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					Board Endorsed December 2010                                     -1-




                                               Psychology
                                               Appendix
                                               A/T Course
                                               Type 2



       Written under the Behavioural Science
       Course Framework 2009
                                               Accredited from
                                               2011 – 2015




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Contents Page
Personality and Abnormal Psychology Value 1.0 ................................................................. 3
Approaches to Behaviour and Learning Value 1.0 ................................................................ 7
Relationships & Sociocultural Behaviour   Value 1.0 ......................................................... 12
Motivation & the Psychology of Happiness Value 1.0 ........................................................ 17
Consciousness, Motivation and Emotion Value 1.0 ............................................................ 26
Mental Abilities, Learning and Memory Value 1.0 ............................................................. 31
Human Behaviour, Sensation and Perception Value 1.0 ...................................................... 36
Personality, the Psychology of Happiness Value 1.0 .......................................................... 41
Methods of Psychology, Independent Study (T Only) Value 1.0 ........................................ 48
Sensation, Perception and Consciousness Value 1.0 ........................................................... 53
Cognitive & Sociocultural Behaviour Value 1.0 ................................................................... 58
Human Relationships, Learning and Memory Value 1.0 ..................................................... 63
Learning, Memory & Infancy to Childhood Value 1.0 ........................................................ 69
Adolescence, Adulthood and Relationships Value 1.0 .......................................................... 74
Health Psychology & Motivation & Emotion Value 1.0 ...................................................... 80
Personality and Psychology of Happiness Value 1.0 .......................................................... 86
Psychological Methods and Childhood Value 1.0 ............................................................... 93
Psychological Methods, Learning & Memory Value 1.0 ..................................................... 99
Mental Abilities & Biological Behaviour Value 1.0 ......................................................... 105
Motivation, Emotion, Cognitive Behaviour Value 1.0 ....................................................... 110




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Personality and Abnormal Psychology                                          Value 1.0
This unit combines Personality 0.5 with Abnormal Psychology 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                     T Course
This unit should enable students to:         This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions               of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications       Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research    applications and limitations of
and literature                               psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge      Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts     knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider       psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations       methodology, with reference to real life
                                             situations
Investigate theoretical approaches to        Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
personality and practical applications of    approaches to personality and practical
personality testing.                         applications of personality testing.
Develop communication skills and an          Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the          relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                   discipline
Investigate different approaches to          Critically analyse and evaluate different
understanding and treating behavioural       approaches to understanding and treating
and mental disorders.                        behavioural and mental disorders.

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

What is Personality?
     Individual differences
     The role of heredity/ environmental influences
     The concept of self (e.g.. self-schema; self-concept; self-esteem; self-definition; self-
      confidence; self monitoring

Theoretical Approaches
     Type/trait e.g. Eysenck, Big 5
     Behaviourist e.g. Skinner, Bandura
     Psychoanalytic; Freud and Neo Freudian (Adler, Horney)
     Humanistic e.g. Rogers, Maslow,

Personality testing
     Surveys e.g. Myers Briggs, Eysenck, Big 5
     Projective tests e.g. TAT, Rorschach
   * Applications e.g. career planning

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    *   Personality disorders


Concepts of normal and abnormal
   What is normal/abnormal? (e.g. approaches to normality such as statistical; cultural;
      deviation from ideal
   The different models (e.g. adjustment, legal, medical)
   Labelling
   Community perceptions of and reactions to abnormal behaviour


Specific Disorders
    Psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia)
    Mood disorders (e.g. depression; bipolar)
    Anxiety disorders (e.g. panic; phobias)
    Personality disorders (e.g. borderline; anti-social; narcissistic)
    Dissociative disorders (Dissociative Identity Disorder, also amnesia; fugue)
    Address issues of substance abuse in relation to disorders


Methods of Treatment
   Theoretical approaches: medical (drugs); cognitive (CBT); behavioural
     (conditioning); psychoanalysis
   Rehabilitation
   Diagnostic aids (including DSM-IV)
   History of treatment (e.g. ECT; lobotomy)
   Institutionalisation vs. integration
   Community mental health services and support groups
  * Alternative treatments (e.g. scientology; yoga, meditation, ayurveda, naturopathy)


Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming


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    Links with a range of     human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.


Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research                Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental             Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report           Film review
                  responses          Literature                    Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                  Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                      Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:            Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                 Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                   o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                     articles response
                                      o Poster                  o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                    response
                                      o Multimedia              o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio               o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5        25 – 50%                                25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                          T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Matthews, G., Dreary, I.K., and Whiteman, M.C. 2003, Personality Traits (2nd ed.).
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Carver, C.S., and Scheier, M.F. 2004, Perspectives on Personality: International edition (5th
ed.) Allyn and Bacon, New York.

Audio Visual Material
Barriers of the Mind (TV Series) 1984, ABC.
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
Fatal Attraction (video) 1987, Paramount Pictures.

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I Never Promised You a Rose Garden. (DVD) 1977, Fadsin Cinema Associates.

It‟s a Wonderful Life (DVD) 1946, Liberty Films.

Mr Jones. (DVD) 1993, Rastar Productions.

One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest (DVD) 1975, Fantasy Films.

Rainman (DVD) 1988, United Artists.

Sybil. (DVD) 1976, Lorimar Productions.

The Human Body (TV series), 1998, BBC.

Web sites

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Approaches to Behaviour and Learning                                         Value 1.0
This unit combines Cognitive Approaches to Behaviour 0.5 with Learning and Memory 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                        T Course
This unit should enable students to:            This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                     influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and       applications and limitations of psychological
literature                                      research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge and     Develop and apply investigative skills,
insights into psychological concepts and        knowledge and insights into psychological
research methodology, and consider how          concepts and research methodology, with
they apply to real life situations              reference to real life situations
Develop communication skills and an             Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the             relevant to the conventions of the discipline
discipline
Develop an understanding of the extent to       Critically analyse and evaluate the extent to
which cognitive influences explain human        which cognitive influences explain human
behaviour                                       behaviour
Investigate theoretical approaches to           Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
learning and memory                             approaches to learning and memory

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Cognitive
    General concepts
        o Definitions
        o Principles
        o Research methods
        o Ethics
        * e.g. mental representations guide behaviour, mental processes can be
          scientifically investigated
        * theories/studies
        * e.g. experiments, observations, interviews

         Cognitive processes
           o Schema theory
           o Models or theories of cognitive processes
           o Biological factors that affect cognitive processes
           o Effect of social/cultural factors on cognitive processes
           o Reliability of cognitive processes
           * Research studies
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            *   Research studies, and two of the following: e.g. memory, perception, language,
                decision making,
            *   e.g. Alzheimer‟s disease, brain damage, sleep deprivation
            *   e.g. education, video games and attention, carpentered-world hypothesis
            *   research studies, e.g. reconstructive memory, perception/visual illusions,
                decision making/heuristics

       Cognition and Emotion
         o Extent that cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion
         o How emotion may affect cognitive processes
         * e.g. two factor theory, arousal theory, Lazarus‟ theory of appraisal
         * e.g. state dependent memory, flashbulb memory, affective filters
Theories of Learning
    Classical conditioning (e.g. Pavlov; Watson)
    Operant conditioning (e.g. Thorndike; Skinner)
    Social learning theories (e.g. Bandura)
    Behaviour modification using learning theories
   * Modern theories of learning and education (e.g. deBono; Vygotsky)

Memory
   Processes
   Interaction of sensory, short term and long term memory
   Unusual memories
   Flashbulb memories
   Tips for improving memory
   Eyewitness testimonies
   Forgetting and retention; repressed memories
   Different studying strategies
   Mnemonic devices
   Issues (e.g.. hypnosis, polygraph, false memories)


Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews

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    Timelines/ mind maps/      brainstorming
       Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.


Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research                Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental             Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report           Film review
                  responses          Literature                    Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                  Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                      Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:            Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                 Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                   o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                     articles response
                                      o Poster                  o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                    response
                                      o Multimedia              o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio               o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                          T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.
Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.
Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.



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Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Test Bank For Plonik’s Introduction To Psychology, Seventh Edition.
Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Instructor’s Resources Manual For Plotnik’s Introduction To Psychology,
Seventh Edition. Wodsworth, USA.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.


Audio-visual materials
A Clockwork Orange 1962 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Born on the Fourth of July 1989 (DVD) Ixtlan.

Bowling For Columbine 2002 (DVD) Alliance Atlantis Communications


Dead Again 1991 (DVD) Paramount Pictures

Dolores Claiborne 1995 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

Discovering Psychology 2006 (DVD) Marcom Projects.

50 first Dates 2004 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

Free Willy 1993 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Liar Liar 1997 (DVD) Universal Pictures.

Memento 2000 (DVD) Newmarket Capital Group.

Memory 1993 (DVD) ABC.

Prince of Tides 1991 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

The Human Body 1998 (DVD) ABC.

The Majestic 2001 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

The Miracle Worker 1962 (DVD) Playfilm Productions.

Total Recall 1990 (DVD) TriStar Pictures.
What about Bob? 1991 (DVD) Touchstone Pictures.

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Web sites
Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Relationships & Sociocultural Behaviour                                          Value 1.0
This unit combines Human Relationships 0.5 with Sociocultural Approaches to Behaviour
0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                         T Course
This unit should enable students to:             This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of         Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                      influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and       Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and        applications and limitations of psychological
literature                                       research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge and      Develop and apply investigative skills,
insights into psychological concepts and         knowledge and insights into psychological
research methodology, and consider how           concepts and research methodology, with
they apply to real life situations               reference to real life situations
Develop communication skills and an              Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the              relevant to the conventions of the discipline
discipline
Develop the ability to apply and understand      Critically analyse and evaluate the extent to
the extent to which biological, cognitive        which biological, cognitive and socio-
and socio-cultural factors influence human       cultural factors influence human
relationships                                    relationships
Develop an understanding of the extent to        Critically analyse and evaluate the extent to
which sociocultural influences explain           which sociocultural influences explain
human behaviour                                  human behaviour

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Social Responsibility
         Altruism
         Prosocial behaviour
         Bystander Effect
         Theories that explain altruism in humans
         Cross-cultural differences in prosocial behaviour (research studies)
         Factors in bystanderism
         Arousal-cost-reward model
      *   Negative-state relief model, empathy-altruism model
      *   Kin selection theory,
      *   Reciprocal altruism theory,
      *   Bateson and Darley, 1973
      *   John Rabe: A good Nazi?
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    *   Social exchange theory, arousal-cost-reward model
    *   The role of social norms

Interpersonal relationships
       Biological, psychological and social origins of attraction
       Theoretical models
       Theories of love
       Role of communication in maintaining relationships
       Importance of culture in forming and maintaining relationships
       Why relationships change or end
    *   Hormones,
    *   Evolution
    *   Cognition
    *   Keisler and Baral, 1970
    *   Reciprocity
    *   Culture
    *   Social penetration theory
    *   Self-disclosure
    *   Buss, 194
    *   Social exchange theory, equity theory, patterns of accommodation

Violence
       Biological, cognitive and sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence
       Effectiveness of strategies for reducing violence
       Effects of short-term and long-term exposure to violence
    *   Hormones, neurotransmitters, brain structure; schemas, information processing,
        cultivation theory; power differences, deindividuation theory, social identity theory,
        self categorisation, power elations
    *   Baumeister and Bushman, 1998
    *   Zimbado, 1969
    *   Case study: bullying
    *   Empathy: “virtual reality”, social skills
    *   Impact of bullying, support structures

Socio-cultural
    General concepts
         o Definitions
         o Principles
         o Research methods
         o Ethics
         * Social/cultural environment influences individual behaviour; we want
            connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to, others; we construct our
            conceptions of the individual and the social self
         * Theories/studies
         * e.g. participant/naturalistic observation, interviews, case studies

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       Socio-cultural cognition
         o How situational and dispositional factors explain behaviour
         o Attribution errors
         o Social identity theory
         o Formation of stereotypes, and how it affects behaviour
         * e.g. FAE, illusory correlation, self-serving bias
         * research studies

       Social norms
         o Social learning theory
         o Compliance techniques
         o Conformity
         * research studies, e.g. Bandura
         * e.g. reciprocity, foot-in-the-door, lowballing
         * conforming to group norms, factors influencing conformity, group norms, risky
             shift, minority influence

       Cultural norms
         o Definition of “culture” and “cultural norms”
         o cultural dimension effects on behaviour
         o “emic” and “etic” concepts
         * e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance,
             Confucian dynamism, masculinity/femininity

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature                   Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                 Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                     Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                              A                          T
In class task/essay                     300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                     500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Clarke, V & Gillet, S. 2001, VCE Psychology for Units 3 and 4, Nelson, Melbourne.

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Harari, P., Legge, K. 2001, Psychology And Health, Heinemann themes in psychology,
Heinemann Educational Publishers, Portsmouth, NH.

Iersel, H. 2005, Nelson Psychology: VCE units 3 & 4. Thomson Learning, Southbank, Vic.

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Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Mook, D. 2004, Classic Experiments In Psychology. Greenwood Press, Westport,
Connecticut.

Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Test Bank For Plonik’s Introduction To Psychology, Seventh Edition.
Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Instructor’s Resources Manual For Plotnik’s Introduction To Psychology,
Seventh Edition. Wodsworth, USA.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.

Websites

A2Z Psychology Resources (on line), 2010
< http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ >

All About Psychology (on line), 2010
<http://www.all-about-psychology.com/>

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

BBC Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/tv/humansenses/ >


Current Topics in Psychology – Dr Michael Fenichel (Highly recommended) (on line), 2010
< http://www.fenichel.com/Current.shtml >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Discovering Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html >

Discovering Psychology Video on demand (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org >

New Scientist Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://www.newscientist.com/home.ns >

These were accurate at time of publication.
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Motivation & the Psychology of Happiness                                   Value 1.0
This unit combines Motivation and Emotion 0.5 with The Psychology of Happiness 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                    T Course
This unit should enable students to:        This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions              of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research   applications and limitations of
and literature                              psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge     Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts    knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider      psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations      methodology, with reference to real life
                                            situations
Develop communication skills and an         Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the         relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                  discipline
Investigate the concepts and underlying     Critically analyse and evaluate the
factors concerning motivation and           concepts and underlying factors
emotion                                     concerning motivation and emotion
To examine and discuss theoretical          To critically examine and discuss
perspectives on happiness and wellbeing     theoretical perspectives on happiness and
                                            wellbeing
Demonstrate an understanding of the         To analyse and compare the biological
biological basis of emotional behaviour     and cognitive basis of emotional
and self-awareness                          behaviour and self-awareness
To identify and discuss the nature of       To critically analyse the biological and
emotional responses and the forces that     cognitive nature of emotional responses
shape those responses                       and the forces that shape those responses

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

The Nature of Motivation
    Definition of motive, need, drive and instinct
    Biological vs. social motives
   * Unconscious motives
    Motivation and achievement
   * Levels of motivation (e.g.. the Yerkes Dodson Law)

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    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
    *   Demotivation

Theoretical Approaches
    Instinct theory
   * Drive reduction theory
    Incentive theory
    Cognitive theory
    Maslow‟s hierarchy
   * Psychodynamic approach
   * AJ Martin‟s theory

Biological Motives
    Hunger
    Sex

Learned Motives
    Affiliation
    Achievement
   * Power

The Nature of Emotions
    Primary and secondary emotions
    Brain and emotion
   * Theories of love (e.g. Sternberg)

Communicating emotions
   Non-verbal communication (e.g. facial expressions; tone of voice; body language)
   Gender/cultural differences
  * Faking emotion (e.g. lying and deception)

Theoretical Approaches
    James-Lange; Cannon-Bard
    Schachter‟s Cognitive theory
    Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Emotional Intelligence
   Changing values emphasis on EQ versus IQ
  * Emotional resilience and youth



The biological basis of emotions
       primary emotions – anger, sadness, happiness
       neuroscientific studies revealing the emotional brain
       trauma and emotional absence



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Positive Psychology
       Martin Seligman‟s theory of positive psychology
       Barbara Frederickson‟s theory
         o The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions
         o The Broaden Hypothesis
         o The Build Hypothesis
         o The Undoing Hypothesis
         o Positivity Ratios
       Lyubomirsky‟s "Construal Theory of Happiness"
       Parfit‟s three theories of happiness
       Csikszentmihalyi‟s psychology of optimal experience

Models of self and self efficacy
   Self Actualisation (Maslow)
   The ideal and real self (Rogers)
   Positive Thinking
   Self Efficacy
  * Measuring self efficacy
  * Developing and promoting strategies for self efficacy

Health and Wellbeing
    Models of healthy selves
    Neuroscience studies
    Well being studies
    Happiness surveys
   * Developing a positive attitude
   * The role of meditation, relaxation, leisure, gratitude
   * Leading a balanced lifestyle – coping with multiple demands

Stress, trauma, coping and resilience
       Types of stress
       Measuring stress: Holmes and Rahe
       Coping with stress - Csikszentmihalyi
       Coping with failure
   * Coping with trauma
   * Coping with grief
   * Coping with depression
       Developing resilience
       When to seek help

Developing Positive relationships with others
     First impressions
     Creating and sustaining a positive impression
     Gratitude letters
    * Dealing with conflict
     Assertive behaviours
     Negotiation

Emotional Intelligence
     Recognising emotional cues
     Gender differences in emotional responses
         o Changing values emphasis on EQ versus IQ

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            * Emotional resilience and youth (e.g. Japan vs. Australia vs. Netherlands: a
              Case Study)

       Critiques of pop psychology and the self help movement

Prosocial behaviour
     basic findings: Darley & Latane
     theories: instinct, empathy, etc
     factors affecting altruism
   * promoting global citizenship and responsible behaviour
     moral behaviour and studies
   * gratitude
   * virtue

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature                   Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                 Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                     Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                         T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words             500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words            800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Argyle, M. 2002, The Psychology of Happiness, Meuthen, New York

Aspinwall, L. G., & Staudinger, U. M. (Eds.). (2003), A psychology of human
strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology.
Washington, DC: APA Books

Bolt, M. 2004, Pursuing Human Strengths: A Positive Psychology Guide, Worth
Publishing, New York

Bryant, F.B. and Veroff, J. 2006, Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.

Cloninger, C.R. 2004, Feeling Good: The Science of Well Being, Oxford University
Press, USA.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1990, Flow: the Psychology of Optimal Experience, 1st edn,
Penguin Books


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Csikszentmihalyi, M. 2004, Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of
Meaning, Penguin Books

Diener, E. and Eid, M. (eds.) 2006, Handbook of Multimethod Measurement in
Psychology, American Psychological Association (APA), USA

Easterbrook, G. 2003, The Progress Paradox: How Life Gets Better While People
Feel Worse, 1st edn, Random House Trade, USA

Frisch, M.B. 2005, Quality of Life Therapy: Applying a Life Satisfaction Approach to
Positive Psychology and Cognitive Therapy, Wiley

Gilbert, D. 2007, Stumbling on Happiness, HarperCollins Publishers

Haidt, J. 2007, The Happiness Hypothesis, Cornerstone

Huppert, F., Baylis, N. and Keverne, B. 2005, The Science of Well-Being, Oxford
University Press, Oxford

Joseph, S. and Linley, P.A. 2004, Positive Therapy, Routledge

Keyes, C.L.M. and Haidt, J. (eds.) 2003, Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the
Life Well-Lived, American Psychological Association (APA), USA

Layard, R. 2005, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, Penguin Books.

Linley, P.A. and Joseph, S. (eds.) 2004, Positive Psychology in Practice. John Wiley
and Sons Inc, N. Y.

Lykken, D.T. 1999. Happiness: What Studies on Twins Show Us about Nature,
Nurture, and the Happiness Set Point

McMahon, D.M. 2006, Happiness: A History, Grove/Atlantic

Murray, C. 2003. Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and
Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950.

Myers, D.G. 1990. Pursuit of Happiness,

Ong, A. & Van Dulmen, M. 2006, Oxford Handbook of Methods in Positive
Psychology (Series in Positive Psychology), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Peterson, C. 2004, A Primer in Positive Psychology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. 2004, Character Strengths and Virtues: A
Handbook and Classification, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Reivich, K. and Shatté, A. 2002, The Resilience Factor: 7 Essential, Broadway Books
Schwartz, B. 2005, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less, Ecco

Seligman, Dr. M.E.P. 2002. Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention, and Positive
Therapy.


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Seligman, M.E.P. 2002. Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to
Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment, Simon & Schuster Ltd.

Seligman, M.E.P. 2006, Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your
Life, Vintage Books USA

Sheldon, K.M. 2007, Optimal Human Being: An Integrated Multi-Level Perspective,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J. 2007, Positive Psychology: The Scientific and Practical
Explorations of Human Strengths, Sage Publications, CA

Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J. 2005, Handbook of Positive Psychology, Oxford
University Press, Oxford

Vaillant, G.E. 2002, Aging Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life from the
Landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development, Little Brown and Company
Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2001, Psychology for A2 Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2000, Psychology for AS Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Audiovisual Material
Gallup DVD How to be Happy, with Ed Diener

Primal Instinct (series), 2004, ABC Science Unit

Shallow Hal (video) 2001, Farelly Brothers

The Human Body (DVD) 1998, BBC

The Human Face (DVD) 2001, BBC

The Miracle Worker (DVD) 1962, Playfilm Productions
Catalyst -The Extreme Sports Brain (TV Series) 6 March 2008, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2008/03/06/2179019.htm>
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
Exposed (TV Series), 2005, BBC.

Sense and Sensibility (DVD) 1995, Columbia Pictures.

The Human Body (TV series), 1998, BBC.


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The Human Face (TV series), 2001, BBC.

The Miracle Worker (DVD), 1962, Playfilm Productions.

Websites

Interviews with Positive Psychology Scholars (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspx

Positive Psychology Scholars (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspx

Construal Theory of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://lyubomirsky.socialpsychology.org/

Self-Handicapping and Defensive Pessimism: Predictors and Consequences from a Self-
Worth Motivation Perspective (on line), 2010
http://self.uws.edu.au/Theses/Martin/Thesis.htm

The Architecture of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.alaindebotton.com/

Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology (on line), 2010
http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/

The Secret of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.biopsychiatry.com/happiness/

Flow Theory (on line), 2010
http://www.brainchannels.com/thinker/mihaly.html

Centre for Confidence and Wellbeing (on line), 2010
http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/

Positive Psychology Centre (on line), 2010
http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/

Reflective Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspxmailto:acparks@psych.upenn.edu

The Value of Positive Emotions (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/AMSCI_2003-07Fredrickson.pdf

The role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/Fredrickson_AmPsych_01.pdf

What good are positive Emotions (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/Fredrickson_RGP_98.pdf

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >


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Pearson Prentice Hall (on line), 2010
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/psychology_7.shtml >

Social Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newResources/coreSocial.html >

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Consciousness, Motivation and Emotion                                      Value 1.0
This unit combines Consciousness 0.5 with Motivation and Emotion 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                    T Course
This unit should enable students to:        This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions              of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research   applications and limitations of
and literature                              psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge     Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts    knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider      psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations      methodology, with reference to real life
                                            situations
Investigate the function of the central     Investigate the function of the central
nervous system in relation to               nervous system in relation to
consciousness.                              consciousness.
Investigate the nature of consciousness.    Critically analyse and evaluate the nature
                                            of consciousness.
Develop communication skills and an         Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the         relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                  discipline
Investigate the concepts and underlying     Critically analyse and evaluate the
factors concerning motivation and           concepts and underlying factors
emotion                                     concerning motivation and emotion

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic
The Nervous System
     The physiology of the brain and the nervous system
     Left and right hemispheres
     Brain mapping
     Consciousness
Consciousness
     The nature of consciousness (i.e. mind-body duality)
     Continuum of consciousness and its experiences
Altered States of Consciousness
   * Sleep
   * Sensory deprivation
   * Dreaming
   * Hypnosis
   * Meditation
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    *   Drugs
    *   Out of body experiences
    *   Daydreaming

The Nature of Motivation
    Definition of motive, need, drive and instinct
    Biological vs. social motives
   * Unconscious motives
    Motivation and achievement
   * Levels of motivation (e.g.. the Yerkes Dodson Law)
    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
   * Demotivation

Theoretical Approaches
    Instinct theory
   * Drive reduction theory
    Incentive theory
    Cognitive theory
    Maslow‟s hierarchy
   * Psychodynamic approach
   * AJ Martin‟s theory

Biological Motives
    Hunger
    Sex

Learned Motives
    Affiliation
    Achievement
   * Power

The Nature of Emotions
    Primary and secondary emotions
    Brain and emotion
   * Theories of love (e.g. Sternberg)

Communicating emotions
   Non-verbal communication (e.g. facial expressions; tone of voice; body language)
   Gender/cultural differences
  * Faking emotion (e.g. lying and deception)

Theoretical Approaches
    James-Lange; Cannon-Bard
    Schachter‟s Cognitive theory
    Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Emotional Intelligence

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    Changing values emphasis     on EQ versus IQ
    *   Emotional resilience and youth

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.

Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research                Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental             Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report           Film review
                  responses          Literature               Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay             Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                 Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:            Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                 Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                   o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                     articles response
                                      o Poster                  o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                    response
                                      o Multimedia              o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio               o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units




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When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                            T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words                500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words               800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2001, Psychology for A2 Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2000, Psychology for AS Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Audio/Visual

Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989.

28 Days (DVD) 2000, Columbia Pictures.

Altered States (DVD) 1980, Warner Bros. Pictures.

Barfly (DVD) 1987, Golan-Globus Productions.

Clean and Sober (DVD) 1988, Warner Bros. Pictures.

Curse of the Jade Scorpion (DVD) 2001, DreamWorks Pictures.

Insomnia (DVD) 2002, Alcon Entertainment.

Postcards from the Edge (DVD) 1990, Columbia Pictures.

Shallow Hal (DVD) 2001, Twentieth Century Fox.

When a Man Loves a Woman (DVD) 1994, Touchstone Pictures.

Catalyst -The Extreme Sports Brain (TV Series) 6 March 2008, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2008/03/06/2179019.htm>

Exposed (TV Series), 2005, BBC.

Sense and Sensibility (DVD) 1995, Columbia Pictures.


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The Human Body (TV series), 1998, BBC.

The Human Face (TV series), 2001, BBC.

The Miracle Worker (DVD), 1962, Playfilm Productions.


Web Sites

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Pearson Prentice Hall (on line), 2010
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/psychology_7.shtml >

Social Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newResources/coreSocial.html >

These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Mental Abilities, Learning and Memory                                      Value 1.0
This unit combines Mental Abilities 0.5 with Learning and Memory 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                    T Course
This unit should enable students to:        This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions              of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research   applications and limitations of
and literature                              psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge     Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts    knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider      psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations      methodology, with reference to real life
                                            situations
Investigate the nature of intelligence,     Critically analyse and evaluate the nature
thinking and creativity                     and measurement of intelligence,
                                            thinking and creativity
Develop communication skills and an         Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the         relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                  discipline
Investigate theoretical approaches to       Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
learning and memory                         approaches to learning and memory

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Intelligence
       Major theorists e.g. Binet, Weschler, Sternberg, Terman, Gardner Eysenck, Spearman
       Statistical approaches to normality
       Definitions
       Theories on the nature of intelligence
       Heredity/environment
   * Interplay of cognition and emotions
       Measurement of intelligence and IQ tests
                o validity
                o reliability
                o standardisation
                o cultural bias and cultural fairness
       Multiple intelligence
       Emotional intelligence e.g. Goleman
       Brain studies
       Specific disabilities/abilities e.g. Autism, Savants, Asperger‟s syndrome



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Thinking
     Theoretical approaches to problem-solving and decision-making
     Factors that influence problem-solving and decision-making
     Creative thinking e.g. Costa – Habits of Mind, de Bono
     Cognitive styles: convergent, divergent and lateral thinking
Theories of Learning
    Classical conditioning (e.g. Pavlov; Watson)
    Operant conditioning (e.g. Thorndike; Skinner)
    Social learning theories (e.g. Bandura)
    Behaviour modification using learning theories
   * Modern theories of learning and education (e.g. deBono; Vygotsky)

Memory
   Processes
   Interaction of sensory, short term and long term memory
   Unusual memories
   Flashbulb memories
   Tips for improving memory
   Eyewitness testimonies
   Forgetting and retention; repressed memories
   Different studying strategies
   Mnemonic devices
   Issues (e.g.. hypnosis, polygraph, false memories)


Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature              Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay            Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                            T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words                500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words               800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.
Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.


AudioVisual Material
A Beautiful Mind (DVD) 2001, Universal Pictures.

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As Good as It Gets (DVD) 1997, Tristar Pictures.

Cosi (DVD) 1996, Miramax Films.

Girl, Interrupted (DVD) 1999, 3 Art Entertainment, Columbia Pictures.

Good Will Hunting (DVD) 1997, Miramax Films.

Shine (DVD) 1996, Australian Film Finance Corporation.
A Clockwork Orange 1962 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Born on the Fourth of July 1989 (DVD) Ixtlan.

Bowling For Columbine 2002 (DVD) Alliance Atlantis Communications


Dead Again 1991 (DVD) Paramount Pictures

Dolores Claiborne 1995 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

Discovering Psychology 2006 (DVD) Marcom Projects.

50 first Dates 2004 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

Free Willy 1993 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Liar Liar 1997 (DVD) Universal Pictures.

Memento 2000 (DVD) Newmarket Capital Group.

Memory 1993 (DVD) ABC.

Prince of Tides 1991 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

The Human Body 1998 (DVD) ABC.

The Majestic 2001 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

The Miracle Worker 1962 (DVD) Playfilm Productions.

Total Recall 1990 (DVD) TriStar Pictures.
What about Bob? 1991 (DVD) Touchstone Pictures.

Web sites
A Brief Review of Creativity (on line), 2010
< http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/dickhut.html > Dickhut, J. E.

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

American Psychological Association Monitor – monthly review of research (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/monitor/ >


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Amoeba Web Online: Psychological Tests (on line), 2010
<http://www.vanguard.edu/Home/AcademicResources/Faculty/DougDegelman/PsychologyDi
rectoryAmoebaWeb/PsychologyResourcesOnlineTests.aspx >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

California State University 2004, What is Creativity? (on line), 2010
< http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/creativity/define.htm >

Legally Blonde Film Script (on line), 2010
< http://www.dailyscript.com/scripts/legallblonde-shooting.pdf >

Mental Health Info Source (on line), 2010
< http://www.mhsource.com/ >

Psychiatric Times Disorder Index (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/disorder.html >

Psychology in the News (on line), 2010
< http://www.psycport.com/ >

Psychology Today Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://cms.psychologytoday.com/pto/home.php >

Why we should use Non Cognitive Variables with Graduate Students (on line), 2000
< http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/Diversity/General/Reading/Sedlacek/501.html >
Sedlacek, William E.

Society for the Teaching of Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/ >

These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Human Behaviour, Sensation and Perception                                 Value 1.0
This unit combines Biological Approaches to Behaviour 0.5 with Sensation and Perception
0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                      T Course
This unit should enable students to:          This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of      Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                   influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and    Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and     applications and limitations of psychological
literature                                    research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge and   Develop and apply investigative skills,
insights into psychological concepts and      knowledge and insights into psychological
research methodology, and consider how        concepts and research methodology, with
they apply to real life situations            reference to real life situations
Develop communication skills and an           Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the           relevant to the conventions of the discipline
discipline
Develop an understanding of the extent to     Critically analyse and evaluate the extent to
which biological influences explain human     which biological influences explain human
behaviour                                     behaviour
Investigate the processes of sensation and    Critically analyse and evaluate the processes
perception.                                   of sensation and perception.

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Biological
    General concepts
         o Definitions
         o Principles
         o Research methods
         o Ethics
         * e.g. patterns of behaviour can be inherited, animal research can be useful,
           cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of our physiology
         * Theories and or studies
         * e.g. experiments, observations, correlation studies
         * Research studies

         Physiology and its relationship to behaviour
           o Localisation of function in the brain
           o Effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour
           o Explain functions of hormones on behaviour
           o Effects of the environment on physiological processes
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            o Interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour
            o Brain imaging technologies in finding relationships between biological factors
              and behaviour
            * Studies related (Wernicke, Broca, Sperry)
            * Examples to explain this, e.g. noradrenalin on depression
            * Two or more
            * e.g. Jet lag on bodily rhythms, environmental stressors on reproductive
              mechanisms
            * e.g. agnosia, amnesia
            * CAT scans, PET scans, fMRIs etc

       Genetics and Behaviour
         o Extent that genetic inheritance influences behaviour
         o Evolutionary explanation of behaviour
         o Ethical considerations in research
         o Studies
         * Ethics in research into genetic influences on behaviour
Sensation (Biological perspective)
      The five senses
      Detection and thresholds
      Adaptation and attention
      Pain control
Perceiving (Cognitive perspective)
      Perceptual constancies
      Perceptual learning
      Illusions
      Ambiguous figures, impossible perspectives e.g. Escher,
      Factors influencing what is perceived (e.g. Gestalt,)
               o   cultural differences
               o   expectations e.g. eye witness testimonies, „rat man‟ example
               o   gender differences
   * Parapsychology (ESP, telepathy, clairvoyance, etc)

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews

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    Timelines/ mind maps/      brainstorming
       Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.


Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.
              Test/Exam             Research                Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental             Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report           Film review
                  responses          Literature                    Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                  Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                      Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:            Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                 Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                   o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                     articles response
                                      o Poster                  o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                    response
                                      o Multimedia              o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio               o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:
                                               A                          T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words             800-1500 words
As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

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Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.

Clarke, V & Gillet, S. 2001, VCE Psychology for Units 3 and 4, Nelson, Melbourne.

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Eysenck, Michael W.; Keane Mark T. 2005, Cognitive psychology: a student's handbook. 5th
ed. Psychology Press, Hove, East Sussex.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Iersel, H. 2005, Nelson Psychology: VCE units 3 & 4. Thomson Learning, Southbank, Vic.

May, M. 2007, Sensation Perception. Facts on File, New York.

McInerney, D. M.; McInerney, V. 2002, Education Psychology: constructing learning.
Prentice Hall, French‟s Forest.

Morris C. Maisto A. 2005, Psychology: an introduction. 12th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, N.J.

Myers , D. G. 2001, Psychology: Myers in modules. (6th ed). Worth, New York.

Rawlings, M.; Skouteris, H.; Whitechurch, R. 2007, Heinemann psychology. (2nd ed).
Heinemann, Port Melbourne.

Schiffman, H. R. 2007, Sensation and perception: an integrated approach. Wiley, Hoboken,
NJ.

Sternberg, R.J. 2001, In Search of the Human Mind, 3rd Edn. Harcourt College, Sydney.

Tebbel, Cyndi. 2000, The body snatchers: how the media shapes women. Finch, Sydney.

Audio/Visual
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
The Human Body (TV series), 1998, BBC.

Catalyst - Body Clock (ABC series) 4 September 2008, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2351893.htm>

Four Corners: Eyes Wide Open (TV series) 2007, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2007/s2000881.htm>

Catalyst - Hypnosis (ABC series) 18 August 2005, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1440855.htm>



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Web sites

Allpsych (on line), 2010
< http://allpsych.com >

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

Athabasca University Centre for Psychology Resources (on line), 2010
< http://psych.athabascau.ca >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

The British Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.bps.org.uk/ >

BBC Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/tv/humansenses/ >

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Personality, the Psychology of Happiness                                     Value 1.0
This unit combines Personality 0.5 with The Psychology of Happiness 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                     T Course
Explain human behaviour as an outcome        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions               of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications       Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research    applications and limitations of
and literature                               psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge      Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts     knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider       psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations       methodology, with reference to real life
                                             situations
Investigate theoretical approaches to        Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
personality and practical applications of    approaches to personality and practical
personality testing.                         applications of personality testing.
To examine and discuss theoretical           To critically examine and discuss
perspectives on happiness and wellbeing      theoretical perspectives on happiness and
                                             wellbeing
Demonstrate an understanding of the          To analyse and compare the biological
biological basis of emotional behaviour      and cognitive basis of emotional
and self-awareness                           behaviour and self-awareness
To identify and discuss the nature of        To critically analyse the biological and
emotional responses and the forces that      cognitive nature of emotional responses
shape those responses                        and the forces that shape those responses

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

What is Personality?
     Individual differences
     The role of heredity/ environmental influences
     The concept of self (e.g.. self-schema; self-concept; self-esteem; self-definition; self-
      confidence; self monitoring

Theoretical Approaches
     Type/trait e.g. Eysenck, Big 5
     Behaviourist e.g. Skinner, Bandura
     Psychoanalytic; Freud and Neo Freudian (Adler, Horney)
     Humanistic e.g. Rogers, Maslow,

Personality testing
     Surveys e.g. Myers Briggs, Eysenck, Big 5
     Projective tests e.g. TAT, Rorschach
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    *   Applications e.g. career planning
    *   Personality disorders
The biological basis of emotions
       primary emotions – anger, sadness, happiness
       neuroscientific studies revealing the emotional brain
       trauma and emotional absence
Positive Psychology
       Martin Seligman‟s theory of positive psychology
       Barbara Frederickson‟s theory
         o The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions
         o The Broaden Hypothesis
         o The Build Hypothesis
         o The Undoing Hypothesis
         o Positivity Ratios
       Lyubomirsky‟s "Construal Theory of Happiness"
       Parfit‟s three theories of happiness
       Csikszentmihalyi‟s psychology of optimal experience

Models of self and self efficacy
   Self Actualisation (Maslow)
   The ideal and real self (Rogers)
   Positive Thinking
   Self Efficacy
  * Measuring self efficacy
  * Developing and promoting strategies for self efficacy

Health and Wellbeing
    Models of healthy selves
    Neuroscience studies
    Well being studies
    Happiness surveys
   * Developing a positive attitude
   * The role of meditation, relaxation, leisure, gratitude
   * Leading a balanced lifestyle – coping with multiple demands

Stress, trauma, coping and resilience
       Types of stress
       Measuring stress: Holmes and Rahe
       Coping with stress - Csikszentmihalyi
       Coping with failure
   * Coping with trauma
   * Coping with grief
   * Coping with depression
       Developing resilience
       When to seek help

Developing Positive relationships with others
     First impressions
     Creating and sustaining a positive impression
     Gratitude letters
    * Dealing with conflict
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       Assertive behaviours
       Negotiation

Emotional Intelligence
     Recognising emotional cues
     Gender differences in emotional responses
         o Changing values emphasis on EQ versus IQ
          * Emotional resilience and youth (e.g. Japan vs. Australia vs. Netherlands: a
             Case Study)

       Critiques of pop psychology and the self help movement

Prosocial behaviour
     basic findings: Darley & Latane
     theories: instinct, empathy, etc
     factors affecting altruism
   * promoting global citizenship and responsible behaviour
     moral behaviour and studies
   * gratitude
   * virtue

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature              Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay            Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                            T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words                500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words               800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books

Matthews, G., Dreary, I.K., and Whiteman, M.C. 2003, Personality Traits (2nd ed.).
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Carver, C.S., and Scheier, M.F. 2004, Perspectives on Personality: International edition (5th
ed.) Allyn and Bacon, New York.
Argyle, M. 2002, The Psychology of Happiness, Meuthen, New York

Aspinwall, L. G., & Staudinger, U. M. (Eds.). (2003), A psychology of human
strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology.
Washington, DC: APA Books

Bolt, M. 2004, Pursuing Human Strengths: A Positive Psychology Guide, Worth
Publishing, New York

Bryant, F.B. and Veroff, J. 2006, Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.

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Cloninger, C.R. 2004, Feeling Good: The Science of Well Being, Oxford University
Press, USA.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1990, Flow: the Psychology of Optimal Experience, 1st edn,
Penguin Books

Csikszentmihalyi, M. 2004, Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of
Meaning, Penguin Books

Diener, E. and Eid, M. (eds.) 2006, Handbook of Multimethod Measurement in
Psychology, American Psychological Association (APA), USA

Easterbrook, G. 2003, The Progress Paradox: How Life Gets Better While People
Feel Worse, 1st edn, Random House Trade, USA

Frisch, M.B. 2005, Quality of Life Therapy: Applying a Life Satisfaction Approach to
Positive Psychology and Cognitive Therapy, Wiley

Gilbert, D. 2007, Stumbling on Happiness, HarperCollins Publishers

Haidt, J. 2007, The Happiness Hypothesis, Cornerstone

Huppert, F., Baylis, N. and Keverne, B. 2005, The Science of Well-Being, Oxford
University Press, Oxford

Joseph, S. and Linley, P.A. 2004, Positive Therapy, Routledge

Keyes, C.L.M. and Haidt, J. (eds.) 2003, Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the
Life Well-Lived, American Psychological Association (APA), USA

Layard, R. 2005, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, Penguin Books.

Linley, P.A. and Joseph, S. (eds.) 2004, Positive Psychology in Practice. John Wiley
and Sons Inc, N. Y.

Lykken, D.T. 1999. Happiness: What Studies on Twins Show Us about Nature,
Nurture, and the Happiness Set Point

McMahon, D.M. 2006, Happiness: A History, Grove/Atlantic

Murray, C. 2003. Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and
Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950.

Myers, D.G. 1990. Pursuit of Happiness,

Ong, A. & Van Dulmen, M. 2006, Oxford Handbook of Methods in Positive
Psychology (Series in Positive Psychology), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Peterson, C. 2004, A Primer in Positive Psychology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. 2004, Character Strengths and Virtues: A
Handbook and Classification, Oxford University Press, Oxford.


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Reivich, K. and Shatté, A. 2002, The Resilience Factor: 7 Essential, Broadway Books
Schwartz, B. 2005, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less, Ecco

Seligman, Dr. M.E.P. 2002. Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention, and Positive
Therapy.

Seligman, M.E.P. 2002. Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to
Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment, Simon & Schuster Ltd.

Seligman, M.E.P. 2006, Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your
Life, Vintage Books USA

Sheldon, K.M. 2007, Optimal Human Being: An Integrated Multi-Level Perspective,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J. 2007, Positive Psychology: The Scientific and Practical
Explorations of Human Strengths, Sage Publications, CA

Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J. 2005, Handbook of Positive Psychology, Oxford
University Press, Oxford

Vaillant, G.E. 2002, Aging Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life from the
Landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development, Little Brown and Company

Audio Visual Material
Gallup DVD How to be Happy, with Ed Diener

Primal Instinct (series), 2004, ABC Science Unit

Shallow Hal (video) 2001, Farelly Brothers

The Human Body (DVD) 1998, BBC

The Human Face (DVD) 2001, BBC

The Miracle Worker (DVD) 1962, Playfilm Productions

Web sites
Interviews with Positive Psychology Scholars (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspx

Positive Psychology Scholars (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspx

Construal Theory of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://lyubomirsky.socialpsychology.org/

Self-Handicapping and Defensive Pessimism: Predictors and Consequences from a Self-
Worth Motivation Perspective (on line), 2010
http://self.uws.edu.au/Theses/Martin/Thesis.htm

The Architecture of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.alaindebotton.com/

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Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology (on line), 2010
http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/

The Secret of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.biopsychiatry.com/happiness/

Flow Theory (on line), 2010
http://www.brainchannels.com/thinker/mihaly.html

Centre for Confidence and Wellbeing (on line), 2010
http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/

Positive Psychology Centre (on line), 2010
http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/

Reflective Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspxmailto:acparks@psych.upenn.edu

The Value of Positive Emotions (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/AMSCI_2003-07Fredrickson.pdf

The role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/Fredrickson_AmPsych_01.pdf

What good are positive Emotions (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/Fredrickson_RGP_98.pdf

These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Methods of Psychology, Independent Study (T Only)
    Value 1.0
This unit combines Methods of Psychology 0.5 with Independent Study 0.5.

Prerequisite
It is highly recommended that students wishing to undertake this unit have successfully
completed at least one 0.5 unit in Psychology.
At least three standard units in Psychology must be successfully completed before
commencing this unit. This unit (on its own or combined with the Methods of Psychology
unit) must be undertaken as the final unit of a major.

Specific Unit Goals
This unit should enable students to:
    Interpret human behaviour as an outcome of influences and interactions
    Critically evaluate the assumptions, applications and limitations of psychological
       research and literature
    Develop and apply investigative skills, knowledge and insights into psychological
       concepts and research methodology, with reference to real life situations
    Develop effective communication skills relevant to the conventions of the discipline
    Understand and apply theoretical perspectives and knowledge of research
       methodology
    Understand the difference between experimental and non-experimental methods,
       qualitative and quantitative data, and the different levels of measurement
    Evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of different research methods, including
       experiments, surveys, interviews, psychometric tests and observational studies
    Understand the various ethical issues related to psychological research and
       experimentation
    understand and apply theoretical perspectives and knowledge of research
       methodology.
    acquire extensive knowledge and understanding in a particular area of Psychology.
    establish their own research problem and set guidelines through which to pursue their
       chosen topic.
    communicate an understanding of the specified area and report on the results in an
       appropriate manner.

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Principles of Research Design
    The goals of psychological research: to describe, explain, predict, and control
       behaviour
    The principles that guide psychological research: objectivity, empiricism, reliability,
       validity and standardisation
    The scientific method: observation, devising a theory, formulating a hypothesis,
       collecting and collating the data, evaluating and revising the hypothesis

Ethical issues
    A thorough investigation of problems concerned with psychological research: stress
       and discomfort, informed consent, deception, debriefing, confidentiality.
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    Compare the benefits      of research to the possibility of harm to participants.
       Examine specific scenarios and alternative methods.
       Types of experiments: laboratory experiments, field experiments, natural experiments,
        quasi-experiments
       Experimental designs: repeated measures, independent samples, matched-pairs, single
        participant
       Non-experimental designs: Surveys, interviews, psychometric tests, case-studies,
        observational studies, longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies

Research Design
    Sampling procedures: representative samples, random sampling, stratified sampling,
      quota sampling, cluster sampling, control group and placebo group
    Hypothesis testing: the concept of statistical significance, significance tests for
      different types of data, null and alternate hypotheses, directional and non-directional
      hypotheses, type I and II errors
    Report writing: abstract, introduction, methods, participants, materials, results,
      discussion, conclusions

Analysing Data
   Types of data: quantitative and qualitative. Levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal,
      interval and ratio
   Measures of central tendency: mean, mode, median
   Measures of dispersion: variance, standard deviation
   Graphical representations: tables, bar charts, histograms, line charts, frequency
      polygons
   The normal distribution: probability, characteristics, use in hypothesis testing, the
      sampling distribution, significance levels, critical values
   Parametric vs. non-parametric

The content of this unit will be negotiated with the teacher responsible. The subject matter
may be an extension of content previously studied by the student or may be entirely new to
the student. The emphasis will be on areas of special interest and value to the student.

Assessment items and weighting will also be negotiated. Examples include
    a research assignment
    an experimental report
    an attitude survey
    an oral presentation

In the process of completing these summative assessment pieces, students could also complete
a series of formative assessment pieces along the way. These could include:
     a journal
     a literature review
     regular discussion groups

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts

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    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
       Excursions
       Guest speakers
       Use of a broad range of visual imagery
       Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
       Research
       Surveys and questioning
       Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
       Debates/Discussion
       Role plays
       Interviews
       Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
       Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.


Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam              Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                     Assignment
                 Multiple choice     Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer         survey/ report          Film review
                  responses           Literature                   Debate
                 In Class essay       review/essay                 Public campaign
                 Interpretations     Research                     Role play
                  of unseen            presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli              o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document             o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study                o Seminar                    articles response
                                       o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                       o Pamphlet                   response
                                       o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                       o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5        25 – 50%                                25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                                             T
In class task/essay                                    500-800 words
Research task/essay                                   800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.


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Specific Unit Resources
Books

Argyrous, G. 2005, Statistics for Research: With a Guide to SPSS, (2nd ed), Sage, London.

Clarke, V & Gillet, S. 2001, VCE Psychology for Units 3 and 4, Nelson, Melbourne.

Coakes, S. J. & Steed, L. G. 2001, SPSS: Analysis without anguish, (Version 10.0 for
Windows). Jacaranda Wiley, Milton.

Coolican, H. 2006, Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology (3rd ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.
Findlay, B. 2003, How to write psychology laboratory reports and essays, (3rd ed.). Frenchs
Forest: Prentice Hall.

Francis, R. 1999, Ethics for psychologists: A handbook, Leicester: British Psychological
Society.
Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L. B. 2004, Statistics for the behavioural sciences, (6th ed.)
Wadsworth/Thomson, Belmont, CA.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Harari, P., Legge, K. 2001, Psychology And Health, Heinemann themes in psychology,
Heinemann Educational Publishers, Portsmouth, NH.

Iersel, H. 2005, Nelson Psychology: VCE units 3 & 4. Thomson Learning, Southbank, Vic.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Mook, D. 2004, Classic Experiments In Psychology. Greenwood Press, Westport,
Connecticut.

Neuman, W. L. & Kreuger, L, W. 2003, Social Work Research Methods: Qualitative and
Quantitative Approaches. Allyn and Bacon, Boston.

Slater, L. 2004, Openin Skinner’s Box: Great Psychological Experiments Of The Twentieth
Century. Bloomsbury, London.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Websites
A2Z Psychology Resources (on line), 2010
< http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ >

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American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

BBC Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/tv/humansenses/ >

Current Topics in Psychology – Dr Michael Fenichel (Highly recommended) (on line), 2010
< http://www.fenichel.com/Current.shtml >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Discovering Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html >

Discovering Psychology Video on demand (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org >

New Scientist Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://www.newscientist.com/home.ns >

All About Psychology (on line), 2010
<http://www.all-about-psychology.com/>

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Sensation, Perception and Consciousness                                     Value 1.0
This unit combines Sensation and Perception 0.5 with Consciousness 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Unit Specific Goals
A Course                                     T Course
This unit should enable students to:         This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions               of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications       Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research    applications and limitations of
and literature                               psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge      Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts     knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider       psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations       methodology, with reference to real life
                                             situations
Investigate the processes of sensation and   Critically analyse and evaluate the
perception.                                  processes of sensation and perception.
Investigate the function of the central      Investigate the function of the central
nervous system in relation to                nervous system in relation to
consciousness.                               consciousness.
Investigate the nature of consciousness.     Critically analyse and evaluate the nature
                                             of consciousness.

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic
Sensation (Biological perspective)
      The five senses
      Detection and thresholds
      Adaptation and attention
      Pain control
Perceiving (Cognitive perspective)
      Perceptual constancies
      Perceptual learning
      Illusions
      Ambiguous figures, impossible perspectives e.g. Escher,
      Factors influencing what is perceived (e.g. Gestalt,)
               o   cultural differences
               o   expectations e.g. eye witness testimonies, „rat man‟ example
               o   gender differences
   * Parapsychology (ESP, telepathy, clairvoyance, etc)
The Nervous System
     The physiology of the brain and the nervous system
     Left and right hemispheres
     Brain mapping
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       Consciousness
Consciousness
     The nature of consciousness (i.e. mind-body duality)
     Continuum of consciousness and its experiences
Altered States of Consciousness
   * Sleep
   * Sensory deprivation
   * Dreaming
   * Hypnosis
   * Meditation
   * Drugs
   * Out of body experiences
   * Daydreaming

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature              Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay            Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                          T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books

Clarke, V & Gillet, S. 2001, VCE Psychology for Units 3 and 4, Nelson, Melbourne.

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Eysenck, Michael W.; Keane Mark T. 2005, Cognitive psychology: a student's handbook. 5th
ed. Psychology Press, Hove, East Sussex.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Iersel, H. 2005, Nelson Psychology: VCE units 3 & 4. Thomson Learning, Southbank, Vic.

May, M. 2007, Sensation Perception. Facts on File, New York.


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McInerney, D. M.; McInerney, V. 2002, Education Psychology: constructing learning.
Prentice Hall, French‟s Forest.

Morris C. Maisto A. 2005, Psychology: an introduction. 12th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, N.J.

Myers , D. G. 2001, Psychology: Myers in modules. (6th ed). Worth, New York.

Rawlings, M.; Skouteris, H.; Whitechurch, R. 2007, Heinemann psychology. (2nd ed).
Heinemann, Port Melbourne.

Schiffman, H. R. 2007, Sensation and perception: an integrated approach. Wiley, Hoboken,
NJ.

Sternberg, R.J. 2001, In Search of the Human Mind, 3rd Edn. Harcourt College, Sydney.

Tebbel, Cyndi. 2000, The body snatchers: how the media shapes women. Finch, Sydney.


Audio/Visual
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
The Human Body (TV series), 1998, BBC.

Catalyst - Body Clock (ABC series) 4 September 2008, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2351893.htm>

Four Corners: Eyes Wide Open (TV series) 2007, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2007/s2000881.htm>

Catalyst - Hypnosis (ABC series) 18 August 2005, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1440855.htm>

28 Days (DVD) 2000, Columbia Pictures.

Altered States (DVD) 1980, Warner Bros. Pictures.

Barfly (DVD) 1987, Golan-Globus Productions.

Clean and Sober (DVD) 1988, Warner Bros. Pictures.

Curse of the Jade Scorpion (DVD) 2001, DreamWorks Pictures.

Insomnia (DVD) 2002, Alcon Entertainment.

Postcards from the Edge (DVD) 1990, Columbia Pictures.

Shallow Hal (DVD) 2001, Twentieth Century Fox.

When a Man Loves a Woman (DVD) 1994, Touchstone Pictures.


Web sites
Allpsych (on line), 2010
< http://allpsych.com >


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American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

Athabasca University Centre for Psychology Resources (on line), 2010
< http://psych.athabascau.ca >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

The British Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.bps.org.uk/ >

BBC Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/tv/humansenses/ >

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Cognitive & Sociocultural Behaviour                                                Value 1.0
This unit combines Cognitive Approaches to Behaviour 0.5 with Sociocultural Approaches to
Behaviour 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                        T Course
This unit should enable students to:            This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                     influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and       applications and limitations of psychological
literature                                      research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge and     Develop and apply investigative skills,
insights into psychological concepts and        knowledge and insights into psychological
research methodology, and consider how          concepts and research methodology, with
they apply to real life situations              reference to real life situations
Develop communication skills and an             Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the             relevant to the conventions of the discipline
discipline
Develop an understanding of the extent to       Critically analyse and evaluate the extent to
which cognitive influences explain human        which cognitive influences explain human
behaviour                                       behaviour

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Cognitive
    General concepts
        o Definitions
        o Principles
        o Research methods
        o Ethics
        * e.g. mental representations guide behaviour, mental processes can be
          scientifically investigated
        * theories/studies
        * e.g. experiments, observations, interviews

         Cognitive processes
           o Schema theory
           o Models or theories of cognitive processes
           o Biological factors that affect cognitive processes
           o Effect of social/cultural factors on cognitive processes
           o Reliability of cognitive processes
           * Research studies


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            *   Research studies, and two of the following: e.g. memory, perception, language,
                decision making,
            *   e.g. Alzheimer‟s disease, brain damage, sleep deprivation
            *   e.g. education, video games and attention, carpentered-world hypothesis
            *   research studies, e.g. reconstructive memory, perception/visual illusions,
                decision making/heuristics

       Cognition and Emotion
         o Extent that cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion
         o How emotion may affect cognitive processes
         * e.g. two factor theory, arousal theory, Lazarus‟ theory of appraisal
         * e.g. state dependent memory, flashbulb memory, affective filters

Socio-cultural
    General concepts
         o Definitions
         o Principles
         o Research methods
         o Ethics
         * Social/cultural environment influences individual behaviour; we want
            connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to, others; we construct our
            conceptions of the individual and the social self
         * Theories/studies
         * e.g. participant/naturalistic observation, interviews, case studies

       Socio-cultural cognition
         o How situational and dispositional factors explain behaviour
         o Attribution errors
         o Social identity theory
         o Formation of stereotypes, and how it affects behaviour
         * e.g. FAE, illusory correlation, self-serving bias
         * research studies

       Social norms
         o Social learning theory
         o Compliance techniques
         o Conformity
         * research studies, e.g. Bandura
         * e.g. reciprocity, foot-in-the-door, lowballing
         * conforming to group norms, factors influencing conformity, group norms, risky
             shift, minority influence

       Cultural norms
         o Definition of “culture” and “cultural norms”
         o cultural dimension effects on behaviour
         o “emic” and “etic” concepts
         * e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance,
             Confucian dynamism, masculinity/femininity

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:

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    Cooperative learning
       Scaffolding of new concepts
       Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
       Excursions
       Guest speakers
       Use of a broad range of visual imagery
       Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
       Research
       Surveys and questioning
       Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
       Debates/Discussion
       Role plays
       Interviews
       Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
       Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature                   Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                 Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                     Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                          T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Test Bank For Plonik’s Introduction To Psychology, Seventh Edition.
Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Instructor’s Resources Manual For Plotnik’s Introduction To Psychology,
Seventh Edition. Wodsworth, USA.

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Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Human Relationships, Learning and Memory                                         Value 1.0
This unit combines Human Relationships 0.5 with Learning and Memory 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                         T Course
This unit should enable students to:             This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of         Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                      influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and       Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and        applications and limitations of psychological
literature                                       research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge and      Develop and apply investigative skills,
insights into psychological concepts and         knowledge and insights into psychological
research methodology, and consider how           concepts and research methodology, with
they apply to real life situations               reference to real life situations
Develop communication skills and an              Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the              relevant to the conventions of the discipline
discipline
Develop the ability to apply and understand      Critically analyse and evaluate the extent to
the extent to which biological, cognitive        which biological, cognitive and socio-
and socio-cultural factors influence human       cultural factors influence human
relationships                                    relationships
Investigate theoretical approaches to            Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
learning and memory                              approaches to learning and memory

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Social Responsibility
         Altruism
         Prosocial behaviour
         Bystander Effect
         Theories that explain altruism in humans
         Cross-cultural differences in prosocial behaviour (research studies)
         Factors in bystanderism
         Arousal-cost-reward model
      *   Negative-state relief model, empathy-altruism model
      *   Kin selection theory,
      *   Reciprocal altruism theory,
      *   Bateson and Darley, 1973
      *   John Rabe: A good Nazi?
      *   Social exchange theory, arousal-cost-reward model

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    *   The role of social norms

Interpersonal relationships
       Biological, psychological and social origins of attraction
       Theoretical models
       Theories of love
       Role of communication in maintaining relationships
       Importance of culture in forming and maintaining relationships
       Why relationships change or end
    *   Hormones,
    *   Evolution
    *   Cognition
    *   Keisler and Baral, 1970
    *   Reciprocity
    *   Culture
    *   Social penetration theory
    *   Self-disclosure
    *   Buss, 194
    *   Social exchange theory, equity theory, patterns of accommodation

Violence
       Biological, cognitive and sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence
       Effectiveness of strategies for reducing violence
       Effects of short-term and long-term exposure to violence
    *   Hormones, neurotransmitters, brain structure; schemas, information processing,
        cultivation theory; power differences, deindividuation theory, social identity theory,
        self categorisation, power elations
    *   Baumeister and Bushman, 1998
    *   Zimbado, 1969
    *   Case study: bullying
    *   Empathy: “virtual reality”, social skills
    *   Impact of bullying, support structures
Theories of Learning
    Classical conditioning (e.g. Pavlov; Watson)
    Operant conditioning (e.g. Thorndike; Skinner)
    Social learning theories (e.g. Bandura)
    Behaviour modification using learning theories
   * Modern theories of learning and education (e.g. deBono; Vygotsky)

Memory
   Processes
   Interaction of sensory, short term and long term memory
   Unusual memories
   Flashbulb memories

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    Tips for improving memory
       Eyewitness testimonies
       Forgetting and retention; repressed memories
       Different studying strategies
       Mnemonic devices
       Issues (e.g.. hypnosis, polygraph, false memories)

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature                   Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                 Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                     Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                              A                          T
In class task/essay                     300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                     500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Clarke, V & Gillet, S. 2001, VCE Psychology for Units 3 and 4, Nelson, Melbourne.

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Harari, P., Legge, K. 2001, Psychology And Health, Heinemann themes in psychology,
Heinemann Educational Publishers, Portsmouth, NH.

Iersel, H. 2005, Nelson Psychology: VCE units 3 & 4. Thomson Learning, Southbank, Vic.

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Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Mook, D. 2004, Classic Experiments In Psychology. Greenwood Press, Westport,
Connecticut.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Test Bank For Plonik’s Introduction To Psychology, Seventh Edition.
Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Instructor’s Resources Manual For Plotnik’s Introduction To Psychology,
Seventh Edition. Wodsworth, USA.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.

Audio-visual materials
A Clockwork Orange 1962 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Born on the Fourth of July 1989 (DVD) Ixtlan.

Bowling For Columbine 2002 (DVD) Alliance Atlantis Communications


Dead Again 1991 (DVD) Paramount Pictures

Dolores Claiborne 1995 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

Discovering Psychology 2006 (DVD) Marcom Projects.

50 first Dates 2004 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

Free Willy 1993 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Liar Liar 1997 (DVD) Universal Pictures.

Memento 2000 (DVD) Newmarket Capital Group.

Memory 1993 (DVD) ABC.

Prince of Tides 1991 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

The Human Body 1998 (DVD) ABC.

The Majestic 2001 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

The Miracle Worker 1962 (DVD) Playfilm Productions.

Total Recall 1990 (DVD) TriStar Pictures.
What about Bob? 1991 (DVD) Touchstone Pictures.

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Websites

A2Z Psychology Resources (on line), 2010
< http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ >

All About Psychology (on line), 2010
<http://www.all-about-psychology.com/>

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

BBC Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/tv/humansenses/ >


Current Topics in Psychology – Dr Michael Fenichel (Highly recommended) (on line), 2010
< http://www.fenichel.com/Current.shtml >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Discovering Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html >

Discovering Psychology Video on demand (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org >

New Scientist Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://www.newscientist.com/home.ns >

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Learning, Memory & Infancy to Childhood                                    Value 1.0
This unit combines Learning and Memory 0.5 with Infancy to Childhood 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                    T Course
This unit should enable students to:        This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions              of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research   applications and limitations of
and literature                              psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge     Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts    knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider      psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations      methodology, with reference to real life
                                            situations
Develop communication skills and an         Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the         relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                  discipline
Investigate theoretical approaches to       Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
learning and memory                         approaches to learning and memory
Identify and discuss the nature, stages     Critically analyse and evaluate the nature,
and issues of development from              stages and issues of development from
conception to the end of childhood          conception to the end of life

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic
Theories of Learning
    Classical conditioning (e.g. Pavlov; Watson)
    Operant conditioning (e.g. Thorndike; Skinner)
    Social learning theories (e.g. Bandura)
    Behaviour modification using learning theories
   * Modern theories of learning and education (e.g. deBono; Vygotsky)

Memory
   Processes
   Interaction of sensory, short term and long term memory
   Unusual memories
   Flashbulb memories
   Tips for improving memory
   Eyewitness testimonies
   Forgetting and retention; repressed memories

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    Different studying strategies
     Mnemonic devices
    Issues (e.g.. hypnosis, polygraph, false memories)
Nature of Development
    What is development?
    Types of development and their interrelationships (physical, social, emotional,
     cognitive, moral)
    Stages of the lifespan (prenatal, infancy….)
    Perspectives of development (e.g. are we interested in commonalities or differences and
     uniqueness, is it characterised by stability over time or change, gradual / continuous
     development or a sequence of separate stages)
    Theoretical approaches (e.g. Piaget, Erikson…)
    Nature vs. Nurture (i.e. what is the relative influence of inherited / genetic factors and
     experience and how do they interact)
    Interaction between psychological and physiological development of brain
    Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional studies and their uses/limitations
    Gender issues (e.g. gender roles, stereotypes…)
    Individual differences/experiences (factors affecting socialisation)

Prenatal, Birth, Neonatal
    Prenatal influences (genetic and environmental)
    Sensitive/critical periods
    Stages of birth
    Prematurity
    Neonate reflexes and senses

Infancy
    Caregiving
    Emotional development and temperament
    Social development and attachment
    Physical abilities and motor development
    Cognitive development and language

Childhood
    Early childhood development issues
    Middle childhood development issues
    Late childhood development issues

Issues of Development
Choose at least one issue to explore:
    Child abuse and maltreatment
    IVF and related issues
    Alternative family structures
    Childcare vs. stay-at-home
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    Bullying
    Resilience
    Developing vs. developed countries:
    Physical
    Emotional
    Social
    Cognitive
    Moral

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature                   Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                 Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                     Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                          T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.
Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Audio-visual materials
A Clockwork Orange 1962 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Born on the Fourth of July 1989 (DVD) Ixtlan.

Bowling For Columbine 2002 (DVD) Alliance Atlantis Communications


Dead Again 1991 (DVD) Paramount Pictures

Dolores Claiborne 1995 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.
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Discovering Psychology 2006 (DVD) Marcom Projects.

50 first Dates 2004 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

Free Willy 1993 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Liar Liar 1997 (DVD) Universal Pictures.

Memento 2000 (DVD) Newmarket Capital Group.

Memory 1993 (DVD) ABC.

Prince of Tides 1991 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

The Human Body 1998 (DVD) ABC.

The Majestic 2001 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

The Miracle Worker 1962 (DVD) Playfilm Productions.

Total Recall 1990 (DVD) TriStar Pictures.
What about Bob? 1991 (DVD) Touchstone Pictures.
Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Web sites
Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, (on line), 2003
< http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cogsys/piaget.html > Huitt, W & Hummel, J

These were accurate at time of publication.




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Adolescence, Adulthood and Relationships                              Value 1.0
This unit combines Adolescence to Adulthood 0.5 with Human Relationships 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                      T Course
This unit should enable students to:          This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome         Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions                of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications        Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research     applications and limitations of
and literature                                psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge       Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts      knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider        psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations        methodology, with reference to real life
                                              situations
Investigate the nature, stages and issues     Critically analyse and evaluate the nature,
of development from adolescence to old        stages and issues of development from
age and death                                 adolescence to old age and death
Develop communication skills and an           Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the           relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                    discipline
Develop the ability to apply and              Critically analyse and evaluate the extent
understand the extent to which biological,    to which biological, cognitive and socio-
cognitive and socio-cultural factors          cultural factors influence human
influence human relationships                 relationships
Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

The following themes and concepts should be considered if Infancy to Childhood has not
been taught
        Perspectives of development (e.g. are we interested in commonalities or differences
         and uniqueness, is it characterised by stability over time or change, gradual /
         continuous development or a sequence of separate stages)
        Theoretical approaches (e.g. Piaget, Erikson, Kohlberg)
        Nature vs. Nurture (i.e. what is the relative influence of inherited / genetic factors
         and experience and how do they interact)
        Interaction between psychological and physiological development of brain
        Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional studies and their uses/limitations
        Gender issues (e.g. gender roles, stereotypes…)
Adolescence
      Physical development
      Cognitive development


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         Social development, (identity development; roles; peer pressure; relationships; risk-
          taking)
         Moral development
         Decision making
         Sexuality
         Gender differences
Adulthood and Ageing
        Physical changes (maturation, menopause etc)
        Cognitive changes
        Social changes (changing nature of relationships, employment , retirement etc)
        Theories; e.g. Erikson
        Death and dying
Issues
       * Life expectancy and ageing in developing versus developed countries
       * Quality of life and ageing e.g. expectations of baby boomers compared with earlier
          generations

Social Responsibility
       Altruism
       Prosocial behaviour
       Bystander Effect
       Theories that explain altruism in humans
       Cross-cultural differences in prosocial behaviour (research studies)
       Factors in bystanderism
       Arousal-cost-reward model
    *   Negative-state relief model, empathy-altruism model
    *   Kin selection theory,
    *   Reciprocal altruism theory,
    *   Bateson and Darley, 1973
    *   John Rabe: A good Nazi?
    *   Social exchange theory, arousal-cost-reward model
    *   The role of social norms

Interpersonal relationships
       Biological, psychological and social origins of attraction
       Theoretical models
       Theories of love
       Role of communication in maintaining relationships
       Importance of culture in forming and maintaining relationships
       Why relationships change or end
    *   Hormones,
    *   Evolution
    *   Cognition
    *   Keisler and Baral, 1970

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    *   Reciprocity
    *   Culture
    *   Social penetration theory
    *   Self-disclosure
    *   Buss, 194
    *   Social exchange theory, equity theory, patterns of accommodation

Violence
       Biological, cognitive and sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence
       Effectiveness of strategies for reducing violence
       Effects of short-term and long-term exposure to violence
    *   Hormones, neurotransmitters, brain structure; schemas, information processing,
        cultivation theory; power differences, deindividuation theory, social identity theory,
        self categorisation, power elations
    *   Baumeister and Bushman, 1998
    *   Zimbado, 1969
    *   Case study: bullying
    *   Empathy: “virtual reality”, social skills
    *   Impact of bullying, support structures

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature              Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay            Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                          T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words              500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words             800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Clarke, V & Gillet, S. 2001, VCE Psychology for Units 3 and 4, Nelson, Melbourne.

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Harari, P., Legge, K. 2001, Psychology And Health, Heinemann themes in psychology,
Heinemann Educational Publishers, Portsmouth, NH.

Iersel, H. 2005, Nelson Psychology: VCE units 3 & 4. Thomson Learning, Southbank, Vic.


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Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Mook, D. 2004, Classic Experiments In Psychology. Greenwood Press, Westport,
Connecticut.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Instructor’s Resources Manual For Plotnik’s Introduction To Psychology,
Seventh Edition. Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Test Bank For Plonik’s Introduction To Psychology, Seventh Edition.
Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.


Audio Visual Material

Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:

Websites

A2Z Psychology Resources (on line), 2010
< http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ >

All About Psychology (on line), 2010
<http://www.all-about-psychology.com/>

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

BBC Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/tv/humansenses/ >

Current Topics in Psychology – Dr Michael Fenichel (Highly recommended) (on line), 2010
< http://www.fenichel.com/Current.shtml >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Discovering Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html >

Discovering Psychology Video on demand (on line), 2010
< http://www.learner.org >

New Scientist Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://www.newscientist.com/home.ns >

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These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Health Psychology & Motivation & Emotion                                      Value 1.0
This unit combines Health Psychology 0.5 with Motivation and Emotion 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals:
A Course                                   T Course
This unit should enable students to:       This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome      Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions             of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications     Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research  applications and limitations of
and literature                             psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge    Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts   knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider     psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations     methodology, with reference to real life
                                           situations
Investigate the biological, psychological  Critically analyse and evaluate the
and social aspects of health and wellbeing biological, psychological and social
                                           aspects of health and wellbeing
Develop communication skills and an        Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the        relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                 discipline
Investigate the concepts and underlying    Critically analyse and evaluate the
factors concerning motivation and          concepts and underlying factors
emotion                                    concerning motivation and emotion

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Overview
     Biological versus bio-psychosocial approach to health (Mind and Body duality)
     How biological, cognitive and socio-cultural factors influence health-related behaviour

Models of health behaviours
e.g. health belief model, theory of reasoned action, stages of change model

Models for behaviour change
e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy

Health issues
   * Contributing factors
   * Consequences
   * Treatment
   * Risk-taking behaviours such as unsafe sex, self-harm, binge drinking
   * Smoking
   * Skin cancer

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    *   Obesity
    *   Eating disorders including, but not limited to, anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder
    *   Drug addiction
    *   Alcoholism

Stress and coping
      Types of stress
      Physiological, psychological and social aspects of stress
      Measuring stress: Holmes and Rahe
      Stress management

    *   Positive Psychology
          * Seligman

    * Illness and health care
         * Becoming a patient
         * Illness behaviour and sick-role behaviour
         * Hospitalisation and stress
         * Rehabilitation
The Nature of Motivation
    Definition of motive, need, drive and instinct
    Biological vs. social motives
   * Unconscious motives
    Motivation and achievement
   * Levels of motivation (e.g.. the Yerkes Dodson Law)
    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
   * Demotivation

Theoretical Approaches
    Instinct theory
   * Drive reduction theory
    Incentive theory
    Cognitive theory
    Maslow‟s hierarchy
   * Psychodynamic approach
   * AJ Martin‟s theory

Biological Motives
    Hunger
    Sex

Learned Motives
    Affiliation
    Achievement
   * Power

The Nature of Emotions
    Primary and secondary emotions
    Brain and emotion
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   * Theories of love (e.g.    Sternberg)

Communicating emotions
   Non-verbal communication (e.g. facial expressions; tone of voice; body language)
   Gender/cultural differences
  * Faking emotion (e.g. lying and deception)

Theoretical Approaches
    James-Lange; Cannon-Bard
    Schachter‟s Cognitive theory
    Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Emotional Intelligence
   Changing values emphasis on EQ versus IQ
  * Emotional resilience and youth


Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature              Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay            Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                                A                           T
In class task/essay                       300-500 words               500-800 words
Research task/essay                       500-800 words              800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books

Boll, T.J, Johnson, S. B, Perry, N, & Rozensky, R. H. 2002, Handbook of Clinical Health
Psychology: Volume 1. Medical Disorders and Behavioral Applications. APA Books,
Washington DC.

Caltabianco, M. I, & Sarafino, E .P. 2002, Health Psychology, Biopsychosocial interactions,
Wiley, Australia.

Harari, P., Legge, K. 2001, Psychology And Health, Heinemann themes in psychology,
Heinemann Educational Publishers, Portsmouth, NH.

Healey, J. (ed) 2008, Women's health and wellbeing Issues in society, Vol. 275, Spinney
Press, Thirroul, NSW.

Healey, J. (ed) 2008, Men’s health and wellbeing, Issues in society, Vol 274, Spinney Press,
Thirroul, NSW.

Jones, K. 2003, Health and human behaviour, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

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Lyons, A. C, Chamberlain, K. 2006, Health psychology: a critical introduction, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge.

Munafo, M., Albery, I. 2008, Key Concepts in Health Psychology, Sage Publications, New
York.

O‟Connor, M.L., & Parker, E. 2001, Health Promotion: Principles and Practice in the
Australian Context, 2nd edition. Allen & Unwin, NSW.

Ogden, J. 2004, Health Psychology, McGraw-Hill, Australia.

Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2001, Psychology for A2 Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2000, Psychology for AS Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.
Audiovisual Material
A Smoking Epidemic (DVD) 2006, VEA

America‟s Fattest City (TV series), ABC.

Dying To Be Anorexic (DVD), 2008, SBS.

I‟m A Child Anorexic (documentary), 2010, BBC (also available on Youtube)

Sicko (DVD documentary) 2007, Dog Eat Dog Films.

Super Size Me (DVD) 2004, Kathbur Pictures.

Thin (documentary) 2006, HBO. Available online: http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/thin/

Whatever! The Science Of Teens (specifically episode 2, Binging) (TV Series) 1999, ABC.
Available online: http://www.abc.net.au/tv/documentaries/interactive/whatever/

Why are thin people not fat? (documentary), 2010, SBS. Available online:
http://www.documentary-log.com/d208-why-are-thin-people-not-fat/

Catalyst -The Extreme Sports Brain (TV Series) 6 March 2008, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2008/03/06/2179019.htm>
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
Exposed (TV Series), 2005, BBC.

Sense and Sensibility (DVD) 1995, Columbia Pictures.

The Human Body (TV series), 1998, BBC.


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The Human Face (TV series), 2001, BBC.

The Miracle Worker (DVD), 1962, Playfilm Productions.

Websites
Australian Better Health Initiative (on line), 2010
< http://www.measureup.gov.au/ >

Department Of Health And Ageing (On Line), 2010
< http://www.drinkingnightmare.gov.au/internet/drinkingnightmare/publishing.nsf >

Eating Disorders Foundation of Victoria (on line), 2010
< http://www.eatingdisorders.org.au/ >

Heath Insite (on line), 2010
< http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/Eating_Disorders >

The Butterfly Foundation (on line), 2010
< http://www.thebutterflyfoundation.org.au/ >

The Obesity Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.obesity.org/ >

Wesley Hospital (on line), 2010
< http://www.wesleymission.org.au/centres/hospital/ >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Pearson Prentice Hall (on line), 2010
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/psychology_7.shtml >

Social Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newResources/coreSocial.html >

These were accurate at time of publishing.




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Personality and Psychology of Happiness                                      Value 1.0
This unit combines Personality 0.5 with The Psychology of Happiness 0.5.
Significant duplication of content means this unit may not be included in addition to The Self,
0.5

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                     T Course
Explain human behaviour as an outcome        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions               of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications       Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research    applications and limitations of
and literature                               psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge      Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts     knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider       psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations       methodology, with reference to real life
                                             situations
Investigate theoretical approaches to        Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
personality and practical applications of    approaches to personality and practical
personality testing.                         applications of personality testing.
Explain human behaviour as an outcome        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions               of influences and interactions
To examine and discuss theoretical           To critically examine and discuss
perspectives on happiness and wellbeing      theoretical perspectives on happiness and
                                             wellbeing
Demonstrate an understanding of the          To analyse and compare the biological
biological basis of emotional behaviour      and cognitive basis of emotional
and self-awareness                           behaviour and self-awareness
To identify and discuss the nature of        To critically analyse the biological and
emotional responses and the forces that      cognitive nature of emotional responses
shape those responses                        and the forces that shape those responses

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

What is Personality?
     Individual differences
     The role of heredity/ environmental influences
     The concept of self (e.g.. self-schema; self-concept; self-esteem; self-definition; self-
      confidence; self monitoring

Theoretical Approaches
     Type/trait e.g. Eysenck, Big 5
     Behaviourist e.g. Skinner, Bandura
     Psychoanalytic; Freud and Neo Freudian (Adler, Horney)

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       Humanistic e.g. Rogers, Maslow,

Personality testing
     Surveys e.g. Myers Briggs, Eysenck, Big 5
     Projective tests e.g. TAT, Rorschach
   * Applications e.g. career planning
   * Personality disorders
The biological basis of emotions
       primary emotions – anger, sadness, happiness
       neuroscientific studies revealing the emotional brain
       trauma and emotional absence
Positive Psychology
       Martin Seligman‟s theory of positive psychology
       Barbara Frederickson‟s theory
         o The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions
         o The Broaden Hypothesis
         o The Build Hypothesis
         o The Undoing Hypothesis
         o Positivity Ratios
       Lyubomirsky‟s "Construal Theory of Happiness"
       Parfit‟s three theories of happiness
       Csikszentmihalyi‟s psychology of optimal experience

Models of self and self efficacy
   Self Actualisation (Maslow)
   The ideal and real self (Rogers)
   Positive Thinking
   Self Efficacy
  * Measuring self efficacy
  * Developing and promoting strategies for self efficacy

Health and Wellbeing
    Models of healthy selves
    Neuroscience studies
    Well being studies
    Happiness surveys
   * Developing a positive attitude
   * The role of meditation, relaxation, leisure, gratitude
   * Leading a balanced lifestyle – coping with multiple demands

Stress, trauma, coping and resilience
       Types of stress
       Measuring stress: Holmes and Rahe
       Coping with stress - Csikszentmihalyi
       Coping with failure
   * Coping with trauma
   * Coping with grief
   * Coping with depression
       Developing resilience
       When to seek help

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Developing Positive relationships with others
     First impressions
     Creating and sustaining a positive impression
     Gratitude letters
    * Dealing with conflict
     Assertive behaviours
     Negotiation

Emotional Intelligence
     Recognising emotional cues
     Gender differences in emotional responses
         o Changing values emphasis on EQ versus IQ
          * Emotional resilience and youth (e.g. Japan vs. Australia vs. Netherlands: a
             Case Study)

       Critiques of pop psychology and the self help movement

Prosocial behaviour
     basic findings: Darley & Latane
     theories: instinct, empathy, etc
     factors affecting altruism
   * promoting global citizenship and responsible behaviour
     moral behaviour and studies
   * gratitude
   * virtue

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature              Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay            Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                                A                           T
In class task/essay                       300-500 words               500-800 words
Research task/essay                       500-800 words              800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Argyle, M. 2002, The Psychology of Happiness, Meuthen, New York

Aspinwall, L. G., & Staudinger, U. M. (Eds.). (2003), A psychology of human
strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology.
Washington, DC: APA Books

Bolt, M. 2004, Pursuing Human Strengths: A Positive Psychology Guide, Worth
Publishing, New York

Bryant, F.B. and Veroff, J. 2006, Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.

Carver, C.S., and Scheier, M.F. 2004, Perspectives on Personality: International edition (5th
ed.) Allyn and Bacon, New York.
Cloninger, C.R. 2004, Feeling Good: The Science of Well Being, Oxford University
Press, USA.

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Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1990, Flow: the Psychology of Optimal Experience, 1st edn,
Penguin Books

Csikszentmihalyi, M. 2004, Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of
Meaning, Penguin Books

Diener, E. and Eid, M. (eds.) 2006, Handbook of Multimethod Measurement in
Psychology, American Psychological Association (APA), USA

Easterbrook, G. 2003, The Progress Paradox: How Life Gets Better While People
Feel Worse, 1st edn, Random House Trade, USA

Frisch, M.B. 2005, Quality of Life Therapy: Applying a Life Satisfaction Approach to
Positive Psychology and Cognitive Therapy, Wiley

Gilbert, D. 2007, Stumbling on Happiness, HarperCollins Publishers

Haidt, J. 2007, The Happiness Hypothesis, Cornerstone

Huppert, F., Baylis, N. and Keverne, B. 2005, The Science of Well-Being, Oxford
University Press, Oxford

Joseph, S. and Linley, P.A. 2004, Positive Therapy, Routledge

Keyes, C.L.M. and Haidt, J. (eds.) 2003, Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the
Life Well-Lived, American Psychological Association (APA), USA

Layard, R. 2005, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, Penguin Books.

Linley, P.A. and Joseph, S. (eds.) 2004, Positive Psychology in Practice. John Wiley
and Sons Inc, N. Y.

Lykken, D.T. 1999. Happiness: What Studies on Twins Show Us about Nature,
Nurture, and the Happiness Set Point

Matthews, G., Dreary, I.K., and Whiteman, M.C. 2003, Personality Traits (2nd ed.).
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
McMahon, D.M. 2006, Happiness: A History, Grove/Atlantic

Murray, C. 2003. Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and
Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950.

Myers, D.G. 1990. Pursuit of Happiness,

Ong, A. & Van Dulmen, M. 2006, Oxford Handbook of Methods in Positive
Psychology (Series in Positive Psychology), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Peterson, C. 2004, A Primer in Positive Psychology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. 2004, Character Strengths and Virtues: A
Handbook and Classification, Oxford University Press, Oxford.


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Reivich, K. and Shatté, A. 2002, The Resilience Factor: 7 Essential, Broadway Books
Schwartz, B. 2005, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less, Ecco

Seligman, Dr. M.E.P. 2002. Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention, and Positive
Therapy.

Seligman, M.E.P. 2002. Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to
Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment, Simon & Schuster Ltd.

Seligman, M.E.P. 2006, Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your
Life, Vintage Books USA

Sheldon, K.M. 2007, Optimal Human Being: An Integrated Multi-Level Perspective,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J. 2007, Positive Psychology: The Scientific and Practical
Explorations of Human Strengths, Sage Publications, CA

Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J. 2005, Handbook of Positive Psychology, Oxford
University Press, Oxford

Vaillant, G.E. 2002, Aging Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life from the
Landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development, Little Brown and Company

Audio Visual Material
Gallup DVD How to be Happy, with Ed Diener

Primal Instinct (series), 2004, ABC Science Unit

Shallow Hal (video) 2001, Farelly Brothers

The Human Body (DVD) 1998, BBC

The Human Face (DVD) 2001, BBC

The Miracle Worker (DVD) 1962, Playfilm Productions

Web sites
Interviews with Positive Psychology Scholars (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspx

Positive Psychology Scholars (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspx

Construal Theory of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://lyubomirsky.socialpsychology.org/

Self-Handicapping and Defensive Pessimism: Predictors and Consequences from a Self-
Worth Motivation Perspective (on line), 2010
http://self.uws.edu.au/Theses/Martin/Thesis.htm

The Architecture of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.alaindebotton.com/

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Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology (on line), 2010
http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/

The Secret of Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.biopsychiatry.com/happiness/

Flow Theory (on line), 2010
http://www.brainchannels.com/thinker/mihaly.html

Centre for Confidence and Wellbeing (on line), 2010
http://www.centreforconfidence.co.uk/

Positive Psychology Centre (on line), 2010
http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/

Reflective Happiness (on line), 2010
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com
http://www.reflectivehappiness.com/AboutUs/Experts.aspxmailto:acparks@psych.upenn.edu

The Value of Positive Emotions (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/AMSCI_2003-07Fredrickson.pdf

The role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/Fredrickson_AmPsych_01.pdf

What good are positive Emotions (on line), 2010
http://www.unc.edu/peplab/publications/Fredrickson_RGP_98.pdf

These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Psychological Methods and Childhood                                        Value 1.0
This unit combines Introduction to Psychological Methods 0.5 with Infancy to Childhood 0.5.

Significant duplication of content means this unit may not be included in addition to The Self
in Relationships, 0.5

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                       T Course
This unit should enable students to:           This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of        Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                     influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and       applications and limitations of
literature                                      psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge and    Develop and apply investigative skills,
insights into psychological concepts and       knowledge and insights into psychological
research methodology, and consider how         concepts and research methodology, with
they apply to real life situations             reference to real life situations
Develop communication skills and an            Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the            relevant to the conventions of the discipline
discipline
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                    influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and     Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and      applications and limitations of psychological
literature                                     research and literature
Identify and discuss the nature, stages and    Critically analyse and evaluate the nature,
issues of development from conception to       stages and issues of development from
the end of childhood                           conception to the end of life

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Nature of Psychology
    Define Psychology
    Major goals of Psychology
    Nature/Nurture debate
    Theoretical perspectives
    Classic experiments
     ethical issues
   * Covert/overt behaviour
   * Historical evolution
   * Fields of psychology and employment
   * Animal and human research

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Methodology
    Qualitative and Quantitative method
    Strengths and limitations
      Correlation /causation
      Data collection methods
      Validity and reliability
   *   Data collection method types
         * Longitudinal studies
         * Observations
         * Interviews
         * Objective Tests
         * Projective Tests
         * Case Studies
         * Surveys
         * Experiments

Experimental Design
   Hypothesis
   independent, dependent and extraneous variables
   report writing conventions
   Descriptive statistics
  * Placebo effect
  * Sampling/sample sizes
  * Control group
  * Experimental group
  * Opportunity and random sampling
  * Repeated measures
  * Independent groups design
  * Matched pairs
  * Laboratory/Field experiments
  * Graphs
  * Data collection and collation
  * Measures of central tendency

Nature of Development
    What is development?
    Types of development and their interrelationships (physical, social, emotional,
     cognitive, moral)
    Stages of the lifespan (prenatal, infancy….)
    Perspectives of development (e.g. are we interested in commonalities or differences and
     uniqueness, is it characterised by stability over time or change, gradual / continuous
     development or a sequence of separate stages)
    Theoretical approaches (e.g. Piaget, Erikson…)
    Nature vs. Nurture (i.e. what is the relative influence of inherited / genetic factors and
     experience and how do they interact)
    Interaction between psychological and physiological development of brain
    Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional studies and their uses/limitations
    Gender issues (e.g. gender roles, stereotypes…)
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    Individual differences/experiences (factors affecting socialisation)

Prenatal, Birth, Neonatal
    Prenatal influences (genetic and environmental)
    Sensitive/critical periods
    Stages of birth
    Prematurity
    Neonate reflexes and senses

Infancy
    Caregiving
    Emotional development and temperament
    Social development and attachment
    Physical abilities and motor development
    Cognitive development and language

Childhood
    Early childhood development issues
    Middle childhood development issues
    Late childhood development issues

Issues of Development
Choose at least one issue to explore:
    Child abuse and maltreatment
    IVF and related issues
    Alternative family structures
    Childcare vs. stay-at-home
    Bullying
    Resilience
    Developing vs. developed countries:
    Physical
    Emotional
    Social
    Cognitive
    Moral

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers

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    Use of a broad range of     visual imagery
       Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
       Research
       Surveys and questioning
       Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
       Debates/Discussion
       Role plays
       Interviews
       Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
       Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.


Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research                Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental             Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report           Film review
                  responses          Literature               Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay             Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                 Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:            Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                 Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                   o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                     articles response
                                      o Poster                  o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                    response
                                      o Multimedia              o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio               o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                                A                            T
In class task/essay                       300-500 words                500-800 words
Research task/essay                       500-800 words               800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.




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Specific Unit Resources
Books
Brooks C. 2001, Pacific Grove, California, USA.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley,
N.Y.

Meyers, D. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Worth, USA

Sternberg, R.J. 2001, In Search of the Human Mind, 3rd Edn. Harcourt College, Sydney.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Westen, D. 2002, Psychology Brain, Behavior and Culture. 3rd edition, Wiley & Sons, Inc.:
N.Y.


Audio Visual Material
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >


Web sites
Amoeba Web Online: Psychological Tests (on line), 2010
<http://www.vanguard.edu/Home/AcademicResources/Faculty/DougDegelman/PsychologyDi
rectoryAmoebaWeb/PsychologyResourcesOnlineTests.aspx >

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

American Psychological Association Monitor – monthly review of research (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/monitor/ >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Discovering Democracy (on line), 2001
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

New Scientist Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://www.newscientist.com/home.ns >

Mental Health Info Source (on line), 2010
< http://www.mhsource.com/ >
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Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, (on line), 2003
< http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cogsys/piaget.html > Huitt, W & Hummel, J

Psychiatric Times Disorder Index (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/disorder.html >

Psychology in the News (on line), 2010
< http://www.psycport.com/ >

Psychology Today Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://cms.psychologytoday.com/pto/home.php >

Society for the Teaching of Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/ >

The Many Faces Of Psychological Research In The 21st Century (on line), 2001
< http://teachpsych.org/resources/e-books/faces/text/index.htm >

Pearson Prentice Hall (on line), 2010
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Time Magazine (on line), 2010
<http://www.time.com/time/>

These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Psychological Methods, Learning & Memory                                   Value 1.0
This unit combines Introduction to Psychological Methods 0.5 with Learning and Memory
0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                      T Course
This unit should enable students to:          This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome of       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome of
influences and interactions                    influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications and     Critically evaluate the assumptions,
limitations of psychological research and      applications and limitations of
literature                                     psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge and   Develop and apply investigative skills,
insights into psychological concepts and      knowledge and insights into psychological
research methodology, and consider how        concepts and research methodology, with
they apply to real life situations            reference to real life situations
Develop communication skills and an           Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the           relevant to the conventions of the discipline
discipline
Investigate theoretical approaches to         Critically analyse and evaluate theoretical
learning and memory                           approaches to learning and memory

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Nature of Psychology
    Define Psychology
    Major goals of Psychology
    Nature/Nurture debate
    Theoretical perspectives
    Classic experiments
     ethical issues
   * Covert/overt behaviour
   * Historical evolution
   * Fields of psychology and employment
   * Animal and human research

Methodology
    Qualitative and Quantitative method
    Strengths and limitations
      Correlation /causation
      Data collection methods
      Validity and reliability
   *   Data collection method types
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            *   Longitudinal studies
            *   Observations
            *   Interviews
            *   Objective Tests
            *   Projective Tests
            *   Case Studies
            *   Surveys
            *   Experiments

Experimental Design
   Hypothesis
   independent, dependent and extraneous variables
   report writing conventions
   Descriptive statistics
  * Placebo effect
  * Sampling/sample sizes
  * Control group
  * Experimental group
  * Opportunity and random sampling
  * Repeated measures
  * Independent groups design
  * Matched pairs
  * Laboratory/Field experiments
  * Graphs
  * Data collection and collation
  * Measures of central tendency

Theories of Learning
    Classical conditioning (e.g. Pavlov; Watson)
    Operant conditioning (e.g. Thorndike; Skinner)
    Social learning theories (e.g. Bandura)
    Behaviour modification using learning theories
   * Modern theories of learning and education (e.g. deBono; Vygotsky)

Memory
   Processes
   Interaction of sensory, short term and long term memory
   Unusual memories
   Flashbulb memories
   Tips for improving memory
   Eyewitness testimonies
   Forgetting and retention; repressed memories
   Different studying strategies
   Mnemonic devices
   Issues (e.g.. hypnosis, polygraph, false memories)


Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning

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    Scaffolding of new concepts
       Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
       Excursions
       Guest speakers
       Use of a broad range of visual imagery
       Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
       Research
       Surveys and questioning
       Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
       Debates/Discussion
       Role plays
       Interviews
       Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
       Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.
Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research                Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental             Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report           Film review
                  responses          Literature               Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay             Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                 Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:            Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                 Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                   o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                     articles response
                                      o Poster                  o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                    response
                                      o Multimedia              o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio               o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                                A                            T
In class task/essay                       300-500 words                500-800 words
Research task/essay                       500-800 words               800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.



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Specific Unit Resources
Books
Brooks C. 2001, Pacific Grove, California, USA.
Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.
Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley,
N.Y.

Meyers, D. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Worth, USA

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Sternberg, R.J. 2001, In Search of the Human Mind, 3rd Edn. Harcourt College, Sydney.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Westen, D. 2002, Psychology Brain, Behavior and Culture. 3rd edition, Wiley & Sons, Inc.:
N.Y.


Audio-visual materials
A Clockwork Orange 1962 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Born on the Fourth of July 1989 (DVD) Ixtlan.

Bowling For Columbine 2002 (DVD) Alliance Atlantis Communications


Dead Again 1991 (DVD) Paramount Pictures

Dolores Claiborne 1995 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
Discovering Psychology 2006 (DVD) Marcom Projects.

50 first Dates 2004 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

Free Willy 1993 (DVD) Warner Bros. Pictures.

Liar Liar 1997 (DVD) Universal Pictures.

Memento 2000 (DVD) Newmarket Capital Group.

Memory 1993 (DVD) ABC.

Prince of Tides 1991 (DVD) Columbia Pictures Corporation.

The Human Body 1998 (DVD) ABC.

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The Majestic 2001 (DVD) Castle Rock Entertainment.

The Miracle Worker 1962 (DVD) Playfilm Productions.

Total Recall 1990 (DVD) TriStar Pictures.
What about Bob? 1991 (DVD) Touchstone Pictures.


Web sites

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Amoeba Web Online: Psychological Tests (on line), 2010
<http://www.vanguard.edu/Home/AcademicResources/Faculty/DougDegelman/PsychologyDi
rectoryAmoebaWeb/PsychologyResourcesOnlineTests.aspx >

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

American Psychological Association Monitor – monthly review of research (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/monitor/ >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

New Scientist Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://www.newscientist.com/home.ns >

Mental Health Info Source (on line), 2010
< http://www.mhsource.com/ >

Psychiatric Times Disorder Index (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/disorder.html >

Psychology in the News (on line), 2010
< http://www.psycport.com/ >

Psychology Today Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://cms.psychologytoday.com/pto/home.php >

Society for the Teaching of Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/ >

The Many Faces Of Psychological Research In The 21st Century (on line), 2001
< http://teachpsych.org/resources/e-books/faces/text/index.htm >

Pearson Prentice Hall (on line), 2010
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Time Magazine (on line), 2010
<http://www.time.com/time/>

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These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Mental Abilities & Biological Behaviour                                    Value 1.0
This unit combines Mental Abilities 0.5 with Biological Approaches to Behaviour 0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals
A Course                                    T Course
This unit should enable students to:        This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions              of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research   applications and limitations of
and literature                              psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge     Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts    knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider      psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations      methodology, with reference to real life
                                            situations
Investigate the nature of intelligence,     Critically analyse and evaluate the nature
thinking and creativity                     and measurement of intelligence,
                                            thinking and creativity
Develop communication skills and an         Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the         relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                  discipline
Develop an understanding of the extent to Critically analyse and evaluate the extent
which biological influences explain       to which biological influences explain
human behaviour                           human behaviour

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

Intelligence
       Major theorists e.g. Binet, Weschler, Sternberg, Terman, Gardner Eysenck, Spearman
       Statistical approaches to normality
       Definitions
       Theories on the nature of intelligence
       Heredity/environment
   * Interplay of cognition and emotions
       Measurement of intelligence and IQ tests
                o validity
                o reliability
                o standardisation
                o cultural bias and cultural fairness
       Multiple intelligence
       Emotional intelligence e.g. Goleman
       Brain studies
       Specific disabilities/abilities e.g. Autism, Savants, Asperger‟s syndrome


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Thinking
     Theoretical approaches to problem-solving and decision-making
     Factors that influence problem-solving and decision-making
     Creative thinking e.g. Costa – Habits of Mind, de Bono
     Cognitive styles: convergent, divergent and lateral thinking

Biological
    General concepts
         o Definitions
         o Principles
         o Research methods
         o Ethics
         * e.g. patterns of behaviour can be inherited, animal research can be useful,
           cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of our physiology
         * Theories and or studies
         * e.g. experiments, observations, correlation studies
         * Research studies

       Physiology and its relationship to behaviour
         o Localisation of function in the brain
         o Effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour
         o Explain functions of hormones on behaviour
         o Effects of the environment on physiological processes
         o Interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour
         o Brain imaging technologies in finding relationships between biological factors
             and behaviour
         * Studies related (Wernicke, Broca, Sperry)
         * Examples to explain this, e.g. noradrenalin on depression
         * Two or more
         * e.g. Jet lag on bodily rhythms, environmental stressors on reproductive
             mechanisms
         * e.g. agnosia, amnesia
         * CAT scans, PET scans, fMRIs etc

       Genetics and Behaviour
         o Extent that genetic inheritance influences behaviour
         o Evolutionary explanation of behaviour
         o Ethical considerations in research
         o Studies
         * Ethics in research into genetic influences on behaviour

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs

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    Research
       Surveys and questioning
       Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
       Debates/Discussion
       Role plays
       Interviews
       Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
       Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
       Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
       Experimental and observational research activities.


Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research                Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental             Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report           Film review
                  responses          Literature               Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay             Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                 Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:            Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                 Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                   o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                     articles response
                                      o Poster                  o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                    response
                                      o Multimedia              o Diagram/ sociogram
                                      o Portfolio               o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                                A                            T
In class task/essay                       300-500 words                500-800 words
Research task/essay                       500-800 words               800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.


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Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.

Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.


AudioVisual Material
A Beautiful Mind (DVD) 2001, Universal Pictures.

As Good as It Gets (DVD) 1997, Tristar Pictures.

Cosi (DVD) 1996, Miramax Films.

Girl, Interrupted (DVD) 1999, 3 Art Entertainment, Columbia Pictures.

Good Will Hunting (DVD) 1997, Miramax Films.

Shine (DVD) 1996, Australian Film Finance Corporation.

Web sites
A Brief Review of Creativity (on line), 2010
< http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/dickhut.html > Dickhut, J. E.

American Psychological Association (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/ >

American Psychological Association Monitor – monthly review of research (on line), 2010
< http://www.apa.org/monitor/ >

Amoeba Web Online: Psychological Tests (on line), 2010
<http://www.vanguard.edu/Home/AcademicResources/Faculty/DougDegelman/PsychologyDi
rectoryAmoebaWeb/PsychologyResourcesOnlineTests.aspx >

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
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< http://www.psychology.org.au >

California State University 2004, What is Creativity? (on line), 2010
< http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/creativity/define.htm >

Legally Blonde Film Script (on line), 2010
< http://www.dailyscript.com/scripts/legallblonde-shooting.pdf >

Mental Health Info Source (on line), 2010
< http://www.mhsource.com/ >

Psychiatric Times Disorder Index (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/disorder.html >

Psychology in the News (on line), 2010
< http://www.psycport.com/ >

Psychology Today Magazine (on line), 2010
< http://cms.psychologytoday.com/pto/home.php >

Why we should use Non Cognitive Variables with Graduate Students (on line), 2000
< http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/Diversity/General/Reading/Sedlacek/501.html >
Sedlacek, William E.

Society for the Teaching of Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/ >

These were accurate at the time of publication.




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Motivation, Emotion, Cognitive Behaviour                                   Value 1.0
This unit combines Motivation and Emotion 0.5 with Cognitive Approaches to Behaviour 0.5.
Significant duplication of content means this unit may not be studied in addition to The Self,
0.5.

Prerequisites
Nil

Specific Unit Goals

A Course                                    T Course
This unit should enable students to:        This unit should enable students to:
Explain human behaviour as an outcome       Analyse human behaviour as an outcome
of influences and interactions              of influences and interactions
Identify the assumptions, applications      Critically evaluate the assumptions,
and limitations of psychological research   applications and limitations of
and literature                              psychological research and literature
Develop investigative skills, knowledge     Develop and apply investigative skills,
and insights into psychological concepts    knowledge and insights into
and research methodology, and consider      psychological concepts and research
how they apply to real life situations      methodology, with reference to real life
                                            situations
Develop communication skills and an         Develop effective communication skills
awareness of the conventions of the         relevant to the conventions of the
discipline                                  discipline
Investigate the concepts and underlying     Critically analyse and evaluate the
factors concerning motivation and           concepts and underlying factors
emotion                                     concerning motivation and emotion
Develop an understanding of the extent to Critically analyse and evaluate the extent
which cognitive influences explain        to which cognitive influences explain
human behaviour                           human behaviour

Content
*Denotes optional aspects of the topic

The Nature of Motivation
    Definition of motive, need, drive and instinct
    Biological vs. social motives
   * Unconscious motives
    Motivation and achievement
   * Levels of motivation (e.g.. the Yerkes Dodson Law)
    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
   * Demotivation

Theoretical Approaches
    Instinct theory

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   * Drive reduction theory
       Incentive theory
       Cognitive theory
       Maslow‟s hierarchy
    *   Psychodynamic approach
    *   AJ Martin‟s theory

Biological Motives
    Hunger
    Sex

Learned Motives
    Affiliation
    Achievement
   * Power

The Nature of Emotions
    Primary and secondary emotions
    Brain and emotion
   * Theories of love (e.g. Sternberg)

Communicating emotions
   Non-verbal communication (e.g. facial expressions; tone of voice; body language)
   Gender/cultural differences
  * Faking emotion (e.g. lying and deception)

Theoretical Approaches
    James-Lange; Cannon-Bard
    Schachter‟s Cognitive theory
    Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Emotional Intelligence
   Changing values emphasis on EQ versus IQ
  * Emotional resilience and youth

Cognitive
    General concepts
        o Definitions
        o Principles
        o Research methods
        o Ethics
        * e.g. mental representations guide behaviour, mental processes can be
          scientifically investigated
        * theories/studies
        * e.g. experiments, observations, interviews

       Cognitive processes
         o Schema theory

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            o   Models or theories of cognitive processes
            o   Biological factors that affect cognitive processes
            o   Effect of social/cultural factors on cognitive processes
            o   Reliability of cognitive processes
            *   Research studies
            *   Research studies, and two of the following: e.g. memory, perception, language,
                decision making,
            *   e.g. Alzheimer‟s disease, brain damage, sleep deprivation
            *   e.g. education, video games and attention, carpentered-world hypothesis
            *   research studies, e.g. reconstructive memory, perception/visual illusions,
                decision making/heuristics

       Cognition and Emotion
         o Extent that cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion
         o How emotion may affect cognitive processes
         * e.g. two factor theory, arousal theory, Lazarus‟ theory of appraisal
         * e.g. state dependent memory, flashbulb memory, affective filters

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching strategies that are particularly relevant and effective in Psychology include:
    Cooperative learning
    Scaffolding of new concepts
    Lectures/ tutorials/ seminars
    Excursions
    Guest speakers
    Use of a broad range of visual imagery
    Use of technology, e.g. web based activities, podcasting, wikis, blogs
    Research
    Surveys and questioning
    Opportunities to develop a wide range of appropriate practical skills
    Debates/Discussion
    Role plays
    Interviews
    Timelines/ mind maps/ brainstorming
    Links with a range of human and community providers/facilities.
    Case studies, journal and newspaper articles and personality profiles
    Experimental and observational research activities.




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Assessment Task Types
A balance of oral and written should be part of a minor course of study.

              Test/Exam             Research               Open Response
Task Type
                                    Assignment
                 Multiple choice    Experimental            Case studies
                 Short answer        survey/ report          Film review
                  responses          Literature                   Debate
                 In Class essay      review/essay                 Public campaign
                 Interpretations    Research                     Role play
                  of unseen           presented by:           Diary journal/entry
Examples          stimuli             o Report                Creative response:
such as:         Document            o Essay                  o Newspaper or other
                  study               o Seminar                    articles response
                                      o Poster                 o Journal articles
                                      o Pamphlet                   response
                                      o Multimedia             o Diagram/sociogram
                                      o Portfolio              o Artwork

Weightings
in A/T 0.5         25 – 50%                               25-50%
Units

When considering word length for written responses, the following guidelines are suggested:

                                               A                         T
In class task/essay                      300-500 words             500-800 words
Research task/essay                      500-800 words            800-1500 words

As students progress through the two years of college it is envisaged that expected word
lengths of assessment items increase.

Specific Unit Resources
Books
Coon, D. 2004, Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behaviour (10th Ed)
Wadsworth: USA.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2001, Psychology for A2 Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Eysenck, M., Flanagan, C. 2000, Psychology for AS Level. Psychology Press, East Sussex.

Gross, R. 2009, Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. (5th Ed). Hodder Arnold,
London.

Skouteris, H. et al. 2004, Heinemann Psychology One. Second edition. Reed, Melbourne.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Crane, J., and Hannibal, J. 2009, Psychology: Course Companion. Oxford University Press:
New York.


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Grivas, J, Carter, L. 2000, Psychology for the VCE Student 3rd ed, Jacaranda: Melbourne.

Kowalski, R. and Westen, D. 2004, Psychology: Brain, Behavior and Culture. 4th ed. Wiley:
N.Y.

Myers David G. 2004, Exploring Psychology, Sixth Edition, in Modules, Sixth Edition, Worth
Publishers, New York.

Plotnik, R. 2007, Introduction to Psychology, (8th Edition). Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Test Bank For Plonik’s Introduction To Psychology, Seventh Edition.
Wodsworth, USA.

Plotnik, R. 2005, Instructor’s Resources Manual For Plotnik’s Introduction To Psychology,
Seventh Edition. Wodsworth, USA.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 1&2, Cengage Learning, Australia.

Van Iersel et al. 2004, Nelson Psychology VCE Units 3&4. Cengage Learning, Australia.

Whetham, P., Day, A., And Whetham, L. (Eds.) 2006, Psychology. Ibid Press: Victoria.

Audiovisual Material
Catalyst -The Extreme Sports Brain (TV Series) 6 March 2008, ABC. Available online:
<http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2008/03/06/2179019.htm>
Discovering Psychology (TV Series) 1989:
Exposed (TV Series), 2005, BBC.

Sense and Sensibility (DVD) 1995, Columbia Pictures.

The Human Body (TV series), 1998, BBC.

The Human Face (TV series), 2001, BBC.

The Miracle Worker (DVD), 1962, Playfilm Productions.

Websites

Australian Psychological Society (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychology.org.au >

Pearson Prentice Hall (on line), 2010
< http://www.phschool.com/advanced/lesson_plans/psych_wade_2000/week19-20.html >

Science and Nature: Human Body and Mind (on line), 2010
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/psychology_7.shtml >

Social Psychology (on line), 2010
< http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newResources/coreSocial.html >

These were accurate at time of publication.


Version 2                                                                                  114

				
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