Unit3 by jcjmhkitraxxz

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									Before Reading
 1. Spot Dictation
 2. Background Information
       Mark Twain
       Francois Millet
       Hans Andersen
       Mentone
       Riviera
       Monte Carlo
       Nice
       Lyons
 3. Warm-up Questions
 4. Discussion
 5. Topic-related Prediction
                            Spot Dictation
Directions: Listen to the passage and fill in the blanks:
      Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always
   encourage
  __________ such people, but I also explain that there is a big
 difference between “ ____________ ” and writing. In most cases
                          being a writer
 these _________ are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long
         individuals
 hours alone at a _________ . “You‟ve got to want to write,” I say to
                     typewriter
 them, “not want to be a writer.”
                                                           poor-paying
                                                                   affair.
      The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and __________
 For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more
 ___________________________ . When I left a 20-year career in
  whose longing is never rewarded
 the U. S. Coast Guard to become a freelance writer, I had no
 _________ at all. What I did have was a friend who found me in my
 prospects
 room in a New York apartment building. It did not even matter that
 it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used
                              genuine
 typewriter and felt like a _______ writer.
                            Spot Dictation
Directions: Listen to the passage and fill in the blanks:

       After a year or so, however, I still hadn‟t gotten a break and
                                                                 barely
  began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that I _____
  made enough money to eat. But I knew I wanted to write. I had
  dreamed about it for years. I would keep putting my dream to the
  test — even though it meant living with __________ and fear of
                                              uncertainty
  failure. This is the shadow land of hope, and anyone with a dream
  must learn to live there.
                              Mark Twain

1. A Brief Introduction to Mark Twain
    Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known and celebrated as “Mark
Twain”, was born in Missouri in 1835.
    The child was puny. His schooling was brief and of a desultory
kind. It ended in 1847, shortly after his father died. Sam Clemens
began writing in his teens — burlesque, as a rule, of local
characters and conditions.
    In 1853, Sam Clemens left home, first to New York, then to
Philadelphia, Washington, and the West. From 1857, he spent
almost four years working as a pilot for the steamers on the
Mississippi River, and was regarded as one of the best and most
careful pilots on the river.
    During the American Civil War, he became a professional
miner. In 1862, he took the job as a reporter, and then, for the first
time, began signing his articles with “Mark Twain”, a river term,
used in making soundings, recalled from his piloting days. He was
presently recognized as one of the foremost writers, and soon
acquired world-wide fame.
     Mark Twain was a prolific writer. He wrote and published a
number of notable sketches, articles, stories and books. His
works were always of a kind to make people talk, always
important even when it was mere humor. Yet there was always
wisdom under it, and purpose, and these things gave them a
dynamic force and enduring life. He was one of the foremost
American philosophers of his day and the world‟s most famous
humorist of any day. He ranked not only as America‟s chief man
of letters, but likewise as one of her best known and best loved
citizens.
     The world will long miss Mark Twain. His example and his
teachings will be neither ignored nor forgotten.
2. Mark Twain‟s Chronology and His Works

                Mark Twain‟s Chronology and His Works
  1835    Born in Missouri and named Samuel Langhorne Clemens
  1863    Began signing his pseudonym “Mark Twain”
  1865   The Celebrating Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
  1876   The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  1880    A Tramp Aboard
  1882   The Prince and the Pauper
  1884   The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  1888    Received from Yale College the degree of Master of Arts
          A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court; Life on the
  1889
          Mississippi
1892   The American Claimant

1894   Tom Sawyer Abroad

1894   The Tragedy of Pudd`nhead Wilson

1896   Tom Sawyer, Detective

1899   The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
1901   Yale College — Doctrine of Literature
1907   Came the crowning honor — Oxford tendered him the
       doctor‟s robe
1910   Passed Away
3. Some Quotations from Mark Twain

 “A man cannot be comfortable without his own approval.”
 “Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear — not absence of
 fear.”
 “Do something every day that you don‟t want to do; this is the golden
 rule for acquiring the habit of doing your duty without pain.”
 “Don‟t go around saying the world owes you a living. The world owes
 you nothing. It was here first.”
 “Don‟t part with your illusions. When they are gone you may still exist,
 but you have ceased to live.”
 “Humor is the great thing, the saving thing. The minute it crops up, all
 our irritations and resentments slip away and a sunny spirit takes
 their place.”
“It is better to deserve honors and not have them than to have them
and not to deserve them.”

“The best way to cheer yourself is to try to cheer someone else up.”

“Man is the Only Animal that Blushes. Or needs to.”

“The fact that man knows right from wrong proves his intellectual
superiority to other creatures; but the fact that he can do wrong
proves his moral inferiority to any creature that cannot.”
                    Francois Millet (1814 - 1875)

1. Francois Millet‟s life and artistic achievement
    As the son of a small peasant farmer in Normandy, Millet
showed a precocious interest in drawing. He had to fight against
great odds, living for long a life of extreme penury. He exhibited at
the Salon for the first time in 1840. At this time, the type of work he
produced consisted predominantly of mythological subjects or
portraiture, at which he was especially adept (Portrait of a Naval
Officer, 1845).
    His memories of rural life, and his intermittent contacts with
Normandy, however, impelled him to that concern with peasant life
that was to be characteristic of the rest of his artistic career. In 1848
he exhibited The Winnower (now lost) at the Salon. In 1849, when a
cholera epidemic broke out in Paris, Millet took a house near that of
Théodore Rousseau. His paintings on rural themes attracted
growing acclaim and between 1858 and 1859 he produced the
famous Angélus, which 40 years later was to be sold for the
sensational price of 553,000 francs.
     Although Flemish artists of the 17th century had depicted
peasants at work, Millet was the first painter to endow rural life with
a dignity and monumentality that transcend realism, making the
peasant an almost heroic figure. Nevertheless, he became
somewhat a symbol to younger artists. It was he who, on a visit to
Le Havre to paint portraits, encouraged Boudin to become an artist,
and his work certainly influenced the young Monet, and even more
decidedly Pissarro, who shared similar political inclinations.
     Although towards the end of his life, his work showed some
affinities with Impressionists, he never painted out-of-doors, and he
had only a limited awareness of tonal values. His subject matter —
with its social implications — appealed to artists such as Seyret and
van Gogh.
2. Francois Millet‟s Chronology
                     Francois Millet‟s Chronology
 1814    Born on 4th October in Normandy
 1833    Worked with a local portrait painter, Bon Dumouchel
 1835    Entered the studio of Lucien — Theophile Langlois
 1837    Enroled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts
 1840    First exhibited at the Salon
 1849    Settled in Barbizon
 1853    Married Catherine Lemaire
 1864    Awarded a first class medal for Shepherdess Guarding Her
         Flock
1868     Awarded cross of the Legion of Honour
1875     Died on 20th January
3. Some quotations from Francois Millet

 “One must be able to use the trivial to express the sublime — that is
 true power!”
 “I could look at Poussin‟s pictures forever and ever and always learn
 something.”

 “Sometimes, in places where the land is sterile, you see figures
 hoeing and digging. From time to time one raises himself and
 straightens his back, wiping his forehead with the back of his hand.
 thou shalt eat thy bread in the sweat of thy brow. Is this the gay,
 jovial work some people would have us believe in? But nevertheless,
 to me it is true humanity and great poetry. ”

 “It is never the cheerful side of things that appears to me.”
“As I have never seen anything but fields since I was born, I try to
say as best I can what I saw and felt when I was at work.”

“To tell the truth, the peasant subjects suit my temperament best;
for I must confess, even if you think me a socialist, that the human
side of art is what touches me most.”

“I attempt to make things look not as if they have been brought
together by chance, but as if there were a necessity bonding them
together.”

“Everybody wants to be somebody; nobody wants to grow.”
Hans Anderson
      Denmark is a beautiful and dreamlike country. Its beauty and
serenity encourage people to create their own fairy tales. One of
the most famous authors of fairy tales in the world, Hans Christian
Anderson, was born in Odense in the 19th century.
      It is in the family home that Anderson spent his childhood. His
father was a modest cobbler and Hans had to struggle to attract the
world‟s attention. Today he is highly regarded as one of the most
sensitive writers of his time and was the most capable of touching
the chords of the human spirit.
      In the museum dedicated to him, which was set up in the house
where the author was born, we find rare editions of his stories,
letters, notes and manuscripts. The most interesting items in the
museum are the writer‟s personal effects, enabling us to picture him
still at work in these rooms. Here we also find a series of original
illustrations by famous artists, inspired by his fairy tales and his life.
     Anderson‟s works are staged in Odense, with children and
visitors acting out the parts. Among his most famous stories are
“The Ugly Duckling”, “The Princess and the Pea”, “The Little
Mermaid”.
Mentone
    Mentone is a seaport town in southeastern France. Situated
near the Italian border 17 miles (28 km) northeast of Nice and 6
miles (10 km) northeast of Monte-Carlo by road, it is reputedly the
warmest winter resort on the French Riviera. It is also a popular
summer resort.
                               Riviera




     Riviera is a narrow coastal region between the Alps and the
Mediterranean Sea extending from southeast France to northwest
Italy. The Riviera is a popular resort area that is noted for its flowers
grown for export and for use in perfumery.
                          Monte Carlo




    Monte Carlo is a resort in Monaco, forming one of the four
communes of the principality. It is famous as a gambling resort and
as the terminus of the annual Monte Carlo rally.
                            Nice




    Nice is a city of southeast France on the Mediterranean Sea
northeast of Cannes. Controlled by various royal houses after the
13th century, the city was finally ceded to France in 1860. It is the
leading resort city of the French Riviera and is known for its
beaches, casinos, and luxurious hotels.
                             Lyons




    Lyons is an industrial city and river port in southeast France,
situated at the confluence of the Rhône and Saône Rivers.
Founded in AD 43 as a Roman colony, it was the principal city of
Gaul and an important religious center after the introduction of
Christianity. Its silk industry dated back to the 15th century.
                      Warm-up Questions

1. What do you think makes a painter famous?
2. Do you believe that each artist undergoes difficulties and
   hardships before he / she becomes famous?
                           Discussion

      Mark Twain, as a novelist and humorist, is very well known in
China, where his works are widely read. Discuss in groups Mark
Twain‟s writing style on the basis of his works you have read and
the information you have collected about his life.
                    Topic-related Prediction

1. How does the title “Is He Living Or Is He Dead?” impress you?
   What might the text be about?
2. Who might “He” in the title refer to? Take a guess.
3. What might Mark Twain convey in the text?
Global Reading

  1. Part Division of the Text
  2. Further Understanding
    For Part 1 Question and Answer
    For Part 2 Subdivision
    For Part 3 True or False

  3. Text Analysis
                    Part Division of the Text

Parts Paragraphs                     Main Ideas

 1    1~13         The introduction to the story: “my” encounter with
                   Smith
 2    14~86        The story about Francois Millet told by Smith


 3    87~98        The ending of the story: Francois Millet overcame
                   the financial difficulty and became famous
                    Question and Answer
What does Hans Andersen‟s tale mentioned in the text indicate?

  The story about the bird indicates that people tend to neglect
  the beautiful things around them to such an extent that the
  artists who create great works live in poverty. The value of the
  artists is not recognized until after their death. The story
  corresponds with the law Carl claimed to have discovered. It
  seems that the artists have to die in order to get themselves out
  of the poverty.
                              Subdivision
This part is the main body of the text: the story about Francois Millet
and his three friends in art.

Parts Paragraphs                       Main Ideas

 1     14~37       The four artists and their poor life

 2     38~65       Their clever scheme to get rid of poverty

 3     66~82       Their campaign to sell their paintings and build up
                   Millet‟s fame

 4     83~86       Their success in getting both money and fame
1. Carl, Claude, Smith and a distant relative of Millet carried
   Millet‟s coffin at the funeral.                                ( F )
   Millet acted as one of his distant relatives and carried his own
   coffin with the three other artists.
2. After Millet‟s “funeral”, the price of his paintings declined. ( F )
   After his “funeral”, the price of Millet‟s paintings went up.
3. According to the text, after his “funeral”, Millet acted as an old,
   retired, and very rich manufacturer from Lyons, and adopted the
   name Theophile Magnan.                                      ( T )

4. Thanks to their well-designed scheme, Smith, Carl, Millet, and
    Claude made an astonishing amount of money.            ( T )
5. Millet did not deserve the fame and the reward he got. But for the
   scheme, he would have died in poverty.                     ( F )
   Millet deserved the fame and the fortune, because he was a genius
   in art and his paintings were of great value. The scheme helped to
   make the world recognize his talent earlier.
                           Text Analysis
                       Mark Twain‟s Humor
Mark Twain is a great humorist. Cite from the text examples of his
humor.
(Para. 1) Mentone is quiet, simple, restful, unpretentious; the rich and
the gaudy do not come there. As a rule, I mean, the rich do not come
there.
(Para. 14) We were as happy as we were poor, or as poor as we
were happy — phrase it to suit yourself.
(Para. 37) “A cabbage! Oh, don‟t name it — it makes my mouth water.
Talk of things less trying.”
 (Para. 61) The remark fell so calmly and so unexpectedly that we
almost forgot to jump. Then there was a wild chorus of advice
again — medical advice — for the help of Carl‟s brain;…
(Para. 62) … and when everything is hot and just right, we‟ll spring
the death on them and have the notorious funeral.
                           Text Analysis
(Paras. 67 - 76)
    … I worked swiftly, intending to keep him interested. Occasionally
he fired off a little ejaculation of approbation, and by and by he spoke
up with enthusiasm, and said I was a master!
    I put down my brush, reached into my satchel, fetched out a
Millet, and pointed to the cipher in the corner. I said, proudly:
    “I suppose you recognize that? Well, he taught me! I should think
I ought to know my trade!”
    The man looked guiltily embarrassed, and was silent. I said
sorrowfully:
    “You don‟t mean to intimate that you don‟t know the cipher of
Francois Millet!”
    Of course he didn‟t know that cipher; but he was the gratefulest
man you ever saw, just the same, for being let out of an
uncomfortable place on such easy terms. He said:
                            Text Analysis
    “No! Why, it is Millet‟s, sure enough! I don‟t know what I could
have been thinking of. Of course I recognize it now.”
    Next, he wanted to buy it; but I said that although I wasn‟t rich I
wasn‟t that poor. However, at last, I let him have it for eight hundred
francs.
    Eight hundred!
    Yes. Millet would have sold it for a pork chop. Yes, I got eight
hundred francs for that little thing. I wish I could get it back for eighty
thousand. But that time‟s gone by. I made a very nice picture of that
man‟s house and I wanted to offer it to him for ten francs, but that
wouldn‟t answer, seeing I was the pupil of such a master, so I sold it
to him for a hundred. I sent the eight hundred francs straight to Millet
from that town and struck out again next day.
     It is all too often the sad fate of artists that they achieve fame, if
they achieve it at all, only after death. In life their talent may well
pass unrecognized, leaving them living on the edge of poverty. In
this amusing tale by Mark Twain, a band of young artists come up
with an ingenious solution to this problem.
                  Is He Living or Is He Dead?
                                                          Mark Twain
    I was spending the month of March 1892 at Mentone, in the
Riviera. At this retired spot one has all the advantages, privately,
which are to be had at Monte Carlo and Nice, a few miles farther
along, publicly. That is to say, one has the flooding sunshine, the
balmy air, and the brilliant blue sea, without the marring additions of
human powwow and fuss and feathers and display. Mentone is quiet,
simple, restful, unpretentious; the rich and the gaudy do not come
there. As a rule, I mean, the rich do not come there. Now and then a
rich man comes, and I presently got acquainted with one of these.
Partially to disguise him I will call him Smith. One day, in the Hotel
des Anglais, at the second breakfast, he exclaimed:
    “Quick! Cast your eye on the man going out at the door. Take in
every detail of him.”
    “Why?”
    “Do you know who he is?”
 Sentence      Word
                  Is He Living or Is He Dead?
                                                          Mark Twain
    I was spending the month of March 1892 at Mentone, in the
Riviera. At this retired spot one has all the advantages, privately,
which are to be had at Monte Carlo and Nice, a few miles farther
along, publicly. That is to say, one has the flooding sunshine, the
balmy air, and the brilliant blue sea, without the marring additions of
human powwow and fuss and feathers and display. Mentone is quiet,
simple, restful, unpretentious; the rich and the gaudy do not come
there. As a rule, I mean, the rich do not come there. Now and then a
rich man comes, and I presently got acquainted with one of these.
Partially to disguise him I will call him Smith. One day, in the Hotel
des Anglais, at the second breakfast, he exclaimed:
    “Quick! Cast your eye on the man going out at the door. Take in
every detail of him.”
    “Why?”
    “Do you know who he is?”
 Sentence      Word
     “Yes. He spent several days here before you came. He is an old,
retired, and very rich silk manufacturer from Lyons, they say, and I
guess he is alone in the world, for he always looks sad and dreamy,
and doesn‟t talk with anybody. His name is Theophile Magnan.”
     I supposed that Smith would now proceed to justify the large
interest which he had shown in Monsieur Magnan, but, instead, he
dropped into a brown study, and was apparently lost to me and to the
rest of the world during some minutes. Now and then he passed his
fingers through his flossy white hair, to assist his thinking, and
meantime he allowed his breakfast to go on cooling. At last he said:
     “No, it‟s gone; I can‟t call it back.”
     “Can‟t call what back?”
     “It‟s one of Hans Andersen‟s beautiful little stories. But it‟s gone
from me. Part of it is like this: A child has a caged bird, which it loves,
but thoughtlessly neglects. The bird pours out its song unheard and
unheeded; but in time, hunger and thirst assail the creature, and its
song grows plaintive and feeble and finally ceases — the bird dies.
 Sentence       Word
     “Yes. He spent several days here before you came. He is an old,
retired, and very rich silk manufacturer from Lyons, they say, and I
guess he is alone in the world, for he always looks sad and dreamy,
and doesn‟t talk with anybody. His name is Theophile Magnan.”
     I supposed that Smith would now proceed to justify the large
interest which he had shown in Monsieur Magnan, but, instead, he
dropped into a brown study, and was apparently lost to me and to the
rest of the world during some minutes. Now and then he passed his
fingers through his flossy white hair, to assist his thinking, and
meantime he allowed his breakfast to go on cooling. At last he said:
     “No, it‟s gone; I can‟t call it back.”
     “Can‟t call what back?”
     “It‟s one of Hans Andersen‟s beautiful little stories. But it‟s gone
from me. Part of it is like this: A child has a caged bird, which it loves,
but thoughtlessly neglects. The bird pours out its song unheard and
unheeded; but in time, hunger and thirst assail the creature, and its
song grows plaintive and feeble and finally ceases — the bird dies.
 Sentence       Word
The child comes, and is smitten to the heart with remorse; then, with
bitter tears and lamentations, it calls its mates, and they bury the bird
with elaborate pomp and the tenderest grief, without knowing, poor
things, that it isn‟t children only who starve poets to death and then
spend enough on their funerals and monuments to have kept them
alive and made them easy and comfortable. Now —”
      But here we were interrupted. About ten that
 evening I ran across Smith, and he asked me up
 to his parlour to help him smoke and drink hot
 Scotch. It was a cozy place, with its comfortable
 chairs, its cheerful lamps, and its friendly open
 fire of seasoned olive-wood. To make everything
 perfect, there was a muffled booming of the surf
 outside. After the second Scotch and much lazy
 and contented chat, Smith said:

  Sentence      Word
The child comes, and is smitten to the heart with remorse; then, with
bitter tears and lamentations, it calls its mates, and they bury the bird
with elaborate pomp and the tenderest grief, without knowing, poor
things, that it isn‟t children only who starve poets to death and then
spend enough on their funerals and monuments to have kept them
alive and made them easy and comfortable. Now —”
      But here we were interrupted. About ten that
 evening I ran across Smith, and he asked me up
 to his parlour to help him smoke and drink hot
 Scotch. It was a cozy place, with its comfortable
 chairs, its cheerful lamps, and its friendly open
 fire of seasoned olive-wood. To make everything
 perfect, there was a muffled booming of the surf
 outside. After the second Scotch and much lazy
 and contented chat, Smith said:

  Sentence      Word
    “Now we are properly primed — I to tell a curious history, and you
to listen to it. It has been a secret for many years — a secret
between me and three others; but I am going to break the seal now.
Are you comfortable?”
    “Perfectly. Go on.”
    Here follows what he told me:
    A long time ago I was a young artist — a very young artist, in
fact — and I wandered about the country parts of France, sketching
here and sketching there, and was presently joined by a couple of
darling young Frenchmen who were at the same kind of thing that I
was doing. We were as happy as we were poor, or as poor as we
were happy — phrase it to suit yourself. Claude Frere and Carl
Boulanger — these are the names of those boys; dear, dear fellows,
and the sunniest spirits that ever laughed at poverty and had a noble
good time in all weathers.

 Sentence      Word
     At last we ran hard aground in a Breton village, and an artist as
poor as ourselves took us in and literally saved us from starving —
Francois Millet —
     “What! the great Francois Millet?”
     Great? He wasn‟t any greater than we were,
then. He hadn‟t any fame, even in his own
village; and he was so poor that he hadn‟t
anything to feed us on but turnips, and even the
turnips failed us sometimes. We four became
fast friends, doting friends, inseparables. We
painted away together with all our might, piling
up stock, piling up stock, but very seldom getting
rid of any of it. We had lovely times together; but,
O my soul! How we were pinched now and then!
For a little over two years this went on. At last,
one day, Claude said:
 Sentence      Word
     At last we ran hard aground in a Breton village, and an artist as
poor as ourselves took us in and literally saved us from starving —
Francois Millet —
     “What! the great Francois Millet?”
     Great? He wasn‟t any greater than we were,
then. He hadn‟t any fame, even in his own
village; and he was so poor that he hadn‟t
anything to feed us on but turnips, and even the
turnips failed us sometimes. We four became
fast friends, doting friends, inseparables. We
painted away together with all our might, piling
up stock, piling up stock, but very seldom getting
rid of any of it. We had lovely times together; but,
O my soul! How we were pinched now and then!
For a little over two years this went on. At last,
one day, Claude said:
 Sentence      Word
    “Boys, we‟ve come to the end. Do you understand that? —
absolutely to the end. Everybody has struck — there‟s a league
formed against us. I‟ve been all around the village and it‟s just as I tell
you. They refuse to credit us for another centime until all the odds and
ends are paid up.”
    This struck us cold. Every face was blank with dismay. We
realized that our circumstances were desperate, now. There was a
long silence. Finally, Millet said with a sigh:
    “Nothing occurs to me — nothing. Suggest something, lads.”
    There was no response, unless a mournful silence may be called
a response. Carl got up, and walked nervously up and down a while,
then said:
    “It‟s a shame! Look at these canvases: stacks and stacks of as
good pictures as anybody in Europe paints — I don‟t care who he is.
Yes, and plenty of lounging strangers have said the same — or nearly
that, anyway.”
    “But didn‟t buy,” Millet said.
  Sentence      Word
    “Boys, we‟ve come to the end. Do you understand that? —
absolutely to the end. Everybody has struck — there‟s a league
formed against us. I‟ve been all around the village and it‟s just as I tell
you. They refuse to credit us for another centime until all the odds and
ends are paid up.”
    This struck us cold. Every face was blank with dismay. We
realized that our circumstances were desperate, now. There was a
long silence. Finally, Millet said with a sigh:
    “Nothing occurs to me — nothing. Suggest something, lads.”
    There was no response, unless a mournful silence may be called
a response. Carl got up, and walked nervously up and down a while,
then said:
    “It‟s a shame! Look at these canvases: stacks and stacks of as
good pictures as anybody in Europe paints — I don‟t care who he is.
Yes, and plenty of lounging strangers have said the same — or nearly
that, anyway.”
    “But didn‟t buy,” Millet said.
  Sentence      Word
     “No matter, they said it; and it‟s true, too. Look at your „Angelus‟
there! Will anybody tell me —”
     “Pah, Carl — my „Angelus!‟ I was offered five francs for it.”
     “When?”
     “Who offered it?”
     “Where is he?”
     “Why didn‟t you take it?”
     “Come — don‟t all speak at once. I thought he would give
more — I was sure of it — he looked at it — so I asked him eight.”
     “Well — and then?”
     “He said he would call again.”
     “Thunder and lightning! Why, Francois —”
     “Oh, I know — I know! It was a mistake, and I was a fool. Boys, I
meant for the best; you‟ll grant me that, and I —”
     “Why, certainly, we know that, bless your dear heart; but don‟t
you be a fool again.”
     “I? I wish somebody would come along and offer us a cabbage
for it — you‟d see!”

 Sentence       Word
     “A cabbage! Oh, don‟t name it — it makes my mouth water. Talk
of things less trying.”
     “Boys,” said Carl, “do these pictures lack merit? Answer me that.”
     “No!”
     “Aren‟t they of very great and high merit? Answer me that.”
     “Yes.”
     “Of such great and high merit that, if an illustrious name were
attached to them, they would sell at splendid prices. Isn‟t it so?”
     “Certainly it is. Nobody doubts that.”
     “But — I‟m not joking — isn‟t it so?”
     “Why, of course it‟s so — and we are not joking. But what of it?
What of it? How does that concern us?”
     “In this way, comrades — we‟ll attach an illustrious name to them!”
     The lively conversation stopped. The faces were turned
inquiringly upon Carl. What sort of riddle might this be? Where was
an illustrious name to be borrowed? And who was to borrow it?
     Carl sat down, and said:


  Sentence      Word
     “A cabbage! Oh, don‟t name it — it makes my mouth water. Talk
of things less trying.”
     “Boys,” said Carl, “do these pictures lack merit? Answer me that.”
     “No!”
     “Aren‟t they of very great and high merit? Answer me that.”
     “Yes.”
     “Of such great and high merit that, if an illustrious name were
attached to them, they would sell at splendid prices. Isn‟t it so?”
     “Certainly it is. Nobody doubts that.”
     “But — I‟m not joking — isn‟t it so?”
     “Why, of course it‟s so — and we are not joking. But what of it?
What of it? How does that concern us?”
     “In this way, comrades — we‟ll attach an illustrious name to them!”
     The lively conversation stopped. The faces were turned
inquiringly upon Carl. What sort of riddle might this be? Where was
an illustrious name to be borrowed? And who was to borrow it?
     Carl sat down, and said:


  Sentence      Word
     “Now, I have a perfectly serious thing to
propose. I think it is the only way to keep us out of
the almshouse, and I believe it to be a perfectly
sure way. I base this opinion upon certain
multitudinous and long-established facts in human
history. I believe my project will make us all rich.”
     “Rich! You‟ve lost your mind.”
     “No, I haven‟t.”
     “Yes, you have — you‟ve lost your mind. What do you call rich?”
     “A hundred thousand francs apiece.”
     “He has lost his mind. I knew it.”
     “Yes, he has. Carl, privation has been too much for you, and —”
     “Carl, you want to take a pill and get right to bed.”
     “Bandage him first — bandage his head, and then —”
     “No, bandage his heels; his brains have been settling for weeks —
I‟ve noticed it.”
  Sentence     Word
     “Now, I have a perfectly serious thing to
propose. I think it is the only way to keep us out of
the almshouse, and I believe it to be a perfectly
sure way. I base this opinion upon certain
multitudinous and long-established facts in human
history. I believe my project will make us all rich.”
     “Rich! You‟ve lost your mind.”
     “No, I haven‟t.”
     “Yes, you have — you‟ve lost your mind. What do you call rich?”
     “A hundred thousand francs apiece.”
     “He has lost his mind. I knew it.”
     “Yes, he has. Carl, privation has been too much for you, and —”
     “Carl, you want to take a pill and get right to bed.”
     “Bandage him first — bandage his head, and then —”
     “No, bandage his heels; his brains have been settling for weeks —
I‟ve noticed it.”
  Sentence     Word
     “Shut up!” said Millet, with ostensible severity, “and let the boy
have his say. Now, then — come out with your project, Carl. What is
it?”
     “Well, then, by way of preamble I will ask you to note this fact in
human history: that the merit of many a great artist has never been
acknowledged until after he was starved and dead. This has
happened so often that I make bold to found a law upon it. This law:
that the merit of every great unknown and neglected artist must and
will be recognized and his pictures climb to high prices after his death.
My project is this: we must cast lots — one of us must die.”
     The remark fell so calmly and so unexpectedly that we almost
forgot to jump. Then there was a wild chorus of advice again —
medical advice — for the help of Carl‟s brain; but he waited patiently
for the hilarity to calm down, and then went on again with his project:



 Sentence      Word
     “Shut up!” said Millet, with ostensible severity, “and let the boy
have his say. Now, then — come out with your project, Carl. What is
it?”
     “Well, then, by way of preamble I will ask you to note this fact in
human history: that the merit of many a great artist has never been
acknowledged until after he was starved and dead. This has
happened so often that I make bold to found a law upon it. This law:
that the merit of every great unknown and neglected artist must and
will be recognized and his pictures climb to high prices after his death.
My project is this: we must cast lots — one of us must die.”
     The remark fell so calmly and so unexpectedly that we almost
forgot to jump. Then there was a wild chorus of advice again —
medical advice — for the help of Carl‟s brain; but he waited patiently
for the hilarity to calm down, and then went on again with his project:



 Sentence      Word
     “Yes, one of us must die, to save the others — and himself. We
will cast lots. The one chosen shall be illustrious, all of us shall be
rich. Hold still, now — hold still; don‟t interrupt — I tell you I know
what I am talking about. Here is the idea. During the next three
months the one who is to die shall paint with all his might, enlarge his
stock all he can — not pictures, no! skeleton sketches, studies, parts
of studies, fragments of studies, a dozen dabs of the brush on
each — meaningless, of course, but his, with his cipher on them; turn
out fifty a day, each to contain some peculiarity or mannerism easily
detectable as his — they‟re the things that sell, you know, and are
collected at fabulous prices for the world‟s museums, after the great
man is gone; we‟ll have a ton of them ready — a ton! And all that time
the rest of us will be busy supporting the moribund, and working
Paris and the dealers — preparations for the coming event, you know;
and when everything is hot and just right, we‟ll spring the death on
them and have the notorious funeral. You get the idea?”

 Sentence      Word
     “Yes, one of us must die, to save the others — and himself. We
will cast lots. The one chosen shall be illustrious, all of us shall be
rich. Hold still, now — hold still; don‟t interrupt — I tell you I know
what I am talking about. Here is the idea. During the next three
months the one who is to die shall paint with all his might, enlarge his
stock all he can — not pictures, no! skeleton sketches, studies, parts
of studies, fragments of studies, a dozen dabs of the brush on
each — meaningless, of course, but his, with his cipher on them; turn
out fifty a day, each to contain some peculiarity or mannerism easily
detectable as his — they‟re the things that sell, you know, and are
collected at fabulous prices for the world‟s museums, after the great
man is gone; we‟ll have a ton of them ready — a ton! And all that time
the rest of us will be busy supporting the moribund, and working
Paris and the dealers — preparations for the coming event, you know;
and when everything is hot and just right, we‟ll spring the death on
them and have the notorious funeral. You get the idea?”

 Sentence      Word
     “No; at least, not qu — ”
    “Not quite? Don‟t you see? The man doesn‟t really die; he
changes his name and vanishes; we bury a dummy, and cry over it,
with all the world to help. And I —”
    But he wasn‟t allowed to finish. Everybody broke out into a
rousing hurrah of applause; and all jumped up and capered about the
room and fell on each other‟s necks in transports of gratitude and joy.
For hours we talked over the great plan, without ever feeling hungry;
and at last, when all the details had been arranged satisfactorily, we
cast lots and Millet was elected — elected to die, as we called it.
Then we scraped together those things which one never parts with
until he is betting them against future wealth — keepsake trinkets and
suchlike — and these we pawned for enough to furnish us a frugal
farewell supper and breakfast, and leave us a few francs over for
travel, and a stake of turnips and such for Millet to live on for a few
days.

  Sentence      Word
     “No; at least, not qu — ”
    “Not quite? Don‟t you see? The man doesn‟t really die; he
changes his name and vanishes; we bury a dummy, and cry over it,
with all the world to help. And I —”
    But he wasn‟t allowed to finish. Everybody broke out into a
rousing hurrah of applause; and all jumped up and capered about the
room and fell on each other‟s necks in transports of gratitude and joy.
For hours we talked over the great plan, without ever feeling hungry;
and at last, when all the details had been arranged satisfactorily, we
cast lots and Millet was elected — elected to die, as we called it.
Then we scraped together those things which one never parts with
until he is betting them against future wealth — keepsake trinkets and
suchlike — and these we pawned for enough to furnish us a frugal
farewell supper and breakfast, and leave us a few francs over for
travel, and a stake of turnips and such for Millet to live on for a few
days.

  Sentence      Word
     Next morning, early, the three of us cleared out, straightway after
breakfast — on foot, of course. Each of us carried a dozen of Millet‟s
small pictures, purposing to market them. Carl struck for Paris, where
he would start the work of building up Millet‟s fame against the coming
great day. Claude and I were to separate, and scatter abroad over
France.
     Now, it will surprise you to know what an
 easy and comfortable thing we had. I walked
 two days before I began business. Then I
 began to sketch a villa in the outskirts of a big
 town — because I saw the proprietor standing
 on an upper veranda. He came down to look
 on — I thought he would. I worked swiftly,
 intending to keep him interested. Occasionally
 he fired off a little ejaculation of approbation,
 and by and by he spoke up with enthusiasm,
 and said I was a master!
  Sentence      Word
     Next morning, early, the three of us cleared out, straightway after
breakfast — on foot, of course. Each of us carried a dozen of Millet‟s
small pictures, purposing to market them. Carl struck for Paris, where
he would start the work of building up Millet‟s fame against the coming
great day. Claude and I were to separate, and scatter abroad over
France.
     Now, it will surprise you to know what an
 easy and comfortable thing we had. I walked
 two days before I began business. Then I
 began to sketch a villa in the outskirts of a big
 town — because I saw the proprietor standing
 on an upper veranda. He came down to look
 on — I thought he would. I worked swiftly,
 intending to keep him interested. Occasionally
 he fired off a little ejaculation of approbation,
 and by and by he spoke up with enthusiasm,
 and said I was a master!
  Sentence      Word
    I put down my brush, reached into my satchel, fetched out a
Millet, and pointed to the cipher in the corner. I said, proudly:
    “I suppose you recognize that? Well, he taught me! I should think
I ought to know my trade!”
    The man looked guiltily embarrassed, and was silent. I said
sorrowfully:
    “You don‟t mean to intimate that you don‟t know the cipher of
Francois Millet!”
    Of course he didn‟t know that cipher; but he was the gratefulest
man you ever saw, just the same, for being let out of an
uncomfortable place on such easy terms. He said:
    “No! Why, it is Millet‟s, sure enough! I don‟t know what I could
have been thinking of. Of course I recognize it now.”
    Next, he wanted to buy it; but I said that although I wasn‟t rich I
wasn‟t that poor. However, at last, I let him have it for eight hundred
francs.
    Eight hundred!
 Sentence      Word
    I put down my brush, reached into my satchel, fetched out a
Millet, and pointed to the cipher in the corner. I said, proudly:
    “I suppose you recognize that? Well, he taught me! I should think
I ought to know my trade!”
    The man looked guiltily embarrassed, and was silent. I said
sorrowfully:
    “You don‟t mean to intimate that you don‟t know the cipher of
Francois Millet!”
    Of course he didn‟t know that cipher; but he was the gratefulest
man you ever saw, just the same, for being let out of an
uncomfortable place on such easy terms. He said:
    “No! Why, it is Millet‟s, sure enough! I don‟t know what I could
have been thinking of. Of course I recognize it now.”
    Next, he wanted to buy it; but I said that although I wasn‟t rich I
wasn‟t that poor. However, at last, I let him have it for eight hundred
francs.
    Eight hundred!
 Sentence      Word
    Yes. Millet would have sold it for a pork chop. Yes, I got eight
hundred francs for that little thing. I wish I could get it back for eighty
thousand. But that time‟s gone by. I made a very nice picture of that
man‟s house and I wanted to offer it to him for ten francs, but that
wouldn‟t answer, seeing I was the pupil of such a master, so I sold it
to him for a hundred. I sent the eight hundred francs straight to Millet
from that town and struck out again next day.
    But I didn‟t walk — no. I rode. I have ridden ever since. I sold one
picture every day, and never tried to sell two. I always said to my
customer:
    “I am a fool to sell a picture of Francois Millet‟s at all, for that man
is not going to live three months, and when he dies his pictures can‟t
be had for love or money.”
    I took care to spread that little fact as far as I could, and prepare
the world for the event.

 Sentence       Word
    I take credit to myself for our plan of selling the pictures — it
was mine. I suggested it that last evening when we were laying out
our campaign, and all three of us agreed to give it a good fair trial
before giving it up for some other. It succeeded with all of us. I
walked only two days, Claude walked two — both of us afraid to
make Millet celebrated too close to home — but Carl walked only
half a day, the bright, conscienceless rascal, and after that he
traveled like a duke.
    Every now and then we got in with a country editor and started
an item around through the press; not an item announcing that a
new painter had been discovered, but an item which let on that
everybody knew Francois Millet; not an item praising him in any way,
but merely a word concerning the present condition of the
“master” — sometimes hopeful, sometimes despondent, but always
tinged with fears for the worst. We always marked these paragraphs,
and sent the papers to all the people who had bought pictures of us.

 Sentence      Word
    I take credit to myself for our plan of selling the pictures — it
was mine. I suggested it that last evening when we were laying out
our campaign, and all three of us agreed to give it a good fair trial
before giving it up for some other. It succeeded with all of us. I
walked only two days, Claude walked two — both of us afraid to
make Millet celebrated too close to home — but Carl walked only
half a day, the bright, conscienceless rascal, and after that he
traveled like a duke.
    Every now and then we got in with a country editor and started
an item around through the press; not an item announcing that a
new painter had been discovered, but an item which let on that
everybody knew Francois Millet; not an item praising him in any way,
but merely a word concerning the present condition of the
“master” — sometimes hopeful, sometimes despondent, but always
tinged with fears for the worst. We always marked these paragraphs,
and sent the papers to all the people who had bought pictures of us.

 Sentence      Word
     Carl was soon in Paris and he worked things with a high hand.
He made friends with the correspondents, and got Millet‟s condition
reported to England and all over the continent, and America, and
everywhere.
     At the end of six weeks from the start, we three met in Paris and
called a halt, and stopped sending back to Millet for additional
pictures. The boom was so high, and everything so ripe, that we saw
that it would be a mistake not to strike now, right away, without
waiting any longer. So we wrote Millet to go to bed and begin to
waste away pretty fast, for we should like him to die in ten days if he
could get ready.
     Then we figured up and found that among us we had sold eighty-
five small pictures and studies, and had sixty-nine thousand francs to
show for it. Carl had made the last sale and the most brilliant one of
all. He sold the “Angelus” for twenty-two hundred francs. How we did
glorify him! — not foreseeing that a day was coming by and by when
France would struggle to own it and a stranger would capture it for
five hundred and fifty thousand, cash.
 Sentence      Word
     Carl was soon in Paris and he worked things with a high hand.
He made friends with the correspondents, and got Millet‟s condition
reported to England and all over the continent, and America, and
everywhere.
     At the end of six weeks from the start, we three met in Paris and
called a halt, and stopped sending back to Millet for additional
pictures. The boom was so high, and everything so ripe, that we saw
that it would be a mistake not to strike now, right away, without
waiting any longer. So we wrote Millet to go to bed and begin to
waste away pretty fast, for we should like him to die in ten days if he
could get ready.
     Then we figured up and found that among us we had sold eighty-
five small pictures and studies, and had sixty-nine thousand francs to
show for it. Carl had made the last sale and the most brilliant one of
all. He sold the “Angelus” for twenty-two hundred francs. How we did
glorify him! — not foreseeing that a day was coming by and by when
France would struggle to own it and a stranger would capture it for
five hundred and fifty thousand, cash.
 Sentence      Word
     We had a wind-up champagne supper that night, and next day
Claude and I packed up and went off to nurse Millet through his last
days and keep busybodies out of the house and send daily bulletins
to Carl in Paris for publication in the papers of several continents for
the information of a waiting world. The sad end came at last, and
Carl was there in time to help in the final mournful rites.
     You remember that great funeral, and what a
stir it made all over the globe, and how the
illustrious of two worlds came to attend it and
testify their sorrow. We four — still inseparable —
carried the coffin, and would allow none to help.
And we were right about that, because it hadn‟t
anything in it but a wax figure, and any other
coffin-bearers would have found fault with the
weight. Yes, we same old four, who had lovingly
shared privation together in the old hard times
now gone for ever, carried the cof—
  Sentence      Word
     We had a wind-up champagne supper that night, and next day
Claude and I packed up and went off to nurse Millet through his last
days and keep busybodies out of the house and send daily bulletins
to Carl in Paris for publication in the papers of several continents for
the information of a waiting world. The sad end came at last, and
Carl was there in time to help in the final mournful rites.
     You remember that great funeral, and what a
stir it made all over the globe, and how the
illustrious of two worlds came to attend it and
testify their sorrow. We four — still inseparable —
carried the coffin, and would allow none to help.
And we were right about that, because it hadn‟t
anything in it but a wax figure, and any other
coffin-bearers would have found fault with the
weight. Yes, we same old four, who had lovingly
shared privation together in the old hard times
now gone for ever, carried the cof—
  Sentence      Word
    “Which four?”
    “We four — for Millet helped to carry his own coffin. In disguise,
you know. Disguised as a relative — distant relative.”
    “Astonishing!”
    “But true just the same. Well, you remember how the pictures
went up. Money? We didn‟t know what to do with it. There‟s a man in
Paris to-day who owns seventy Millet pictures. He paid us two million
francs for them. And as for the bushels of sketches and studies
which Millet shoveled out during the six weeks that we were on the
road, well, it would astonish you to know the figure we sell them at
nowadays — that is, when we consent to let one go!”
    “It is a wonderful history, perfectly wonderful!”
    “Yes — it amounts to that.”
    “Whatever became of Millet?”
    “Can you keep a secret?”
    “I can.”

 Sentence      Word
    “Do you remember the man I called your attention to in the dining
room today? That was Francois Millet.”
    “Great — ”
    “Scott! Yes. For once they didn‟t starve a genius to death and
then put into other pockets the rewards he should have had himself.
This songbird was not allowed to pipe out its heart unheard and then
be paid with the cold pomp of a big funeral. We looked out for that.”




 Sentence      Word
1. What does “fuss and feathers” mean? How is the language used
   here?
    “Fuss and feathers” means over elaborate or pretentious
    display. The two words both begin with the same consonant
    sound “f”, and they are put together, forming the alliteration with
    rhythmic effect. Other examples are “Round the rocks runs the
    river.”,” The sun sank slowly.”
2. What does this sentence imply?

    It implies that the place is filled with natural beauty, and therefore
    it may be appealing to artists.

3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    这就是说,你享有灿烂的阳光、暖和的空气、波光潋滟的碧海,而且没有
    摆阔、矫饰、炫耀这类扫兴的氛围。
What is implied in the sentence?
   As a general rule, the rich have no interest in such a quiet, simple,
   restful and unpretentious place.
1. What does “brown study” mean?

    It means a mood of deep absorption or thoughtfulness.

2. What does “lost” mean?

    It means thinking so hard about something, or being so
    interested in something, that you do not notice what is
    happening around you.
3. Translate this part into Chinese.

    „„而是陷入了沉思,有好几分钟,显然把我和周围的一切给忘了。
What does “it” refer to?

    It‟s one of Hans Andersen‟s beautiful little stories.
1. What is implied in the sentence?
   The children neglected the bird and starved it to death; likewise
   the people in the world tend to neglect the great artists like
   Francois Millet, which made them virtually impossible to survive.

2. Translate this part of the sentence into Chinese.
   他们用隆重的葬礼和最深切的哀思埋葬了鸟儿;可怜的孩子,他们并不知
   道,并非只有孩子才饿死诗人,然后花大钱为他们送葬立碑,而这些钱本
   可以用来让他们活着,让他们过得很舒适。
1. What is omitted in the sentence?
   “Am primed” is omitted between “I” and “to”, and “are primed”
   is omitted between “you” and “to”. The omission makes the
   sentence more concise.

2. What does “prime” mean here?

   It means prepare someone for a situation so that they
   know what to do.

 3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    这会儿咱俩都已准备好了—— 我已准备好来讲一件离奇的旧事,你
    也已准备好听我讲了。
Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    我们既快乐又贫穷,或者说是既贫穷又快乐 —— 爱怎么说就怎么说。
1. What does this sentence mean?

  At that time, he was not great or famous at all, just like us.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

   那个时候他和我们一样没有名气。
Translate the sentence into Chinese.

   人人都出手了,人家组成了对付我们的联盟。
1. What does “odds and ends” mean?
    It means small things of various kinds without much value. Here,
    the phrase means “old debts”.
2. What is “centime”?

    1/100th of a franc or some other units of money.

3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    他们一个子儿也不肯赊给咱们了,除非全部还清那些旧账。
1. What does “thunder and lightning” mean?
    It is an exclamation used to express anger, annoyance or
    incredulity.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    天哪! 你真是!唉,弗朗索瓦 ——
1. What does “it” refer to?
     It refer to the assumption that “if an illustrious name was
     attached to them, they would sell at splendid prices”.


2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

     但那又怎么样?
1. Paraphrase the sentence.
    … and when everything is smooth and successful as we expect,
    we will inform them of the death unexpectedly.


2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    等万事俱备,就突然宣布他的死讯,举行尽人皆知的葬礼。
1. What is implied in the sentence?
    The four artists became so poor that they could hardly support
    themselves.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
   随后我们凑集那些你除非断定有了它们就不会发财,不然怎么也不会
   出手的东西—— 诸如留作纪念的小玩意儿之类的 —— 去当了点儿钱,
   勉强能凑合一顿简单的告别晚餐和早餐,再留下几个法郎上路,给米
   勒留下一点儿萝卜什么的好维持数日。
Translate the sentence into Chinese.

   他当然不认识那个签名;可他这么容易就下了台阶,还是显出十分领
   情的样子。
1. What does “for love or money” mean?

   By all means.

2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

   我把弗朗索瓦·米勒的画卖出去根本就是个傻瓜,那个人活不了3个月了,
   等他过世了,他的画就怎么也得不到了。
1. What does “with a high hand” mean?

    In an overbearing and inconsiderable manner.


2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    卡尔很快就到了巴黎,他手段高明,干得棒极了。
1. What does “boom” mean?
   It means an increase in how popular or successful something is,
   or in how often it happens.
2. What does “strike” mean?

    It means to make use of the chance.

3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

   声势造得如此浩大,而且已经是万事俱备,我们知道,不乘这个大好
   时机立即行动就大错特错了。
Translate the sentence into Chinese.

    当时我们把他给捧上了天 —— 根本就没预见到不久有一天法国会费尽
    心机拥有此画,有外国人会出五万法郎买它,而且都是现金。
Translate the sentence into Chinese.

   这一次他们总算没把天才饿死,没有把本该属于他的报酬塞入他们的
   口袋。
unpretentious: adj.
not trying to seem better, more important, etc. than you really are
(used to show approval)

  They are rich but have an unpretentious style of living.

  Mr. Smith has an unpretentious house with a small number of
  rooms and simple furniture.
gaudy: adj.
clothes, colours, etc. that are gaudy are too bright and look cheap
(used to show disapproval)




   To be frank, I do not like the gaudy interior decoration of the
   concert hall.
   The curtain was drawn open, and the pop star in gaudy dress
   appeared on the stage.
   作者华而不实的写作风格招致读者的反感。

   The author‟s gaudy writing style led to the readers‟ antipathy.
acquaint: vt.
deliberately find out about sth.; give sb. information about sth.
   You must acquaint yourself with your new duties.

   你对莎士比亚的作品熟悉吗?

   Are you acquainted with the works of Shakespeare?

CF: acquaint, inform &notify
     这些动词都有“通知、告知”之意。
acquaint 指提供有关信息或情况从而使某人熟悉某些过程或复杂的情况。
          例如:
   Please acquaint me with the facts of the case.
   请把这事的情况告诉我。
inform 普通用词,指传达事实或信息,或指经过研究或调查而获得事实
      或信息。例如:
 He informed the police that some money was missing.
 他向警方报案说有些钱不见了。


notify 指正式通知需要注意的事情。例如:

 The authorities notified the citizens of the curfew by posting signs.
 当局以邮寄标志来通知市民们宵禁了。
unheeded: adj.
noticed but not listened to, accepted, or believed
   The doctor‟s advice was unheeded, which led to the deterioration
   of the patient‟s illness.

   他把教练的警告当耳边风,结果犯了大错。

   His coach‟s warning went unheeded; consequently, he made a
   big mistake.
plaintive: adj.
a plaintive sound is high, like sb. crying, and sounds sad
   The child had a plaintive cry when he found that he had got lost
   and could not find his mother.

   哀怨的音乐使他想起幼年悲惨的生活。

   The plaintive music made him think of the miserable life in his
   childhood.
feeble: adj.
1) n. extremely weak
   I felt feeble when I caught a flu last week.
   最近奶奶日益虚弱。

   The grandmother has been getting feebler lately.
2) not very good or effective
   Mr. Smith regretted that he had made a feeble suggestion in the
   meeting.

CF: feeble, weak & frail
     这些形容词均有“虚弱的,乏力的”之意。
feeble 指身体衰弱无力,精力几乎耗尽,有令人怜悯的意味。例如:
   In the hospital you can see many feeble patients.
   在医院里,你可以看到许多虚弱的病人。
weak 普通用词,指缺乏应有的力量,可用于身体、意志或精神。例如:

  She was still weak after her illness.
  她病后仍很虚弱。


frail 多指因经常生病而身体虚弱。例如:

  At 90, she‟s getting very old and frail.

  在九十岁时,她变得越来越虚弱。
season: v.
1) prepare wood for use by gradually drying it
   The timber has been seasoned well.
   The farmers season the wood in the autumn to make fire in the
   winter.
2) add salt, pepper, etc. to food you are cooking




   The people in this region tend to season dishes with soy sauce
   and vinegar.
   The professor seasoned the lecture with jokes to enliven the class.
他妈妈很擅长烧糖醋鱼。

His mother is good at cooking fish by seasoning it with vinegar
and sugar.

北方人似乎爱吃味道很浓的菜。

The northerners seem to like highly seasoned dishes.
muffle: vt.
make a sound less loud and clear, especially by covering sth.; cover
yourself or another person with sth. thick and warm
   Tom went into the snow, muffled in two woolen coats.

   The sound of the bell was muffled by the curtains.

   这孩子用被子蒙着脸就睡着了。

   The child muffled his face with quilt and went to sleep.
pinch: vt.
press a part of sb.‟s skin very tightly between your finger and thumb,
especially so that it hurts
   After hearing the boy‟s story, his mother pinched his face playfully.

    她使劲拧我的胳膊,现在还疼呢。

    She pinched my arm hard, and it still hurts.
credit:
1.vt.
1) add money to a bank account
   The accountant credited 300 dollars to the customer.
   The merchant refused to credit his friends any money, pleading
   financial difficulty as an excuse.
2) believe that sth. is true
   Do you credit what he has just said?
    玛莉无法相信她丈夫的死讯。
    Mary refused to credit the reports of her husband‟s death.
3) if sth. is credited to sb. or sth., they have achieved it or are the
   reason for it
   我应当把成就归功于家人的支持。
   I should credit my accomplishment to the support of my
   family.
2. n.
1) the belief that sth. is true or correct
    Do you give credit to what the man said?
2) a successfully completed part of a course
    This compulsory course lasts for one term and carries three credits.
CF: credit, belief, faith, conviction & trust
    这些名词都有“相信,信任”之意。
credit 语气最弱,着重以声誉为信任的基础。例如:
   Do you place any credit in the government‟s story?
   你相信政府的说法吗?
belief 普通用词,指单纯从主观上的相信,不着重这种相信是否有根据。例如:
    He has great belief in his doctor.
    他对他的医生无比信赖。
faith 语气较强,强调完全相信。例如:
  I‟ve lost faith in that fellow, (= I can no longer trust him.)
  我再也不相信那人了。
conviction 多指根据长期交往或实践,对某人某事有了认识和了解后产生的信心
          和信任,强调其坚定性。例如:
  It‟s my conviction that television is harmful to children.
  我深信电视对儿童有害。

trust 强调相信、信任,即完全可靠。例如:
  We should not violate a public trust.
  我们不应辜负大众的期望。
 lounge: vi.
 1. stand, sit, or lie in a lazy or relaxed way




    After dinner, Jane and her husband lounged on a sofa,
    watching TV.
2. spend time relaxing and doing nothing, often when you
   should be doing sth.
    Yesterday, I felt like doing nothing and just lounged the day
    away.
illustrious: adj.
famous and admired because of what you have achieved

   The illustrious name of Shakespeare made us filled
   with esteem.
multitudinous: adj.
very many

    Multitudinous facts have proved that success lies in diligence.
privation: n.
a lack or loss of the things that everyone needs, such as food,
warmth, and shelter

    The businessman looks very prosperous; however, he
    suffered many privations in his childhood.

    The ragged beggar died of privation in misery in the
    cold winter.
ostensible: adj.
seeming to be the reason for or the purpose of sth., but
usually hiding the real reason or purpose
    The woman scolded her son for his wrongdoings with
    ostensible anger.

   从表面上看来他是为了慈善事业,但他真正的目的是提高知名度。

   His ostensible purpose was charity, but his real goal was
   popularity.
come out with:
say sth., especially sth. unusual or unexpected

    All of us burst into laughter when John came out with
    his absurd plan.
   警方问了数小时后,犯罪嫌疑人最终说出了真相。

   Having being questioned by the police for several hours, the
   suspect finally came out with the truth.
preamble: n.
(fomal) a statement at the beginning of a book, document, or talk,
explaining what it is about
    The host gave a brief introduction to the scientist as a
    preamble, and then the lecture began.
    导师直截了当地指出了我论文里的错误。

    Without preamble, my supervisor pointed out the errors in my
    thesis.
make bold:
do sth. that other people feel is rude or not acceptable

    It is hardly believable that the student should have made bold
    to plagiarize others‟ research findings in his dissertation.

    I made bold to ask the distinguished scholar some academic
    questions after his speech.
chorus:n.
sth. that a lot of people all say at the same time

    The local government tries to defend the new policy against a
    growing chorus of criticism.

    教授的演讲受到大家一致好评。

    The professor‟s speech was welcomed with a chorus of praise.
fabulous: adj.
1) extremely good or impressive; very large in amount or size
     During the war, the monopoly capitalists amassed fabulous
     wealth.
    The disabled runner finished marathon with fabulous
    endurance.
2) fabulous creatures, places, etc. are mentioned in traditional
    stories, but do not really exist




   The tortoise was a fabulous animal who defeated, with its
   persistence, another fabulous animal, the hare, in a race.
Collocations:
  fabulous creatures    寓言中的动物
  fabulous writer       寓言作家
  fabulous heroes       传说中的英雄
  a fabulous amount     惊人的数额
  fabulous wealth       巨额财富
  a fabulous vacation   一次特别令人高兴的假期
moribund: adj.
1) (literary) slowly dying
   The aim of the charity organization is to attend to the
   moribund cancer victims.
2) a moribund organization, industry, etc. is no longer active or
   effective and may be coming to an end
   The villagers in the mountainous region have a moribund way
   of life.
dummy: n.
a model that is the shape and size of a person

    The driving test uses stuffed dummies to examine the testees‟
    driving skill.

    橱窗里的物品都是供顾客参考的模型。

    All the articles in the shop windows are dummies for customers‟
    reference.
caper: vi.
jump around and play in a happy excited way




   The children were capering about the playground, and the
   teachers were smiling at them.
   The scientists capered about the hall when they were told that
   the launch of the satellite was a great success.
transport: n.
feeling very strong emotions of pleasure, happiness, etc.

   On hearing of the victory, the soldiers were thrown into
   transports of joy.

   Audio and visual arts can send people into transports of delight.
frugal: adj.
careful to buy only what is necessary
    The farmer, who had four children in school, led a remarkably
    frugal existence.
    他虽然富了,但用钱仍然很节约。
    Although he‟s become rich, he‟s still very frugal with his money.
CF: frugal, thrifty, economical & sparing
    这四个形容词均有“节俭的” 之意。
frugal 侧重生活简朴的,特指饮食方面的简朴,只用于人。例如:
    He was a VIP, but he had a frugal life.
   他是位要人,但生活简朴。
thrifty 强调善于节省开支、积蓄钱财,只用于人。例如:
   She was a thrifty woman and managed to put aside some money
   every month.
   她是个很会持家的女人,每月都设法存些钱。
economical 着重“节省的”,应用范围广,可用来表示在人力、物力、金钱
         甚至在抽象概念方面节省的,可用于人和物。强调谨慎、精明
         的管理以避免浪费。例如:

   I have to buy a more economical stove.

   我得买一个更节省燃料的火炉。

sparing 强调在开支方面节制,例如:

  He is very sparing with his money.
  他用钱很省。
clear out:
leave a place or building quickly

   When they heard the police arrive, the thieves cleared out.

   铃声一响,孩子们就迅速离开教室回家去了。

   As soon as the bell rang, the children cleared out of the
   classroom and rushed home.
proprietor: n.
an owner of a business

    Can you imagine that the man in shabby clothes is the
    proprietor of a grand hotel?

    没有人知道这座空置多年的别墅的业主是谁。

    No one knows the proprietor of the villa which has been
    vacant for years.
approbation: n.
official approval or praise

    We have not yet received the approbation of the university for
    holding a symposium at the auditorium.

    这个剧本受到大众媒体的欢迎。

     The play received the approbation of the mass media.
intimate:
1. vt. make people understand what you mean without saying it
       directly
    The director did not state openly but intimated his approval of
    my proposal.

2. adj. having an extremely close friendship
   这两位亲密朋友曾经是不共戴天的死敌,你相信吗?

    Do you believe these two intimate friends used to be
    mutual sworn enemies?
conscienceless: adj.
lacking awareness of a moral or ethical aspect to one‟s conduct

    It is conscienceless of you to hurt your friend who offered to
    help you when you were in difficulty.

    大家都谴责这位没有良心的年轻人,因为他总是恩将仇报。

    We all condemn the conscienceless young man, for he
    always returns evil for good.
despondent: adj.
extremely unhappy and without hope

    The manager was despondent about the failure of the
    enterprise.

    这个足球队五场比赛输了四场,难怪球迷们逐渐感到沮丧。

    The football team lost four out of the five games. No wonder
    the fans were growing despondent.
tinge: vt.
give sth. a small amount of a particular colour, emotion, or
quality
   The air was blowy and tinged with rain.
   The bedroom was tinged blue by light filtered through the curtains.
    枫叶染上了秋天的红色。
    The maple leaves are tinged with autumn red.
waste away:
gradually become thinner and weaker, usually because you are ill

   Patients dying from cancer usually grow thinner and visibly
   waste away.
    她因食欲不佳而日渐消瘦。

    She is wasting away for lack of good appetite.
figure up:
add; total

   His figured up his debts, and found that it amounted to £100,000.

   他把成本总数加起来,发现这笔生意亏了。

   He figured up the costs, and found that he had lost in the business.
wind-up: n.
a series of actions that are intended to complete a process,
meeting, etc.
   We had a wind-up party at the end of the summer camp.

   短期培训班结束时,教师和学员们举行了总结会。

   At the end of the short-term training program, the teachers and
   students had a wind-up meeting.
rite: n.
a ceremony that is always performed in the same way, usually for
religious purposes; a special ceremony or action that is a sign of
a new stage in sb.‟s life, especially when a boy starts to
become a man




   When a boy, he witnessed the rite of baptism held for his
   brother‟s conversion to Christianity.
   他对剧中的婚礼和葬礼仪式很感兴趣。
   He was fascinated by the marriage rites and the funeral rites
   shown in the play.
Collocations:
  rite of baptism             洗礼仪式
  conjugal / marriage rites   婚礼
  funeral / burial rites      葬礼
  rite of passage             进年庆祝仪式(如成年典礼)
  the rites of hospitality    招待客人的礼节
  fertility rites             庆祝丰收的仪式
After Reading

  1. Useful Expressions

  2. Listening Comprehension

  3. Role Play
  4. Discussion

  5. Writing Practice

  6. Proverbs and Quotations
             Useful Expressions
1. 僻静的度假胜地        retired spot

2. 灿烂的阳光          flooding sunshine

3. 结识(某人)         get acquainted with sb.

4. 陷入沉思           drop into a brown study
5. 兴味正浓           be properly primed

6. 离奇的旧事          curious history
7. 揭开秘密           break the seal

8. 性情开朗           sunny spirit

9. 笑对贫困           laugh at poverty
10. 总是逍遥快乐        have a noble good time in all weathers
11. 穷途末路    run hard aground

12. 走投无路    come to the end

13. 满脸绝望    a face blank with dismay

14. 别再犯傻了   don‟t be a fool again

15. 垂涎欲滴    makes one‟s mouth water

16. 卖大价钱    sell at splendid prices

17. 发疯      lose one‟s mind

18. 斗胆      make bold to do sth.

19. 抓阄      cast lots

20. 万事俱备    everything is hot and just right
21.热烈的喝彩声       a rousing hurrah of applause

22. 面带愧色        look guiltily embarrassed

23. 那个时代一去不复返   that time has gone by

24. 归功于         take credit to

25. 结算          figure up

26. 庆祝收场的香槟晚餐   a wind-up champagne supper

27. 蜡人          a wax figure

28. 远房亲戚        a distant relative

29. 饿死          starve to death
     Earnest Hemingway asserted that writing, as a form of art, needed
study, discipline, and imagination. When he became famous, many
people, especially the young lovers of writing, wrote him letters and sent
him their works. A letter read, “Everybody says I‟d make a great
engineer, but what I really want to do is write.” Hemingway answered,
“Maybe everybody isn‟t wrong and you‟ll probably make an excellent
engineer and then forget all about writing and be delighted that you
never go to it.” Instead of encouraging the fervent lovers of writing, he
told them not to get mixed up in writing because it was a tough trade.
The pursuit of art was by no means easy, and it was more often than not,
fruitless. “Writing well is mainly a matter of luck. To be given a great
talent is like winning a million to one lottery. If you are not blessed, all
the study and self-discipline in the world won‟t mean a thing,” he
cautioned.
                  Listening Comprehension
Directions: Listen to the passage and answer the following
           questions.

  Questions:
  1. What did Earnest Hemingway conclude about writing?
  2. What did Hemingway‟s reply to the letter imply?
  3. Why did Hemingway advise the fervent lovers of writing “not
     to get mixed up in writing”?
                            Role Play

     Form a group four students to act out the dialogue in the text
(from Para. 18 to Para. 64). Play the roles of Francois Millet, Claude
Frere, Carl Boulanger, and Smith respectively. Do not just read this
part. Make some changes when necessary, and pay special attention
to the tone.
                          Discussion

   Discuss in groups the law claimed in the text “The merit of every
great unknown and neglected artist must and will be recognized
and his pictures climb to high prices only after his death.” Do you
agree or disagree?
                         Introduction

     Sometimes a term, for example, “culture”, may have various
meanings. Misunderstanding often arises when the reader
misinterprets the term, especially when it is abstract, ambiguous,
or controversial. It is therefore necessary to make the meaning of
the term clear, or to define the term.
     Definition belongs to a broader type of writing, exposition. It
explains the meaning of a word, phrase, or term. Definition often
forms the basis of argumentation, because it clarifies a certain
concept before getting into more elaborate explanations.
     Definition papers follow no set pattern. They can be deductive
or inductive.
                            Sample
                             Civilization
                                        — by Winston S. Churchill
    There are few words which are used more loosely than the
word “Civilization”. What does it mean? It means a society based
on the opinion of civilians. It means that violence, the rule of
warriors and despotic chiefs, the conditions of camps and welfare,
of riot and tyranny, give place to parliaments where laws are
made, and independent courts of justice in which over long
periods those laws are maintained. That is civilization — and in
this soil grow continually freedom, comfort and culture. When
Civilization reigns in any country, a wider and less harassed life is
afforded to the masses of the people. The traditions of the past
are cherished, and the inheritance bequeathed to us by former
wise or valiant men becomes a rich estate to be enjoyed and
used by all.
    The central principle of Civilization is the subordination of the
ruling authority to the settled customs of the people and to their will
as expressed through the Constitution. In this Island we have today
achieved in high degree the blessings of Civilization. There is
freedom; there is law; there is love of country; there is a great
measure of good will between classes; there is a widening prosperity.
There are unmeasured opportunities of correcting abuses and
making further progress.
                          Homework

Write a composition of about 250 words, in which you try to define
on of the following terms:
1) courage 2) vanity 3) quality education
                     Proverbs and Quotations
1.A drowning man will clutch at a straw.
    溺水之人不放过一根稻草。(病急乱投医。)

2.Any port is a good port in a storm.
    暴风雨中,任何港口都是好的避难所。

3.Better bend than break.
    宁曲勿折。(大丈夫能屈能伸。)

4. Every cloud has a silver lining.
   黑暗中总有一线光明。
5. Fortune knocks at least once at every man‟s gate.
    人一生中总有机会降临之时。
6.No cross, no crown.
    吃得苦中苦,方为人上人。

7. It is better to deserve honors and not have them than to have them
   and not to deserve them.
                                            — Mark Twain

    宁可不享有该得到的荣誉,也不要享有不配的荣誉。
                       —— 马克•吐温

8. If rich, it is easy enough to conceal our wealth, but, if poor, it is not so
   easy to conceal our poverty. We shall find it less difficult to hide a
   thousand guineas, than one hole in your coat.
                                              — Colton, British clergyman
    如果富有,藏富很容易;如果贫穷,掩饰贫穷却很困难。我们不难发现隐
    藏一千个金币比遮盖衣服上的破洞来得容易。
                       —— 英国牧师 科尔顿

								
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