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					                       Learning guide
    Faculty                     : MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

   Department                   : MARKETING AND SPORT MANAGEMENT

   Learning guide for           : SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATION 3

   Module Code                  : BSSFR3A



                     Compiled by : Dr. I. Shaw     Date : 2009




Vaal University of Technology                                       1
INDEX

Word of welcome………………………………………….……………………. 2
Contact persons …………………………………………………………………. 2
Rationale for the module ……………………………………………………….. 2
Prerequisites …………………………………………………………………… 3
Learning material ……………………………………………………………….. 3
How to study …………………………………………………………………….. 3
Assessment ……………………………………………………………………… 4
Icons ………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Action Verbs ……………………………………………………………………… 4
Module outcomes………………………………………………………………… 6
Time schedule/learner work program ………………………………………… 8



WORD OF WELCOME
Welcome to the Department of Office and Sport Management. We hope that the time we will spend
together while learning to understand the objectives of Sport and Physical Recreation will be
enriching. The department strives towards integrating existing knowledge with new knowledge and to
afford you the ability to think logically, gain knowledge of Sport and Physical Recreation in order to
make a positive contribution to the Sport Industry on completion of your studies.

The aim of this learning guide is to direct your studies for this module in such a way that you always
know what is expected of you and where it fits into the general program of Sport and Physical
Recreation.

General class conduct is also discussed. We hope that this will help you feel more in control of your
studies, as the "class rules" agreed upon will leave you in no uncertainty about what is expected of
you (by the lecturer) and what you can expect of the lecturer.


              CONTACT DETAILS
      Title and Surname               Office number        Telephone number and e-mail address
         Prof. J Surujlal                  G003                       (016) 950-9620
                                                                     babs@vut.ac.za
           Dr. I Shaw                      N109                       (016) 950-9873
                                                                      inas@vut.ac.za
                                         Educity-                     (016) 930 5073
       Ms. F. van Straten
                                       Administrator                 flavia@vut.ac.za



RATIONALE
The South African sport industry shows continued growth with a clear demand for well-qualified staff
within the corporate and entrepreneurial sector. On completion of these modules you should be and
efficient and competent in human anatomy, physiology, sport psychology, sport sociology, sport
science and recreation management.




Vaal University of Technology                                                                       2
PREREQUISITES
Qualification entry level:
Senior Certificate awarded by the South African Certification Council.
Further Education and Training Certificate at NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
Grade 12 Certificate with English and one other official language. Students should have scored 26
points on the Swedish scale. Good comprehension and usage of English is required. Participation in a
sport code at regional level or higher.
Sport and physical recreation 1 and 2 are prerequisites for sport and physical recreation 3.

Since the assignments require that the Internet should be used, you should ensure in time that you
gain access to a computer with Internet facilities in the library. Should you choose to use an Internet
café, the costs incurred will be for your own account.

               LEARNING MATERIAL
The content of this learning guide is the primary source of your learning material.

Additional learning material

Apart from the learning guide it is of utmost importance that you gain access to the following sources
that were reserved in the library for your convenience:

This guide must be used in conjunction with the Notes. In addition students are required to
supplement the notes from class discussion and from the additional learning material.

Prescribed literature
   1) Potgieter, J.R. (1997). Sport Psychology Theory and Practice. University of Stellenbosch.

Recommended literature
   2) Sharkey, B.J. Coaches Guide to Sport Physiology. Ilinois: Human Kinetics.
   3) Coackley, J.J. Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Bibliographical and text references

Students are kindly requested to use bibliographical and text references according to the guidelines
laid down by the Institution. A copy of the guidelines is available in the library and at the local
bookshop.


HOW TO STUDY
When you study Sport and Physical Recreation 1 Module 1 (BSSFX1A) and Sport and Physical
Recreation 1 Module 2 (BSSFY1A), you should:

       attentively study the module outcomes;
       view the list of contents of each learning unit;
       page through the learning materials to determine the organization, difficulty level, and volume
        of work;
       read the learning material according to the instructions provided in the learning guide and
        learning outcomes;
       do all learning activities (exercises) in every learning section (or learning part) of the learning
        guide;
       be well prepared for all lectures according to the time schedule. In other words study the
        sections indicated/listed in the learning guide in order to participate in the lectures;
       submit fully completed assignments on the due date.

Draw a comparison of what is discussed during lectures and what happens in practice. The above-
mentioned will determine the year mark.




Vaal University of Technology                                                                            3
      ASSESSMENT
Assessment takes place on a continuous basis by means of a variety of methods and may include the
following:

The academic year at the University is divided into two semesters. Module 1 is presented during the
first six months of the year and module 2 during the last six months of the year. You will be assessed
continuously throughout each of these two modules.

Assessments will take the form of class tests, assignments, presentations, as well as a final
examination. The mark you gather from class tests, presentations and assignments will make up fifty
percent (50%) of your final mark and the final examination will make up fifty percent (50%) of your
final mark. The final examination for module 1 is in June and for module 2 in November. This means
that you finish the work of module 1 in semester 1 by writing a final examination in June and module 2
in semester 2 by writing a final examination in November.

The final examination for module 1 and 2 will each consist of a two-hour examination paper. To gain
access to this examination a year mark of at least 40% is expected. A sub-minimum of 40% is
required in the final examination.

The final mark will be determined as follows:

                         Year mark                                 50%
                         Examination mark                          50%
                         Total                                     100%
                         Pass mark                                  50%

ook
ACTION VERBS
In preparation for your studies in this module the action verbs used in the assessment of your work in
this module are given to you in advance. Make sure that you understand the meaning of each and
that you deliver your work accordingly.

      Define
To supply the accurate meaning of a concept. [Example: Define the concept research.]

        Name/mention/list/state
Briefly name/mention/list/state without giving details. Neither a discussion not an explanation is
necessary. [Example: Name three research methods in Nursing.]

        Outline
Emphasise the major features, structures or general principles of a topic, omitting minor details.
Slightly more detail than in the case of naming, listing or stating or information is required. [Example:
Outline the major features of qualitative research.]

        Comment
Briefly stating your own opinion on a subject. [Example: Comment on the relevance of learning
strategies for effective learning.]

       Indicate
Point out, make known, state briefly. [Indicate the causes of HIV/AIDS.]

       Identify
Give the essential characteristics or aspects of a phenomenon, for example a good research design.
[Example: In a text, identify the characteristics of the research process which are indicative of a good
research design.]




Vaal University of Technology                                                                          4
        Demonstrate
Include and discuss examples. You have to prove that you understand how a process works or how
a concept is applied in real-life situations. [Example: Give a written demonstration of the application
of the research process in clinical nursing.]

       Describe
Say exactly what something is like, give an account of the characteristics or nature of something,
explain how something works. No opinion or argument is needed. [Example: Describe the
characteristics of philosophical thought.]

        Discuss
Comment on something in your own words. Often requires debating two viewpoints or two different
possibilities. [Example: Distinguish between a positivistic and hermeneutic view of science.]

       Essay
An extensive description of a concept is required. [Example: Write and essay about the value of
philosophy for the nursing researcher.]

       Example
A practical illustration of a concept is required. [Example: Give and example of a descriptive study.]

        Explain/clarify
Clarify or give reasons for something, usually in your own words. You must prove that you
understand the contents. It may be useful to use examples or illustrations. [Example: Briefly explain
the following research methods: The experiment correlation studies.]

      Illustrate
Draw a diagram or sketch the representation of a phenomenon or idea. [Example:              Explain the
menstruation cycle. Write a short essay and illustrate the cycle.]

       Motivate
You should give an explanation of the reasons for your statements or views. You should try to
convince the reader of you view. [Example: Write and essay about your own philosophical viewpoint
on health. Motivate your answer.]

        Summarise
Give a structured overview of the key (most important) aspects of a topic. This must always be done
in your own words. [Example: Give a summary of the core characteristics of an explanatory study.]

        Analyse
Identify parts or elements of a concept. [Example: analyse the research process.]

        Compare/contrast
Point out the similarities and the differences between objectives, ideas or points of view. When you
compare two or more objectives, you should do so systematically – completing one aspect at a time.
It is always better to do this in your own words. [Example: Compare the Christian philosophy with the
American philosophy.]

        Debate
Logically formulate an argument by discussing opposing viewpoints, such as similarities and
dissimilarities; pros and cons; advantages and disadvantages on a given topic. Follow a question
attitude and hold a formal argument. [Example: Debate the acceptability of abortion as a means of
birth control in South Africa.]




Vaal University of Technology                                                                            5
        Criticise
This means that you should indicate whether you agree or disagree with a certain statement or view
point. You should describe what you agree/disagree with and give reasons for your view. [Example:
Write critical comments about a Christian worlds view for Africa.]

       Evaluate
This means that you should analyse a theory, article, prescribed book, etc. to determine its worth or
value. You should constantly indicate whether you agree or disagree with statements made, and
motivate your point of view. [Example: Evaluate the effectiveness of self-regulated learning.]

        Draw a mind map/diagram/figure
Outline the main concepts pertaining to the study material by drawing a diagram and completing the
concepts in telegram style. Also indicate the relationships between the different concepts. [Example:
Draw a mind map of self-regulated learning.]


                                MODULE OUTCOMES

      SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATION 3 MODULE 1
                      (BSSFX3A)

EXERCISE SCIENCE
After completion of this learning unit / outcome you should be able to understand:

Neuromuscular Anatomy and Adaptations to Exercise
Neuromuscular Anatomy & Physiology
Activation of muscles
Muscle fibre types
Motor Unit Patterns During Exercise
Proprioception
Neuromuscular Adaptations to exercise

Training programmes
Training for strength
Training for muscle size
Training for muscular endurance using aerobic exercise

Biological energy systems
Phospagen system
Control of the phosphagen system
Glycolysis
Lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate
Oxidative (aerobic) system
Glucose and glycogen oxidation
Fat oxidation
Protein oxidation
Control of the oxidative (aerobic) system

Energy production and capacity

Substrate depletion and repletion
Phosphagens
Glycogen

Bioenergetic limiting factors in exercise performance



Vaal University of Technology                                                                           6
Physiological adaptations to anaerobic and aerobic endurance training programs

Physiological adaptations to exercise training
Adaptations to anaerobic training
Energy systems
The Phosphagen System
Glycolysis
The Oxidative System
Methods and Modes of Anaerobic Training
Adaptations to Anaerobic Training
The Interaction of Exercise Protocol, Neural Factors and Muscular Factors
Cardiovascular Response and Adaptations
Body Composition
Bone and Connective Tissue
Endocrine Responses to Anaerobic and Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic endurance exercise training
Training adaptations

Compatibility of RT and AER

Youth resistance training
Trainability of children
Potential benefits
Preventing youth overuse injuries
Potential risks and concerns
Programme design considerations for children
Youth resistance training guidelines

Female athletes
Sex differences
Resistance training for women
Trainability of women
Programme design considerations for women

Older adults
Age-related changes in musculoskeletal health
Trainability of older adults
Program design considerations for older adults

Facility layout and scheduling
General aspects of new facility design
Existing strength and conditioning facilities
Assessing athletic programme needs
Designing the strength and conditioning facility
Developing a policies and procedures manual

Responsibilities of the strength and conditioning director
Staff policies and activities
Facility administration
Access to the facility
Facility maintenance and risk management
Maintaining and cleaning surfaces
Maintaining equipment and cleaning supplies

TRAINING PRINCIPLES
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
MUSCULAR FITNESS COMPONENTS
ENERGY SYSTEMS




Vaal University of Technology                                                    7
SPORT SOCIOLOGY
After completion of this learning unit / outcome you should be able to:

Learning unit / outcome 1 INTRODUCTION TO SPORT SOCIOLOGY
   1) Define sociology
   2) Discuss what sport sociology is used for in society
   3) Define a cultural ideology
   4) Name the different logics in a cultural ideology
   5) Discuss gender logic in a cultural ideology
   6) Discuss class logic in a cultural ideology
   7) Discuss race logic in a cultural ideology
   8) Discuss character logic in a cultural ideology
   9) Name the major spheres of life to which sports are connected
   10) Discuss how family is connected to sports
   11) Discuss how the economy is connected to sports
   12) Discuss how the media is connected to sports
   13) Discuss how politics is connected to sports
   14) Discuss how education is connected to sports
   15) Discuss how religion is connected to sports

Learning unit / outcome 2 CHILDREN IN SPORT
   1) Discuss the origin and development of organized youth sports
   2) Discuss the privatization of youth sports
   3) Discuss the performance principle in sports
   4) Discuss the experiences of children in informal, player-controlled sports
   5) Discuss the experiences of children in formal, adult-controlled sports
   6) Discuss how sports can affect the parent-child relationship
   7) Make recommendations on how to change children’s sports

Learning unit / outcome 3 AGGRESSION
   1) Discuss the Freudian theory with regards to human instinct, aggression
   2) Discuss the link between frustration and aggression
   3) Discuss the consequences of sports on aggression
   4) Do sports promote aggression in society?
   5) Discuss the factors that can promote spectator violence
   6) Discuss techniques that can be used to control spectator violence

Learning unit / outcome 4 GENDER
   1) Name 5 factors that can account for recent increases in sport participation
   2) Discuss the possible reasons for decreases in female sports participation
   3) What changes can be instituted to achieve gender equity



TIME SCHEDULE / LEARNER WORK PROGRAM
You must make sure of all the dates of classes, tutorials, practical classes, dates for the submission
of assignments etc. as spelt out in the work program.



MODULE 1
          Day   Learning unit / outcome             Remarks, Assignments etc.                 Due date
           M
 Week 1




           T
           W
           T
           F



Vaal University of Technology                                                                            8
          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M
           T
 Week 2


           W
           T
           F

          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M
 Week 3




           T
           W
           T
           F

          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M
 Week 4




           T
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          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M    Test 1
 Week 5




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          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M
 Week 6




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          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M
 Week 7




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          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M
 Week 8




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          Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
           M
 Week 9




           T
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Vaal University of Technology                                               9
           Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
            M    Test 2
 Week 10
            T
            W
            T
            F

           Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
            M
 Week 11




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           Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
            M
 Week 12




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           Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
            M
 Week 13




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            M
 Week 14




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           Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
            M    Test 3
 Week 15




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            F

           Day   Learning unit / outcome   Remarks, Assignments etc.   Due date
            M    Revision
 Week 16




            T
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            F




Vaal University of Technology                                               10

				
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