Aspects of sport motivation a bibliography of British Library resources by ktixcqlmc

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									                  SPORT & SOCIETY
                  The Summer Olympics and Paralympics through the lens of social
                  science

Aspects of sport motivation, an analytical bibliography of British Library resources
Jade McKenzie

Sports are ‘institutionalized competitive activities that involve rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively
complex physical skills by participants motivated by internal or external rewards’ (Coakley, 2007). This definition
highlights the institutionalization of rules and regulations which characterises modern sports and also the complex
components of the physical and psychic skills of participants.

The role that sports play in society and the reasons why individuals engage in them has changed over time. The
first records of sports date from 3200BC (Lee, 1983) and show that previous sports involved numerous physical
activities such as running, leaping, chasing, throwing, climbing, wrestling and swimming. Crowther argued that
these activities were a result of instinctual drives such as those for hunting and surviving, rather than for
entertainment (Crowther, 2007).

This changed in 776BC, when the first recorded Olympic Games were held in Greece, presenting sport not only
as entertainment but as an instrument for life enrichment and an enhanced spirituality. We can see an echo of
this in the ‘muscular Christianity’ of the Victorian period with its emphasis on the purity of physical endeavour
when allied to team spirit and noble and selfless leadership.

What motivates the sportsman or woman in the modern era? Are there any differences in motivation between
elites and amateurs? To answer these questions we need to understand how ‘motivation’ has been defined.

Originating from the Latin word ‘movere’, motivation literally means ‘to move’ (Cox, 2002). Hull also explains it as
a drive to do something, and suggests that motivation is related to a desire to reduce or satisfy internal drives
(Hull, 1984).

Maslow’s argument is that not all drives are innate, and postulates a ‘hierarchy of needs’ in which some needs
are less imperative for survival than others (Gratton, 1981). The satisfaction of primary physiological needs gives
rise to higher level needs, and drives such feelings as self esteem and self fulfilment (Cox, 2002). Both of these
are therefore fundamental motivating factors in sports.

People are motivated to participate in physical activity for both intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. Intrinsic motivation
has been defined as behaviour engaged in for itself and for the pleasure and satisfaction derived from it
(Vallerand, Chapter 8; Roberts, 2001). Shirley Berry, a British long jumper who competed in the 1953 European
championships, talks of how she was motivated to participate in sport because of how much she really enjoyed it
(Berry, 2002); British high jumper Stephen Smith comments that “If you enjoy something, you learn so much
faster” adding “I enjoyed it so much I learnt a lot faster and improved a lot quicker” (Smith, 1996, 1997). Both
these athletes had strong intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation comes from external sources, such as the lure of awards, trophies, money, fame, praise and
social approval (Cox, 2002). Interestingly, it has been found that although extrinsic motivation is a strong
motivator, it can undermine intrinsic motivation. For example in 1971, Deci gave Carnegie Mellon University
students an extrinsic motivation of a reward of one dollar for each puzzle they solved. He observed the time the
students spent on the puzzles and found that when the experimenter appeared to have left the laboratory and
there was no longer a monetary motivator, students spent less time with the puzzles, compared to the control
group who had not received payments. As Sansone and Harackiewicz suggest, “using an extrinsic reward to
motivate someone to do something that the person would have done anyway could have detrimental effects on
the quality and creativity of the person’s performance” (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2000).




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In addition to intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, operant conditioning is used to motivate individuals performing
physical activity. Operant conditioning involves positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment to
help motivate, and to change behaviour (Gill & Williams, 2008).

Coaches employ a variety of such techniques in motivating their athletes. An observational study by Tharp and
Gallimore (cited in Gill & Williams, 2008) assessed the coaching behaviour of John Wooden, a successful
basketball coach at the University of California, Los Angeles. The authors observed his teaching and motivational
style and noted that detailed skill training, positive reinforcement and constant re-evaluation of players were key
features of his success.

De-motivating factors have also been studied. In 2002, Weiss and Caja-Ferrer (cited in Gill & Williams, 2008)
found that primary motives for withdrawing from youth sport included negative coaching experiences and
overemphasis on winning. However, withdrawal from one sport does not necessarily result in a lack of motivation
for engaging in others. In 1982, Gould, Feltz, Horn and Weiss found that 68% of young people who withdrew from
swimming continued to be involved in other sports, and some even planned to return to it (cited in Gill and
William, 2008). Individuals clearly differ in their responses, some responding to intrinsic motivations rather than to
extrinsic motivations, and vice versa. Atkinson (1964, 1973) proposed an achievement motivation model which
highlights these personality differences, and which postulates two types of personality: one with the motive to
approach success; and the other with the motive to avoid failure (cited by Gill & Williams, 2008). Individuals who
are motivated to avoid failure are much less likely to participate in a difficult game, as they feel they are more
likely to fail.

Other motivations for participating in physical activities have been proposed by Gill, Gross and Huddleston (1983)
who assessed young athletes using their Participation Motivation Questionnaire and found that the most
important reasons for participation in sports were to improve skills, have fun, to socialise, be challenged and
become physically fit (Gill and Williams, 2008). These appear to be mostly intrinsic motivators and support the
argument that the majority of people are intrinsically motivated to participate in physical activity (Hagger &
Chatzisarantis, 2007).

Warren (1983) sums up by suggesting the main elements of motivation include: motivation towards winning,
motivation for individual excellence, and motivation toward team goals. This researcher also proposed a variety of
other motivations such as favourable self esteem, the challenge of competition, and the fear of failing, rejection,
and injury.


References

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation : the search for optimal motivation and performance edited by Carol
Sansone, Judith M. Harackiewicz.London: Academic Press, c2000.
London reference collections shelfmark:YC.2001.a.10745

Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport / [edited by] Martin S. Hagger, Nikos L.D.
Chatzisarantis Leeds: Human Kinetics, c2007.
London reference collections shelfmark: YK.2008.a.5809
DS shelfmark: m07/.30496

Cox, Richard H. Sport psychology: concepts and applications Boston ; London : McGraw-Hill, c2007.
DS shelfmark: m06/.38194

Roberts, Glyn C. Advances in motivation in sport and exercise Champaign, Ill.; Leeds: Human Kinetics, 2001.
London reference collections shelfmark: YK.2002.a.4776
DS shelfmark: m01/34918

Gill, Diane L Psychological dynamics of sport and exercise. 3rd ed. Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams. Leeds:
Human Kinetics, 2008.


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London reference collections shelfmark: SPIS.796.01
DS shelfmark: m08/.38026

Warren, William E Coaching and motivation: a practical guide to maximum athletic performance London:
Prentice-Hall International, c1983.
London reference collections shelfmark: X.622/20546

Lane, Andrew M Sport and exercise psychology London: Hodder Arnold, 2008.
London reference collections shelfmark: SPIS.796.01
DS shelfmark: m09/.17794

International Congress of Psychology (22nd : 1980 : Leipzig, Germany)
Cognitive and motivational aspects of action / [XXIInd International Congress of Psychology Leipzig GDR
July 6-12, 1980]; edited by Winfried Hacker, Walter Volpert and Mario von Cranach.
Amsterdam; Oxford: North-Holland, 1982.
London reference collections shelfmark: X.520/30208

Ntoumanis, Nikolaos. Achievement motivation and affect in sport: strength of links and intervening
variables [PhD thesis] University of Exeter, 1999.
264590 SFX

Hodge, Ken The complete guide to sport motivation London: A. & C. Black, 2005.
London reference collections shelfmark:YK.2006.a.1921

Carlstedt, Roland A. Critical moments during competition: a mind-body model of sport performance Hove:
Psychology, 2004.
DS shelfmark: m05/.10048

Culture, self, and, motivation : essays in honor of Martin L. Maehr edited by Avi Kaplan, Stuart A.
Karabenick, Elisabeth De Groot.
Charlotte, NC: Information Age Pub., c2009.
DS shelfmark: m10/.14307

Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport [edited by] Martin S. Hagger, Nikos L.D.
Chatzisarantis.
Leeds: Human Kinetics, c2007.
London reference collections shelfmark: YK.2008.a.5809
DS shelfmark: m07/.30496

PensgaÌŠrd, Anne Marte. Motivation and coping with stress in Olympic and Paralympic athletes [Ph.D
thesis] [Norway]: Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education, 1997.
DS shelfmark: m00/23667

Kerr, J. H. Motivation and emotion in sport: reversal theory Hove: Psychology Press, c1997.
London reference collections shelfmark: YK.2002.a.17772
DS shelfmark: 97/26162

Motivation in sport and exercise (1989: Urbana-Champaign, IL)
Motivation in sport and exercise: Human kinetics symposium on motivation and sport: papers editor, Glyn
C Roberts. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books, c1992.
DS shelfmark: 92/14665

Motivation of exercise and physical activity. Liam A. Chiang, editor. New York: Nova Science Publishers,
c2007.
DS shelfmark: m07/.31213


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Adam, Elizabeth J B.A new way of looking at intrinsic motivation in sport. [Ph.D thesis] University of
Glasgow, 1996.
DS shelfmark: 318125

Eley, Diann S.
Personal and environmental influences on performance and participation patterns in adolescent female
runners [Ph.D thesis] University of Bristol, 1999.
DS shelfmark: 284842

Barnes, J Kirsten. A season long investigation of sport achievement motivation in competitive athletes
[Ph.D thesis] University of Bristol, 1997.
DS shelfmark: 390104

Standage, Martyn. A self-determination theory approach to understanding motivation in physical activity
settings [Ph.D thesis] Birmingham: University of Birmingham, 2003.
DS shelfmark: 289792

Allen, Justine B.Social motivation in sport [Ph.D thesis] De Montfort University, 2001.
DS shelfmark: 366626

Sport in European society: a transnational survey into participation and motivation.
Council of Europe, 1982.
DS shelfmark: GP-CE/305

Bird, Geoffrey J.Sport motivation among three levels of high calibre soccer players [ Ph.D thesis]
Greensboro: University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 1980.
DS Shelfmark : MFE/4660

Sport psychology edited by Britton W. Brewer. Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell, c2009.
IOC Medical Commmission. Sub-Commission on Publications in the Sport Sciences.
London reference collections shelfmark: YK.2009.a.15644
DS shelfmark: m09/.15632

Coyle, Daniel.The talent code: unlocking the secret of skill in maths, art, music, sport, and just about
everything else London : Random House, 2009.
London reference collections shelfmark: YK.2010.a.17541

‘Achievement motivation, sports-related future orientation, and sporting career’ by H Halvari, H and T.O
Thomassen in Genetic, Social & General Psychology Monographs Aug 1997: Vol. 123 Issue 3. p. 343-365
DS shelfmark: 4111.916000.

‘An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport’ (Etude de la motivation intrinseque et de la
motivation extrinseque en sport) R J Vallerand, G F Losier in Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 1999: Vol.
11 Issue 1. p. 142-169
DS shelfmark: 4947.105000

‘Competitive and recreational sport structures and gender : a test of their relationship with sport motivation’ (Sport
de competition, sport de loisir et sexe : relations avec la motivation sportive) M.S Fortier, R J Vallerand, N Briere,
P J Provencher in International Journal of Sport Psychology 1995: Vol. 26 Issue 1. p. 24-39
DS shelfmark: 4947.105000

‘A qualitative investigation exploring the motivational climate in early career sports participants: Coach, parent
and peer influences on sport motivation’ Richard J Keegan, Chris G Harwood, Christopher M Spray, David E
Lavallee in Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol.10(3), May 2009, pp. 361-372.


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London reference collections shelfmark: ZC.9.a.6097
DS shelfmark: 6946.536590

‘On the interpersonal context of adolescents' sport motivation’ Enrique Garcia Bengoechea, William B Strean in
Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol.8(2), Mar 2007, pp. 195-217.
London reference collections shelfmark: ZC.9.a.6097
DS shelfmark: 6946.536590

‘College students' motivation for physical activity: differentiating men's and women's motives for sport
participation and exercise’ Marcus Kilpatrick; Edward Hebert, John Bartholomew in Journal of American
College Health. Vol.54(2), Sep-Oct 2005, pp. 87-94.
London reference collections shelfmark: (P) GP 00 –E (182)
DS shelfmark: 4927.231000

‘Motivation in elite-level sport: A self-determination perspective’ Darren C Treasure, Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre,
Kendy K Kuczka; Martyn Standage in Martin S Hagger [ed], Nikos L D Chatzisarantis [ed]. Intrinsic motivation
and self-determination in exercise and sport. Champaign, IL, US: Human Kinetics; US.
London reference collections shelfmark: YK.2008.a.5809
DS shelfmark: m07/.30496

‘Motivation in masters sport: Achievement and social goals’
Ken Hodge; Justine B Allen;Liz Smellie in Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol.9(2), Mar 2008, pp. 157-176.
London reference collections shelfmark: ZC.9.a.6097
DS shelfmark: 6946.536590

‘Social Motivation in Youth Sport’. Justine B Allen in Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. Vol.25(4), Dec
2003, pp. 551-567.
DS shelfmark: 5066.183500

‘Motivational Processes Among Older Adults in Sport and Exercise Settings’ Martyn Standage; Joan L Duda in
Maureen WeissEd]. (2004). Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective. (pp.
357-381Morgantown, WV, US: Fitness Information Technology; US.
DS shelfmark: m04/34228

‘Why Older Australians Participate in Exercise and Sport’ Gregory S Kolt; Ruth P Driver; Lynne C Giles in
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Vol.12(2), Apr 2004, pp. 185-198.
DS shelfmark: 4919.997870

Competitive orientations and motives of adult sport and exercise participants
Diane L Gill; Lavon Williams; Deborah A Dowd; Christina M Beaudoin et al.
in Journal of Sport Behavior. Vol.19(4), Dec 1996, pp. 307-318.
DS shelfmark: 5066.186000

‘Participation in college sports: Motivational differences’ Edward Martindale; Sloan Devlin; Stuart A Vyse in
Perceptual and Motor Skills. Vol.71(3, Pt 2), Dec 1990, pp. 1139-1150.
London reference collections shelfmark: (P) FH 00 –E(1)
DS shelfmark: 6423.300000

‘The Driving Force: Motivation in Special Olympians’ Robin J Farrell; Peter R Crocker; Megan H McDonough;
Whitney A Sedgwick in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. Vol.21(2), Apr 2004, pp. 153-166.
DS shelfmark: 0678.308000




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‘Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: A review of qualitative
studies’ Steven Allender; Gill Cowburn; Charlie Foster in
Health Education Research. Vol.21(6), Dec 2006, pp. 826-835.
London reference collections shelfmark: ZK.9.a.116
DS shelfmark: 4275.011440




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