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					       OBJECTIVE STANDARD
               7-2
   Student will be able to understand
    and describe the concept of absolute
    monarchies and constitutional
    governments in the 17th and 18th
    centuries
           Standard
             7-2.1
Summarize the essential characteristics
of the limited government in England
following the Glorious Revolution and
the unlimited governments in France
and Russia, including some of the
restraints placed upon a limited
government's power and how
authoritarian and totalitarian systems
are considered unlimited governments
                Standard
                  7-2.2
   Students will summarize the ideas of
    the Enlightenment that influenced
    democratic thought and social
    institutions throughout the world,
    including the political philosophies of
    John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
    and Baron de Montesquieu
                 Standard
                   7-2.3
   Students will be able to outline the
    role and purposes of a constitution,
    including such functions as defining a
    relationship between a people and
    their government, describing the
    organization of government and the
    characteristics of shared powers, and
    protecting individual rights and
    promoting the common good.
              KEY WORDS
   natural law
   social contract
   separation of
    powers
   deism
   absolutism
   Glorious Revolution
             KEY PLACES
   Prussia
   Austria
   St. Petersburg
         KEY PEOPLE 1 of 2
   Thomas Hobbes
   John Locke
   Montesquieu
   Voltaire
   King Charles I (English)
   Denis Diderot
   Mary Wollstonecraft
   Jean-Jacques Rousseau
         KEY PEOPLE 2 of 2
   Louis XIV
   Frederick the Great
   Hapsburg Rulers
   Peter I
   Catherine II
              Limited Government
   What is limited government?
         -a type of government in which its functions and
    powers are prescribed, limited, and restricted by law
         -is a government structure where any more than
    minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and
    the economy is not usually allowed by law, usually in a
    written Constitution. It is closely related to libertarianism,
    classical liberalism, and some tendencies of conservatism in
    the United States. Limited government is a common
    practice through Western culture. It has roots in Hebraic
    Law. In Western Civilization, the Magna Carta and the
    United States Constitution are examples of the limiting of
    government powers.
          Limited Government
                England
   King Charles I wanted to have
    absolute power
   Parliament demanded greater voice
    in running England
   King Charles I executed
   Thomas Hobbes thought natural
    law made absolute monarchy the
    best form of government
           Limited Government
                 England
   James II also wanted absolute monarchy
   In 1688, war threatened and James fled
    the country
   Parliament asks Mary and her husband
    William to take the throne
   This is known as the “Glorious
    Revolution”
   William and Mary agreed to a Bill of Rights
           Limited Government
                 England
   Bill of Rights ex.
    • People had right to a fair trial by jury
    • Freedom from cruel punishment for a
      crime
             Limited Government
                   England
   John Locke used natural law to affirm
    citizen’s rights to make government
    answerable to the people
   He thought government should be based
    on natural law
   He believed that natural law gave all
    people from their birth natural rights
    • Right to life, right to liberty, and the right to
      own property
           Limited Government
                 England
   Locke believed the purpose of the
    government was to protect these rights
   He believed that ALL governments were
    based on a social contract, which is an
    agreement between rulers and the people
   Baron Montesquieu, a French thinker,
    discussed in his book, The Spirit of Laws,
    why England’s government was the best
          Limited Government
                England
   Separation of Powers- power
    should be equally divided among the
    branches of government
    • Executive-enforce the laws
    • Legislative-make the laws
    • Judicial-interpret laws and judge when
      broken
    By separating these powers, government
      cannot become to strong
        Unlimited Governments
   During the 1600’s and 1700’s powerful
    kings and queens ruled most of Europe
   This system is known as absolutism
   In this system, monarchs ruled with
    absolute power or total power
   Claimed to have divine right
   Did not answer to the people, but to God
    alone
       Unlimited Governments
   Louis XIV
    • King of France in 1643
    • Ruled for 72 years
    • Known as the Sun King
    • “I am the State”
    • His many wars to expand empire were
      costly
    • Constant wars and excessive spending
      weakened France and the monarchy
       Unlimited Governments
   Frederick the Great
    • Most famous Prussian ruler, 1740-1786
    • Strengthened army and fought wars to
      expand empire
    • tried to be an enlightened ruler
    • Supported the arts and learning
    • Permitted his people to speak and
      publish more freely
    • Allowed greater religious toleration
       Unlimited Governments
   Hapsburg Rulers
    • Maria Theresa worked to improve serfs
      lives
    • Tried to make government work better
    • Maria Theresa’s son, Joseph II, admired
      enlightened ideas
    • He freed the serfs, made land taxes
      equal for nobles and farmers, and
      allowed books to be published freely
    • Most of his reforms failed
       Unlimited Governments
   Russia’s Peter I
    • Peter I reigned from 1689-1725
    • Tried to make Russia strong and up-to-
      date European power
    • Improved Russia’s military and
      expanded Russia’s territory westward to
      the Baltic Sea
    • Founded St. Petersburg in 1703
    • Later moved capital there from Moscow
       Unlimited Governments
   Russia’s Catherine II 1762-1796
    • Was devoted to Enlightenment Ideas
    • Studied and wrote to the philosophes
    • Thought about freeing serfs
    • Allowed nobles to treat serfs as they
      pleased
    • Russia gained more land and increased
      its power
    • The ideas of liberty and equality spread
      across Europe
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   The French Philosophes
    • France became major center of
      enlightenment in the 1700’s
    • Most philosophes were writers,
      teachers, journalists, and observers of
      society
    • Wanted to use reason to change society
    • Attacked superstitions or unreasoned
      beliefs
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   The French Philosophes
    • Disagreed with Church leaders who
      opposed new scientific discoveries
    • Believed in both freedom of speech and
      the individual’s right to liberty
    • Used their skill as writers to spread their
      ideas across Europe
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   Francois-Marie Arouet a.k.a
    Voltaire
    • Greatest thinker of Enlightenment
    • Wrote many novels, plays, letters, and
      essays
    • Blamed church leaders for keeping
      knowledge to maintain Church’s power
    • Opposed government of supporting one
      religion
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   Francois-Marie Arouet a.k.a
    Voltaire
    • thought people should be free to choose
      own beliefs
    • Supporter of deism
    • Deism-religious belief based on reason
    • Followers of deism believed God created
      the world and set it in motion and then
      allowed it to run itself by natural law
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   Denis Diderot
    • Did the most to spread Enlightenment
      ideas
    • Published large 28 volume encyclopedia
    • Topics included science, religion,
      government, and the arts
    • Became important weapon for the
      Philosophes
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   Mary Wollstonecraft
    • Most powerful supporter of Women’s
      rights
    • Known as the founder of modern
      movement of women’s rights
    • Wrote a book, A Vindication of the
      Rights of Women
    • Claimed all humans have reason
    • Women should have equal rights in
      education, workplace, and political life
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • Criticized Enlightenment ideas
    • Thought that people should pay more attention
      to their feelings
    • Published a book called, The Social Contract
    • He believed that a workable government
      should be based on a social contract, an
      agreement in which everyone in society agrees
      to be governed by the general will, or what
      society as a whole wants.
     Ideas of the Enlightenment
   Music
    • Bach, George Frederick Handel, Franz
      Joseph Haydn, and Mozart
    • These composers changed the way
      music was presented
    • Music was played in theaters for the
      first time and not religious
    • Their music is still popular today
    Questions on Enlightenment
   What is limited government? Give an
    example of limited government.
   What is unlimited government? Give
    an example or country ruled by
    unlimited government.
    How did the Enlightenment shape
    our government?
   What were some of the beliefs of the
    Enlightenment period
    Questions on Enlightenment
   Why is Separation of powers a good
    way to run government?
   Name the means that makes
    separation of powers work?
    • Essay
   How has the Enlightenment changed
    your life?
   Do you agree or disagree with the
    Enlightenment ideas?

				
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posted:10/15/2011
language:English
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