Infusing diversity into the curriculum by dcsvzebge


									Connie Schroeder
Center for Instructional and Professional Development
Anj Petto
Biological Science

                 Inclusive Excellence represents a shift
                not in the essence of our work but how
                we approach it and carry it out. Above
                all, Inclusive Excellence asks us to
                actively manage diversity as a vital and
                necessary asset of collegiate life rather
                than as an external problem.
Success in IE
will look like:

                  •Improved campus climates that provide a
                  strong, abiding sense of belonging and
                  community for all UW students
                  •Better alignment and cohesiveness
                  between diversity efforts and other
                  institutional initiatives, particularly those
                  that focus on excellence in undergraduate
                  •Greater numbers of UW students who
                  possess the requisite multicultural
                  competencies they need to navigate an
                  increasingly diverse democracy
Assessment 30 minutes

   What is meant by infusion, diversity, and curriculum?

   What examples or models, both here at UWM and beyond, can help
    us understand and imagine infusion at a curricular or course level?
Visioning Exercise 60 minutes
 What should UWM look like in 5 years?

   Please brainstorm your visions/priorities.

   Each session will have chart-size Post-it pads to use
    for this brainstorming exercise. To prioritize (as part of
    closing out this session), please post items on your
    brainstormed list on the wall using the chart-size Post-
    it wall pads, and then ask everyone to use the small
    Post-its (write numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. on them) to post
    on the wall by the brainstormed items of their choice.
   What would infusion in the curriculum look like?
   What types of strategies, new collaborations, and
    recommendations would help move forward
    UWM forward in infusing diversity into the
    curriculum in the next 5 years?
   Why is infusion happening, or not, in the
    curriculum – what are the real challenges and
    obstacles and what is working?
   What would be the benchmarks or milestones
    that help us know we are getting there?
Break, 15 minutes –11:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m.
Next Steps, 90 minutes – 11:45 a.m. -1:15 p.m.
 How do you organize your visions into 3-4 priority
 What strategic steps do we need to take to accomplish
  these visions/priorities?

Wrap-Up, 15 minutes 1:15-1:30 p.m.
 finalize discussion and put outcomes of
  Visioning/Priorities and Next Steps on flip chart
Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.)   Recommended
60 minutes                     Strategies

Obstacles/challenges           Benchmarks/milestones
What do we mean by:
 Infuse?
 Curriculum?
 Diversity?
    INFUSE                                      DIFFUSE
    to introduce, as if by pouring;        1. to pour out and spread, as a fluid.
     cause to penetrate; instill            2. to spread or scatter widely or thinly;
     (usually followed by into ):            disseminate.
     The energetic new principal            3. Physics . to spread by diffusion.
     infused new life into                  –verb (used without object) 4. to
     the school.                             spread.
    2. to imbue or inspire (usually        5. Physics . to intermingle by diffusion.
     followed by with ): The new            –adjective 6. characterized by great
     coach infused the team with             length or discursiveness in speech or
     enthusiasm.                             writing; wordy.
    3. to steep or soak (leaves,           7. widely spread or scattered;
     bark, roots, etc.) in a liquid so       dispersed.
     as to extract the soluble              8. Botany . widely or loosely spreading.
     properties or ingredients.             9. Optics . (of reflected light) scattered,
    4. Obsolete . to pour in.               as from a rough surface ( opposed to
Diversity?   UW System IE

             DIVERSITY: Individual differences
             (e.g. personality, learning styles,
             and life experiences) and
             group/social differences (e.g.
             race/ethnicity, gender, sexual
             orientation, country of origin,
             and ability as well as cultural,
             political, religious, or other
             affiliations) that can be engaged
             in the service of learning.
   At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the
    debate is not whether to do it, but how.
   Although many terms over the years have been used,
    such as multiculturalism, multicultural education, and
    ethnic studies, the term diversity will be used here.
   A more encompassing term, diversity is meant to
    represent all perspectives from groups that have
    traditionally been excluded from or insufficiently
    examined in the curriculum.

   A. Institutional
       Shared values and learning outcomes
       General education outcomes/Cultures and Communities
       Course requirements for all students
       Assessment
       Policy (syllabus, religious holidays, behavior, access)
   B. Departmental/Programs
     Program outcomes
     Assessments
   C. Courses: Multiple strategies, models and
    examples to follow
 Calls for inclusion stem from the argument that a singular,
  Eurocentric perspective has had negative consequences for
  individual students and for the larger society.
 Proponents of diversity in higher education argue that
  excluding diverse perspectives in the curriculum has
  truncated students' learning, leaving them ill-prepared to
  function in an increasingly diverse democracy.
 The very purpose of higher education–to deepen students'
  understanding of what is known, how it has come to be
  known, and how to build on previous knowledge to create
  new knowledge–is thus undermined by eliminating the voices
  of those whose experiences differ from those traditionally
   If students graduate with the ability to think
    critically, act responsibly, and negotiate
    borders that might otherwise divide, then
    higher education will come closer to meeting
    its historic mission of not only advancing
    knowledge, but contributing to stable, more
    equitable democratic societies.
   Different diversity experiences appear to positively and
    significantly influence growth in critical thinking during
   Students experienced growth in critical thinking if they
    participated in meaningful discussions with the potential to
    encounter challenging and new ideas about the perspectives
    and experiences of people culturally different from
   Racially oriented diversity experiences were particularly
    important for enhancing critical thinking of white students.
   (National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and
   In a longitudinal study of 4,403 college students
    attending nine public universities it was reported
    that students who have an opportunity to take a
    diversified curriculum by the second year of
    college scored higher on 19 of 25 outcomes of
    the study.
   The strongest effects of diversity courses were
    evident on complex thinking skills, retention,
    cultural awareness, interest in social issues, the
    importance of creating social awareness, and
    support for institutional diversity initiatives.
   In a survey conducted for the Association of
    American Colleges and Universities, more
    that 60 percent of employers polled said
    recent graduates lacked the skills to succeed
    in a global economy (Fischer, 2007).
   Committee for Economic Development, a
    nonprofit group of business and academic
    leaders, noted that demand for graduates
    with strong international skills was
    outstripping supply (Fischer, 2007).
   Intercultural Knowledge and Competence is

    "a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills
    and characteristics that support effective and
    appropriate interaction in a variety of cultural
   (Bennett, J. M. 2008. Transformative training: Designing programs for
    culture learning. In Contemporary leadership and intercultural
    competence: Understanding and utilizing cultural diversity to build
    successful organizations, ed. M. A. Moodian, 95-110. Thousand Oaks, CA:

   The most common model, surfacing at 68
    percent of the AAC&U survey respondents,
    asks students to take one diversity course
    among many offerings.
    Three credits in a course relating to the study of
    life experiences of African Americans,
    Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians or
    Asian Americans. Many, but not all, courses
    which satisfy Cultural Diversity also satisfy one
    of the required distribution areas. (You will need
    to satisfy this requirement if you started
    attending UWM in fall 1989 or thereafter.)
Certificate Requirements
   Students must complete 15 credits of Cultures and Communities courses in order to complete the
    certificate: 3 credits in a section of the required CC core course in addition to 12 credits in CC approved
    courses. In addition to coursework students must engage in 15-20 hours of community engagement
    through a Service Learning experience.
   The summary below outlines the five areas of the CC Certificate distribution requirements:
   Area 1 (core course): Multicultural America (3 credits). Currently offered as English 150, History 150, or
    Women's Studies 150 (satisfies Humanities and Cultural Diversity GER requirements); Anthropology 150,
    Sociology 150, or Urban Studies 150 (satisfies Social Sciences and Cultural Diversity GER requirements);
    or Film 150 or Art 150 (Peck School of the Arts; satisfies Arts and Cultural Diversity GER requirements);
    Urban Planning 350 (School of Architecture and Urban Planning).
   Area 2: Cultures and Communities of the United States (3 credits). Issues and methods in the
    comparative study of cultures and communities of the U.S. May be fulfilled by appropriate accredited
    GER or Cultural Diversity courses in any discipline, school, or college. Students may also opt to take a
    second MA 150 course in another discipline to satisfy their area 2 requirement.
   Area 3: Global Perspectives on Culture and Community: (3 credits). Issues and methods in the
    comparative study of cultures and communities outside North America and Europe. May be fulfilled by
    appropriate accredited GER courses in any discipline, school, or college or through an appropriate study
    abroad experience.
   Area 4: Art, Culture, and Community: (3 credits). May be fulfilled by courses that relate the theory and
    production of art (dance, music, visual arts, film, and theater) to cultural and community contexts.
    Restricted to courses in the Peck School of the Arts except through special petition.
   Area 5: Science, Culture, and Society: (3 credits). Includes courses that examine how scientific
    knowledge may be understood in relation to issues in culture and society. May be fulfilled by enrollment
    in classes with a Natural Sciences or Social Sciences accreditation.
   Is this our vision?

   What will the current infusion of diversity
    look like in 5 years given these efforts?
AAC&U's survey:
 78 percent of colleges responding from the West had
  diversity requirements
 68 percent of those in the Middle States (Mid-
  Atlantic) region
 60 percent in the North Central region

By contrast, only
 45 percent of the institutions in the New England
  region had diversity requirements in 2000,
 36 percent of those in the South
 35 percent in the Northwest.
   Sixty-three percent of colleges and
    universities reported either having a diversity
    requirement in place or being in the process
    of developing one.

   Fifty-four percent of survey respondents had
    diversity requirements in place

   another 8 percent were in the process of
    establishing them.
   Of course, general education courses cannot carry the
    intellectual and moral weight of accomplishing all this in
    one required course, or even in a sequenced series of
   Each institution needs to take a holistic look at the entire
    curriculum, the interrelationship between general
    education and the major, the cumulative kinds of
    developmental experiences a student might have in
    progressing towards a degree, and the increasingly
    complex and demanding questions students are able to
    pose and answer as they are challenged to use their new
    knowledge and civic, intercultural capacities to address
    real-world problems.
Models and examples

Inclusive Excellence represents a shift not in the
essence of our work but how we approach it and
carry it out.
   1. Stand-alone diversity courses. “While offering such courses
    certainly emphasizes the importance we place on understanding the
    role of diversity in modern society, there is a tendency to see
    diversity in this context as a special topic lying somewhere outside
    the core principles of journalism.”
 2. Dedicated class sessions on diversity or tied to a textbook
  chapter on diversity.
 “Again, such special treatment can create a sense that this subject
  matter is an isolated topic, marginalized, taken up in an obligatory
  bow to political correctness.”
   3. Finding natural points of entry for diversity to be discussed
    across the curriculum. “It potentially is the more effective approach
    to ‘doing’ diversity in the classroom…. Diversity is introduced to
    students in an organic, less self-conscious way that encourages
    them to cross their own boundaries in search of that untold story.”
   All too often, the common assumption is that
    only certain classes lend themselves to
    infusing diversity.

   This stems, in part, from limiting the
    understanding “infusion” to the choice of
    authors of content.
   Carr (2007) in her article, “Diversity and
    Disciplinary Practices,
   ” argues that much of the revision work done by
    faculty has been limited to revising and adding
    content in courses rather than attending to all
    four factors. In addition, Carr noted that the
    diversity ‘agenda’ has been primarily articulated
    by experts in humanities and social sciences –
    women’s studies, black and ethnic studies,
    sociology of education, and feminist
A framework…

 Course                        Teaching
 Content                       Methods

                            (Marchesani & Adams)
   Course description and objectives that reflect diversity—How does my
    discipline help prepare students to live and work in today’s multicultural
    democracy and interdependent world?
   Content integration that includes multiculturalism—What issues of
    diversity, social justice, and civic engagement are infused in my course
    curriculum and how?
   Instructional resources and materials—How inclusive are my selected
   Faculty and student worldviews and learning styles—How do student
    and faculty worldviews, learning styles, and teaching strategies match, and
    how are my students’ learning styles accommodated?
   Instructional strategies—How diversified are my strategies for facilitating
    instruction and classroom dynamics?
   Assessment diversification—How do assessment activities accommodate
    my students’ learning styles?
 The Faculty dimension includes knowing oneself, being aware
  of one‟s past socialization, and examining one‟s beliefs,
  attitudes, and assumptions.
 Teaching Methods looks at how we teach, broadening teaching
  strategies to address multiple learning styles, and developing
  classroom norms that emphasize respect, fairness and equity.
 The Course Content includes what we teach in a curriculum of
  inclusion that represents diverse perspectives.
 The fourth dimension represents the Students and
  understanding who they are, being sensitive to their various
  social and cultural backgrounds and the different ways in which
  they experience the classroom environment.
 1) Includes other voices – the focus is on the inclusion of writings,
  speeches, dialogues, films, etc. that originate from people of
  different social identities, cultural backgrounds, gender, and
 2) Communicates interconnectedness - the development of a
  sense that we are connected to others beyond our immediate
  experience and geographic area;
 3) Values diversity and equity – embeds information and
  techniques designed to impart a sense of why diversity and equity
  are important; and
 4) Promotes transformative thinking – challenges traditional views
  and assumptions; encourages new ways of thinking; and re-
  conceptualizes the field in light of new knowledge, scholarship,
  and new ways of knowing” (p.13).
   Include diverse images as examples in PowerPoint slides
     Example: in social psychology, photo of African American physician on slide
      covering helping behavior
   Highlight research by members of groups that are underrepresented in
    your field
     Example: in research methods, select article by female scientist whenever
      possible; usually include photo of the researcher on slide
   Use diverse names/themes on test questions
     Example: Alex and Tom feel passion and intimacy toward each other but
      they cannot foresee themselves committing to each other because both
      believe that commitment means marriage and their state does not
      recognize same-sex marriages. Sternberg’s triangular theory would
      characterize their love as
      b. fatuous.
      c. companionate.
      d. empty.
      Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology IUPUI
   Use clips, examples that highlight diversity even when
    the topic does not involve diversity per se
   Examples
     “A Girl Like Me” (see to teach about
      cultural influences on attraction in social psychology course
     Madera, J.M., Hebl, M.R., & Martin, R. C. (2009). Gender and
      letters of recommendation for academia: Agentic and
      communal differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1591-
      1599, to teach about structure of empirical articles in research
      methods course

   Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology IUPUI
 Interaction with individuals of various
  backgrounds in the community. This can be done
  in several ways, simple observation, reaching out
  to the community, involvement in cultural
  activities in the area (Greekfests, visiting a Senior
  Center or Nursing Home, attending a religious
  service of a faith different than yours, helping
  feed the homeless, doing a good deed without
  telling the person you did it, and so on).
 Small group activities or discussions with
  results being brought back to the entire group.
   Student research into diverse people who have made
    important contribution to a particular field, for
    example, women or people of color who have made a
    significant impact on a science discipline such as
    chemistry, physics, biology, math, etc.
   Student research into how a discipline is taught in
    different countries. For example, how is math taught
    in India, or in Japan?
   Research papers on various topics related to diversity.
- D r. B o n n i e A . G r a y ; D r. P a u l N . G r o c o f f 7 S e p t e mb e r 2 0 0 7
    U n i v e r s i t y o f Yo r k , U n i t e d K i n g d o m
   The basic broadcasting course discusses the rise of ethnic
    channels such as the Black Entertainment Network and
    Telemundo for Hispanic audiences.
   Students in an advertising sales course discuss ads that
    target minors, minorities and other special audiences.
   Students in a media writing course do articles on diversity
    issues such as physical access for disabled persons on
    campus and the views of female Islamic students
    regarding women’s issues.
   An advanced reporting course is paired with a Spanish
    Conversation and Translation course to interview and
    write articles for the local Hispanic community.
   Corporate communication students learn that increased
    sales and market share are enhanced by implementing
    diversity plans throughout an organization.
   Readings about topics in diversity or readings by diverse authors,
    followed by class discussion or a paper.
   Guest speakers – always followed by an opportunity for questions
    and answers. Make sure you set guidelines for having guest
   Using newspapers or TV news to bring up diversity issues within
    current events.
   Class activities. There are a whole host of activities you can have
    students do which teaches them different aspects of diversity.
    There are workbooks available that provide lots of different
    options that you can use directly or modify for your classroom.

   Dr. B o n n i e A. Gr a y; Dr. P a u l N. Gr o c o ff 7 S e p t e mb e r 2 0 0 7 Un i v e r s i t y
    o f Yo r k , U n i t e d K i n g d o m
   Group (or individual) class presentations on particular
    diversity topics; can be done in various formats:
    debates (where students need to take opposite
    viewpoints on a particular topic), panel presentations,
    student PowerPoint presentations, and so forth.
   Exploring diversity on the Internet (both the positive
    and the negative aspects of diversity).
   Diversity portfolios, where students build a portfolio
    over the module of a semester on a particular topic, or
    on several topics related to diversity and the subject
 Anthropology        Humanities
 Art Business        Legal Studies
 Communication       Mathematics
                      Nursing
 Counseling
                      Performing Arts
 Economics           Philosophy
 Education           Physical Education
 Engineering         Political Science
                      Psychology
 English
                      Reading
 Health Science      Religion
 History             Science
                      Sociology
    I implemented a mathematics project at the intermediate/college
    algebra level that infuses diversity of world views.
   This project asked students to model world population growth,
    density of population in terms of arable surface area, and
    depletion of non-renewable resources, using exponential and
    logarithmic functions. A total of 50+ students in three different
    classes were assigned this project during the Fall semester of
    Students were asked to analyze geographical data for 8 different
    countries of the world with widely varying physical geographies,
    cultures, and political, socio-economic, and technological
    conditions. The eight countries were Bangledesh, Brazil, China,
    Germany, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States. For
    each country students computed values
   A media ethics professor wrote in a self-study
    about incorporating a discussion of
    racist hoaxes into a broader discussion about
    manipulations of media. He wrote,
   “My students don’t know we’re covering
    diversity. We do not cover diversity from a
    political view. We approach it through journalism
    – as an aspect of our jobs….Embrace diversity as
    an aspect of good journalism. Our goal is
    sharpening perceptions and deepening
   BIO 160 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
  Since this course deals with anatomical structures and their
  functions, we focused on the prevalence of diseases
  common to different racial, ethnic, cultural and religious
 Each student evaluated his/her own family background and
  medical history to determine if there was a common illness
  or practice among family members. They chose a topic
  based on that or a different topic that was appealing to
 Throughout the semester, the topics were presented during
  the appropriate body system to promote awareness and
  cohesion of the course competencies. Students submitted a
  written report at the time of their oral presentation.
   On the first day of class, the topic of diversity
    was introduced and discussed in a lecture
    form. After explaining to the students that
    diversity issues would be discussed
    throughout the semester, the students were
    asked to offer their opinions and thoughts
    relating to diversity. An interactive discussion
    was conducted until it was clear to all
    students the purpose of the diversity project.
Women are poorly represented in Chemistry.
 For students, 52% of undergraduates in 1997 were women but
  only 37% of undergraduates in chemistry were female (Royal
  Society of Chemistry report). If this trend continues, there won'
  t be parity for men and women till 2070.
   Infusing diversity into the CHM 130 curriculum helps achieve a
    better balance between males and females in CHM 130.
    infusing two aspects of diversity, gender, and geographical
    region into the curriculum, wherein students participated in
    gathering information on the biographies and contributions of
    European women to the field of chemistry.
   Students presented their work in the form of Power points. This
    was followed by written reports on the reasons for the
    underrepresentation of women in chemistry.
 We began the engineering workshop by asking faculty members
  to think about engineering's potential and limits in addressing
  social problems. A primary focus was the issue of technology's
  unintended consequences.
 After introducing the concepts of power and privilege, we
  discussed the example of the Toyota Prius. Engineers designed
  the Prius to be extremely quiet--so quiet that it poses a danger to
  vision-impaired people, who cannot hear it. Vision-impaired
  people are now asking the automotive industry to design
  automobiles that have minimum noise levels.
 Other unintended consequences include the impingement on
  Native American fishing rights caused by hydroelectric dams and
  the rampant consumerism driven by engineering's focus on
  creating new products. We also examined two case studies that
  faculty members can utilize to explore the complex issues of
  privilege, power, and difference in relation to engineering: the
  Manhattan Project and Hurricane Katrina.
A. The first project involved student Power point presentations (oral)
   of the biographies and contributions of women chemists. To name
   a few:
   Marie Curie
   Eva Curie
   Irene-Joliot Curie: 1, 2, 3. The Curies' struggles and valuable contributions to nuclear
    chemistry was highlighted .
   Lise Meitner, the woman whom Einstein called 'The German Madame Curie' (a high
    honour indeed: both to be praised by Einstein, and to be compared to Curie) was always
    unassuming. Students find out that In 1992, Element 109 was named "Meitnerium" (Mt)
    in her honour. Her work led directly to the possibility of nuclear weapons, but Meitner
    would have no part in building a weapon of such destructive force. She went to great
    lengths to distance herself from the negative possibilities her discoveries created.
   Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the structure of insulin in 1969. Students are
    amazed to learn that this culminated a study pursued over three decades. The details of
    the structure provided insight into the function of this vital hormone.
   Rosalind Franklin The students learn that Rosalind Franklin obtained excellent X-ray
    diffraction photographs of DNA. They found that Franklin died of ovarian cancer which
    was quite possibly caused by exposure to radiation in the course of her research.
B. Reading Assignments:
  (i) Brush, Stephen G. 1991. "Women in Science and
  Engineering". American Scientist, 79, 404-419
  (ii) "A Celebration of Women in Science" (cover story) 1991.
  Discover. 12:8, 10-33
C. A 2-page report on why women are under-represented in
   Chemistry (information obtained from a report published by
   the Royal Society of Chemistry)
D. A 1-page report on the European country the chemist
   belonged to, its culture, language, climate, customs and
   traditions, science museums of interest, etc.
    The students thoroughly enjoyed the project. A lot of them felt
    that the project had great inspirational ability. It helped in the
    facilitation of peer-to-peer dialogues and iteractions.
    The impact of including this activity was dramatic after every
    group made its presentation in the form of Microsoft Power Point.
    Animated discussions resulted by having each group voice its
    opinion on the factors that it felt were responsible for promoting
    or hindering the progress of women in Chemistry. Giving pupils
    opportunity to voice opinions about Science helps in the creation
    of an environment conducive to learning.
   Students had the opportunities to have discussions among
    themselves, including constructive dialogue, and this motivated
    them to learn and become effective communicators.
  This course teaches legal writing skills to Legal Assisting and
  Tribal Court Advocacy students. Writing assignments in past
  semesters have addressed a variety of law-related tasks and
  topics not necessarily related to diversity.
 My project infused diversity into this course, and thereby into
  these two occupational programs, by developing lesson plans
  and writing assignments based on diversity topics.
 Tasks included, for example, writing letters and articles and
  preparing legal analyses summarizing the law on particular
  diversity topics.
 Subjects included disability access, age discrimination, racial
  segregation, and diversity-related topics of the students’
  choice. No modification of official competencies or course
  outline was necessary.
   a microbiology course, Disease and Society, examines the movement
    of disease at the microbial level in relation to issues of race, gender,
    and social class.
   A course in exercise and sport science, Power and Privilege in Sport,
    examines how the unequal distribution of resources across gender,
    race, social class, sexual identity, ability, and age plays out in sports.
   Social Ethics in Engineering asks students to apply concepts of
    systems of oppression as they consider their professional
    development as engineers.
   A geosciences course, Environmental Justice, explores the impact of
    environmental racism on people of color,
   and a fisheries and wildlife course, Multicultural Perspectives on
    Natural Resources, considers how diverse social values affect changes
    in the physical landscape and biodiversity in the American West.
   We began by discussing climate issues related to the discipline's changing
    demographics (women now outnumber men in veterinary medicine
    programs). As we moved on to discuss content, we talked about animals'
    vulnerability in human society and asked how faculty members might assess
    animal-human relations in the context of power and privilege. We concluded
    by asking faculty members to imagine how they might help their students
    think about issues of difference, power, and privilege in light of a range of
    questions, including:
   What is poverty's impact on the practice of veterinary medicine?
   How do cultural and gender differences affect the practice of veterinary
   What role do veterinarians play in organizations that help humans, and do
    veterinarians have an obligation to work toward improving human
   What ties does veterinary medicine have to pharmaceutical companies?
   What role do veterinarians play in global development work, in disasters, and
    in wars?
   What role do veterinarians play in developing legislation about animal
    welfare issues?
The goal comes out of my training in anthropology --- both to recognize and to understand the impact of cultural perspective ... even on

We consider lactose intolerance a "disorder" or disease. However, lactose intolerance is not only more common in human populations
than lactose tolerance (after weaning), it is also the normal state of affairs for all post-weaning mammals. A Eurocentric perspective sees
lactose intolerance as an abnormal condition and so defines it as a disease. A proper perspective identifies the European variant as a
genetic mutation that has fitness benefits in cultures where dairy products make up an appreciable proportion of available foods, even for
adults. There are two issues here: (1) A redefinition of "normal" so that the unusual condition in Europeans is the standard condition, and
the condition of the rest of the world now becomes a disease or disorder; and (2) the renaming of the normal condition to call it
"lactose intolerance" as though it were a deviation from the usual state of affairs in mammals. (We could do a similar bit with the sickle-
cell trait or any of the hemoglobin variants)

I have a data set based on students in my past classes in which they
report ethnicity and many of them include skin color information (based
on paint samples that match their skin). When we look at the 20 or so
genetic traits that are recorded there, we find that none on these
tracks the ethnic and color variables very well. We can then talk about
concepts such as hypodescent (one-drop rules) and "blood quantum" measures.

We also have problems that students work on that have to do with sex
differences in head measurements and so on. Clouds of data to be parsed,
graphed, queried and understood.
Accompanied by Assessment
Brief low stakes assessments
   How perspectives changed
   How view of field changed
   How approach to solving, thinking has changes

  Higher Stakes Assignments
   directly measure application of and inclusion of diverse
    viewpoints, data, facts, evidence, and arguments:
    ▪   Rubrics
    ▪   Criteria
    ▪   Before/After Case analysis comparison
    ▪   Predictions/Assumptions, Biases
                                                   Global Perspective Rubric

Date: _______________

Rater: ____________________________                      Course: __________________                  Student: ________________

TRAIT                                   Unacceptable                        Acceptable                     Exemplary             Score
Identification of Global     No or incomplete identification of   Some identification of most    Clear and some detailed
Factors                      some or all of the following         of the relevant factors        identification of relevant
                             relevant global factors: Economic,                                  factors.
                             Cultural, Legal, demographic

Analysis of Global Factors   No analysis of impact of relevant    Some analysis of impact of     Clear, accurate and
                             global issues; Erroneous analysis    global factors; some           somewhat detailed analysis
                             of impact                            inaccuracies in analysis       of impact of relevant global

Application of Analysis to   No application of analysis to        Some application of analysis   Clear application of analysis
Management Situation         specific management situation;       to specific management         to specific management
                             incorrect conclusions or             situation, weak conclusions    situation; valid conclusions
                             recommendations made.                or recommendations made        and good recommendations

Adapted from California State University, East Bay website:
   The highest level of cultural competency
   results when “every policy, issue, and
   action is examined in its cultural context
   and assessed for its strengths and limits.”
   From Bennetts’ Cultural Sensitivity Model
Models of Institutional Programs

How do some institutions become more
successful at infusing diversity into the
curriculum and into courses?
   Structure/policies
   Norms, practices, habits, behaviors
   Values, beliefs

   (Miles & Huberman, l984)
   The annual report alone does not appear to
    generate sustained institutional change. The
    literature shows that the most successful diversity
    curriculum revision initiatives, “engage people in
    reading, thinking, and debating over time in a
    sustained group that fosters development of
    collegial and personal relationships” (McTighe Musil
    et al., 1999, p. 25).
                Structure/policies        Practices/norms        Values/beliefs
                •General Ed. Learning     •Syllabus and course   •Diversity infused in
                Outcomes                  design                 curriculum is
                •Cultures and             •Sharing               important for
                Communities               strategies/examples    graduates/society
                •Rewards and              •Accessing             •Specific value for
                incentives, recognition   instructional          majors/programs
                •Instructional            development oppt’s     •Improves learning
                development resources                            for all
                •Faculty senate?                                 •My course can be
                •Departmental?                                   infused
Institutional                                                   
Departmental                                                   
Programs                                                        
Courses                                                         
individual                                                      
   Diversity Curriculum Infusion Program
    (DCIP), established in 2003
   University of Missouri–Kansas City
   The annual report alone does not appear to
    generate sustained institutional change. The
    literature shows that the most successful
    diversity curriculum revision initiatives,
    “engage people in reading, thinking, and
    debating over time in a sustained group that
    fosters development of collegial and personal
    relationships” (McTighe Musil et al., 1999, p.
Four daylong workshops

   participants revise an existing course by
    infusing the curriculum with diversity and
    social justice,
    implement the course the following
    semester, and
   make a presentation about the experience at
    the campus-wide culminating celebration
    held in April.
The first workshop:
 Orientation, community building,
 collectively define critical diversity
 examine their teaching using the rubric of the six areas of
  potential diversity curriculum infusion (see sidebar)
The second workshop:
 self-transformation
 examine their biases and their commitment to diversity

The third workshop
 present preliminary drafts of their course revisions
 receive constructive feedback from the group
The fourth and final workshop is a celebratory experience:
 present the pre- and post-syllabi
 discuss the implementation experience.
 aroused faculty interest in the scholarship of
 appreciation for the opportunity to be
  empowered and challenged;
 chance to discuss diversity and curriculum
 raised consciousness of diversity and its
  enrichment in the curriculum;
 newly energized teaching;
 increased knowledge of diversity;
 new teaching strategies they have learned;
  heightened sensitivity and responsiveness to
  diverse groups of students.
The inventories were distributed by David Conn to every Cal Poly
department chair/head with undergraduate major(s) and the
Multiple Subject Credential program.

 COLUMN A 51%                                   COLUMNS C & D 20%
 NONE-LOW                                       MEDIUM-HIGH AND HIGH
                                                   Nutrition
 •   engineering
                                                   Recreation Administration
 •   mathematics
 •   life and physical sciences
                                                  Kinesiology
                                                  English
                                                  Modern Languages
                                                  History
                                                  Social Sciences
                                                  Multiple Subject Credential
                                                % of
Column Inclusion Metric Level of Diversity
A     0 - 1.49         None-Low              51%
B     1.50 - 2.99      Medium-Low            29%
C     3.00 - 4.49      Medium-High           12%
D     4.50 - 6.00      High                  8%
   This program provides funding to support
    faculty as they seek to infuse diversity issues
    and perspectives into courses they currently
    teach. These projects are completed within
    the framework of the Program for Infusing
    Diversity into the Curriculum. There is a one-
    year commitment to the Program, which runs
    from summer each year to the end of spring
    semester the following year.
   Selected participants receive a stipend for 90
    hours during their one-year commitment.
    This stipend is approximately equivalent to
    one, 3-hour course load.
                                                                  Student barriers
                                                          Perceived student
                                                          Concern over student
                                                          Perceived multicultural
                                                          Perceived lack of
                                                           connection to content
                      from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of Practice Faculty Survey, 2007-
From Boysen et al., 2009, Journal of Diversity in Higher Education
   Teaching resources
     e.g., Where would I begin to acquire knowledge, gain
      confidence about how to teach about diversity?
      ▪ Perceived especially by instructors who are not “diverse”

   Time constraints
     e.g., I’ve got a standard curriculum to cover; there’s
      no time for covering extras like diversity

   Lack of knowledge
     e.g., My graduate training did not include diversity,
      cultural competence
                   from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of Practice Faculty Survey, 2007-
 Since resistance is an expression of fear, anxiety, and
  discomfort, educators need to create an environment
  of “psychological safety and readiness” (Friedman and
  Lipshitz 1992).
 Robert Kegan (1982) discusses the need for
  “confirmation” (an environment of support) before
  “contradiction” (conditions that challenge current
  meaning-making systems).
 Educators jump to “contradiction,” providing new and
  challenging perspectives without first establishing
  environments and relationships of trust (among the
  students, but especially with the teacher).
 Friedman, V. J., and R. Lipshitz. 1992. Teaching people to shift cognitive
  gears: Overcoming resistance on the road to model II. Journal of Applied
  Behavioral Science 28 (1): 118–36.
 Hardiman, R., and B. Jackson. 1992. Racial identity development:
  Understanding racial dynamics in college classrooms and on campus. In
  Promoting diversity in college classrooms: Innovative responses for the
  curriculum, faculty, and institutions, ed. M. Adams, 21–37. San Francisco:
 Helms, J. 1995. An update on Helms’ white and people of color racial
  identity models. In Handbook of multicultural counseling, ed. J. G.
  Ponterotto, J. M. Casa, L. A. Suzuki, and C. M. Alexander, 181–98.
  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Kegan, R. 1982. The evolving self: Problems and process in human
  development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 Tatum, B. D. 1997. “Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the
  cafeteria?” and other conversations about race. New York: Basic Books
   Banks, J. (1995). Multicultural education: historical development, dimensions, and practice. In J.
   B. Banks (Ed.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 3-24). New York,
   New York: Macmillan Publishing.
   Carr, J. F. (2007). Diversity and disciplinary practices. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn
   (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum: A guide for faculty in higher education (pp. 30-
   37). Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker Publishing.
   Chang, M. (2002). The impact of an undergraduate diversity course requirement on students'
   racial views and attitudes. Journal of General Education, 25, 125-140.
   Chester, M., Wilson, M., & Milani, A. (1993). Perceptions of faculty behavior by students of
   color. The Michigan Journal of Political Science, 16, 54-79.
   Cohn, E., & Mullenix, J. (2007). Diversity as an integral component of college curriculum. In J.
   Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum: A guide for
   faculty in higher education (pp. 11-17). Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker.
   Fischer, K. (2007, November 2). "Flat world" lessons for real-world students. Chronicle of
   Higher Education.
   Frey, B. (2007). Practices that facilitate diversity across the curriculum: Inclusive classroom
   assessment. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the
   curriculum: A guide for faculty in higher education (pp. 23-29). Bolton, Massachusetts:
   Anker.
   Gottredson, N., Panter, A., Daye, C., Wightman, L. A., & Deo, M. (2008). Does diversity at
   undergraduate institutions influence student outcomes. Journal of Diversity in Higher
   Education, 1(2), 80-94.
   Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and
   impact on education outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72 (3), 320-366. 20
   Hurtado, S. (2005). The next generation of diversity and intergroup relations research. Journal of
   Social Issues, 61(3), 595-610.
   Jackson, B. (1988, October). A model for teaching to diversity. Unpublished paper from a
   workshop at University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
   Kuh, G. D., & Whitt, E. J. (1988). The invisible tapestry: Culture in american colleges and
   universities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports. Washington: Association for the
   Study of Higher Education.
   Marchesani, L. S., & Adams, M. (1992). Dynamics of diversity in the teaching-learning process:
   A faculty development model for analysis and action. In M. Adams (Ed.), Promoting
   diversity in college classrooms (Vol. 52).
   McTighe Musil, C., Garcia, M., Hudgins, C., Nettles, M., Sedlacek, & Smith, D. (1999). To form
   a more perfect union. Washington: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
   Opinion of the Court. (2003). Grutter v. Bolinger, 539 U. S. 306. The U. S. Supreme Court.
   Orfield, G., Bachmeier, M., James, D., & Eitle, T. (1997). Deepening segregation in american
   public schools: A special report from the harvard project on school desegregation. Equity
   and Excellence in Education, 30 (2), 5-24.
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   teaching. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. 21
Visioning: 60 min.
What could infusing
diversity in the curriculum
look like in five years?
Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.)   Recommended
60 minutes                     Strategies

Obstacles/challenges           Benchmarks/milestones

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