HSP 3M - Unit 3 by kzgpwtxtim


									    HSP 3M - Unit 3

                Social Institutions

Bain, C.M., & Colyer, J.S. (2001). The Human way. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Unit 3 Social Institutions
           So far in the course we have been focused on:

       Forces that influence and       How we are socialized
          shape human                    (agents of socialization
          behaviour (age,                (family, school, peers,
          gender, mental illness,        media, workplace,
          ethnicity…)                    religion)

In a nutshell, the forces within our self (nature), and in others (nurture)

                                                    Social structures
Unit 3 Task -   To look at how these
                forces fit into society
                                                   Social Institutions
What are social Institutions?

Social Institutions are social structures in a society that:
      shape values and beliefs
      maintain order
      help society to function efficiently
                   Family                     Legal system
                  Marriage                      Military
                   Peers                         Media
           Personal Institutions         Impersonal Institutions

 Affect individual’s lives                         Because they affect large
 intimately                                        groups of people
Characteristics of Social Institutions
   Have usually existed for a long time
   Have well established or entrenched patterns of functioning (change usually
    occurs slowly)
   Have a specific purpose
   Members are joined together by shared values and beliefs

Purposes of Social
Institutions                                Govern-
                                                          Society     church
 Act as an agent of socialization
 maintain order and security
                                               military             work
Unit 3 Question:

   Are Canada's social institutions successful
    according to the above definition?

   Discuss using examples:
Criminal Justice Systems

All societies need to have mechanisms for
    social control

                                      to determine what happens
   to ensure that individuals         when individuals break the
  behave in acceptable ways
Canada's Formal Justice System
3 Components
                         Apprehend / arrest criminals

 1. Law Enforcement               To protect
                              To prevent crime

 2. The Courts
 Adversarial – lawyers
 representing the        To process people charged
 defendant compete       by the police with a crime
 with crown
  Canada's Formal Justice System
  3 Components (continued)
                                                 1. Retribution: “An eye
                     a) Punishment of the           for an eye”
                     Offender, once                 (society’s desire)
                     convicted by the courts
                                                 2. Deterrence
3. Correctional      b) Rehabilitation (the
  Agencies           Offender chooses not
  and Institutions   to re-offend due to their
                     new acceptance of
                     society’s norms

                     c) To protect the
                     public by jailing violent
Rehabilitation of the offender
   most Canadians think it's necessary
   changing the offender's values so they will not re-offend

Criticism: The facts!
  but most also think that prisoners “have it easy” and don't
   support government spending on programs

       less than half of the general prison population receives
        counselling or treatment
       less than one third of sex offenders receive any kind of
       Canada's recidivism rate (the rate at which offenders re-offend)
        is currently 75%
Informal Justice Systems in Other

   In Canada, the justice
    system is highly

   In other cultures
    personal relationships
    and maintaining social
    harmony are much
    more important in the
    justice system
Informal Justice Systems continued

   Aboriginal

       healing offenders
       righting the
        conditions that led
        to the offence
       integrating the
        offender back into    The community is of primary importance. Within the
        the community         community, each person had his or her roles and
                              responsibilities, each of equal value to one another.
Kpelle culture of Africa (central Liberia
and Guinea)
Gibbs’ study of the legal system in 1957 and 1958

      Patrilineal culture (inherit through the male line)
      population 175 000
      two branches – formal and informal

          Formal court handles assault, possession of illegal charms
           and theft involving unrelated litigants

          Informal court or moot is an informal airing of disputes before
           an assembled group (Includes the complainant, the accused,
           neighbours, other family members and a mediator selected by
           the complainant)
Factors which make the moot successful

   Proceedings, although
    “spirited”, were orderly and
    open, anyone could speak
    and felt like they had been

   All felt like they had an
    impact on the resolution

   the faults of both parties
    were pointed out therefore
    allowing those at fault to     Example: Read page106 of textbook
    save face, not labelled
Issues in Canadian Criminal Justice
   1. The Power of the Police
    Approximately 1 police officer for every 475 Canadians

    Studies of police behaviour tell us 6 factors influence police

1)   how serious the police perceive the situation to be - more
     serious = more likely to arrest
2)   what the police believe the victim wants
3)   the amount of co-operation the suspect offers- unco-operative
     suspects tend to get arrested
4)   police's history with the suspect- prior negative contact more
     likely to arrest
5)   presence of bystanders- more likely to arrest
6)   Race - more likely to arrest people of colour
Police Behaviour and Race

   While this study was conducted in the U.S. we know
    that in Ontario

       black people are imprisoned at 5 times the rate for white

       Aboriginal people are jailed at 3 times the rate for white

    News Reports
     http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/racial_profiling/
  Racial Profiling
                                             Percentage of Toronto residents who
     Racial Profiling exists when            Have been stopped by police on
      the members of a particular            Multiple occasions in the past 2 years
      racial or ethnic group               35
      become subject to greater            30
      criminal justice or
      institutional surveillance           25
      than others. Profiling exists        20
      when racial characteristics                                       Female
      - rather than behaviour –            15
      contributes to surveillance          10

                                             Chinese    Black
Source: Scot Wortley, CERIS – Justice Domain Leader, Centre of Criminology,
        University of Toronto
Issues in Canadian Criminal Justice
2. The Number of Prisons

   Between 1987 and 1997, the total
    correctional population increased by 44%
    (Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics 1997)

   In 2001, there were 34 000 inmates in
    Canada (Linden 2000)
       115: 100 000 population
       much higher than in Western Europe, but lower
        than the U.S.
Prisons continued

   Average cost of keeping an offender
       in a federal penitentiary is $50 000 to $65 000 a
       halfway house - $33 000
       parole - $9000 (Solicitor General Canada 2001)

   In 1995-97
       77% of the total caseload was outside of prisons
       only 12% of all correctional spending was for
        community supervision services
Issues in Canadian Criminal Justice
3. Rehabilitation or Radical Reform
   Some sociologists argue that we should abandon
    our current criminal justice system, particularly

   Why:
       only protect the public temporarily
       do little to reshape offenders attitudes or behaviours
       strengthens criminal attitudes and skills by association
       severs social ties with the outside world which makes it
        more likely that individuals will re-offend
Rehabilitation continued
     Hirschi's analysis of criminal behaviour
    crime rates are high in late
     teens and early twenties               20
     and fall steeply among older           18
     groups                                 16
        most taxpayers' money is           12
         going towards warehousing          10                           Likelihood
         a diminishing crime threat          8                           to commit
        we must intervene in the            6                           a crime
         lives of young people
         before they break the law
            e.g. restrict the
             unsupervised activities of      0
             teenagers                           18- 25- 35- 45-
                                                 19 29 39 49
                                          Age of offenders admitted to Federal Custody,
                                          Canada. 1995-97
Rehabilitation continued

    strong link between criminal behaviour and low
        teaching children self-control at an early age will reduce
            advocates strong families
            target funds and assistance to seriously dysfunctional
            reducing teen pregnancy alone would reduce crime more
             effectively than all the current criminal justice programs

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