family violence/child abuse prevention programmes
                currently running in centres throughout New Zealand
Author(s):      Manley, Dawn
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.A. research essay




X0080
Title:          A sin and a crime: a draft plan for churches to address family violence
Author(s):      Fitzmaurice, Roni
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee, 1993
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0090
Title:          A social constructionist approach to working with women who have been in
                violent/abusive relationships
Author(s):      Dixon, Glenda
Completed:      NO, planned completion date December 1997
Availability:   -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          Author is Doctoral student, Education Department, University of Otago.




X0100
Title:          Alcoholism and offending in male prison inmates
Author(s):      Bakker, Leon W.
Completed:      YES, 1991
Availability:   University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Sc. in Psychology thesis




                                                     259
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0110
Title:             Alcoholism and recidivism of New Zealand offenders
Author(s):         Clark, Raelynne, S.
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X0120
Title:             An evaluation of side effects of "Keeping Ourselves Safe": a child sexual abuse
                   prevention programme
Author(s):         Van Kessel, Kirsten
Completed:         YES
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis.




X0140
Title:             An evaluation of the police child sexual abuse investigation policy, and its
                   implementation
Author(s):         Miller-Burgering, Wendy
Completed:         YES
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             PhD thesis




X0150
Title:             An integrated criminal justice system for New Zealand
Author(s):         Colby, Heather
Completed:         YES, 1993
Availability:      Victoria University of Wellington Library, zbn94-019776
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.P.P. in Public Policy research paper




                                                        260
                                                                                Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0160
Title:          An integrated evaluation of the services offered by the West Auckland Victim Support
                and the Henderson Police to victims of domestic violence
Author(s):      Carr, Angela
Completed:      YES, c1993
Availability:   Auckland: University of Auckland
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0170
Title:          An investigation into battered women's shelters: feminist cooperatives or social
                service institutions, case studies of Canada and New Zealand
Author(s):      Gilson, Dorothy
Completed:      NO
Availability:   -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          Author is from Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, University of Waikato.




X0180
Title:          An investigation of the factors influencing resiliency of children following abuse
Author(s):      McDowell, Heather
Completed:      YES
Availability:   The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          PhD thesis




X0190
Title:          Attachment and intimacy
Author(s):      Butters, Justine
Completed:      NO, planned completion date March 1997
Availability:
Description:
Keywords:       Research in progress. Author is doctoral student in Psychology at Victoria University of
                Wellington thesis
Notes:




                                                     261
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0200
Title:             Attitudes to family violence: a study across cultures
Author(s):         Synergy Applied Research
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Wellington: Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee, 1988.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0210
Title:             Attitudes to reducing sexual violence towards women: punishment or prevention?
Author(s):         Martin, J.L., J.C. Anderson, S. Romans-Clark, P. Mullen and M. O‟Shea
Completed:         YES
Availability:      The New Zealand Medical Journal, 1993; 106:953 115-7
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0220
Title:             Attributions and emotional responses of battered women to violent incidents within
                   their relationship
Author(s):         Prebble, Rachel J.
Completed:         YES, 1994
Availability:      Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A.(applied) in Clinical and Community Psychology thesis.




X0230
Title:             Australia and New Zealand: an overview of current crime prevention research and
                   policy
Author(s):         Chappell, Duncan
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology
Description:       An invited paper for a meeting in Paris, 30-31 May 1991, of the Scientific Committee of the
                   2nd International Conference on Urban Safety, Drugs and Crime Prevention.
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                        262
                                                                               Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0240
Title:          Barriers to learning [working title]: an exploration of the effect of family violence on
                children's learning in the pre-tertiary sector, and on teachers and principals in terms
                of effort deflected to social needs
Author(s):      Education Review Office
Completed:      NO
Availability:
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0250
Title:          Battered women and their General Practitioners: barriers to disclosure
Author(s):      -
Completed:      YES
Availability:   University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.A. thesis.




X0254
Title:          Battered women seeking protection from the law: selected case studies
Author(s):      Busch, Ruth, Hilary Lapsley and Neville Robertson
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In The prevention of violence and victims of violent crime: conference proceedings (1992).
                Auckland: Mental Health Foundation/Auckland Institute of Technology
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




 X0255
Title:          Battered women seeking protection from the justice system: Part one
Author(s):      Busch, Ruth, Hilary Lapsley and Neville Robertson
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Butterworth’s Family Law Journal, 1993; 1(6):19-24
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                    263
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0256
Title:             Battered women seeking protection from the justice system: Part two
Author(s):         Busch, Ruth, Hilary Lapsley and Neville Robertson
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Butterworth’s Family Law Journal, 1993; 1(9):31-8
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0260
Title:             Battered women's experience of health professionals
Author(s):         -
Completed:         NO
Availability:      -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             Research for M.Soc.Sc. at the University of Waikato




X0270
Title:             Bondage and discipline gone wrong: the death of Peter Plumley Walker
Author(s):         Brown, Malcolm and Paul R. Wilson
Completed:         YES, 1992
Availability:      In Justice and nightmares: successes and failures of forensic science in Australia and New
                   Zealand, Brown, Malcolm and Paul Wilson(Eds). Kensington NSW: New South Wales
                   University Press, 1992; 177-95
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0280
Title:             Care for kids: an evaluation of a supervised access centre
Author(s):         Hitchman, Belinda et al
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Broad Perspectives, 1994.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                       264
                                                                                 Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0290
Title:          Changes in emotions, attributions and abstinence violation effects in male sex
                offenders
Author(s):      Cryer, Virginia M.
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   The University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.A. in Psychology thesis




X0300
Title:          Children as witnesses: the impact of video technology in child sexual abuse cases
Author(s):      Wallace, Angeline M.
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.A. in Psychology thesis.




X0310
Title:          Community based correctional programmes: social work in community care
Author(s):      Barrowclough, A.R.L.
Completed:      YES, 1988
Availability:   zbn92-106825
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          13pp




X0320
Title:          Community violence in Auckland 1850-1875
Author(s):      Wilson, Dean
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   The University of Auckland Library
Description:    Examines cases of interpersonal violence heard before the Auckland Police Court between
                1850-1875. Reveals that violence, was in reality an accepted, and at times a unifying, social
                code. Examines the mechanics of the criminal justice system, and looks at who participated
                in that system. Suggests that, in relation to prosecutions for minor acts of violence, the
                criminal law did not function as an instrument of social control. Working-class Aucklanders
                saw the utility of the criminal law as a means of settling disputes, and they approached it with
                their own agendas. Looks at violence between husbands and wives, and violence against
                children within the home. Describes the experience of gender outside the confines of the

                                                       265
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

                   individual household. Argues that, in Victorian Auckland, men and women had quite distinct
                   spheres of life. Women formed deep and reciprocal relationships with women in their
                   immediate neighbourhood. These women's networks were fundamental to survival amongst
                   those who occupied a structurally disadvantaged position within society. This women's
                   culture co-existed alongside a masculine culture based on the public house and the
                   workplace. Relationships between men, were, however, less cohesive and binding, and their
                   relationships tended to be formed upon competitiveness and rivalry, rather than reciprocity
                   and co-operation. By examining cases of sexual assault we can see women's networks were
                   always limited, as the culture of 'masculinism' set the boundaries of the women's culture,
                   both socially and spatially.
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A in History thesis




X0330
Title:             Deaths in non-custodial corrections: Australia and New Zealand, 1987 and 1988
Author(s):         Fleming, Gillian, David McDonald and David Biles
Completed:         YES
Availability:      In Deaths in custody Australia, 1980-1989: The research papers of the Criminology Unit of
                   the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, Biles, David and David McDonald
                   (Eds). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1992; 239-276. Originally published as
                   Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Research paper No. 12.
Description:       Provides information on all adult deaths which were reported to have occurred in Australia
                   and New Zealand while the person was serving a non-custodial correctional order during the
                   years 1987 and 1988.
Keywords:
Notes:




X0335
Title:             Delinquency: care, control and prevention: a literature review for policy makers
Author(s):         Devoy, Shaun
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Wellington: Department of Social Welfare, 1986.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0340
Title:             Demographic and social factors in the prediction of reoffending
Author(s):         Anderson, Georgina J.
Completed:         YES, 1989
Availability:      The University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:



                                                          266
                                                                              Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Notes:          M.A. in Psychology thesis




X0343
Title:          Domestic protection study: Family Court counselling: Part one
Author(s):      Lapsley, Hilary, Neville Robertson and Ruth Busch
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Butterworths Family Law Bulletin, 1993; 3(12):152-6
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0344
Title:          Domestic protection study: Family Court counselling: Part two
Author(s):      Lapsley, Hilary, Neville Robertson and Ruth Busch
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Butterworths Family Law Journal, 1993; 1(6):9-17
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0345
Title:          Domestic violence and the justice system: a study of breaches of protection orders
Author(s):      Busch, Ruth, Neville Robertson and Hilary Lapsley
Completed:      YES 1992
Availability:   Prepared for Victims Task Force, 279pp
Description:    ABSTRACT.
Keywords:
Notes:          Also article with same title in Community Mental Health in New Zealand, 1993; 7(2):26-44,
                and in The prevention of violence and victims of violent crime: conference proceedings
                (1992). Auckland: Mental Health Foundation/Auckland Institute of Technology.




X0350
Title:          Easy Street?: reasons given for 'involvement in' and 'desisting from' property crime
                by male offenders
Author(s):      Guy, Rosemary
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   The University of Canterbury Library
Description:



                                                       267
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X0360
Title:             Empowering the victim in the New Zealand youth justice process - a strategy for
                   healing
Author(s):         Brown, Michael
Completed:         YES
Availability:      In Socio-Legal Bulletin, special issue Victim-offender mediation in Australasia' edited by Tom
                   Fisher, No. 14, Spring 1994; 34-8
Description:       Brown examines practices which have been adopted in the New Zealand youth justice area,
                   particularly family group conferencing. The ability of the victim to have input at the family
                   group conference is, he believes, one of the most significant virtues of the new Youth Justice
                   procedures.
Keywords:
Notes:




X0370
Title:             Evaluation of a group programme for prison inmates convicted of rape
Author(s):         Huddleston, Anne M.
Completed:         YES, 1987
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X0380
Title:             Evaluation of victim support schemes in New Zealand
Author(s):         Neale, J. and A. Gray
Completed:         YES, 1990
Availability:      Wellington: Gray Matter Research Ltd
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0390
Title:             Explaining some characteristics of battered women: a cognitive deconstructionist
                   approach
Author(s):         Ward, Tony, Leonie Wilson, Devon Polaschek et al



                                                        268
                                                                            Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Completed:      YES
Availability:   New Zealand Journal of Psychology, June 1995; 24(1):26-38
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0400
Title:          Family group conferences: a literature review
Author(s):      Thornton, Claire P.
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   zbn93-093995
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0410
Title:          Family violence: Paper prepared for TORC - DSW
Author(s):      Neale, Jenny
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Social Welfare, 1988.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0420
Title:          Fear of crime in the elderly
Author(s):      Kidd, Jill
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Sc. in Psychology thesis




X0430
Title:          Female law breakers: who do they think they are?: women offenders and their identity
Author(s):      Cooke, Stephanie C.
Completed:      YES, 1992



                                                   269
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Availability:      University of Waikato Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.Soc.Sc. in Psychology thesis




X0440
Title:             'Fleeing from my ex': exploring the link between family violence and women
                   survivors' residential mobility
Author(s):         Stephen-Smith, Naomi
Completed:         YES, no date
Availability:      Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             B.A.(Hons) in Geography.




X0450
Title:             GAIN over Anger
Author(s):         Winslade, John
Completed:         NO
Availability:      -
Description:       GAIN programme evaluation
Keywords:
Notes:             Author at Department of Education Studies, University of Waikato




X0460
Title:             Gender and the youth justice family group conference outcome
Author(s):         Thornton, Claire P.
Completed:         YES, 1994
Availability:      zbn94-066337
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0480
Title:             Her sexuality as indicative of his innocence: the operation of New Zealand's 'rape
                   shield' provision
Author(s):         McDonald, Elisabeth
Completed:         YES, 1993


                                                        270
                                                                                Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Availability:   Criminal Law Journal, December 1994; 18(6):321-36
Description:    McDonald examines the judicial interpretation of section 23A of the New Zealand Evidence
                Act (1908) since the 1985 legislative reforms of rape law and procedure. She argues that
                traditional views of women's sexuality and credibility may still be influencing some decisions
                relating to the admissibility of sexual history evidence. Topics covered include: rape myths
                and law reform; physical evidence; sexual naivety; fantasy and fabrication; and consent.
                Section 23A is included as an appendix. (article partly drawn from a New Zealand Law
                Society seminar paper 'Another explanation: the exclusion of women's stories in sexual
                offence trials', Wellington, 1993)
Keywords:
Notes:




X0490
Title:          Homicides in Auckland, New Zealand: a fourteen year study
Author(s):      Lo, Min and Jane C. Vuletic
Completed:      YES
Availability:   The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 1992; 13(1):44-9
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0500
Title:          Horouta Marae/Wellington Prison joint programs venture habilitation programs
Author(s):      Elborn, Sheryn
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   In Private sector and community involvement in the criminal justice system: proceedings of a
                conference held 30 November - 2 December 1992, Wellington, New Zealand, Biles, David
                and Julia Vernon (Eds). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1994; 327-37
Description:    In June 1992 Horouta Marae and Wellington Prison began a relationship which set out to
                meet the development needs of the Marae and the habilitation needs of Wellington Prison
                inmates. This paper outlines the context in which this relationship occurred, the initial
                contact, the development of a mutual vision, cultural considerations, and future
                developments.
Keywords:
Notes:




X0510
Title:          Improving the delivery of correctional treatment programmes: some options
Author(s):      Hahn, Murray R.
Completed:      YES 1995
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:


                                                     271
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Notes:             M.P.P. in Public Policy research paper




X0520
Title:             In search of the elusive: controlling the exercise of prosecutorial discretion
Author(s):         Bennett, Allison J.
Completed:         YES, 1993
Availability:      zbn94-046767
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0530
Title:             Inside/outside: family violence and housing
Author(s):         Yeoman, A. and The Family Violence Project Team
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      Wellington: Housing Corporation/Ministry of Housing
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0550
Title:             Into the darklands: a process evaluation of the SAFE Programme for adult male
                   sexual offenders against children
Author(s):         Latta, Nigel
Completed:         YES, 1994
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             Master of Philosophy in Psychology thesis.




X0560
Title:             Invisible women: towards a geography of female offending
Author(s):         Clark, Isabelle S.L.
Completed:         YES, 1990
Availability:      University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Geography thesis


                                                        272
                                                                          Appendix I: Bibliographic references




X0570
Title:          Is a non-molestation order enough?: women's experiences of the Family Court
Author(s):      Moore, Judith M.
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.A.(applied) in Social Work thesis.




X0580
Title:          Kia Marama: a cognitive-behavioural program for incarcerated child molesters
Author(s):      Hudson, S., W.L. Marshall, T. Ward et al
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Behaviour Change, 1995; 12(2):69-80
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0590
Title:          Legal pluralism and the colonial legacy: indigenous experiences of justice in Canada,
                Australia and New Zealand.
Author(s):      Hazlehurst, Kayleen M. (Ed.)
Completed:      YES, c1995
Availability:   ISBN 1857920781, zbn96-021614
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0600
Title:          Lesbian violence: the hidden face of violence
Author(s):      Brown, Karena
Completed:      YES, 1995
Availability:   -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                       273
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0610
Title:             Long term effects of intrafamilial sexual abuse in childhood
Author(s):         Bushnell, J.A., J.E. Wells and M.A. Oakley-Browne
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Acta Psychiatrica, 1992; 85:136-42
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0620
Title:             Male victims of child sexual abuse: a review
Author(s):         Richardson, Deidre F.
Completed:         YES
Availability:      The New Zealand Family Physician, Winter 1990; 122-6
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0630
Title:             Managerialism and attainable objectives in the New Zealand prison system
Author(s):         Brown, Robert A.
Completed:         YES, 1994
Availability:      Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.P.P. in Public Policy thesis




X0640
Title:             Managing the irresistible force {microform}: an analysis of the means by which the
                   Corrections Divisions of the Department of Justice relates to voluntary sector
                   agencies
Author(s):         Tie, Warwick J.
Completed:         YES, 1993
Availability:      3 microfiches, Massey University Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.S.W. in Social Work thesis




                                                        274
                                                                             Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0650
Title:          Men Against Violence: a discourse analysis of wife assaulters' talk before and after
                participation in a Stopping Violence Programme
Author(s):      O'Neill, Damian
Completed:      NO
Availability:   -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          Author is Doctoral student, Psychology Department, Massey University




X0660
Title:          Men For Change: living without violence
Author(s):      Ratima, M.M., M.H. Durie, G.R. Allan et al
Completed:      YES
Availability:   A report prepared for Men For Change Incorporated, Nga Tane e Mahi ana i Roto i tenei Ao
                Hurihuri. Palmerston North: Massey University, 1995.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0670
Title:          Mother-child relationships in wife abusive homes
Author(s):      Cram, Fiona and Tania Pocock
Completed:      NO
Availability:   -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0680
Title:          Mothers in prison: the experience of being separated from their children
Author(s):      Young, Patricia Te Wairere Ahiahi
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   University of Waikato Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Soc.Sc. in Psychology thesis




                                                    275
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0700
Title:             No place like home
Author(s):         Cox, Deborah and Mary Irwin
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Auckland: Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand, 1989.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0730
Title:             Outdoor programs from New Zealand prisons
Author(s):         Craig, Terry
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      In Proceedings of the first national symposium on outdoor/wilderness programs for
                   offenders, Birrigai, A.C.T., 2-4 October 1990, Cianchi, John (Ed.). Canberra: Australian
                   Capital Territory Government Adult Corrective Services, 1991; 261-7
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0740
Title:             Outdoor programs within a probation service context in New Zealand
Author(s):         Lyon, David
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      In Proceedings of the first national symposium on outdoor/wilderness programs for
                   offenders, Birrigai, A.C.T., 2-4 October 1990, Cianchi, John (Ed.). Canberra: Australian
                   Capital Territory Government Adult Corrective Services, 1991; 25-37
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0760
Title:             Police responses to policies on policing "domestics"
Author(s):         -
Completed:         NO
Availability:      -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             Doctoral research at Massey University



                                                       276
                                                                                 Appendix I: Bibliographic references




X0770
Title:          Politics, morale, and respectability: the Australian and New Zealand police
Author(s):      Das, Dilip K.
Completed:      YES, c1993
Availability:   In Policing in six countries around the world: organizational perspectives. Chicago: Office of
                International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, c1993; 58-97
Description:    Das surveys the training and organisation of police in Australia and New Zealand, through
                his time spent in Melbourne and Wellington. He considers their treatment of native and
                migrant minorities, their relationship with political power, and their interactions with
                corrections, courts and the public.
Keywords:
Notes:




X0775
Title:          Pornography: report of the Ministerial Committee of Inquiry
Author(s):      Morris, Joanne, Hilary Haines and Jack Shallcrass
Completed:      YES 1989
Availability:   Wellington: Department of Justice (211pp)
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0780
Title:          Pre-trial diversion and the Wellington Prosecutions Diversion Scheme
Author(s):      Douglas, James A.
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   zbn90-009646
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0800
Title:          Prevalence of sexual abuse and psychopathology in imprisoned women
Author(s):      Scandrett, Jillian
Completed:      YES, 1988
Availability:   The University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:



                                                       277
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X0810
Title:             Prisoners released on parole: a repertory grid study of self-esteem and self-identity
Author(s):         Curreen, M.P.
Completed:         YES, 1984
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. thesis




X0820
Title:             Provocation in New Zealand: a characteristic solution
Author(s):         Brown, Bernard
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      In Partial excuses to murder, Stanley Meng Heong Yeo (Ed.). Sydney: Federation Press,
                   1991; 80-100
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0830
Title:             Public attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving and speed
Author(s):         Perkins, Wayne A.
Completed:         YES, October 1990
Availability:      Traffic Research Report. Wellington: Ministry of Transport. 0110-6872.
                   ISBN 047705241X
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0840
Title:             Public health nurses and families under stress: promoting children's health in
                   complex situations
Author(s):         Pybus, Marion
Completed:         YES, 1993
Availability:      Palmerston North: Massey University
Description:



                                                        278
                                                                           Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Keywords:
Notes:




X0845
Title:          Refining the risk concept: decision context as a factor mediating the relation between
                risk and program effectiveness
Author(s):      Brown, Mark
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Crime and Delinquency, 1996; 42:435-56
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Soc.Sc. thesis




X0850
Title:          Rehabilitation, community care, and the offender's place of residence
Author(s):      O'Connell, Rene
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   University of Waikato Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Soc.Sc. thesis




X0860
Title:          Reparation: a sentencing option within the New Zealand criminal justice system
Author(s):      Jervis, Bernard
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   Paper delivered at Mental Health Congress, 1989. zbn96-042408
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0870
Title:          Replication of child sexual abuse in males
Author(s):      Robertson, David B.
Completed:      YES 1990
Availability:   University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:


                                                   279
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X0880
Title:             Research on rape: strategies for change
Author(s):         Barrington, R.
Completed:
Availability:
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0890
Title:             Restorative justice in New Zealand: the miracle panacea or an untenable Utopia?
Author(s):         Hendriksen, Mike
Completed:         YES, 1995
Availability:      zbn95-109772
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0900
Title:             Restorative justice: healing the effects of crime
Author(s):         Consedine, Jim
Completed:         YES, c1995
Availability:      Ploughshares Publications. zbn95-022471
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0910
Title:             Restorative justice: the New Zealand Youth Court: a model for development in other
                   courts?
Author(s):         McElrea, F.W.M.
Completed:         YES, 1994
Availability:      Journal of Judicial Administration, Aug 1994; 4(1):33-54
Description:       McElrea discusses an alternative to the traditional punishment theories of retribution,
                   deterrence and reformation. Restorative justice aims to repair the damage caused to people
                   and to relationships by criminal offenders, and to restore harmony in the lives of victims and
                   offenders, through community group conferences rather than court sentencing. The author


                                                       280
                                                                              Appendix I: Bibliographic references

                looks at the history of restorative justice and describes the model being used by the New
                Zealand Youth Court. (Paper prepared for the National Conference of District Court Judges,
                Rotorua New Zealand, 6-9 April 1994.)
Keywords:
Notes:




X0913
Title:          Samoan notions of cultural and social justice
Author(s):      Epati, Aeau Semi
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Rethinking Criminal Justice, Vol.1, May 1995
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0915
Title:          Serious offending and the management of public risk in New Zealand
Author(s):      Brown, Mark
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In British Council of Criminology, 1996; 36(18-36)
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0920
Title:          Services for victims of crime in New Zealand
Author(s):      Ireland, J.
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   Unpublished
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0930
Title:          Studies on crime and violence in New Zealand: a preliminary bibliography
Author(s):      Crothers, C.
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   Working papers in New Zealand social science literature No. 1, April 1992


                                                   281
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0940
Title:             Substance abuse education programs within the New Zealand prison system
Author(s):         Jamieson, Elizabeth A.S.
Completed:         YES
Availability:      In Private sector and community involvement in the criminal justice system: proceedings of a
                   conference held 30 November - 2 December 1992, Wellington, New Zealand, Biles, David
                   and Julia Vernon (Eds). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1994; 389-94
Description:       Jamieson evaluates the education portion of a substance abuse programme which operates
                   in Auckland Prison West and Auckland Prison East. The content of the course includes:
                   communication skills; stress management; problem solving; alcohol and drug information;
                   dependency and addiction; families and relationships. She discusses the aims and
                   objectives of the programme, the screening of participants and the way it is evaluated.
Keywords:
Notes:




X0950
Title:             Surveying crime
Author(s):         Robinson, J., W. Young and S. Haslett
Completed:         YES, 1989
Availability:      Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0960
Title:             Te roopu o te whanau rangimarie o Taamaki Makaurau: a Maori model for
                   non-violence
Author(s):         Gilgen, Maynard E.
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis.




                                                        282
                                                                          Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X0970
Title:          Te utu me te whakaaurakitanga: he tirohanga ki te whakaauraki i te mauherehere
                Maori
Author(s):      Johnston Edith L.
Completed:      YES 1991
Availability:   University of Waikato Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.A. in Maori thesis




X0980
Title:          Teenage peer influences: a teenage sentencing court evaluation
Author(s):      Callander, J.R.
Completed:      YES, 1987
Availability:   zbn90-031495
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X0990
Title:          The adult offender: punishment or rehabilitation? What?
Author(s):      Vinson, Tony
Completed:      YES, 1992
Availability:   zbn93-016090
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          21pp




X1000
Title:          The appropriateness and fulfilment of rehabilitative parole conditions imposed by
                district prisons boards
Author(s):      Morgan, Rowena, H.
Completed:      YES, 1991
Availability:   University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Sc. in Psychology thesis




                                                   283
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X1010
Title:             The attribution of responsibility for child sexual abuse in a New Zealand setting
Author(s):         Ford, Sandra J.
Completed:         YES, 1992
Availability:      University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X1030
Title:             The development of the Rape Law Reform Bills of New Zealand during the 1980S
Author(s):         Humphries, Nicole A.
Completed:         YES 1991
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Political studies thesis




X1035
Title:             The domestic protection study: family court counselling
Author(s):         Lapsley, Hilary, Neville Robertson and Ruth Busch
Completed:         YES
Availability:      In The prevention of violence and victims of violent crime: conference proceedings (1992).
                   Auckland: Mental Health Foundation/Auckland Institute of Technology
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1036
Title:             The domestic protection study: judicial processes in family and district courts
Author(s):         Busch, Ruth, Hilary Lapsley and Neville Robertson
Completed:         YES
Availability:      In The prevention of violence and victims of violent crime: conference proceedings (1992).
                   Auckland: Mental Health Foundation/Auckland Institute of Technology
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                        284
                                                                               Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X1037
Title:          The domestic protection study: protection orders and the police
Author(s):      Neville Robertson, Ruth Busch and Hilary Lapsley
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In The prevention of violence and victims of violent crime: conference proceedings (1992).
                Auckland: Mental Health Foundation/Auckland Institute of Technology
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1040
Title:          The effects of childhood sexual abuse on men
Author(s):      Gilmore, S.A.
Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Sc. in Psychology thesis.




X1050
Title:          The experience of imprisonment for women: a New Zealand study
Author(s):      O'Neill, Rose
Completed:      YES, 1989
Availability:   University of Waikato Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.Soc.Sc. in Sociology thesis




X1060
Title:          The experiences of women whose partners participate in a Men for Non-Violence
                Programme
Author(s):      Martin, Paula M.
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          M.A.(applied) in Social Science Research thesis.




                                                     285
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X1070
Title:             The forgotten victims of wife abuse: a comparative analysis of children of battered
                   women and a representative population subsample
Author(s):         Pocock, Tania M.
Completed:         YES, 1994
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis.




X1075
Title:             The gap: battered women’s experience of the justice system in New Zealand
Author(s):         Busch, Ruth, Neville Robertson and Hilary Lapsley
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 1995; 8(1):190-222
Description:       -
Keywords:
Notes:




X1080
Title:             The influence of police perceptions of Maoris on decisions to arrest or prosecute
Author(s):         Dance, Owen R.
Completed:         YES, 1987
Availability:      Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.P.P. in Public Policy research paper




X1090
Title:             The measurement of family violence: a critical review of the literature
Author(s):         Lapsley, Hilary
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Wellington: Social Policy Agency (Department of Social Welfare), 1993
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                        286
                                                                                  Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X1095
Title:          The prevention of violence
Author(s):      Haines, Hilary
Completed:      YES
Availability:   New Zealand Counselling and Guidance Association Journal, 1988; 10(1):1-12
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1100
Title:          The prosecution and trial of adult offenders in New Zealand
Author(s):      Young, Warren, Neil Cameron and Robert Brown
Completed:      YES, 1990
Availability:   Available from W. Young, C/- Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington, P O
                Box 600, Wellington.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1110
Title:          The provision of assistance for victims of crime in New Zealand
Author(s):      Hutton, N. and W. Young
Completed:      YES, 1990
Availability:   Wellington: Institute of Criminology, Victoria University of Wellington
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1120
Title:          The psychological consequences of sexual assault: a literature review
Author(s):      Pow, Gillian
Completed:      YES, 1986
Availability:   Wellington: Accident Compensation Corporation
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                     287
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X1130
Title:             The relevance of her prior sexual (mis) conduct to his belief in consent: syllogistic
                   reasoning and section 23A of the Evidence Act 1908
Author(s):         McDonald, Elisabeth
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Women's Studies Journal, September 1994; 10(2):41-61. ISSN 01124099
Description:       Examines the expression of gender-bias in the judiciary, by looking at the subjectivity of
                   decisions about the relevance of evidence of sexual conduct in rape cases. Considers the
                   fact that the law recognises primarily a male version of reality and illustrates this with two
                   cases which demonstrate the inability of the criminal justice system to deal with situations
                   rarely faced by men. Focuses on the neglect of the power dimension in sexual abuse trials.
                   Outlines three categories of 'rape myths' where the sexual conduct of the victim is seen to
                   indicate the innocence of the accused. Discusses the circumstances under which previous
                   sexual experience is deemed relevant to trials under Section 23A of the Evidence Act 1908.
                   Explains how the concept of syllogistic reasoning establishes relevance through the use of
                   'major premises', which are propositions likely to be accepted as truth. Established some
                   major premises, thought to be truths by judges in previous rape trials. Concludes that the
                   legal system continues to expect women to behave in certain gender-specific ways.
Keywords:
Notes:




X1140
Title:             The right to silence: caught in the conflicting aims of the criminal justice system
Author(s):         Wilkinson, Michele M.
Completed:         YES
Availability:      zbn95-017786
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1150
Title:             The sexual abuse of male children and adolescents: a review of current literature
Author(s):         Watkins, Bill and Arnon Bentovin
Completed:         YES
Availability:      Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1992; 33(1):197-248
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1160
Title:             The state of knowledge in Australia and New Zealand
Author(s):         Chappell, Duncan


                                                       288
                                                                               Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Completed:      YES, 1993
Availability:   In Crime and prevention policy: research and evaluation, Robert, Philippe. Freiburg: Max
                Planck Institute, 1993; 93-103
Description:    Chappell describes the context in which current crime prevention research and policy is
                being conducted in Australia and New Zealand. He discusses community crime prevention
                initiatives, the prevention and treatment of drug abuse and community responses to
                recidivism.
Keywords:
Notes:




X1170
Title:          The youth justice system in New Zealand
Author(s):      Denny, Faith
Completed:      YES, 1991
Availability:   In Youth crime prevention: proceedings of a policy forum held 28-29 August 1990, Halstead,
                Boronia (Ed). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1991; 213-28
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1180
Title:          Theory and practice in pursuit of an evaluation of psychological intervention
Author(s):      Norman, Wendy J.
Completed:      YES, 1990
Availability:   The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:          Dip.Soc.Sc. research practicum




X1190
Title:          Treasure the child: children living without violence
Author(s):      National Collective of Independent Women's Refuges Inc.
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: NCIWR, 1991
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                     289
Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X1200
Title:             Victims of crime in Central Hawkes Bay: towards a better deal
Author(s):         Robertshaw, E.J.
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      Victoria University of Wellington Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             Thesis




X1220
Title:             Victims of crime: reform in the 1980s
Author(s):         Poole, A.
Completed:         YES, 1989
Availability:      Dissertation, The University of Auckland
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1230
Title:             Victims perceptions of the victim support service
Author(s):         Neale, J. and A. Gray
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      Wellington: Gray Matter Research Ltd
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1240
Title:             Violence in New Zealand
Author(s):         Ritchie, J. and J. Ritchie
Completed:         YES, 1990
Availability:      Wellington: Allen Unwin
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                        290
                                                                               Appendix I: Bibliographic references


X1250
Title:          Wellington Prison and Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society pre-release and
                resettlement program
Author(s):      Elborn, Sheryn and Robert Nankivell
Completed:      YES
Availability:   In Private sector and community involvement in the criminal justice system: proceedings of a
                conference held 30 November - 2 December 1992, Wellington, New Zealand, Biles, David
                and Julia Vernon (Eds). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1994; 395-400
Description:    In April 1992, Wellington Prison inmates were offered the opportunity to participate in a six
                week pilot pre-release/resettlement programme in the prison. Elborn and Nankivell outline
                the process of how this programme was established, the issues surrounding its
                establishment, its future development, and an overview of the evaluation of the first six
                month programme.
Keywords:
Notes:




X1260
Title:          What changes as a result of participation in a Stopping Violence Programme?
Author(s):      Lloyd-Pask, Julianne and Ken McMaster
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Family Violence Prevention Co-ordinating Committee, 1991.
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1265
Title:          Who’s not here...?: working towards keeping “absentee students” at school
Author(s):      Donn, Mary, Ngaire Bennie and Jacqui Kerslake
Completed:      YES
Availability:   Wellington: Ministry of Education, June 1993
Description:
Keywords:       education, truancy
Notes:




X1270
Title:          Wife battering and other violent offending: an exploratory study
Author(s):      Allison, Elaine
Completed:      YES, 1994
Availability:   University of Canterbury Library
Description:



                                                    291
Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X1280
Title:             Wilderness rehabilitation for offenders: an evaluation of Christchurch community
                   corrections outdoor experience programme
Author(s):         Davie, Caroline A.
Completed:         YES, 1992
Availability:      University of Canterbury Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis




X1290
Title:             Will the Domestic Violence Bill 1995 achieve its objective of "greater protection for
                   the victims of domestic violence" in the rural community?
Author(s):         Eggleston, E.
Completed:         NO
Availability:      -
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:




X1300
Title:             Women and male violence: factors influencing decisions made in refuge
Author(s):         Fisher, Prudence
Completed:         YES, 1991
Availability:      The University of Auckland Library
Description:
Keywords:
Notes:             M.A. in Psychology thesis.




X1310
Title:             Women, male violence and the law
Author(s):         Stubbs, Julie (Ed)
Completed:         YES, 1994
Availability:      Sydney: Institute of Criminology, Sydney University Law School, c1994.




                                                        292
                                                                               Appendix I: Bibliographic references

Description:   The contributions presented represent reflections on a range of theoretical and practical
               issues, and include the findings of recent research concerning legal responses to violence
               against women in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. The issues examined include: the
               attitudes of the judiciary to domestic violence; violence against Aboriginal women; the need
               for a co-ordinated response by government and non-government agencies; and the
               education of lawyers to better meet their clients' needs. Recent shifts in law and practice in
               international law are also evaluated.
Keywords:
Notes:




                                                   293
                                                                             Table of contents



                               APPENDIX II

                         Research projects

Part 1   Children and youth
             Abuse in intimate relationships                          A010
             Anga Atu Club, Masterton                                 A020
             Attitudes to child abuse                                 A030
             Child abuse prevention                                   A040
             Child offenders                                          A050
             Child sexual abuse services                              A060
             Children and family violence                             A070
             Discipline in the home                                   A080
             Discipline of children                                   A090
             Keeping Ourselves Safe I                                 A100
             Keeping Ourselves Safe II                                A110
             Manaaki Rangatahi Katoa                                  A120
             Maori and youth justice                                  A130
             Murals programme in Marlborough                          A140
             New Way Skinhead Project                                 A150
             North Clyde School programme                             A160
             Otautahi school attendance programme                     A170
             Police Youth Education Service                           A180
             Reconvictions after family group conferences             A190
             Rethinking youth justice                                 A200
             Rights, needs and responsibilities                       A205
             Risk-taking behaviours                                   A210
             Sexual abuse medical assessment                          A220
             Te Kaupapa Whakaora                                      A230
             Te Kuru Pounamu                                          A240
             Te Whakapakari Youth Programme                           A250
             Truancy in Marlborough                                   A260
             Truancy programme in Ashburton                           A270
             Youth gang membership                                    A280
             Youth justice                                            A290
             Youth justice and family group conferences               A300
             Youth justice, rights and responsibilities               A310
             Youth legislation appraisal                              A320
             Youth suicide                                            A330
             Youth worker project in Masterton                        A340

Part 2   Cohort studies
             Christchurch Health and Development Study                B10
             Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study   B20
             Offending in a cohort of males                           B30

Part 3   Community Corrections
             Client services in Invercargill                          C010
             Community Care use                                       C015
             Community development policies                           C020
             Community involvement                                    C030
             Community service survey                                 C035
             Comparative recidivism for two sentences                 C038
             Contracting services and programme evaluations           C040
             Controlled drinking/cannabis education                   C050
             Court report recommendations and sentencing              C060
             Habilitation Centres pilot                               C063
             Home detention                                           C065


                                          295
Table of contents

                        Influences on sentencing trends                       C070
                        Job Search Skills Programme                           C080
                        Job-Wise Programme                                    C090
                        Level B qualification                                 C100
                        Priority projects, 1993-1994                          C120
                        Probation officers' submissions                       C130
                        Psychiatric clients in Waitakere                      C140
                        Reducing re-offending                                 C145
                        Remand versus same-day reports                        C150
                        Sentence administration effectiveness                 C160
                        Supervision programmes                                C170

Part 4              Courts and sentencing
                        Boot camps                                            D010
                        Capital punishment                                    D020
                        Child sexual abuse expert witnesses                   D030
                        Child witnesses–registrars' perspective               D040
                        Child witnesses review                                D050
                        Child witnesses–children's and carers' perspectives   D060
                        Child witnesses: lawyers' perspective                 D070
                        Closed-circuit television                             D080
                        Community service sentence profile                    D085
                        Conviction and sentencing                             D090
                        Counter customers survey, Manawatu                    D110
                        Court customers' services review                      D120
                        Courthouse facilities                                 D130
                        Criminal legal aid                                    D140
                        Custodial remands                                     D150
                        District Court Status Hearing Pilot                   D160
                        District Court workload                               D170
                        Duty Solicitor scheme                                 D180
                        Ethnicity and gender bias                             D190
                        Impact of Criminal Justice Act 1985                   D210
                        Imprisonment trends                                   D220
                        Juror excusals                                        D230
                        Jurors‟ experiences                                   D240
                        Jurors' satisfaction survey                           D250
                        Jurors‟ stress                                        D255
                        Jury composition                                      D260
                        Jury trials caseflow                                  D270
                        Maori justice practices                               D280
                        Media access to courts                                D290
                        Modelling the criminal justice system                 D300
                        Night hearings                                        D310
                        Offending seriousness and sentencing                  D315
                        Processing of sexual offence cases                    D318
                        Psychiatric assessment of defendants                  D320
                        Public attitudes to restorative justice I             D340
                        Public attitudes to restorative justice II            D341
                        Restitution by property offenders                     D350
                        Restorative justice traditional models                D360
                        Samoan restorative justice                            D370
                        Sentencing patterns in Henderson                      D380
                        Sentencing to reparation                              D390

Part 5              Crime prevention
                        A women's self defence course                         E010
                        Alcohol and drug services in Canterbury               E020
                        Anger management/Stopping violence                    E030
                        Community Safety Profiles                             E040
                        Crime prevention plans                                E050
                        Crime reduction advertising                           E060
                        Development and political influence                   E070


                                                     296
                                                                            Table of contents

             Men For Non-Violence programmes                         E080
             Methadone and criminality                               E090
             Neighbourhood support groups in Christchurch            E100
             Safer Community pilot schemes                           E110
             Streets as play space                                   E120

Part 6   Family violence
             Anger management and the Family Court                   F010
             Criminal justice system responses                       F020
             Custody and access decisions                            F030
             Domestic violence protection orders                     F040
             DOVE                                                    F050
             Economic costs                                          F060
             Elder abuse in Manawatu                                 F070
             Elder abuse services                                    F080
             Emergency department protocols                          F090
             Family Court custody and access                         F093
             Family Court issues                                     F095
             Family violence research review                         F100
             Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP)       F110
             HAIPP evaluations                                       F111
             Maori women's experiences                               F130
             Men speak about domestic abuse                          F140
             Responding to Maori family violence                     F150
             Rhetoric men use about violence                         F160
             Risk assessment by MFNV                                 F170
             Social understandings which support violence            F180
             Violence against women and children                     F185
             WAVES programme                                         F190

Part 7   Offenders and offending
             Crime and deviance                                      G010
             Crime seriousness                                       G020
             Criminal careers                                        G030
             Criminal records disposal                               G040
             Dangerousness                                           G050
             Factors in homicide                                     G060
             Fire awareness and intervention                         G065
             Firearm homicide 1992-1994                              G070
             Firearm-related crime                                   G080
             Forecasting crime                                       G090
             Going straight                                          G095
             Handgun misuse                                          G098
             Hate crime - Homophobia                                 G100
             Insurance fraud                                         G110
             Locking up guns                                         G120
             Male survivors of sex abuse                             G130
             Maori and the criminal justice system                   G140
             Maori responses to alcohol use                          G150
             Mass shootings                                          G160
             Offence base rates                                      G170
             Offence base rates 1995                                 G180
             Offenders, victims, and their families                  G190
             Offending while on bail                                 G200
             Parole and re-offending                                 G210
             Predicting violent re-offending                         G220
             Prediction model of re-offending                        G230
             Prior injury risk factor for assault                    G240
             Profiling of serial offenders                           G250
             Reconviction study 1990-91                              G260
             Reducing re-offending                                   G270
             Review of the implementation of the 1988 Mason Report   G280
             Serious fraud policing                                  G290


                                          297
Table of contents

                        Services for Maori offenders                      G300
                        Sex offender base rates                           G310
                        Sex offenders and their families                  G315
                        Sexual offending self-disclosure                  G318
                        Sexual violation recidivism                       G320
                        Traffic–Accident survivors later convictions      G340
                        Traffic–Compulsory breath testing                 G350
                        Traffic–Convictions and accidents                 G360
                        Traffic–Convictions for causing death or injury   G370
                        Traffic–Drink driving by Maori                    G380
                        Traffic–Drink-driving in rural areas              G390
                        Traffic–Drinking and fatal accidents              G400
                        Traffic–Drive Plan                                G410
                        Trends and international comparisons              G420
                        Violence base rates                               G430
                        Violent offences legislation                      G440

Part 8              Police and policing
                        Community panel diversion                         H010
                        Diversion scheme 1992-1994                        H020
                        Maori and police perceptions of each other        H030
                        New models of policing                            H040
                        Police and university education                   H050
                        Police service delivery survey                    H060
                        Policewomen's experience                          H070
                        Pre-trial diversion                               H080
                        Public attitudes towards policing                 H090

Part 9              Prisons and inmates
                        Age-mixing                                        I010
                        Alcohol and drug disorders                        I020
                        Alcohol and drug services                         I030
                        Censuses                                          I040
                        Child sex offender treatment I                    I050
                        Child sex offender treatment II                   I060
                        Child sex offender treatment–Kia Marama           I070
                        Children of mothers in prison                     I080
                        Correctional history                              I085
                        Corrective Training for females                   I090
                        Driving while disqualified prisoners              I095
                        Drug programmes in USA and Canada                 I100
                        Effective administration                          I110
                        Female inmate forecasts                           I120
                        Female prisoners' needs                           I130
                        Forecasting prison populations                    I140
                        Habilitation of offenders                         I160
                        HIV/AIDS and prisons                              I170
                        Inmate classification systems                     I180
                        Inmate prediction model                           I190
                        Mana Programme                                    I200
                        Maximum security prison history                   I210
                        Mental health de-institutionalisation             I220
                        NZPARS and their clients                          I230
                        Paremoremo described                              I235
                        Parole decision making                            I240
                        Parole decisions                                  I250
                        Parole recommendations and decisions              I260
                        Primary care-giver inmates                        I270
                        Prison privatisation                              I280
                        Psychiatric disorders                             I290
                        Reasons for escapes                               I300
                        Substance abuse                                   I310



                                                      298
                                                                           Table of contents


Part 10   Victims
              A victim support network                              J010
              Child sexual abuse in a sample of women               J013
              Confident Living Programme                            J015
              Discrimination against lesbians                       J020
              Families of murder victims                            J030
              Fear of crime in Manurewa                             J040
              Giving victims a voice                                J050
              Injury from assault                                   J060
              Intentional injury                                    J070
              Mediation and reparation                              J080
              Older women's fear of crime                           J090
              Rape and fear of crime                                J100
              Recall of child sexual abuse                          J110
              Repeat victimisation                                  J130
              Research on violence against women                    J140
              Rights and compensation                               J150
              Safety in Wellington                                  J160
              Suicide in Wellington                                 J170
              Traumatisation case study                             J180
              Victimisation survey                                  J190
              Victims court assistance                              J200
              Victims' needs                                        J210
              Victims' needs bibliography                           J220
              Violence against seniors                              J230
              Violence against women                                J235
              Violence against women law reform                     J240

Part 11   Other research
              Alcohol research                                      K10
              Developing research for policy use                    K20
              Linking research and policy                           K30
              Methodology of follow-up studies                      K40
              Pitfalls in crime research                            K50
              Public attitudes towards crime and criminal justice   K55
              Psychologists and the law                             K60




                                            299
                                                                                           List of reports and publications



                                       APPENDIX III
                     List of reports and publications
                                           X codes refer to Appendix I


A case study of policewomen's experience in New Zealand                                                         H070.1
A child friendly focus for transport reform: children's travel freedoms and urban form                          E120.2
A community initiative to enhance school attendance and reduce the incidence of truancy in                      A270.1
        Mid-Canterbury
A comparison of domestically violent and non-violent men on a number of measures including need for             X0010
        power, sex role attitudes, and spouse specific assertion
A counsellors perspective on the Family Court and its clients                                                   F093.3
A decade of mass gun killings in Australia and New Zealand 1986-1996                                            G160.1
A difficult mix: imprisonment and the right to parent                                                           X0020
A geography of rape and fear: a case study of Christchurch                                                      J100.2
A latent class model of child offending                                                                         B10.01
A parallel criminal justice system for New Zealand: reform in the public interest?                              X0030
A poison in the bloodstream                                                                                     X0040
A prospective replication of the protective effect of IQ in subjects at high risk of juvenile delinquency       B20.03
A qualitative investigation into youth suicide                                                                  A330.1
A qualitative study of intentional injury in general practice                                                   X0050
A quantitative and qualitative investigation of the experiences of battered women and their children            X0060
A review and evaluation of three family violence/child abuse prevention programmes currently running in         X0070
        centres throughout New Zealand
A select bibliography of New Zealand research on the needs of victims                                           J220.1
A sin and a crime: a draft plan for churches to address family violence                                         X0080
A social constructionist approach to working with women who have been in violent/abusive relationships          X0090
A study of drinking and driving by Maori drivers                                                                G380.1
A study of drinking and driving in rural areas                                                                  G390.1
A study of jurors‟ experiences in New Zealand                                                                   D240.1
A study of the Probation Division's perception of its role in reducing reoffending                              C145.1
A survey of Family Court Judges                                                                                 F093.7
A walk in someone else's shoes                                                                                  G190.2
Abuse in the intimate relationships of teenagers                                                                A010.2
Accommodating self-report methods to a low-delinquency culture: experience from New Zealand                     B20.24
Adolescent talk on crime, drugs and fighting                                                                    A250.3
Adolescent talk on rehabilitation: relationship centred benefits of a wilderness therapy programme              A250.2
Adult pre-trial diversion in New Zealand                                                                        H080.1
Adult sexual assault in a community sample of women                                                             J235.1
Age-mixing in New Zealand prisons                                                                               I010.1
"Ain't no mountain high enough (to keep me from getting to you)": an analysis of the Hamilton Abuse             F110.9
        Intervention Pilot Project
Airgun injuries in New Zealand, 1979-1992                                                                       G080.3
Alcohol and fatal road crashes                                                                                  G400.1
Alcohol consumption and associated problems in a birth cohort of 15 year olds                                   B10.05
Alcohol misuse and juvenile offending in adolescence                                                            B10.08
Alcoholism and offending in male prison inmates                                                                 X0100
Alcoholism and recidivism of New Zealand offenders                                                              X0110
"Ambitions and realities": the co-ordination of services for child sexual abuse: an enquiry into how local      A060.1
        services interface in Christchurch, New Zealand, in the area of child sexual abuse
An analysis of decision-making in District Prison Boards                                                        I240.2
An appraisal of the first year: of the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act 1989                      A320.1
An Emergency Department protocol study on partner abuse: results from the formative, process and                F090.3
        outcome evaluations
An evaluation of compulsory breath testing in New Zealand using data from an in-depth study of fatal road       G350.1
        accidents
An evaluation of reconviction rates for female corrective trainees                                              I090.1
An evaluation of Safer Community Council Pilot Schemes                                                          E110.1
An evaluation of side effects of "Keeping Ourselves Safe": a child sexual abuse prevention programme            X0120
An evaluation of the development and functioning of Neighbourhood Support Groups in Christchurch                E100.1
An evaluation of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Programme (HAIPP): analysis of Department of             F111.3
        Justice statistics
An evaluation of the level B policy as a pre-entry criteria into Community Corrections                          C100.1
An evaluation of the police child sexual abuse investigation policy, and its implementation                     X0140
An integrated criminal justice system for New Zealand                                                           X0150


                                                        301
List of reports and publications

 An integrated evaluation of the services offered by the West Auckland Victim Support and the Henderson                X0160
         Police to victims of domestic violence
 An investigation into battered women's shelters: feminist cooperatives or social service institutions, case           X0170
         studies of Canada and New Zealand
 An investigation of the factors influencing resiliency of children following abuse                                    X0180
 An investigation of victim-offender mediation and reparation schemes in the United Kingdom                            J080.1
 An organisational analysis of DOVE Hawkes Bay Inc.                                                                    F050.1
 Anger management/Stopping violence programmes - evaluation report, Christchurch Community                             E030.1
         Corrections
 Anger management: what's happening? - a Family Court perspective                                                      F010.1
 Anger management: what's happening? - a Family Court perspective: a replication in part of 1989                       F010.2
         Henderson Family Court Research
 Are some people crime-prone?: Replications of the personality-crime relationship across nation, gender,               B20.18
         race and method
 Assessing the validity and reliability of objective inmate classification systems                                     I180.1
 Assessment and modification of sexual arousal in child sex offenders                                                  I050.1
 Attachment and intimacy                                                                                               X0190
 Attending to truancy: a review of the school attendance programme provided by the Christchurch/Otautahi               A170.1
         Maori Wardens Sub-association during its first year
 Attitudes to family violence: a study across cultures                                                                 X0200
 Attitudes to reducing sexual violence towards women: punishment or prevention?                                        X0210
 Attitudes towards the strategic plan among police staff                                                               H090.4
 Attributions and emotional responses of battered women to violent incidents within their relationship                 X0220
 Australia and New Zealand: an overview of current crime prevention research and policy                                X0230
 Background paper: the prediction of violent reoffending                                                               G220.1
 Barriers to learning [working title]: an exploration of the effect of family violence on children's learning in the   X0240
         pre-tertiary sector, and on teachers and principals in terms of effort deflected to social needs
 Base rates and characteristics of convicted sexual offenders: a New Zealand study                                     G310.1
 Base rates and reconviction rates for New Zealand violent offenders                                                   G260.2
 Battered women and their General Practitioners: barriers to disclosure                                                X0250
 Battered women seeking protection from the law: selected case studies                                                 X0254
 Battered women seeking protection from the justice system: Part one                                                   X0255
 Battered women seeking protection from the justice system: Part two                                                   X0256
 Battered women's experience of health professionals                                                                   X0260
 Bondage and discipline gone wrong: the death of Peter Plumley Walker                                                  X0270
 Boy‟s talk: exploring gender discussions within the gang                                                              A250.4
 "Breaking the cycle" research monitor, September 1995                                                                 A030.3
 Cannabis use among New Zealand adolescents                                                                            B20.22
 Canterbury Community Council on Alcohol and other Drugs: an evaluation                                                E020.1
 Capital punishment in New Zealand: an experiment that failed                                                          D020.1
 Care for kids: an evaluation of a supervised access centre                                                            X0280
 Census of prison inmates 1989                                                                                         I040.1
 Census of prison inmates 1991                                                                                         I040.2
 Census of prison inmates 1993                                                                                         I040.3
 Census of prison inmates 1995                                                                                         I040.4
 Changes in emotions, attributions and abstinence violation effects in male sex offenders                              X0290
 Changes in the seriousness of offending and in the pattern of sentencing: 1979 to 1988                                D315.1
 Child homicide in New Zealand 1988-1995                                                                               G060.3
 Child offenders: a report to the Ministers of Justice, Police and                                                     A050.1
         Social Welfare.
 Child protection programmes: what do children learn and remember?: "Keeping Ourselves Safe - an                       A110.1
         evaluation with follow-up
 Child sexual abuse study: role of expert witnesses in criminal trials                                                 D030.1
 Child witnesses: a review of the literature                                                                           D060.2
 Child witnesses to violence: the risks associated with exposure to violence and their implications for                F185.2
         supervised access
 Childhood conduct problems and attention deficit behaviours and adolescent alcohol, tobacco and illicit               B10.07
         drug use
 Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviours and sexual revictimisation                                       B10.18
 Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part I: the prevalence of sexual                 B10.16
         abuse and the factors associated with sexual abuse
 Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part II: psychiatric outcomes of                 B10.17
         sexual abuse
 Childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life                                                                J013.4
 Childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset antisocial conduct in males: natural history from age 3 to 18                B20.20
 Children and family violence: the unnoticed victims                                                                   A070.1
 Children as witnesses: the impact of video technology in child sexual abuse cases                                     X0300
 Children of mothers in prison (working title)                                                                         I080.1
 Community based correctional programmes: social work in community care                                                X0310
 Community development and the Probation Service                                                                       C020.1
 Community involvement with offenders; the community‟s perspective                                                     C030.1


                                                             302
                                                                                            List of reports and publications

Community safety profiles [generic description]                                                                  E040.1
Community violence in Auckland 1850-1875                                                                         X0320
Comparison of compulsory breath testing in New Zealand and random breath testing in Victoria, Australia          G350.2
Compliance with firearms legislation in New Zealand                                                              G098.1
Conduct problems and attention deficits in middle childhood and cannabis use by age 15                           B10.13
Contractual report: North Clyde School home liaison service, an after-school and holidays activity               A160.1
        programme
Controlled Drinking/Cannabis Education Programme interim research results - 1994                                 C050.1
Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1981 to 1990                                              D090.1
Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1982 to 1991                                              D090.2
Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1983 to 1992                                              D090.3
Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1984 to 1993                                              D090.4
Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1985 to 1994                                              D090.5
Conviction and sentencing of offenders in New Zealand: 1986 to 1995                                              D090.6
Convictions for causing death or injury                                                                          G370.1
Coroners' satisfaction with police services survey - 1993/94                                                     H060.3
Counselling co-ordinators‟ group discussion                                                                      F093.6
Court reports: a study                                                                                           C060.1
Courthouse facilities: current situation and initiatives                                                         D130.1
Courtroom questioning of child witnesses who allege sexual abuse                                                 D050.1
Crime and deviance                                                                                               G010.1
Crime prevention plans [generic description]                                                                     E050.1
Crime prevention research [title yet to be confirmed)]                                                           E070.2
Criminal careers of New Zealand offenders (working title)                                                        G030.1
Criminal history and reconvictions of two sentence groups: community service and non-residential periodic        C038.1
        detention
Criminology and history: understanding the present                                                               G050.7
Custodial remands: practice and policy options                                                                   D150.1
Custody and access orders: interviews with parents about their court experience                                  F093.5
Customer service survey in central region                                                                        D110.1
Dangerous, inadequate, invisible, out: episodes in the criminological career of habitual criminals               G050.1
Dangerousness in historical context                                                                              G050.2
Dangerousness, risk and technologies of power                                                                    G050.4
Data collation exercise on programmes/services to Maori offenders                                                G300.1
Deaths in non-custodial corrections: Australia and New Zealand, 1987 and 1988                                    X0330
Deciding about justice for young people in New Zealand: the involvement of families, victims and culture         A290.2
Decision making in District Prisons Boards                                                                       I240.1
Deinstitutionalisation and the criminalisation of the mentally ill                                               I220.1
Delinquency across development: the natural history of antisocial behaviour                                      B20.30
Delinquency: care, control and prevention: a literature review for policy makers                                 X0335
Demographic and social factors in the prediction of reoffending                                                  X0340
Determining service attributes, prepared for the New Zealand Police                                              H090.2
Developing a customer focus in the delivery of police services: the staff and the customer perspective           H090.3
Dilemmas in the criminalisation of spousal abuse                                                                 F020.3
Directory of New Zealand alcohol research and researchers, 1990-1995                                             K10.1
Discrimination against lesbians                                                                                  J020.1
Disentangling delinquency and learning disability: neuropsychological function and social support                B20.06
Domestic homicide 1988-1995                                                                                      G060.2
Domestic protection study: Family Court counselling: Part one                                                    X0343
Domestic protection study: Family Court counselling: Part two                                                    X0344
Domestic violence and the justice system: a study of breaches of protection orders                               X0345
Domestic violence in a community sample of Otago women                                                           J235.2
Dominance and entitlement: the rhetoric men use to discuss their violence towards women                          F160.1
“Don‟t throw bouquets at me...(Judges) will say we‟re in love”: an analysis of New Zealand judges‟ attitudes     F030.1
        towards domestic violence
Drive Plan evaluation                                                                                            G410.1
Drug treatment programmes for prisoners and parolees in USA and Canada                                           I100.1
Early disruptive behaviour, IQ and later school achievement and delinquent behaviour                             B10.14
Early family predictors of child and adolescent antisocial behaviours: who are the mothers of delinquents?       B20.09
Early onset cannabis use and psychosocial adjustment in young adults                                             B10.20
Easy Street?: reasons given for 'involvement in' and 'desisting from' property crime by male offenders           X0350
Effect of ethnicity and gender on sentencing                                                                     D190.1
Elder abuse and neglect in New Zealand                                                                           F080.1
Elder abuse in New Zealand, a Manawatu study                                                                     F070.1
Emergency Department protocols of care for women abused by partners: formative evaluation report                 F090.1
Emergency Department protocols of care for women abused by their partners: final process evaluation              F090.2
        report
Emergency Department protocols of care for women abused by their partners: one-year follow-up                    F090.4
Empowering the victim in the New Zealand youth justice process - a strategy for healing                          X0360
Escapes pressures: inside views of the reasons for prison escapes                                                I300.1
Estimated additional judge jury days and courts required (November 1994)                                         D270.2


                                                        303
List of reports and publications

 Ethnicity and bias in police contact statistics                                                                B10.09
 Ethnicity, social background and young offending: a 14 year longitudinal study                                 B10.10
 Evaluation of 1993-1994 priority projects (working title)                                                      C120.1
 Evaluation of a group programme for prison inmates convicted of rape                                           X0370
 Evaluation of Anga Atu Club for Crime Prevention Unit, June 1994 - June 1995                                   A020.1
 Evaluation of Auckland District Court Status Hearing Pilot                                                     D160.1
 Evaluation of counselling for families of murder victims [working title, title not yet decided]                J030.1
 Evaluation of Habilitation Centres Pilot Programme [working title]                                             C063.1
 Evaluation of home detention [working title]                                                                   C065.1
 Evaluation of Kia Marama [working title]                                                                       I070.1
 Evaluation of probation officers oral submissions to court: views of officers, judges and probation officers   C130.1
 Evaluation of television, radio and still photography of court proceedings pilot                               D290.1
 Evaluation of the community panel [pre-trial] diversion pilot programme                                        H010.1
 Evaluation of the Confident Living Programme                                                                   J015.1
 Evaluation of the Manaaki Rangatahi Katoa Programme                                                            A120.1
 Evaluation of the New Way Trust Skinhead Project                                                               A150.1
 Evaluation of victim support schemes in New Zealand                                                            X0380
 Exit questionnaire of those clients terminating supervisions                                                   C010.2
 Expanding intervention options for spousal abuse: the use of restorative justice                               F020.2
 Explaining some characteristics of battered women: a cognitive deconstructionist approach                      X0390
 Families, victims and culture: youth justice in New Zealand                                                    A290.1
 Family Court custody and access research: discussion paper                                                     F093.9
 Family group conferences: a literature review                                                                  X0400
 Family group conferences and reconviction                                                                      A190.1
 Family group conferences: perspectives on policy and practice                                                  A300.1
 Family violence: Paper prepared for TORC - DSW                                                                 X0410
 Fear of crime in Manurewa: a study of two neighbourhoods                                                       J040.1
 Fear of crime in the elderly                                                                                   X0420
 Female law breakers: who do they think they are?: women offenders and their identity                           X0430
 Fire awareness and intervention program: helping parents to overcome the problem of child firelighting         G065.1
 Firearm homicide in New Zealand: victims, perpetrators and their weapons 1992-94                               G070.1
 Firearm related deaths in New Zealand, 1978-1987                                                               G080.4
 First line of defence: the work of the duty solicitor                                                          D180.1
 Five years out                                                                                                 G280.1
 'Fleeing from my ex': exploring the link between family violence and women survivors' residential mobility     X0440
 Follow-up convictions for survivors of fatal road accidents                                                    G340.1
 Forecasting and interpreting crime in New Zealand (working title)                                              G090.1
 Forecasting New Zealand's prison population                                                                    I140.1
 Forecasting the number of people in prison using time series techniques from July 1989 to December 1992        I140.2
 From a victim's perspective: a multiple case study evaluation of the men's education programme                 F110.6
 From arson to murder: the Auckland Youth Liaison Project                                                       G250.1
 GAIN over Anger                                                                                                X0450
 Gaps and priorities in family violence research                                                                F100.1
 Gender and the youth justice family group conference outcome                                                   X0460
 Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21 year olds: bridging the gap between clinical    B20.21
          and epidemiological studies
 Giving boot camps the boot                                                                                     D010.1
 Giving victims a voice: a New Zealand experiment                                                               J050.1
 Governing the dangerous: a history of dangerous offender legislation                                           G050.5
 Governing the dangerous: an historical overview of dangerous offender legislation                              G050.6
 HAIPP evaluation: experiences of men‟s education programme participants                                        F111.6
 Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP): evaluation of Family Court referrals to the men‟s           F111.8
          education programme
 Hangin' with the gang: key themes of youth gang membership from an Auckland based ethnography study            A280.1
 Hate crime: homophobia as an example                                                                           G100.1
 Her sexuality as indicative of his innocence: the operation of New Zealand's 'rape shield' provision           X0480
 History and development of modern correctional practices in New Zealand                                        I085.1
 Hitting home: New Zealand men speak about domestic abuse                                                       F140.1
 HIV/AIDS and prisons: a study of knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours                                      I170.1
 Homicide in New Zealand 1988-1995                                                                              G060.1
 Homicide in New Zealand: an increasing public health problem                                                   J060.2
 Homicides in Auckland, New Zealand: a fourteen year study                                                      X0490
 Horouta Marae/Wellington Prison joint programs venture habilitation programs                                   X0500
 Hospitalizations for injury in New Zealand: prior injury as a risk factor for assaultive injury                G240.1
 How early can we tell?: predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency                    B20.08
 I didn‟t know just how far you could fight: contextualising the Bristol Inquiry                                F030.3
 Ifoga: a research paper conducted in Western Samoa                                                             D370.1
 Impact of age shifts in the New Zealand population on the inmate population: 1989-1998                         I190.1
 Improving the delivery of correctional treatment programmes: some options                                      X0510
 Improving the success rate in follow-up studies with former offenders                                          K40.1
 In search of the elusive: controlling the exercise of prosecutorial discretion                                 X0520


                                                         304
                                                                                           List of reports and publications

In the interests of justice: an evaluation of criminal legal aid in New Zealand                                 D140.1
Incoming district court workload                                                                                D170.1
Individual differences in personality and intelligence are linked to crime: cross-context evidence from         B20.28
        nations, neighbourhoods, genders, races, and age-cohorts
Influence of demographic changes and other factors on prison receptions: 1978-1987                              I190.2
Injury from assault in New Zealand: an increasing public health problem                                         J060.3
Injury from assault: a public health problem                                                                    J060.1
Inside/outside: family violence and housing                                                                     X0530
Insurance Fraud [working title, title not yet decided]                                                          G110.1
Intentional injury in New Zealand                                                                               J070.1
Intervention programmes for domestic violence abusers: a literature review                                      F111.2
Into the darklands: a process evaluation of the SAFE Programme for adult male sexual offenders against          X0550
        children
Investigation of sentencing patterns, Henderson, 1 June 1991 - 31 May 1992                                      D380.1
Invisible women: towards a geography of female offending                                                        X0560
IQ and delinquency: a direct test of the differential detection hypothesis                                      B20.01
Is a non-molestation order enough?: women's experiences of the Family Court                                     X0570
Job Search Skills Programme: October/November 1994 evaluation report                                            C080.1
Job-Wise Programme report: March 1994                                                                           C090.1
Judged seriousness of crime in New Zealand                                                                      G020.1
Judicial satisfaction with police prosecution services survey 1993/94                                           H060.2
[Juror excusals]                                                                                                D230.1
Jurors' concerns and the jury system                                                                            D250.1
Jurors: victims of the criminal justice system - an issues paper                                                D255.1
Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: boy‟s developmental trajectories from age 3 to age 15      B20.05
Keeping ourselves safe: a study of New Zealand school children aged 10-12 years and their parents               A100.1
Kia Marama: a cognitive-behavioural program for incarcerated child molesters                                    X0580
Language and repressed memory [working title]                                                                   J110.1
Law reform initiatives on violence against women: successes and pitfalls                                        J240.1
Legal pluralism and the colonial legacy: indigenous experiences of justice in Canada, Australia and New         X0590
        Zealand.
Legal services needs and provision                                                                              D140.2
Lesbian violence: the hidden face of violence                                                                   X0600
"Life-course-persistent" and "adolescent-limited" antisocial behaviour: a developmental taxonomy                B20.16
Literature review on the provision of alcohol and drug services in prisons in New Zealand                       I030.1
Locking up guns: foiling thieves, children and the momentarily suicidal                                         G120.1
Long term effects of intrafamilial sexual abuse in childhood                                                    X0610
Lower Hutt victim support network evaluation                                                                    J010.1
Male inmates who were primary care givers of their children before reception                                    I270.1
Male sex offenders in a community treatment programme: an evaluation of treatment gains and family              G315.1
        experience
Male victims of child sexual abuse: a review                                                                    X0620
Managerialism and attainable objectives in the New Zealand prison system                                        X0630
Managing the irresistible force {microform}: an analysis of the means by which the Corrections Divisions of     X0640
        the Department of Justice relates to voluntary sector agencies
Maori and youth justice in New Zealand                                                                          A130.1
Maori Family Violence                                                                                           F150.1
Maori justice practices                                                                                         D280.1
Maori perceptions of police and police perceptions of Maori                                                     H030.1
Masterton youth worker evaluation                                                                               A340.1
Men Against Violence: a discourse analysis of wife assaulters' talk before and after participation in a         X0650
        Stopping Violence Programme
Men For Change: living without violence                                                                         X0660
MFNV programmes evaluations [title not yet decided]                                                             E080.1
Modelling the criminal justice system of New Zealand (working title)                                            D300.1
Monitoring termination sheets: the quality and effectiveness of sentence administration                         C160.1
Monitoring the innovations of the Criminal Justice Act (1985)                                                   I250.2
Morbidity and death due to child abuse in New Zealand                                                           J060.4
Mother-child relationships in wife abusive homes                                                                X0670
Mothers in prison                                                                                               I080.2
Mothers in prison: the experience of being separated from their children                                        X0680
Moving apart: a study of the role of Family Court counselling services                                          F093.1
Murals for Marlborough Project Two evaluation                                                                   A140.1
Narrative of experiences with an Auckland youth gang                                                            A280.2
National database of medical assessment for alleged child sexual abuse                                          A220.1
National overview evaluation of the New Zealand Police Youth Education Service                                  A180.1
Neuropsychological studies of juvenile delinquency and violence: a review                                       B20.25
Neuropsychological tests predict persistent male delinquency                                                    B20.17
Neuropsychology, antisocial behavior and neighborhood context                                                   B20.27
New Zealand violent offenders: priority decisions                                                               G430.1
Night courts: report to the Department of Justice on the evaluation of pilot night court hearings               D310.1


                                                        305
List of reports and publications

 No place like home                                                                                        X0700
 Non-fatal firearm injuries in New Zealand, 1979-1992                                                      G080.2
 Non-fatal firearm injuries: New Zealand compared with USA                                                 G080.5
 Non-fatal firearm misuse: licence status of perpetrators and legality of the firearms                     G080.1
 Non-offending factors in male survivors of sexual abuse                                                   G130.1
 Not in front of the children: the literature on spousal abuse and its effects on children                 F030.6
 Offence base rates 1995 [title not yet decided]                                                           G180.1
 Offending in New Zealand: trends and international comparisons                                            G420.1
 Offending while on bail                                                                                   G200.1
 Older women's fear of crime: contributing factors and effects                                             J090.1
 On completion of sentence                                                                                 G040.1
 One in four: offending from age ten to twenty-four in a cohort of New Zealand males                       B30.1
 Outdoor programs from New Zealand prisons                                                                 X0730
 Outdoor programs within a probation service context in New Zealand                                        X0740
 Overview of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Programme (HAIPP) evaluation                            F111.1
 Paremoremo: New Zealand‟s maximum security prison                                                         I235.1
 Parental help seeking for behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence                 B20.07
 Parole board recommendations and subsequent release decisions                                             I260.1
 Parole decisions of district prisons boards                                                               I250.1
 PARS: what the inmates say                                                                                I230.1
 Patterns of cannabis use among 13-14 year old New Zealanders                                              B10.02
 Perceptions of safety in Wellington                                                                       J160.1
 Personality traits are linked to crime among males and females: evidence from a birth cohort              B20.15
 Physical and sexual assault in New Zealand I: the experience of 21 year old men in the community          B20.32
 Physical and sexual assault in New Zealand II: the experience of 21 year old women in the community       B20.33
 Physical punishment in the home in New Zealand                                                            A080.1
 Pitfalls in criminal justice evaluation research: sampling, measurement, and design problems              K50.1
 Police attitudes, work performance and the effects of higher education: a review of the literature        H050.1
 Police responses to policies on policing "domestics"                                                      X0760
 Police services evaluation survey, 1993, 1995                                                             H060.1
 Policing serious fraud                                                                                    G290.1
 Policy, planning, outputs and outcomes: a Community Corrections Division study                            C150.1
 Politics, morale, and respectability: the Australian and New Zealand police                               X0770
 Pornography: report of the Ministerial Committee of Inquiry                                               X0775
 Post-Keynesian policing: the emergence of a new model                                                     H040.1
 Pre-trial diversion and the Wellington Prosecutions Diversion Scheme                                      X0780
 Predicting criminal violence: descriptive data and predispositional factors                               B20.23
 Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse experiences in a community sample of women                           J013.3
 Prevalence of sexual abuse and psychopathology in imprisoned women                                        X0800
 Prevalence of substance use disorders in New Zealand prisons                                              I020.1
 Prevention of child abuse amongst pre-school children                                                     A040.1
 Prisoners released on parole: a repertory grid study of self-esteem and self-identity                     X0810
 Progression in the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs                                                B20.31
 Protection from family violence: a study of Protection Orders under the Domestic Protection Act 1982      F040.1
          (abridged)

 Provocation in New Zealand: a characteristic solution                                                     X0820
 Psychiatric assessments and outcomes of offenders at the Christchurch District Court: a five year study   D320.1
 Psychiatric clients in the Waitakere Community Corrections District                                       C140.1
 Psychiatric morbidity in prisons: an investigation of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among New   I290.1
        Zealand prisoners - Pilot Study
 Public attitudes to restorative justice                                                                   D340.1
 Public attitudes toward restorative justice                                                               D341.1
 Public attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving and speed                                                X0830
 Public attitudes towards crime and criminal justice                                                       K55.1
 Public attitudes towards policing, 1993 and 1995                                                          H090.1
 Public health nurses and families under stress: promoting children's health in complex situations         X0840
 Punishment and politics: the maximum security prison in New Zealand                                       I210.1
 Purchase of service contracting and programme evaluation in                                               C040.1
        Community Corrections
 Qualitative investigation into methadone maintenance programme clients and the resultant effect on        E090.1
        criminal activity
 Qualitative report "Breaking the cycle", May 1994                                                         A030.1
 Quantitative report "Breaking the cycle" research, June 1995                                              A030.2
 Rape and fear in a New Zealand city                                                                       J100.1
 Rape recidivism and sexual violation                                                                      G320.1
 Reading attainment and juvenile delinquency                                                               B20.12
 Recall of advertising by New Zealand Police January 1995                                                  E060.3
 Recall of crime reduction advertising by New Zealand Police, March 1994                                   E060.2
 Recall of crime reduction advertising by New Zealand Police, November 1993                                E060.1
 Reclaiming the residential street as play space                                                           E120.1


                                                         306
                                                                                           List of reports and publications

Reconviction study 1990/91                                                                                      G260.1
Reducing reoffending: what works now                                                                            G270.1
Refining the risk concept: decision context as a factor mediating the relation between risk and program         X0845
       effectiveness
Reflections on recent trends towards the punishment of persistence                                              G050.3
Rehabilitation, community care, and the offender's place of residence                                           X0850
Reoffending and parole: a study of recidivism before and after the Criminal Justice Act 1985                    G210.1
Re-offending by female prisoners: preventable or predictable?                                                   I130.1
Reparation: a sentencing option within the New Zealand criminal justice system                                  X0860
Repeat victimisation: a preventable phenomena?                                                                  J130.1
Replication of child sexual abuse in males                                                                      X0870
Report on offence base rates and offender characteristics (1988)                                                G170.1
Report on truancy at intermediate and secondary level in the Marlborough District                               A260.1
Report to Working Party on Child Witnesses                                                                      D060.1
Research on rape: strategies for change                                                                         X0880
Researching for relevance: the Family Court project                                                             K20.1
Restorative justice in New Zealand: the miracle panacea or an untenable Utopia?                                 X0890
Restorative justice: healing the effects of crime                                                               X0900
Restorative justice: the New Zealand Youth Court: a model for development in other courts?                      X0910
Response to the Ministry of Health Evaluation Report of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project           F110.8
Restitution imposed on property offenders in New Zealand courts: a study of orders and compliance               D350.1
Results of a youth risk-taking survey                                                                           A210.1
Rethinking youth justice: for better or worse                                                                   A200.1
Rights, needs and responsibilities of youth                                                                     A205.1
Risk assessment of family violence                                                                              F170.1
Risk factors for physical assault victimisation in a community sample of 21-year olds                           B20.34
Risk factors for sexual assault in young New Zealand women: a prospective study                                 B20.35
Safety (Administration) Programme 1994/95: survey of local authorities and community clients                    H060.4
Salient experience in child sex offender treatment groups: an analysis of the interpersonal factors             I060.1
       contributing to therapeutic engagement of offenders involved in a treatment programme
Samoan notions of cultural and social justice                                                                   X0913
Self defence programme evaluation, Christchurch 1995                                                            E010.1
Self-reported delinquency at age 18: New Zealand‟s Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development             B20.29
       Study
Self-reported delinquency: results from an instrument in New Zealand                                            B20.02
Sentencing to reparation: implementation of the Criminal Justice Act 1985                                       D390.1
Sentencing trends: an examination of policy and other influences on the sentences of periodic detention,        C070.1
       supervision and community service
Serious offending and the management of public risk in New Zealand                                              X0195
Services for victims of crime in New Zealand                                                                    X0920
Sexual abuse in childhood and deliberate self-harm                                                              J013.1
Silencing talk of men's violence against women                                                                  F160.2
Social adjustment of children of battered women: a pilot project                                                F185.1
Social understandings and family violence [No titles decided yet, working title]                                F180.1
Some traditional models of restorative justice from Canada, South Africa and Gaza                               D360.1
Straight to the point: angles on giving up crime                                                                G095.1
Studies on crime and violence in New Zealand: a preliminary bibliography                                        X0930
Substance abuse: a survey of the treatment needs of prison inmates                                              I310.1
Substance abuse education programs within the New Zealand prison system                                         X0940
Suicide in Wellington: a research paper covering services offered for persons in acute suicidal crisis;         J170.1
       including recommendations
Supervised access: prioritising children‟s safety                                                               F030.5
Survey of Court Registrars on the practice and facilities available for child witnesses                         D040.1
Survey of people connected with the community service sentence                                                  C035.1
Surveying crime                                                                                                 X0950
Surveys of law practitioners on the law and practice for child witnesses                                        D070.1
Te Kaupapa Whakaora: a preliminary evaluation                                                                   A230.1
Te Kuru Pounamu: an evaluation of the youth project, May 1996                                                   A240.1
Te Maori me te Waipiro                                                                                          G150.1
Te puna roimata: Maori women's experience of male partner violence: 7 case studies                              F130.1
Te roopu o te whanau rangimarie o Taamaki Makaurau: a Maori model for non-violence                              X0960
Te utu me te whakaaurakitanga: he tirohanga ki te whakaauraki i te mauherehere Maori                            X0970
Teenage peer influences: a teenage sentencing court evaluation                                                  X0980
Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and non-violent criminal convictions: from age 3 to age 18     B20.19
Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behaviour problems: from age 3 to age 15                          B20.13
The 1995 Domestic Violence Bill: a reform half done?                                                            F030.4
The adult offender: punishment or rehabilitation? What?                                                         X0990
The appropriateness and fulfilment of rehabilitative parole conditions imposed by district prisons boards       X1000
The attribution of responsibility for child sexual abuse in a New Zealand setting                               X1010
The chasm between research, policy and practice                                                                 K30.1
The childhoods of multiple problem adolescents: a 15-year longitudinal study                                    B10.12


                                                        307
List of reports and publications

 The comorbidities of adolescent problem behaviours: a latent class model                                         B10.04
 The continuity of maladaptive behavior                                                                           B20.26
 The costs of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project                                                       F111.5
 The creative use of community care: a co-ordinated approach to stopping violence                                 C015.1
 The development of crime prevention in New Zealand: the political influence                                      E070.1
 The development of the Rape Law Reform Bills of New Zealand during the 1980S                                     X1030
 The discipline of children: alternatives to smacking                                                             A090.1
 The domestic protection study: family court counselling                                                          X1035
 The domestic protection study: judicial processes in family and district courts                                  X1036
 The domestic protection study: protection orders and the police                                                  X1037
 The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: a 15 year longitudinal study                         B20.04
 The effect of child sexual abuse on social, interpersonal and sexual function in adult life                      J013.1
 The effects of childhood sexual abuse on men                                                                     X1040
 The effects of conduct disorder and attention deficit in middle childhood on offending and scholastic ability    B10.03
        at age 13
 The effects of unemployment on juvenile offending                                                                B10.19
 The experience of imprisonment for women: a New Zealand study                                                    X1050
 The experiences of women whose partners participate in a Men for Non-Violence Programme                          X1060
 The Family Court: a discussion paper                                                                             F095.1
 The forgotten victims of wife abuse: a comparative analysis of children of battered women and a                  X1070
        representative population subsample
 The gap: battered women‟s experience of the justice system in New Zealand                                        X1075
 The habilitation of offenders                                                                                    I160.1
 The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: nine month progress report                                        F110.3
 The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: six month evaluation report                                       F110.2
 The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: the first three months                                            F110.1
 The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: the first year                                                    F110.4
 The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project: two year review                                                   F110.5
 The impact on sentencing of the Criminal Justice Act 1985                                                        D210.1
 The importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in predicting adolescent substance use                B20.14
 The influence of police perceptions of Maoris on decisions to arrest or prosecute                                X1080
 The lawyers‟ perspective                                                                                         F093.8
 The Mana Programme: a preliminary evaluation                                                                     I200.1
 The Maori and the criminal justice system: a new perspective: He Whaipaanga Hou                                  G140.1
 The Maori and the criminal justice system: a new perspective: He Whaipaanga Hou Part 2                           G140.2
 The measurement of family violence: a critical review of the literature                                          X1090
 The measurement of risk among offenders                                                                          G230.1
 The neuropsychology of conduct disorder                                                                          B20.11
 The New Zealand economic cost of family violence                                                                 F060.1
 The Police Adult Diversion Scheme: trends in the use of diversion 1992-1994, Wellington Central and              H020.1
        Manukau Districts and beyond
 The police and criminal justice system response to domestic violence                                             F020.1
 The practice of psychology and the law: a handbook                                                               K60.1
 The prevention of violence                                                                                       X1095
 The privatization of corrections in New Zealand                                                                  I280.1
 The prosecution and trial of adult offenders in New Zealand                                                      X1100
 The provision of assistance for victims of crime in New Zealand                                                  X1110
 The provision of court services for court customers in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom: a               D120.2
        literature review and annotated bibliography
 The provision of court services for court customers in New Zealand: a literature review and annotated            D120.1
        bibliography
 The psychological consequences of sexual assault: a literature review                                            X1120
 The public and the private record: self-disclosure of undetected sexual offences                                 G318.1
 The recent increase in the female prison muster                                                                  I120.1
 The relationship between Judges and the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP)                        F111.7
 The relevance of her prior sexual (mis) conduct to his belief in consent: syllogistic reasoning and section      X1130
        23A of the Evidence Act 1908
 The right to silence: caught in the conflicting aims of the criminal justice system                              X1140
 The role of adolescent peer affiliations in the continuity between childhood behavioural adjustment and          B10.15
        juvenile offending
 The role of shame in going straight: a study of former offenders                                                 G095.3
 The sexual abuse of male children and adolescents: a review of current literature                                X1150
 The short term consequences of early onset cannabis use                                                          B10.11
 The state of knowledge in Australia and New Zealand                                                              X1160
 The use of closed-circuit television in New Zealand courts: the first six trials                                 D080.1
 The use of imprisonment: trends and cross-national comparisons                                                   D220.1
 The use of programmes in the sentence of supervision                                                             C170.1
 The views of counsel for the child, specialist report writers, and Department of Social Welfare report writers   F093.4
 The violent offences legislation Part 1: possession of knives and other offensive weapons                        G440.1
 The violent offences legislation Part 2: the imprisonment of offenders who used serious violence                 G440.2
 The violent offences legislation Part 3: the eligibilty of violent offenders for parole                          G440.3


                                                          308
                                                                                              List of reports and publications

The violent offences legislation Part 4: the commission of a crime with a weapon AND Part 5:                       G440.4
        miscellaneous provisions
The voice of crime                                                                                                 G095.2
The welfare of the child: a literature review                                                                      F093.2
The youth justice system in New Zealand                                                                            X1170
Theory and practice in pursuit of an evaluation of psychological intervention                                      X1180
Those in prison for driving while disqualified                                                                     I095.1
Time taken to process sexual offence cases through the courts                                                      D318.1
"To speak of an unspeakable act": the experience of a homicide survivor and victim of elder rape                   J180.1
Traffic convictions and reported injury accidents for drinking and sober drivers involved in accidents or          G360.1
        convicted in 1988
Treasure the child: children living without violence                                                               X1190
Trends, backlogs and clearance rates in jury trials: January 1990 - June 1994                                      D270.1
Trial by peers: the composition of New Zealand juries                                                              D260.1
Truancy in adolescents                                                                                             B10.06
Unravelling girls‟ delinquency : biological dispositional and contextual contributions to adolescent               B20.10
        misbehaviour
Unwanted sex or is it rape?: a teenage perspective                                                                 A010.1
Use of community service orders: offenders, offences, and sentence                                                 D085.1
Verbatim [AND] Touch and go                                                                                        G190.1
Victimisation survey [working title]                                                                               J190.1
Victims court assistance: an evaluation of the pilot scheme                                                        J200.1
Victims of crime in Central Hawkes Bay: towards a better deal                                                      X1200
Victims of crime: reform in the 1980s                                                                              X1220
Victims' needs: an issues paper                                                                                    J210.1
Victims' needs: the results of the survey                                                                          J210.2
Victims perceptions of the victim support service                                                                  X1230
Victims rights and compensation                                                                                    J150.1
Violence against seniors: a literature review                                                                      J230.1
Violence against women: priorities for public health research in New Zealand                                       J140.1
Violence in New Zealand                                                                                            X1240
Violence towards women as a health issue: report on the consensus meetings                                         J140.2
Waitakere Anti-Violence Essential Services (WAVES) evaluation                                                      F190.1
Waiting time in waiting room of Community Corrections Clients                                                      C010.1
Wellington Prison and Prisoners' Aid and Rehabilitation Society pre-release and resettlement program               X1250
What changes as a result of participation in a Stopping Violence Programme?                                        X1260
What do offenders say about supervision and going straight?                                                        G095.4
What works in prison management                                                                                    I110.1
What's love got to do with it?: an analysis of an intervention approach to domestic violence                       F110.7
Who‟s not here...?: working towards keeping “absentee students” at school                                          X1265
Wife battering and other violent offending: an exploratory study                                                   X1270
Wilderness rehabilitation for offenders: an evaluation of Christchurch community corrections outdoor               X1280
        experience programme
Wilderness therapy with Te Whakapakari Youth Programme                                                             A250.1
Will the Domestic Violence Bill 1995 achieve its objective of "greater protection for the victims of domestic      X1290
        violence" in the rural community?
Women and male violence: factors influencing decisions made in refuge                                              X1300
Women, male violence and the law                                                                                   X1310
Women's experiences of the Hamilton Abuse Intervention Pilot Project (HAIPP)                                       F111.4
Young people's attitudes toward policing                                                                           H090.5
Youth justice: rights and responsibilities                                                                         A310.1




                                                          309
                                  APPENDIX IV

                                  The Questionnaire
The Ministry of Justice invites contributions to its social science research Directory, Researching
Criminal Justice, which covers both completed research and work in progress.

This Directory was created to:
       assist in Ministry of Justice policy development
       inform the ongoing analysis of government responses to crime across the sector
       provide a resource tool for our own researchers, for those in other government
         departments, and for everyone involved in the area.

In compiling this Directory, our primary question is “what research would you like to see
recorded in this database?”. We would like to incorporate the work of public sector agencies,
research and education institutions, professional societies, non-government organisations,
individuals, in fact everyone who is doing research on criminal justice issues. We will use the
words of the researcher and/or institution to represent the many facets of criminal justice research:
crime prevention, the police, court and corrections systems, victims, offenders, and many other
topics. Quantitative and qualitative research, surveys, programme evaluations, literature
reviews–all should be included.

This questionnaire has two parts. Please fill out a questionnaire for each separate research project;
use Part I to describe the research project and Part II to cover the related reports. We are interested
in projects completed in the last ten years, or currently underway.

Could you please give copies of this questionnaire to anyone you think should contribute.
Alternatively, you could let us know the names of people we should contact, by contacting:
               Judy Paulin
               Senior Researcher
               Criminal Justice Policy Group                  Phone: (04) 494-9862
               Ministry of Justice                            Fax: (04) 494-9917
               P O Box 180
               WELLINGTON                              E-mail: judy.paulin@justice.govt.nz

Ideally, this Directory should become an on-going resource. It would be great if you could pass on
to us details of research you are involved with in the future; if we gather a good range of responses
now and in the future, and if the Directory is of value to you and to us, we hope to plan updates
(depending as always on the availability of funding).

Another questionnaire, even more paperwork. But we believe that having your research included
will be a valuable promotion, and that the Directory will become an important tool in the social
sciences in New Zealand. Please help us to make it so.




                                                 310
                                                                            List of reports and publications




 CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE


                              PART I: THE RESEARCH


1. What is the research topic/short title (e.g. “Forecasting prison populations”)



2. Which organisation(s) or group(s) did the research?



3. Who funded the research?



4. Research method. Tick any of the following as appropriate:
             Literature review                    
             Qualitative study                    
             Quantitative study                   
             Pilot programme evaluation           
             Established programme evaluation 
             Other (please specify)               ________________________________


5. Is the research (e.g. field work, literature scan etc.) completed?
         YES    When was it carried out?__________________________________________
         NO     Start date and expected completion date?_____________________________


6. GO TO ‘Part II: The Reports’ (attached). Please complete one for each report or article on
the above research (including planned reports) that you would like mentioned.

This Questionnaire was completed by:

Contact address:


Phone:

Date:

Names of other people we should send this questionnaire to:




                                               311
                     PART II: REPORTS AND ARTICLES

Title:



Author(s):



Abstract available? YES        Please include a copy with this questionnaire.
                    NO         Please give a brief description here:
         AIMS:




         METHOD:




         FINDINGS:




          FOR A WRITTEN UP AND                                 FOR A REPORT STILL IN
                   COMPLETED REPORT                                          PRODUCTION
Has the report been published?                           Planned publication or availability details?
YES  Publication details (e.g. Journal details
        or ISBN & date etc.)?




NO  When was it completed and how could                 Planned completion date?
     someone access a copy?




Keywords: Please give keywords overleaf. 




                                                  312
                                                                           List of reports and publications
Keywords:

A. Please tick all appropriate keywords below:

             OFFENDER AND THE SYSTEM                30    human rights
 01    Enforcement                                 31    lawyers
 02    Prosecution                                 32    legislation impacts
 03    Adjudication                                33    judiciary
 04    Sentencing                                  34    juries
 05    Sentence administration                     35    legal aid
 06    access to justice                           36    Maori
 07    alcohol                                     37    media
 08    alternative justice systems                 38    offences
 09    attitudes                                   39    offenders
 10    bias                                        40    Pacific Islands peoples
 11    case processing                             41    police
 12    community safety                            42    prison inmates
 13    community corrections                       43    prisons
 14    costs of crime                              44    property offences
 15    courts                                      45    recidivism
 16    crime detection                             46    rehabilitation
 17    crime prevention                            47    reparation
 18    crime statistics                            48    restorative justice
 19    criminal behaviour                          49    sentencing effectiveness
 20    domestic violence                           50    sexual abuse
 21    drugs                                       51    system efficiency/effectiveness
 22    education                                   52    traffic offences
 23    ethnic issues                               53    victimisation
 24    fear of crime                               54    victims
 25    fines                                       55    violent crime
 26    forecasting and modelling                   56    white-collar crime
 27    gender issues                               57    witnesses
 28    hate crimes                                 58    youth
 29    health


B. Please list any additional keywords that would help to describe the research/report:




Notes and additional comments:




Please return to Judy Paulin, Criminal Justice Policy Group, Ministry of Justice,
P O Box 180, Wellington, phone (04) 494-9860, fax (04) 494-9917, e-mail address
judy.paulin@justice.govt.nz

                                              313

				
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