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OBJECTIVE STANDARD 7-2 Student will be able to understand and describe the concept of absolute monarchies and constitutional governments in the 17th and 18th centuries Standard 7-2.1 Summarize the essential characteristics of the limited government in England following the Glorious Revolution and the unlimited governments in France and Russia, including some of the restraints placed upon a limited government's power and how authoritarian and totalitarian systems are considered unlimited governments Standard 7-2.2 Students will summarize the ideas of the Enlightenment that influenced democratic thought and social institutions throughout the world, including the political philosophies of John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Baron de Montesquieu Standard 7-2.3 Students will be able to outline the role and purposes of a constitution, including such functions as defining a relationship between a people and their government, describing the organization of government and the characteristics of shared powers, and protecting individual rights and promoting the common good. KEY WORDS natural law social contract separation of powers deism absolutism Glorious Revolution KEY PLACES Prussia Austria St. Petersburg KEY PEOPLE 1 of 2 Thomas Hobbes John Locke Montesquieu Voltaire King Charles I (English) Denis Diderot Mary Wollstonecraft Jean-Jacques Rousseau KEY PEOPLE 2 of 2 Louis XIV Frederick the Great Hapsburg Rulers Peter I Catherine II Limited Government What is limited government? -a type of government in which its functions and powers are prescribed, limited, and restricted by law -is a government structure where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not usually allowed by law, usually in a written Constitution. It is closely related to libertarianism, classical liberalism, and some tendencies of conservatism in the United States. Limited government is a common practice through Western culture. It has roots in Hebraic Law. In Western Civilization, the Magna Carta and the United States Constitution are examples of the limiting of government powers. Limited Government England King Charles I wanted to have absolute power Parliament demanded greater voice in running England King Charles I executed Thomas Hobbes thought natural law made absolute monarchy the best form of government Limited Government England James II also wanted absolute monarchy In 1688, war threatened and James fled the country Parliament asks Mary and her husband William to take the throne This is known as the “Glorious Revolution” William and Mary agreed to a Bill of Rights Limited Government England Bill of Rights ex. • People had right to a fair trial by jury • Freedom from cruel punishment for a crime Limited Government England John Locke used natural law to affirm citizen’s rights to make government answerable to the people He thought government should be based on natural law He believed that natural law gave all people from their birth natural rights • Right to life, right to liberty, and the right to own property Limited Government England Locke believed the purpose of the government was to protect these rights He believed that ALL governments were based on a social contract, which is an agreement between rulers and the people Baron Montesquieu, a French thinker, discussed in his book, The Spirit of Laws, why England’s government was the best Limited Government England Separation of Powers- power should be equally divided among the branches of government • Executive-enforce the laws • Legislative-make the laws • Judicial-interpret laws and judge when broken By separating these powers, government cannot become to strong Unlimited Governments During the 1600’s and 1700’s powerful kings and queens ruled most of Europe This system is known as absolutism In this system, monarchs ruled with absolute power or total power Claimed to have divine right Did not answer to the people, but to God alone Unlimited Governments Louis XIV • King of France in 1643 • Ruled for 72 years • Known as the Sun King • “I am the State” • His many wars to expand empire were costly • Constant wars and excessive spending weakened France and the monarchy Unlimited Governments Frederick the Great • Most famous Prussian ruler, 1740-1786 • Strengthened army and fought wars to expand empire • tried to be an enlightened ruler • Supported the arts and learning • Permitted his people to speak and publish more freely • Allowed greater religious toleration Unlimited Governments Hapsburg Rulers • Maria Theresa worked to improve serfs lives • Tried to make government work better • Maria Theresa’s son, Joseph II, admired enlightened ideas • He freed the serfs, made land taxes equal for nobles and farmers, and allowed books to be published freely • Most of his reforms failed Unlimited Governments Russia’s Peter I • Peter I reigned from 1689-1725 • Tried to make Russia strong and up-to- date European power • Improved Russia’s military and expanded Russia’s territory westward to the Baltic Sea • Founded St. Petersburg in 1703 • Later moved capital there from Moscow Unlimited Governments Russia’s Catherine II 1762-1796 • Was devoted to Enlightenment Ideas • Studied and wrote to the philosophes • Thought about freeing serfs • Allowed nobles to treat serfs as they pleased • Russia gained more land and increased its power • The ideas of liberty and equality spread across Europe Ideas of the Enlightenment The French Philosophes • France became major center of enlightenment in the 1700’s • Most philosophes were writers, teachers, journalists, and observers of society • Wanted to use reason to change society • Attacked superstitions or unreasoned beliefs Ideas of the Enlightenment The French Philosophes • Disagreed with Church leaders who opposed new scientific discoveries • Believed in both freedom of speech and the individual’s right to liberty • Used their skill as writers to spread their ideas across Europe Ideas of the Enlightenment Francois-Marie Arouet a.k.a Voltaire • Greatest thinker of Enlightenment • Wrote many novels, plays, letters, and essays • Blamed church leaders for keeping knowledge to maintain Church’s power • Opposed government of supporting one religion Ideas of the Enlightenment Francois-Marie Arouet a.k.a Voltaire • thought people should be free to choose own beliefs • Supporter of deism • Deism-religious belief based on reason • Followers of deism believed God created the world and set it in motion and then allowed it to run itself by natural law Ideas of the Enlightenment Denis Diderot • Did the most to spread Enlightenment ideas • Published large 28 volume encyclopedia • Topics included science, religion, government, and the arts • Became important weapon for the Philosophes Ideas of the Enlightenment Mary Wollstonecraft • Most powerful supporter of Women’s rights • Known as the founder of modern movement of women’s rights • Wrote a book, A Vindication of the Rights of Women • Claimed all humans have reason • Women should have equal rights in education, workplace, and political life Ideas of the Enlightenment Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Criticized Enlightenment ideas • Thought that people should pay more attention to their feelings • Published a book called, The Social Contract • He believed that a workable government should be based on a social contract, an agreement in which everyone in society agrees to be governed by the general will, or what society as a whole wants. Ideas of the Enlightenment Music • Bach, George Frederick Handel, Franz Joseph Haydn, and Mozart • These composers changed the way music was presented • Music was played in theaters for the first time and not religious • Their music is still popular today Questions on Enlightenment What is limited government? Give an example of limited government. What is unlimited government? Give an example or country ruled by unlimited government. How did the Enlightenment shape our government? What were some of the beliefs of the Enlightenment period Questions on Enlightenment Why is Separation of powers a good way to run government? Name the means that makes separation of powers work? • Essay How has the Enlightenment changed your life? Do you agree or disagree with the Enlightenment ideas?