Influences on Grape Yield -- Production Considerations

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Influences on Grape Yield -- Production Considerations Powered By Docstoc
					New Grape Grower Workshop



     Dr. David W. Lockwood
         Plant Sciences
     University of Tennessee
      Goal of the Viticulturist:
• To produce good yields of high quality
  grapes on a consistent basis
           Functions of Yield
•   Site (soils, fertility, water)
•   Grape Variety/Rootstock
•   Spacing (in-row & between row)
•   Trellis system
•   Pruning
•   Thinning
•   Pest control
            Vineyard Timetable
•   Planting until 1st crop: 3 years
•   Planting until full production: 4 to 5 years
•   Productive life of vineyard: 20+ years
•   Expected yield at maturity:
    – 4 to 5 tons/acre – French-American Hybrid
    – 5 to 8 tons/acre – American Bunch &
      muscadine
    – V. vinifera – 2 ½ to 3 tons/acre
                Step #1
         in Planting a Vineyard

• Where will you sell the Crop?
  – Contact wineries within a reasonable distance
     • Make them aware of your presence
     • Determine which varieties are needed
  A Vineyard Is NOT Forever

• Change in customer demands
• Introduction of superior varieties
• Emergence of new pest problems
                  Step # 2

• Make a commitment to Quality
  – 90% of the wine quality is set in the vineyard
  – Cannot make good wine out of bad grapes
                     Step #3
• Start small
  – New growers will profit from the experience in
    later plantings
  – High investment in time, labor and capital
• How small is small?
  – Enough juice from a variety to fill a tank
     • 3 to 5 tons/ acre
     • 130 to 180 gallons of juice/ton
        Types of Grapes Grown in
               Tennessee
• American bunch
   – Concord, Niagara, Steuben, Cynthiana (Norton),
     Cayuga White
• French-American Hybrids
   – Seyval, Vidal, Chambourcin, Chardonel, Traminette
• Muscadines
   – Scuppernong, Carlos, Triumph, Noble
• Vitis vinifera
   – Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cab. Franc, Syrah
    Producing Grapes for Wine
• Determining what to grow
  – Check with wineries to see what is needed
  – Consult with UT Extension to see if those
    varieties are feasible
• How much to plant
  – Wineries may need enough juice to fill a tank
    • 1 ton yields approx. 130 to 150 gal. Juice
    • 1 acre yields 5 to 7 tons of fruit (650 to 1050 gal.)
• Commit to quality
  – 90% of the quality of the wine is determined in the
    vineyard
      Site Selection

• Most important decision a
  grower can make

• Every aspect of crop
  development and marketing
  will be influenced by the site
          Site Selection
• Accessibility
• Soils – type, depth, drainage, fertility,
  pH
• Water – availability, quality
• Frost/freeze
• Previous cropping history
• Topography
• Wildlife
        Vineyard Site Selection
• Ease of getting crop to winery:
  – Distance, quality of roads
• Elevation:
  – Frost, disease protection
• Direction of Slope:
• Soils:
  – Rooting depth
  – Water drainage, internal & surface
  – Fertility
• Water:
  – Quantity, quality
             Site Preparation
• Goal: to establish a good soil environment
  prior to planting
  – Soil Test –
     • Adjust pH & fertility well in advance of planting
  – Remove barriers to good air flow in & around
    the planting site
  – Control noxious weeds
  – Vineyard floor management
                 Vine Spacing
    • American Bunch &             • Muscadines
       French-American      •   16 to 20 ft. between
             Hybrids            vines
•   8 to 10 ft. between     •   10 to 12 ft. between
    vines                       rows
•   10 to 12 ft. between    •   16 X 10 = 272 vines/A
    rows
                            •   16 X 12 = 227 vines/A
•   8 X 10 = 544 vines/A
                            •   20 X 10 = 218 vines/A
•   8 X 12 = 454 vines/A
                            •   20 X 12 = 181 vines/A
•   10 X 12 = 363 vines/A
                Trellising
• Trellis should be designed and
  constructed to last at least 20 to 25 years
• Expect to spend $3500 to $5000 per acre
  for trellis materials
• Have trellis constructed by 1st dormant
  pruning
                                         From Galleta & Himelrick,
Grape Training Systems                   Small Fruit Crop Mgt., 1990




       4 Arm Kniffin            Umbrella Kniffin




   Single curtain cordon   Geneva double curtain
      Effective Pest Control
• Integrates all production practices
  – Site selection & development
  – Variety
  – Trellis
  – Pruning (dormant & summer)
  – Weed control
  – Sanitation
  – sprays
     Annual Cultural Practices in an
         Established Vineyard
•   Pruning
•   Weed Control
•   Dormant sprays
•   Fertilization
•   Sprays for insect & disease control
    – (8 to 10 applications)
• Mowing
• Weed control
• Cluster thinning
• Canopy management – shoot positioning &
   removal of non-fruitful shoots , leaf removal
• Harvest
• Post-harvest sprays
       Vineyard Management

• Time to:
  – Prune – late winter to early spring (may prune
    after shoot growth begins
  – Fertilize – about one month before bud break
  – Control pests – see Pub. 1197, “Commercial
    Small Fruit Spray Schedules”
  – Harvest – late July through September (October
    for muscadines), depending on variety and
    location
     Functions of the Trellis
• Support the vine and the crop
• Expose fruit and foliage to sunlight
• Open canopy to air movement and spray
  penetration
• Facilitate ease of vineyard operations
  – Pruning, thinning, pest control, harvest