Center for Instructional and Professional Development
WHY INCLUSIVE UW System
Inclusive Excellence represents a shift
not in the essence of our work but how
we approach it and carry it out. Above
all, Inclusive Excellence asks us to
actively manage diversity as a vital and
necessary asset of collegiate life rather
than as an external problem.
Success in IE
will look like:
•Improved campus climates that provide a
strong, abiding sense of belonging and
community for all UW students
•Better alignment and cohesiveness
between diversity efforts and other
institutional initiatives, particularly those
that focus on excellence in undergraduate
•Greater numbers of UW students who
possess the requisite multicultural
competencies they need to navigate an
increasingly diverse democracy
Assessment 30 minutes
What is meant by infusion, diversity, and curriculum?
What examples or models, both here at UWM and beyond, can help
us understand and imagine infusion at a curricular or course level?
Visioning Exercise 60 minutes
What should UWM look like in 5 years?
Please brainstorm your visions/priorities.
Each session will have chart-size Post-it pads to use
for this brainstorming exercise. To prioritize (as part of
closing out this session), please post items on your
brainstormed list on the wall using the chart-size Post-
it wall pads, and then ask everyone to use the small
Post-its (write numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. on them) to post
on the wall by the brainstormed items of their choice.
What would infusion in the curriculum look like?
What types of strategies, new collaborations, and
recommendations would help move forward
UWM forward in infusing diversity into the
curriculum in the next 5 years?
Why is infusion happening, or not, in the
curriculum – what are the real challenges and
obstacles and what is working?
What would be the benchmarks or milestones
that help us know we are getting there?
Break, 15 minutes –11:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m.
Next Steps, 90 minutes – 11:45 a.m. -1:15 p.m.
How do you organize your visions into 3-4 priority
What strategic steps do we need to take to accomplish
Wrap-Up, 15 minutes 1:15-1:30 p.m.
finalize discussion and put outcomes of
Visioning/Priorities and Next Steps on flip chart
Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.) Recommended
60 minutes Strategies
What do we mean by:
to introduce, as if by pouring; 1. to pour out and spread, as a fluid.
cause to penetrate; instill 2. to spread or scatter widely or thinly;
(usually followed by into ): disseminate.
The energetic new principal 3. Physics . to spread by diffusion.
infused new life into –verb (used without object) 4. to
the school. spread.
2. to imbue or inspire (usually 5. Physics . to intermingle by diffusion.
followed by with ): The new –adjective 6. characterized by great
coach infused the team with length or discursiveness in speech or
enthusiasm. writing; wordy.
3. to steep or soak (leaves, 7. widely spread or scattered;
bark, roots, etc.) in a liquid so dispersed.
as to extract the soluble 8. Botany . widely or loosely spreading.
properties or ingredients. 9. Optics . (of reflected light) scattered,
4. Obsolete . to pour in. as from a rough surface ( opposed to
Diversity? UW System IE
DIVERSITY: Individual differences
(e.g. personality, learning styles,
and life experiences) and
group/social differences (e.g.
race/ethnicity, gender, sexual
orientation, country of origin,
and ability as well as cultural,
political, religious, or other
affiliations) that can be engaged
in the service of learning.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the
debate is not whether to do it, but how.
Although many terms over the years have been used,
such as multiculturalism, multicultural education, and
ethnic studies, the term diversity will be used here.
A more encompassing term, diversity is meant to
represent all perspectives from groups that have
traditionally been excluded from or insufficiently
examined in the curriculum.
-ALMA R. CLAYTON-PEDERSEN | CARYN MCTIGHE MUSIL
Shared values and learning outcomes
General education outcomes/Cultures and Communities
Course requirements for all students
Policy (syllabus, religious holidays, behavior, access)
C. Courses: Multiple strategies, models and
examples to follow
Calls for inclusion stem from the argument that a singular,
Eurocentric perspective has had negative consequences for
individual students and for the larger society.
Proponents of diversity in higher education argue that
excluding diverse perspectives in the curriculum has
truncated students' learning, leaving them ill-prepared to
function in an increasingly diverse democracy.
The very purpose of higher education–to deepen students'
understanding of what is known, how it has come to be
known, and how to build on previous knowledge to create
new knowledge–is thus undermined by eliminating the voices
of those whose experiences differ from those traditionally
If students graduate with the ability to think
critically, act responsibly, and negotiate
borders that might otherwise divide, then
higher education will come closer to meeting
its historic mission of not only advancing
knowledge, but contributing to stable, more
equitable democratic societies.
Different diversity experiences appear to positively and
significantly influence growth in critical thinking during
Students experienced growth in critical thinking if they
participated in meaningful discussions with the potential to
encounter challenging and new ideas about the perspectives
and experiences of people culturally different from
Racially oriented diversity experiences were particularly
important for enhancing critical thinking of white students.
(National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and
In a longitudinal study of 4,403 college students
attending nine public universities it was reported
that students who have an opportunity to take a
diversified curriculum by the second year of
college scored higher on 19 of 25 outcomes of
The strongest effects of diversity courses were
evident on complex thinking skills, retention,
cultural awareness, interest in social issues, the
importance of creating social awareness, and
support for institutional diversity initiatives.
In a survey conducted for the Association of
American Colleges and Universities, more
that 60 percent of employers polled said
recent graduates lacked the skills to succeed
in a global economy (Fischer, 2007).
Committee for Economic Development, a
nonprofit group of business and academic
leaders, noted that demand for graduates
with strong international skills was
outstripping supply (Fischer, 2007).
Intercultural Knowledge and Competence is
"a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills
and characteristics that support effective and
appropriate interaction in a variety of cultural
(Bennett, J. M. 2008. Transformative training: Designing programs for
culture learning. In Contemporary leadership and intercultural
competence: Understanding and utilizing cultural diversity to build
successful organizations, ed. M. A. Moodian, 95-110. Thousand Oaks, CA:
The most common model, surfacing at 68
percent of the AAC&U survey respondents,
asks students to take one diversity course
among many offerings.
Three credits in a course relating to the study of
life experiences of African Americans,
Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians or
Asian Americans. Many, but not all, courses
which satisfy Cultural Diversity also satisfy one
of the required distribution areas. (You will need
to satisfy this requirement if you started
attending UWM in fall 1989 or thereafter.)
Students must complete 15 credits of Cultures and Communities courses in order to complete the
certificate: 3 credits in a section of the required CC core course in addition to 12 credits in CC approved
courses. In addition to coursework students must engage in 15-20 hours of community engagement
through a Service Learning experience.
The summary below outlines the five areas of the CC Certificate distribution requirements:
Area 1 (core course): Multicultural America (3 credits). Currently offered as English 150, History 150, or
Women's Studies 150 (satisfies Humanities and Cultural Diversity GER requirements); Anthropology 150,
Sociology 150, or Urban Studies 150 (satisfies Social Sciences and Cultural Diversity GER requirements);
or Film 150 or Art 150 (Peck School of the Arts; satisfies Arts and Cultural Diversity GER requirements);
Urban Planning 350 (School of Architecture and Urban Planning).
Area 2: Cultures and Communities of the United States (3 credits). Issues and methods in the
comparative study of cultures and communities of the U.S. May be fulfilled by appropriate accredited
GER or Cultural Diversity courses in any discipline, school, or college. Students may also opt to take a
second MA 150 course in another discipline to satisfy their area 2 requirement.
Area 3: Global Perspectives on Culture and Community: (3 credits). Issues and methods in the
comparative study of cultures and communities outside North America and Europe. May be fulfilled by
appropriate accredited GER courses in any discipline, school, or college or through an appropriate study
Area 4: Art, Culture, and Community: (3 credits). May be fulfilled by courses that relate the theory and
production of art (dance, music, visual arts, film, and theater) to cultural and community contexts.
Restricted to courses in the Peck School of the Arts except through special petition.
Area 5: Science, Culture, and Society: (3 credits). Includes courses that examine how scientific
knowledge may be understood in relation to issues in culture and society. May be fulfilled by enrollment
in classes with a Natural Sciences or Social Sciences accreditation.
Is this our vision?
What will the current infusion of diversity
look like in 5 years given these efforts?
78 percent of colleges responding from the West had
68 percent of those in the Middle States (Mid-
60 percent in the North Central region
By contrast, only
45 percent of the institutions in the New England
region had diversity requirements in 2000,
36 percent of those in the South
35 percent in the Northwest.
Sixty-three percent of colleges and
universities reported either having a diversity
requirement in place or being in the process
of developing one.
Fifty-four percent of survey respondents had
diversity requirements in place
another 8 percent were in the process of
Of course, general education courses cannot carry the
intellectual and moral weight of accomplishing all this in
one required course, or even in a sequenced series of
Each institution needs to take a holistic look at the entire
curriculum, the interrelationship between general
education and the major, the cumulative kinds of
developmental experiences a student might have in
progressing towards a degree, and the increasingly
complex and demanding questions students are able to
pose and answer as they are challenged to use their new
knowledge and civic, intercultural capacities to address
Models and examples
Inclusive Excellence represents a shift not in the
essence of our work but how we approach it and
carry it out.
1. Stand-alone diversity courses. “While offering such courses
certainly emphasizes the importance we place on understanding the
role of diversity in modern society, there is a tendency to see
diversity in this context as a special topic lying somewhere outside
the core principles of journalism.”
2. Dedicated class sessions on diversity or tied to a textbook
chapter on diversity.
“Again, such special treatment can create a sense that this subject
matter is an isolated topic, marginalized, taken up in an obligatory
bow to political correctness.”
3. Finding natural points of entry for diversity to be discussed
across the curriculum. “It potentially is the more effective approach
to ‘doing’ diversity in the classroom…. Diversity is introduced to
students in an organic, less self-conscious way that encourages
them to cross their own boundaries in search of that untold story.”
All too often, the common assumption is that
only certain classes lend themselves to
This stems, in part, from limiting the
understanding “infusion” to the choice of
authors of content.
Carr (2007) in her article, “Diversity and
” argues that much of the revision work done by
faculty has been limited to revising and adding
content in courses rather than attending to all
four factors. In addition, Carr noted that the
diversity ‘agenda’ has been primarily articulated
by experts in humanities and social sciences –
women’s studies, black and ethnic studies,
sociology of education, and feminist
(Marchesani & Adams)
Course description and objectives that reflect diversity—How does my
discipline help prepare students to live and work in today’s multicultural
democracy and interdependent world?
Content integration that includes multiculturalism—What issues of
diversity, social justice, and civic engagement are infused in my course
curriculum and how?
Instructional resources and materials—How inclusive are my selected
Faculty and student worldviews and learning styles—How do student
and faculty worldviews, learning styles, and teaching strategies match, and
how are my students’ learning styles accommodated?
Instructional strategies—How diversified are my strategies for facilitating
instruction and classroom dynamics?
Assessment diversification—How do assessment activities accommodate
my students’ learning styles?
The Faculty dimension includes knowing oneself, being aware
of one‟s past socialization, and examining one‟s beliefs,
attitudes, and assumptions.
Teaching Methods looks at how we teach, broadening teaching
strategies to address multiple learning styles, and developing
classroom norms that emphasize respect, fairness and equity.
The Course Content includes what we teach in a curriculum of
inclusion that represents diverse perspectives.
The fourth dimension represents the Students and
understanding who they are, being sensitive to their various
social and cultural backgrounds and the different ways in which
they experience the classroom environment.
1) Includes other voices – the focus is on the inclusion of writings,
speeches, dialogues, films, etc. that originate from people of
different social identities, cultural backgrounds, gender, and
2) Communicates interconnectedness - the development of a
sense that we are connected to others beyond our immediate
experience and geographic area;
3) Values diversity and equity – embeds information and
techniques designed to impart a sense of why diversity and equity
are important; and
4) Promotes transformative thinking – challenges traditional views
and assumptions; encourages new ways of thinking; and re-
conceptualizes the field in light of new knowledge, scholarship,
and new ways of knowing” (p.13).
Include diverse images as examples in PowerPoint slides
Example: in social psychology, photo of African American physician on slide
covering helping behavior
Highlight research by members of groups that are underrepresented in
Example: in research methods, select article by female scientist whenever
possible; usually include photo of the researcher on slide
Use diverse names/themes on test questions
Example: Alex and Tom feel passion and intimacy toward each other but
they cannot foresee themselves committing to each other because both
believe that commitment means marriage and their state does not
recognize same-sex marriages. Sternberg’s triangular theory would
characterize their love as
Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology IUPUI
Use clips, examples that highlight diversity even when
the topic does not involve diversity per se
“A Girl Like Me” (see
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17fEy0q6yqc) to teach about
cultural influences on attraction in social psychology course
Madera, J.M., Hebl, M.R., & Martin, R. C. (2009). Gender and
letters of recommendation for academia: Agentic and
communal differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1591-
1599, to teach about structure of empirical articles in research
Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology IUPUI
Interaction with individuals of various
backgrounds in the community. This can be done
in several ways, simple observation, reaching out
to the community, involvement in cultural
activities in the area (Greekfests, visiting a Senior
Center or Nursing Home, attending a religious
service of a faith different than yours, helping
feed the homeless, doing a good deed without
telling the person you did it, and so on).
Small group activities or discussions with
results being brought back to the entire group.
Student research into diverse people who have made
important contribution to a particular field, for
example, women or people of color who have made a
significant impact on a science discipline such as
chemistry, physics, biology, math, etc.
Student research into how a discipline is taught in
different countries. For example, how is math taught
in India, or in Japan?
Research papers on various topics related to diversity.
- D r. B o n n i e A . G r a y ; D r. P a u l N . G r o c o f f 7 S e p t e mb e r 2 0 0 7
U n i v e r s i t y o f Yo r k , U n i t e d K i n g d o m
The basic broadcasting course discusses the rise of ethnic
channels such as the Black Entertainment Network and
Telemundo for Hispanic audiences.
Students in an advertising sales course discuss ads that
target minors, minorities and other special audiences.
Students in a media writing course do articles on diversity
issues such as physical access for disabled persons on
campus and the views of female Islamic students
regarding women’s issues.
An advanced reporting course is paired with a Spanish
Conversation and Translation course to interview and
write articles for the local Hispanic community.
Corporate communication students learn that increased
sales and market share are enhanced by implementing
diversity plans throughout an organization.
Readings about topics in diversity or readings by diverse authors,
followed by class discussion or a paper.
Guest speakers – always followed by an opportunity for questions
and answers. Make sure you set guidelines for having guest
Using newspapers or TV news to bring up diversity issues within
Class activities. There are a whole host of activities you can have
students do which teaches them different aspects of diversity.
There are workbooks available that provide lots of different
options that you can use directly or modify for your classroom.
Dr. B o n n i e A. Gr a y; Dr. P a u l N. Gr o c o ff 7 S e p t e mb e r 2 0 0 7 Un i v e r s i t y
o f Yo r k , U n i t e d K i n g d o m
Group (or individual) class presentations on particular
diversity topics; can be done in various formats:
debates (where students need to take opposite
viewpoints on a particular topic), panel presentations,
student PowerPoint presentations, and so forth.
Exploring diversity on the Internet (both the positive
and the negative aspects of diversity).
Diversity portfolios, where students build a portfolio
over the module of a semester on a particular topic, or
on several topics related to diversity and the subject
Art Business Legal Studies
Education Physical Education
Engineering Political Science
Health Science Religion
ABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION WITHIN COURSE:
I implemented a mathematics project at the intermediate/college
algebra level that infuses diversity of world views.
This project asked students to model world population growth,
density of population in terms of arable surface area, and
depletion of non-renewable resources, using exponential and
logarithmic functions. A total of 50+ students in three different
classes were assigned this project during the Fall semester of
Students were asked to analyze geographical data for 8 different
countries of the world with widely varying physical geographies,
cultures, and political, socio-economic, and technological
conditions. The eight countries were Bangledesh, Brazil, China,
Germany, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States. For
each country students computed values
A media ethics professor wrote in a self-study
about incorporating a discussion of
racist hoaxes into a broader discussion about
manipulations of media. He wrote,
“My students don’t know we’re covering
diversity. We do not cover diversity from a
political view. We approach it through journalism
– as an aspect of our jobs….Embrace diversity as
an aspect of good journalism. Our goal is
sharpening perceptions and deepening
BIO 160 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Since this course deals with anatomical structures and their
functions, we focused on the prevalence of diseases
common to different racial, ethnic, cultural and religious
Each student evaluated his/her own family background and
medical history to determine if there was a common illness
or practice among family members. They chose a topic
based on that or a different topic that was appealing to
Throughout the semester, the topics were presented during
the appropriate body system to promote awareness and
cohesion of the course competencies. Students submitted a
written report at the time of their oral presentation.
On the first day of class, the topic of diversity
was introduced and discussed in a lecture
form. After explaining to the students that
diversity issues would be discussed
throughout the semester, the students were
asked to offer their opinions and thoughts
relating to diversity. An interactive discussion
was conducted until it was clear to all
students the purpose of the diversity project.
Women are poorly represented in Chemistry.
For students, 52% of undergraduates in 1997 were women but
only 37% of undergraduates in chemistry were female (Royal
Society of Chemistry report). If this trend continues, there won'
t be parity for men and women till 2070.
Infusing diversity into the CHM 130 curriculum helps achieve a
better balance between males and females in CHM 130.
infusing two aspects of diversity, gender, and geographical
region into the curriculum, wherein students participated in
gathering information on the biographies and contributions of
European women to the field of chemistry.
Students presented their work in the form of Power points. This
was followed by written reports on the reasons for the
underrepresentation of women in chemistry.
We began the engineering workshop by asking faculty members
to think about engineering's potential and limits in addressing
social problems. A primary focus was the issue of technology's
After introducing the concepts of power and privilege, we
discussed the example of the Toyota Prius. Engineers designed
the Prius to be extremely quiet--so quiet that it poses a danger to
vision-impaired people, who cannot hear it. Vision-impaired
people are now asking the automotive industry to design
automobiles that have minimum noise levels.
Other unintended consequences include the impingement on
Native American fishing rights caused by hydroelectric dams and
the rampant consumerism driven by engineering's focus on
creating new products. We also examined two case studies that
faculty members can utilize to explore the complex issues of
privilege, power, and difference in relation to engineering: the
Manhattan Project and Hurricane Katrina.
A. The first project involved student Power point presentations (oral)
of the biographies and contributions of women chemists. To name
Irene-Joliot Curie: 1, 2, 3. The Curies' struggles and valuable contributions to nuclear
chemistry was highlighted .
Lise Meitner, the woman whom Einstein called 'The German Madame Curie' (a high
honour indeed: both to be praised by Einstein, and to be compared to Curie) was always
unassuming. Students find out that In 1992, Element 109 was named "Meitnerium" (Mt)
in her honour. Her work led directly to the possibility of nuclear weapons, but Meitner
would have no part in building a weapon of such destructive force. She went to great
lengths to distance herself from the negative possibilities her discoveries created.
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the structure of insulin in 1969. Students are
amazed to learn that this culminated a study pursued over three decades. The details of
the structure provided insight into the function of this vital hormone.
Rosalind Franklin The students learn that Rosalind Franklin obtained excellent X-ray
diffraction photographs of DNA. They found that Franklin died of ovarian cancer which
was quite possibly caused by exposure to radiation in the course of her research.
B. Reading Assignments:
(i) Brush, Stephen G. 1991. "Women in Science and
Engineering". American Scientist, 79, 404-419
(ii) "A Celebration of Women in Science" (cover story) 1991.
Discover. 12:8, 10-33
C. A 2-page report on why women are under-represented in
Chemistry (information obtained from a report published by
the Royal Society of Chemistry)
D. A 1-page report on the European country the chemist
belonged to, its culture, language, climate, customs and
traditions, science museums of interest, etc.
SUCCESSES AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED:
The students thoroughly enjoyed the project. A lot of them felt
that the project had great inspirational ability. It helped in the
facilitation of peer-to-peer dialogues and iteractions.
The impact of including this activity was dramatic after every
group made its presentation in the form of Microsoft Power Point.
Animated discussions resulted by having each group voice its
opinion on the factors that it felt were responsible for promoting
or hindering the progress of women in Chemistry. Giving pupils
opportunity to voice opinions about Science helps in the creation
of an environment conducive to learning.
Students had the opportunities to have discussions among
themselves, including constructive dialogue, and this motivated
them to learn and become effective communicators.
ABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION WITHIN COURSE:
This course teaches legal writing skills to Legal Assisting and
Tribal Court Advocacy students. Writing assignments in past
semesters have addressed a variety of law-related tasks and
topics not necessarily related to diversity.
My project infused diversity into this course, and thereby into
these two occupational programs, by developing lesson plans
and writing assignments based on diversity topics.
Tasks included, for example, writing letters and articles and
preparing legal analyses summarizing the law on particular
Subjects included disability access, age discrimination, racial
segregation, and diversity-related topics of the students’
choice. No modification of official competencies or course
outline was necessary.
a microbiology course, Disease and Society, examines the movement
of disease at the microbial level in relation to issues of race, gender,
and social class.
A course in exercise and sport science, Power and Privilege in Sport,
examines how the unequal distribution of resources across gender,
race, social class, sexual identity, ability, and age plays out in sports.
Social Ethics in Engineering asks students to apply concepts of
systems of oppression as they consider their professional
development as engineers.
A geosciences course, Environmental Justice, explores the impact of
environmental racism on people of color,
and a fisheries and wildlife course, Multicultural Perspectives on
Natural Resources, considers how diverse social values affect changes
in the physical landscape and biodiversity in the American West.
We began by discussing climate issues related to the discipline's changing
demographics (women now outnumber men in veterinary medicine
programs). As we moved on to discuss content, we talked about animals'
vulnerability in human society and asked how faculty members might assess
animal-human relations in the context of power and privilege. We concluded
by asking faculty members to imagine how they might help their students
think about issues of difference, power, and privilege in light of a range of
What is poverty's impact on the practice of veterinary medicine?
How do cultural and gender differences affect the practice of veterinary
What role do veterinarians play in organizations that help humans, and do
veterinarians have an obligation to work toward improving human
What ties does veterinary medicine have to pharmaceutical companies?
What role do veterinarians play in global development work, in disasters, and
What role do veterinarians play in developing legislation about animal
The goal comes out of my training in anthropology --- both to recognize and to understand the impact of cultural perspective ... even on
We consider lactose intolerance a "disorder" or disease. However, lactose intolerance is not only more common in human populations
than lactose tolerance (after weaning), it is also the normal state of affairs for all post-weaning mammals. A Eurocentric perspective sees
lactose intolerance as an abnormal condition and so defines it as a disease. A proper perspective identifies the European variant as a
genetic mutation that has fitness benefits in cultures where dairy products make up an appreciable proportion of available foods, even for
adults. There are two issues here: (1) A redefinition of "normal" so that the unusual condition in Europeans is the standard condition, and
the condition of the rest of the world now becomes a disease or disorder; and (2) the renaming of the normal condition to call it
"lactose intolerance" as though it were a deviation from the usual state of affairs in mammals. (We could do a similar bit with the sickle-
cell trait or any of the hemoglobin variants)
I have a data set based on students in my past classes in which they
report ethnicity and many of them include skin color information (based
on paint samples that match their skin). When we look at the 20 or so
genetic traits that are recorded there, we find that none on these
tracks the ethnic and color variables very well. We can then talk about
concepts such as hypodescent (one-drop rules) and "blood quantum" measures.
We also have problems that students work on that have to do with sex
differences in head measurements and so on. Clouds of data to be parsed,
graphed, queried and understood.
Accompanied by Assessment
Brief low stakes assessments
How perspectives changed
How view of field changed
How approach to solving, thinking has changes
Higher Stakes Assignments
directly measure application of and inclusion of diverse
viewpoints, data, facts, evidence, and arguments:
▪ Before/After Case analysis comparison
▪ Predictions/Assumptions, Biases
Global Perspective Rubric
Rater: ____________________________ Course: __________________ Student: ________________
TRAIT Unacceptable Acceptable Exemplary Score
Identification of Global No or incomplete identification of Some identification of most Clear and some detailed
Factors some or all of the following of the relevant factors identification of relevant
relevant global factors: Economic, factors.
Cultural, Legal, demographic
Analysis of Global Factors No analysis of impact of relevant Some analysis of impact of Clear, accurate and
global issues; Erroneous analysis global factors; some somewhat detailed analysis
of impact inaccuracies in analysis of impact of relevant global
Application of Analysis to No application of analysis to Some application of analysis Clear application of analysis
Management Situation specific management situation; to specific management to specific management
incorrect conclusions or situation, weak conclusions situation; valid conclusions
recommendations made. or recommendations made and good recommendations
Adapted from California State University, East Bay website: www.csuhayward.edu/ira/wasc/slo
The highest level of cultural competency
results when “every policy, issue, and
action is examined in its cultural context
and assessed for its strengths and limits.”
From Bennetts’ Cultural Sensitivity Model
Models of Institutional Programs
How do some institutions become more
successful at infusing diversity into the
curriculum and into courses?
Norms, practices, habits, behaviors
(Miles & Huberman, l984)
The annual report alone does not appear to
generate sustained institutional change. The
literature shows that the most successful diversity
curriculum revision initiatives, “engage people in
reading, thinking, and debating over time in a
sustained group that fosters development of
collegial and personal relationships” (McTighe Musil
et al., 1999, p. 25).
Structure/policies Practices/norms Values/beliefs
•General Ed. Learning •Syllabus and course •Diversity infused in
Outcomes design curriculum is
•Cultures and •Sharing important for
Communities strategies/examples graduates/society
•Rewards and •Accessing •Specific value for
incentives, recognition instructional majors/programs
•Instructional development oppt’s •Improves learning
development resources for all
•Faculty senate? •My course can be
Diversity Curriculum Infusion Program
(DCIP), established in 2003
University of Missouri–Kansas City
The annual report alone does not appear to
generate sustained institutional change. The
literature shows that the most successful
diversity curriculum revision initiatives,
“engage people in reading, thinking, and
debating over time in a sustained group that
fosters development of collegial and personal
relationships” (McTighe Musil et al., 1999, p.
Four daylong workshops
participants revise an existing course by
infusing the curriculum with diversity and
implement the course the following
make a presentation about the experience at
the campus-wide culminating celebration
held in April.
The first workshop:
Orientation, community building,
collectively define critical diversity
examine their teaching using the rubric of the six areas of
potential diversity curriculum infusion (see sidebar)
The second workshop:
examine their biases and their commitment to diversity
The third workshop
present preliminary drafts of their course revisions
receive constructive feedback from the group
The fourth and final workshop is a celebratory experience:
present the pre- and post-syllabi
discuss the implementation experience.
aroused faculty interest in the scholarship of
appreciation for the opportunity to be
empowered and challenged;
chance to discuss diversity and curriculum
raised consciousness of diversity and its
enrichment in the curriculum;
newly energized teaching;
increased knowledge of diversity;
new teaching strategies they have learned;
heightened sensitivity and responsiveness to
diverse groups of students.
The inventories were distributed by David Conn to every Cal Poly
department chair/head with undergraduate major(s) and the
Multiple Subject Credential program.
COLUMN A 51% COLUMNS C & D 20%
NONE-LOW MEDIUM-HIGH AND HIGH
• life and physical sciences
Multiple Subject Credential
Column Inclusion Metric Level of Diversity
A 0 - 1.49 None-Low 51%
B 1.50 - 2.99 Medium-Low 29%
C 3.00 - 4.49 Medium-High 12%
D 4.50 - 6.00 High 8%
This program provides funding to support
faculty as they seek to infuse diversity issues
and perspectives into courses they currently
teach. These projects are completed within
the framework of the Program for Infusing
Diversity into the Curriculum. There is a one-
year commitment to the Program, which runs
from summer each year to the end of spring
semester the following year.
Selected participants receive a stipend for 90
hours during their one-year commitment.
This stipend is approximately equivalent to
one, 3-hour course load.
Concern over student
Perceived lack of
connection to content
from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of Practice Faculty Survey, 2007-
From Boysen et al., 2009, Journal of Diversity in Higher Education
e.g., Where would I begin to acquire knowledge, gain
confidence about how to teach about diversity?
▪ Perceived especially by instructors who are not “diverse”
e.g., I’ve got a standard curriculum to cover; there’s
no time for covering extras like diversity
Lack of knowledge
e.g., My graduate training did not include diversity,
from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of Practice Faculty Survey, 2007-
Since resistance is an expression of fear, anxiety, and
discomfort, educators need to create an environment
of “psychological safety and readiness” (Friedman and
Robert Kegan (1982) discusses the need for
“confirmation” (an environment of support) before
“contradiction” (conditions that challenge current
Educators jump to “contradiction,” providing new and
challenging perspectives without first establishing
environments and relationships of trust (among the
students, but especially with the teacher).
Friedman, V. J., and R. Lipshitz. 1992. Teaching people to shift cognitive
gears: Overcoming resistance on the road to model II. Journal of Applied
Behavioral Science 28 (1): 118–36.
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Promoting diversity in college classrooms: Innovative responses for the
curriculum, faculty, and institutions, ed. M. Adams, 21–37. San Francisco:
Helms, J. 1995. An update on Helms’ white and people of color racial
identity models. In Handbook of multicultural counseling, ed. J. G.
Ponterotto, J. M. Casa, L. A. Suzuki, and C. M. Alexander, 181–98.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kegan, R. 1982. The evolving self: Problems and process in human
development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tatum, B. D. 1997. “Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the
cafeteria?” and other conversations about race. New York: Basic Books
Banks, J. (1995). Multicultural education: historical development, dimensions, and practice. In J.
B. Banks (Ed.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 3-24). New York,
New York: Macmillan Publishing.
Carr, J. F. (2007). Diversity and disciplinary practices. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn
(Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum: A guide for faculty in higher education (pp. 30-
37). Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker Publishing.
Chang, M. (2002). The impact of an undergraduate diversity course requirement on students'
racial views and attitudes. Journal of General Education, 25, 125-140.
Chester, M., Wilson, M., & Milani, A. (1993). Perceptions of faculty behavior by students of
color. The Michigan Journal of Political Science, 16, 54-79.
Cohn, E., & Mullenix, J. (2007). Diversity as an integral component of college curriculum. In J.
Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum: A guide for
faculty in higher education (pp. 11-17). Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker.
Fischer, K. (2007, November 2). "Flat world" lessons for real-world students. Chronicle of
Frey, B. (2007). Practices that facilitate diversity across the curriculum: Inclusive classroom
assessment. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the
curriculum: A guide for faculty in higher education (pp. 23-29). Bolton, Massachusetts:
Gottredson, N., Panter, A., Daye, C., Wightman, L. A., & Deo, M. (2008). Does diversity at
undergraduate institutions influence student outcomes. Journal of Diversity in Higher
Education, 1(2), 80-94.
Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and
impact on education outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72 (3), 320-366. 20
Hurtado, S. (2005). The next generation of diversity and intergroup relations research. Journal of
Social Issues, 61(3), 595-610.
Jackson, B. (1988, October). A model for teaching to diversity. Unpublished paper from a
workshop at University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Kuh, G. D., & Whitt, E. J. (1988). The invisible tapestry: Culture in american colleges and
universities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports. Washington: Association for the
Study of Higher Education.
Marchesani, L. S., & Adams, M. (1992). Dynamics of diversity in the teaching-learning process:
A faculty development model for analysis and action. In M. Adams (Ed.), Promoting
diversity in college classrooms (Vol. 52).
McTighe Musil, C., Garcia, M., Hudgins, C., Nettles, M., Sedlacek, & Smith, D. (1999). To form
a more perfect union. Washington: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Opinion of the Court. (2003). Grutter v. Bolinger, 539 U. S. 306. The U. S. Supreme Court.
Orfield, G., Bachmeier, M., James, D., & Eitle, T. (1997). Deepening segregation in american
public schools: A special report from the harvard project on school desegregation. Equity
and Excellence in Education, 30 (2), 5-24.
Shaw, E. (2005). Researching the educational benefits of diversity. New York: College Entrance
Smith, D., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2005). The challenge of diversity: Involvement or alienation in
the academy? San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.
Wlodkowski, R., & Ginsberg, M. (2003). Diversity and motivation: Culturally responsive
teaching. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. 21
Visioning: 60 min.
What could infusing
diversity in the curriculum
look like in five years?
Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.) Recommended
60 minutes Strategies