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					Myers PSYCHOLOGY   (9th Edition in Modules)

    Module 1

  The Story of
Psychology’s Roots

            Prescientific Psychology
               Is the mind connected to
                the body or distinct?
                Ancient Greeks speculated
                about the source of human
                knowledge, the nature of the
                mind and soul, the relationship
                of mind to body, and the
                possibility of scientifically
                studying these things.
               Are ideas inborn or is the
                mind a blank slate filled
                by experience?

   knowledge comes from
    experience via the senses
   Empiricists like John Locke challenged the idea of the “tabula rasa.”
    Plato and Descartes believed in the “blank slate.” (1600s)

   science flourishes through
    observation and experiment
 Wilhelm Wundt

 Wilhelm Wundt opened the
  first psychology laboratory at
  the University of Leipzig (c.
 Wundt believed Psychology should
  study consciousness and focused
  on structuralism, the structure of
  the human mind.

 Structuralism
  used introspection
  (looking in) to
  explore the
  structure of the
  human mind
 Functionalism focused on how
  behavioral processes
  function- how they enable
  organism to adapt, survive,
  and flourish
 William James suggested
  considering the function of
  thoughts and feelings rather
  than the structure. For
  example, smelling is what the
  nose does and smelling
  developed because it is
Early Psychologists
 Sigmund Freud: (1856-1939): Discovered the
  unconscious mind and developed
  Psychodynamic theory, a theory of development
  and a theory of personality.
 John B. Watson: Felt the study of
  consciousness or the unconscious mind was a
  waste of time and that psychology should only
  study overt behavior. B.F. Skinner developed
  operant conditioning and the functional analysis
  of behavior.
Psychology’s Roots

 British Psychological Society membership
  Psychology is currently defined as:

A. the study of individual experience.
B. the scientific study of behavior and mental
C. the study of mental life.
D. the scientific study of observable behavior.

 Psychology
  the science of behavior (what we do)
   and mental processes (sensations,
   perceptions, dreams, thoughts,
   beliefs, and feelings)
Nature vs. Nurture

  Nature-Nurture Controversy
    the longstanding controversy
     over the relative contributions
     that genes and experience make
     to development of psychological
     traits and behaviors
Human Diversity and Psychology
 Women hold 44% Psychological doctorate degrees, and earn 67% of new
  doctorates each year.
 Sociocultural variables such as social identity, ethnicity, gender, social
  class and culture are considered important in the study of psychology and
  the treatment of individuals.
     Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures
 Gilbert Haven Jones: African American who received his Ph.D. in psych.
  In Germany 1909
 J. Henry Alston: Engaged in research on perception of heat and cold and
  was the first African American psychologist to be published in a major psych
  journal (1920).
 Mary Whiton Calkins: Refused a degree from Radcliffe (Harvard’s
  University for women) when she graduated Harvard with a doctoral degree
  in the late 1800s. First female President of the APA in 1905.
 Margaret Washburn: Left Columbia University because of discrimination
  and became the first woman to earn a doctorate in Psycholgy from Cornell.
Psychological Perspectives
 John B. Watson is most likely to say:
A. “A person needs unconditional love and
   acceptance in order to reach her true
B. “A person’s behavior reflects unconscious
   conflicts and emotions that result from early
   childhood experiences.”
C. “Emotional responses reflect biological
   processes such as hormones and brain
D. “Science must be rooted in observation of
   behavior, rather than introspective
Subfields of psychology

There are three categories of jobs in
  Applied: Use principles of psychology to
   improve schools, organizations and industry.
  Therapeutic: Meet with clients to help improve
   psychological functioning
  Research/Experimental: Conduct research on
   any topic in psychology.
     Pure research: for its own sake
     Applied research: intended to address a specific
Applied subfields of Psychology:
 Community: work to obtain services for underserved client groups
  and prevent psychological problems by working for changes in
  social systems.
 Industrial-Organizational: Help improve the performance of
  people in business and organizations.
 Sports : Help improve the performance of people in sports.
 Educational: Develop programs to improve learning for entire
  schools or school systems.
 Engineering (Human factors): Make technical systems more user-
 Health: Use behavioral principles to improve health
 Forensic: Work with the criminal justice system
 Consumer: Study the behavior of shoppers
Therapeutic Subfields of Psychology
 Clinical: Ph.D.: Treat people with
  psychological disorders
 Counseling: MA or Ph.D.: Treat people with
  adjustment problems and relationship issues.
 Psychiatric: MD: Can prescribe medication.
  Treat people with psychological disorders
 School: Work with individual children to
  improve learning.
Experimental Subfields of Psychology

Research can be conducted on any topic
 in psychology. Examples include:
  Cognitive: thinking and mental processes
  Biological: physiological, neuroscientists
  Quantitative: Develop statistical methods for
   analyzing psychological data
  Social: Study the behavior of people in social
      Dr. Frye conducts research
  investigations on memory, with the
intent of contributing to what is known
about human memory processes. Dr.
             Frye conducts:
A.   professional service.
B.   applied research.
C.   basic research.
D.   psychiatry.
Tips for Studying
  SQ3R
    survey - Take a look at the module before you begin
     to study it. Notice how it is organized.
    question -Form a question that you will answer by
     studying the module or section of the book.
    read -Search for the answer to your question. Don't
     read more than you can absorb in a single sitting.
    rehearse - in your own words, what you have read.
    review -re-read your notes and review the module or
How To Succeed in Dr.
Piercy’s Class:
   Learn to think critically – Think while you learn by analyzing
    and questioning what you are being asked to believe.
   In class, listen actively - Do the reading -BEFORE you come
    GUIDE WHILE YOU READ. Rely on the notes during lecture
    so you can actively participate in class.
   Overlearn – Most people over-estimate their learning.
   Distribute your time (Don't wait until the night before a test to
    begin studying)
   Be a smart test-taker – Don’t use too much time on one
    question. RELAX – remember that a single test is unlikely to
    make or break your grade.

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