Myers PSYCHOLOGY (9th Edition in Modules)
The Story of
Is the mind connected to
the body or distinct?
Ancient Greeks speculated
about the source of human
knowledge, the nature of the
mind and soul, the relationship
of mind to body, and the
possibility of scientifically
studying these things.
Are ideas inborn or is the
mind a blank slate filled
knowledge comes from
experience via the senses
Empiricists like John Locke challenged the idea of the “tabula rasa.”
Plato and Descartes believed in the “blank slate.” (1600s)
science flourishes through
observation and experiment
Wilhelm Wundt opened the
first psychology laboratory at
the University of Leipzig (c.
Wundt believed Psychology should
study consciousness and focused
on structuralism, the structure of
the human mind.
(looking in) to
structure of the
Functionalism focused on how
function- how they enable
organism to adapt, survive,
William James suggested
considering the function of
thoughts and feelings rather
than the structure. For
example, smelling is what the
nose does and smelling
developed because it is
Sigmund Freud: (1856-1939): Discovered the
unconscious mind and developed
Psychodynamic theory, a theory of development
and a theory of personality.
John B. Watson: Felt the study of
consciousness or the unconscious mind was a
waste of time and that psychology should only
study overt behavior. B.F. Skinner developed
operant conditioning and the functional analysis
British Psychological Society membership
Psychology is currently defined as:
A. the study of individual experience.
B. the scientific study of behavior and mental
C. the study of mental life.
D. the scientific study of observable behavior.
the science of behavior (what we do)
and mental processes (sensations,
perceptions, dreams, thoughts,
beliefs, and feelings)
Nature vs. Nurture
the longstanding controversy
over the relative contributions
that genes and experience make
to development of psychological
traits and behaviors
Human Diversity and Psychology
Women hold 44% Psychological doctorate degrees, and earn 67% of new
doctorates each year.
Sociocultural variables such as social identity, ethnicity, gender, social
class and culture are considered important in the study of psychology and
the treatment of individuals.
Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures
Gilbert Haven Jones: African American who received his Ph.D. in psych.
In Germany 1909
J. Henry Alston: Engaged in research on perception of heat and cold and
was the first African American psychologist to be published in a major psych
Mary Whiton Calkins: Refused a degree from Radcliffe (Harvard’s
University for women) when she graduated Harvard with a doctoral degree
in the late 1800s. First female President of the APA in 1905.
Margaret Washburn: Left Columbia University because of discrimination
and became the first woman to earn a doctorate in Psycholgy from Cornell.
John B. Watson is most likely to say:
A. “A person needs unconditional love and
acceptance in order to reach her true
B. “A person’s behavior reflects unconscious
conflicts and emotions that result from early
C. “Emotional responses reflect biological
processes such as hormones and brain
D. “Science must be rooted in observation of
behavior, rather than introspective
Subfields of psychology
There are three categories of jobs in
Applied: Use principles of psychology to
improve schools, organizations and industry.
Therapeutic: Meet with clients to help improve
Research/Experimental: Conduct research on
any topic in psychology.
Pure research: for its own sake
Applied research: intended to address a specific
Applied subfields of Psychology:
Community: work to obtain services for underserved client groups
and prevent psychological problems by working for changes in
Industrial-Organizational: Help improve the performance of
people in business and organizations.
Sports : Help improve the performance of people in sports.
Educational: Develop programs to improve learning for entire
schools or school systems.
Engineering (Human factors): Make technical systems more user-
Health: Use behavioral principles to improve health
Forensic: Work with the criminal justice system
Consumer: Study the behavior of shoppers
Therapeutic Subfields of Psychology
Clinical: Ph.D.: Treat people with
Counseling: MA or Ph.D.: Treat people with
adjustment problems and relationship issues.
Psychiatric: MD: Can prescribe medication.
Treat people with psychological disorders
School: Work with individual children to
Experimental Subfields of Psychology
Research can be conducted on any topic
in psychology. Examples include:
Cognitive: thinking and mental processes
Biological: physiological, neuroscientists
Quantitative: Develop statistical methods for
analyzing psychological data
Social: Study the behavior of people in social
Dr. Frye conducts research
investigations on memory, with the
intent of contributing to what is known
about human memory processes. Dr.
A. professional service.
B. applied research.
C. basic research.
Tips for Studying
survey - Take a look at the module before you begin
to study it. Notice how it is organized.
question -Form a question that you will answer by
studying the module or section of the book.
read -Search for the answer to your question. Don't
read more than you can absorb in a single sitting.
rehearse - in your own words, what you have read.
review -re-read your notes and review the module or
How To Succeed in Dr.
ATTEND CLASS EVERY DAY!
Learn to think critically – Think while you learn by analyzing
and questioning what you are being asked to believe.
In class, listen actively - Do the reading -BEFORE you come
to class. PRINT OUT THE NOTES AND USE THEM AS A
GUIDE WHILE YOU READ. Rely on the notes during lecture
so you can actively participate in class.
Overlearn – Most people over-estimate their learning.
Distribute your time (Don't wait until the night before a test to
Be a smart test-taker – Don’t use too much time on one
question. RELAX – remember that a single test is unlikely to
make or break your grade.