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Conference Proceedings Canadian Society of Psychomotor Learning

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                                                                              USE OF COMPLEMENTARY THEORIES TO EXAMINE
                  Conference Proceedings                                      EXERCISE ADHERENCE AMONG CARDIAC
          Canadian Society of Psychomotor Learning                            REHABILITATION INITIATES
                   and Sport Psychology                                       Tara J Anderson1 Lawrence R Brawley1
                                                                              1
                                                                                University of Saskatchewan
             Annual Conference Oct 28-30, 2010
                                                                              Complementary use of theories may provide more information about
             Hosted by the University of Ottawa                               adherence to exercise therapy than a single theory. Top-down theories
                                                                              (Self-Efficacy Theory: SET) outline cognitive processes that affect
                                                                              behavior. Bottom-up theories (Common Sense Model: CSM) consider
CAN CHILDREN HOLD TARGET INFORMATION IN                                       individuals’ appraisals that influence behavior. Both SET and CSM
MEMORY TO MAKE JUDGMENTS OF REACHABILITY?                                     were used in complimentary fashion to examine psychological aspects
Diala F Ammar1 Alberto Cordova2 Carl P Gabbard3
1                                                                             of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) initiates’ exercise adherence. A
  Lebanese American University 2University of Texas at San
                                                                              prospective design was used to examine participants during the 3-month
Antonio 3Texas A&M University
                                                                              initiation phase of a standard CR program. Our first purpose was to
                                                                              determine if strength of CSM illness perceptions (IP) could classify CR
Establishing the spatial location of an object is important for egocentric
                                                                              initiates to stronger/weaker IP groups. Our second purpose was to detect
mapping and planning reach movements. Can we hold spatial location of
                                                                              any differences between IP groups on SET variables and 3-month
an object in memory to plan an action even when this object is no longer
                                                                              exercise adherence. Participants (N =49) completed the IP
in view? Our intent was to examine the ability of children to use spatial
                                                                              Questionnaire, self-regulatory efficacy and negative outcome
information from memory to estimate distances of objects (targets) from
                                                                              expectations (OEs) scales. At CR onset, cluster analysis successfully
one another. Children (n = 66), ages 5-, 7-, 9-, 11 years and young adults
                                                                              classified participants to weaker (n = 21) and stronger (n = 28) IP
(n = 17) were asked to estimate how far a cued target was from a
                                                                              groups. Groups differed significantly on the IPs of illness identity,
response target in immediate (visually-guided) and response-delay (1-,
                                                                              consequences, and emotion (p = .0001). The stronger IP group had
2-, and 4 s) conditions. Participants were systematically positioned in a
                                                                              higher negative OEs (p = .03) and was less adherent to CR exercise after
chair and based on individual maximum reach, seven target positions
                                                                              3 months (p = .04). This study identifies new psychological differences
were created comprising of four target positions in peripersonal space
                                                                              relative to CR initiates’ adherence to exercise by using complimentary
and three in extrapersonal space. Targets were displayed in random
                                                                              theories.
order with three trials at each location. ANOVA results for accuracy
indicated differences between Age within Condition (p < .01). Overall,
                                                                              Acknowledgements: CIHR MSc & Canada Research Chair awards
adults were more accurate than children. Post hoc analysis revealed that
with delays of ≥ 2 s, performance was affected with all groups, but most
                                                                              ALTERNATIVE SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND LIFE
notably with the 5- and 7-year-olds, p < .001. Overall, children as a
                                                                              SKILLS PROGRAMMING
group tended to underestimate significantly more than adults in the
                                                                              Bryce W Barker1 Tanya Forneris1
delay conditions. In summary, these findings indicate that, compared to       1
                                                                                University of Ottawa
older children and adults, young children have more difficulty in
mentally representing memory-guided tasks.
                                                                              The aim of this pilot project was to collaborate with community service
                                                                              agencies to develop and implement a program designed to enhance the
BODY-SCALING FOR REACH IN OLDER PERSONS                                       well-being of at-risk youth. The program was designed to provide an
Diala F Ammar1 Carl P Gabbard2
1                                                                             introduction to purposive physical activity and life skills to youth (ages
  Lebanese American University 2Texas A&M University
                                                                              12-16) attending a local alternative school. Pre and post fitness testing
                                                                              showed changes in a positive direction. In addition, post measures that
Using motor imagery to mentally body-scale reach movements
                                                                              examined program perceptions showed that the youth liked the program
represents a significant component in effective motor planning and
                                                                              (M=4.10, SD = .88) and had fun in the program (M=4.40, SD = .52) and
execution. According to recent reports, older persons have difficulty in
                                                                              a needs satisfaction measure showed that the youth felt that the program
mentally representing action via motor imagery. This study examined a
                                                                              met their needs of competence, relatedness and autonomy (M = 5.89, SD
group of young adults ( 21 yrs) and a group of older adults ( 77 yrs) on
                                                                              = 0.82). The results suggest that the physical activity based life skills
their ability to use motor imagery to mentally body-scale reach by
                                                                              program was well received by these youth. However, a number of
estimating whether targets presented were reachable with their dominant
                                                                              challenges were experienced throughout the implementation process and
limb while seated. Imagined responses were compared to the
                                                                              these challenges will be addressed.
individual’s scaled maximum reach. Each participant received 35 trials
randomly presented across seven target distances with five trials per site.
                                                                              DO YOU WANT THE GOOD NEWS OR THE BAD NEWS? THE
ANOVA results indicated that the elderly were significantly less
                                                                              EFFECTS OF GAIN- VERSUS LOSS-FRAMED MESSAGES ON
accurate than the younger adults, p < .001. Group responses were similar
                                                                              HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BELIEFS AND
in peripersonal space, however the older group displayed significantly
                                                                              COGNITIONS.
more error in extrapersonal space. That is, they were stating that targets
                                                                              Rebecca L Bassett1 Kathleen A Martin Ginis1 Amy E Latimer2
were reachable, when in fact, targets were out of reach.over-estimating       1
                                                                                McMaster University 2Queen's University
reachability. In summary, this work in general supports the contention
that there is a decline in cognitive processing associated with the ability
                                                                              Prospect theory suggests that the effectiveness of health messages varies
to create internal models and mentally represent action. More specific to
                                                                              depending on the emphasis on benefits of adopting a health behaviour
this experiment, we observed a significant distinction (decline) in the
                                                                              (i.e., gain-framed) versus risks of not adopting a behaviour (i.e., loss-
ability to mentally body-scale reach movements. Explanations include
                                                                              framed). Gain-framed messages are thought to be more effective (vs.
possible deficits in the aging brain, namely the parietal cortex, and
                                                                              loss-framed) for persuading health-prevention behaviours such as
visual perception.
                                                                              physical activity (PA). Guided by protection motivation theory, this
                                                                              study examined the effects of PA messages targeting people with spinal
                                                                              cord injury (SCI). Gain-framed messages were hypothesized to be more
                                                                              effective than loss-framed. People with SCI (N=96) were randomized to
                                                                              receive control, gain-framed, or loss-framed messages targeting health
                                                                              and PA. Perceived health risk, response efficacy, intentions, and PA
2
were measured pre- and 24hr-post message. A series of 2(time) x              Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council;
3(frame) repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated time x frame                     Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions
interactions (partial-eta2>.01). Post-hoc analyses indicated significant
changes in perceived health risk for loss- and gain-framed conditions        ASSESSING THE GAIT KINEMATICS OF PEOPLE WITH
(t<-2.6, p<.05), with larger effects for loss-framed. Significant changes    MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
in response efficacy (t=-2.0, p=.05) and intentions (t=-3.3, p<.01) were     Kit B Beyer1 Larry R Brawley1 Joel L Lanovaz1 Gord Binsted2
                                                                             1
found for loss-framed only. No significant main or interaction effects         College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
were observed for PA. Contrary to hypothesis, loss-framed messages           Saskatchewan. 2Department of Human Kinetics, University of British
were more effective than gain-framed messages and may be an effective        Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia.
tool for changing PA beliefs and cognitions among people with SCI.
                                                                             The effects of multiple sclerosis (MS) on the central nervous system
THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF PHYSICAL                                       often manifest as abnormalities in gait kinematics. Clinically practical,
OBSTACLES DURING BLIND NAVIGATION                                            valid, and reliable measures of gait kinematics are necessary to address
Julien Beauchamp1 Yves Lajoie1 Nicole Paquet1                                research questions about these abnormalities. Consequently, this study
1
  University of Ottawa                                                       examined the feasibility of measuring gait kinematics of people with MS
                                                                             (PWMS) using two such measures: wireless flexible electrogoniometry
Locomotion is essential in daily life. Past research has shown that          (EG) and the GAITRite walkway system. Six PWMS and six controls
healthy subjects are successful in reaching a short-distance destination     without MS walked at a self-selected comfortable speed. Angle at initial
without vision (Thomson 1980). The objective of this study is to             contact and total joint excursion at both the knee and ankle were
describe reaction to the known presence of physical obstacles when           measured by EG. Speed, cadence, step length, stride length, stance
navigating in a straight or diagonal path without vision for 8 meters. Ten   duration and double support duration were measured by GAITRite.
healthy subjects (19-23 years old) participated in this study. Kinematic     PWMS showed significantly reduced speed, cadence, and ankle
data were collected with a Vicon Motion Analysis System including 8          excursion and increased stance and double support duration as
cameras, with a full-body marker set. Pool noodles were used to create       previously shown with 3D motion analysis. Spasticity and/or instability
physical obstacles. For the total distance travelled by the subject, there   may lead to these kinematic gait abnormalities in PWMS. As well,
was no significant differences between the straight path and the diagonal    reduced velocity may be a cause or effect of any of the other observed
path [F(2,18) = 0.04, p > 0.05]. Also, a significant difference was found    gait abnormalities. Further research about the determinants of gait
between the presence of zero, one or two obstacles [F (2, 18) = 17.85, p     dysfunction in PWMS is required. EG and GAITRite are clinically
< 0.05]. For the final angular deviation of the subject, there was no        practical, valid and reliable measures of gait kinematics and should be
significant differences between straight path and diagonal path [F(1,9) =    included in further clinic-based research to determine which kinematic
3.489, p > 0.05 ]. There was a close to significant difference between the   gait abnormalities are causes and which are effects of the observed
presence versus absence of obstacles [ F(2,18) = 3.368, p= 0.057].           decrease in gait speed in PWMS.
Without obstacles, subjects undershot the target. However, we found
that for every obstacle added, there was an impact on the distance           Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Natural
travelled, as subjects walked further.                                       Sciences and Engineering Research Council and Canada Research Chair
                                                                             Student Funds.
Acknowledgements: CIHR, Physiotherapy Foundation of Canada and
University of Ottawa                                                         OVERGROUND VERSUS TREADMILL: A MANIPULATION OF
                                                                             VISUAL FEEDBACK DURING GAIT TRAINING IN
SEDENTARY STEREOTYPES NEGATIVELY INFLUENCE                                   PARKINSON’S DISEASE
EXERCISE ATTITUDES IN PARTICIPANTS WITH LOW                                  Haseel Bhatt1 Quincy Almeida1
                                                                             1
EXERCISE SELF-IDENTITY.                                                        Wilfrid Laurier University
Tanya R Berry1
1
  University of Alberta                                                      Visual cues are known to improve gait in PD.This study explored two
                                                                             different visual feedback training interventions (6 weeks each) for
The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of supraliminal      Parkinson’s disease. All PD subjects were matched for severity(UPDRS
and subliminal priming of exercise or sedentary stereotypes on attitudes     score) and height prior to the training and quasi assigned to one of three
toward exercise as moderated by exercise self-identity. Undergraduate        groups: treadmill walking, overground walking, or a non-training PD
students (N = 293) were randomly assigned to supraliminal or                 control group.Pre and post assessments included: the Unified
subliminal sedentary or exercise prime, or matching control, conditions.     Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, 30-second chair stand, timed up and
Participants completed measures of exercise self-identity and exercise-      go (TUG), and gait analysis on a GAITRite carpet.Both training groups
related attitudes. Data were analysed using two linear regression models:    used transverse lines as external visual cues that were placed either on
one for the exercise prime conditions and one for the sedentary prime        treadmills or 16-meter carpets.Both groups were required to walk at a
conditions. In both models, exercise self-identity significantly predicted   predetermined speed calculated in the pre-assessment with instruction to
exercise-related attitudes (β =-.62, p < .001, and β = -.50, p < .001). In   “take a step, with each heel hitting the line”.To determine gait changes
the sedentary model, the interaction between exercise self-identity and      after the training intervention, a 3group x 2limb x 3trials repeated
the supraliminal and subliminal exposures to the sedentary primes was        measures ANOVA was performed. The ANOVA showed a significant
also a significant predictor of attitudes (β = -.36, p <.05) and moderated   interaction for GroupxStepLength (F(2,39)=3.4820,p=.041), with a post
the effects of exercise self-identity on attitudes (β = -.26, p = .10).      hoc test confirming main effects in both treadmill and overground
Participants low in exercise self-identity supraliminally exposed to the     groups, with significantly increased step lengths (p=.012 and p=.018
sedentary prime had worse exercise-related attitudes than participants       respectively).Also, the TUG test revealed a GroupxTUG interaction
higher in exercise self-identity. This research provides evidence of the     (F(2,39)=4.048,p =.025);post hoc analysis indicated that the overground
possible detrimental effects of sedentary stereotypes on exercise-related    group had significantly better TUG times (p=.022) after the
cognitions. This is an important finding given the relationship between      intervention.Results will be discussed in terms of how visual feedback
attitudes and exercise. Further, little is known about how portrayals of     may contribute to specific aspects of gait training in PD.
inactive people might influence thoughts and behaviours.
3
BIMANUAL REACHES WITH SYMBOLIC CUES EXHIBIT                                  EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY AND CARDIAC REHABILITATION
ERRORS IN TARGET SELECTION                                                   SYMPOSIUM: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS RELATED TO
Jarrod P Blinch1 Brendan D Cameron1 Ian M Franks1 Romeo Chua1                ADHERENCE TO EXERCISE MAINTENANCE IN CARDIAC
1
  School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia                   REHABILITATION
                                                                             Lawrence R Brawley1
                                                                             1
We examined symmetric and asymmetric bimanual reaches to targets               University of Saskatchewan
specified by direct spatial cues and by indirect symbolic cues.
Symbolically-cued asymmetric reaches have been shown to exhibit              Relatively little attention has been paid to fostering self-regulatory
longer reaction times (RTs) compared to symmetric reaches, whereas no        efficacy (SRE) beliefs for exercise in cardiac rehabilitation (CR:
such RT cost is observed when targets are directly cued – a pattern          Woodgate & Brawley, 2008). However, this efficacy belief is a crucial
thought to implicate increased demands on response selection                 mechanism for individuals to adhere to exercise therapy in both the
(Diedrichsen et al., 2001). Assuming that symbolically-cued reaches          initial stages of CR (Rejeski et al, 2004) and for the persistence required
engage intentional control whereas directly-cued reaches engage more         for longer term maintenance. The purpose of this paper in the
automatic visuo-motor control mechanisms, we asked whether bimanual          symposium is to present theoretically-driven research that a) identifies
movements exhibit more interference with symbolic cues than with             psychological factors that are related to differences in the relative
spatial cues. Participants made bimanual symmetric and asymmetric            strength of SRE and exercise adherence outside structured CR when
reaches to short- and long-distance targets cued either symbolically or      program access is challenged, and b) illustrates how social persuasive,
spatially. We replicated the reaction time cost for symbolically-cued        efficacy-enhancing “readiness” manipulations can encourage CR
asymmetric movements. A subset of these asymmetric reaches also              exercise maintainers to consider adding self-managed exercise to their
showed large trajectory corrections. It appeared that this subset had been   weekly structured CR exercise and approach recommended volumes of
incorrectly prepared and the movements required of the left and right        activity for people their age. Results of 3 studies will be presented.
hands had been switched. No such errors in reach selection were              Implications for theoretically-based interventions for individuals
observed when targets were directly cued. In contrast to the RT cost and     engaged in maintenance CR will be drawn.
errors in selection for symbolically-cued movements, we observed little
evidence of interference once movements were initiated and executed          Acknowledgements: Funding: Social Sciences and Humanities Research
toward the correct targets regardless of the type of cue.                    Council Canada Research Chair Award; Saskatchewan Health Research
                                                                             Foundation
FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL MOTOR TESTS, CLINICAL MOTOR                               PROXY EFFICACY IN CARDIAC REHABILITATION
ASSESSMENT AND SELF-REPORT OF MOTOR FUNCTION IN                              Steven R Bray1
                                                                             1
PD WITH EXERCISE REHABILITATION                                                Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University
Rachel L Boehm1 Quincy J Almeida1
1
  Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research & Rehabilitation            Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective treatment for cardiovascular
Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University                                           disease, yet program adherence and maintenance of behaviour change
                                                                             are problematic. CR programs are delivered by trained interventionists.
Selecting appropriate motor outcome measures has been a challenge in         The CR environment thus provides a model of patient-practitioner
rehabilitation settings. In our recent research on Parkinson’s disease       interaction in which the CR interventionist assumes a role as proxy
(PD), functional measures failed to identify improvements while clinical     agent. Proxy agents can facilitate behaviour change in adaptive ways
assessments of motor symptoms did. The current study evaluated the           but can also contribute to patient failures at self-regulation. Studies
relationships between self-report of motor symptoms, clinical motor          show patients with strong proxy efficacy beliefs in CR interventionists’
assessments and functional motor tasks. Eighty-one individuals with PD       capabilities develop stronger self-efficacy and better program
were assessed pre and post a 12 week rehabilitation intervention (PD         adherence. However, some patients also come to rely substantially on
SAFEx™) with the Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS) ll         assistance from their CR interventionists, which is linked to lower self-
& III (self report & clinical motor assessment, respectively), Timed-Up-     efficacy and non-adherence. I will discuss the proxy-patient relationship
And-Go (TUG) for lower limbs, and Grooved Pegboard (GP) for upper            in CR in terms of: correlational findings illustrating associations
limbs. Improvements in UPDRS lll (total score and upper and lower            between proxy efficacy and exercise adherence, interpersonal conditions
limb subsets) were compared with the change measured in functional           that determine proxy efficacy, and an intervention study in which CR
tools: UPDRS ll, TUG and GP. UPDRS ll was also compared with the             interventionists focused on developing patients’ self-regulatory skills
change in functional clinical measures. As seen previously, significant      such as self-monitoring and action planning as a contrast to a traditional
improvements were found with clinical motor but not functional motor         supervisory approach. Understanding interpersonal dynamics in CR that
assessments. Furthermore, weak correlations were identified between          may facilitate or undermine the development of skills and beliefs
clinical and functional measures. UPDRS lll weakly correlated with           necessary for independent, self-managed exercise should help in the
UPDRS ll (r=0.08), TUG (r=0.18) and GP (r=0.22; r=0.14, affected &           development and translation of knowledge that may improve patient
non-affected limb). UPDRS lll subsets correlated poorly with TUG             adherence during and following CR.
(r=0.1) and GP (r=0.12; r=-0.3). UPDRS ll correlated poorly with TUG
(r=-0.1) and GP (r=0.19; r=-0.16). These results suggest that symptom        Acknowledgements: Research Supported by SOCIAL SICENCES AND
self report may not be sensitive enough to measure functional motor          HUMANITIES RESEARCH COUNCIL
status. Upper and lower limb functional tasks appear to be inappropriate
for the assessment of exercise interventions. The most useful motor          BODY-RELATED GUILT EXPERIENCES: TRIGGERS,
outcomes in a rehabilitation context will be discussed.                      COGNITIONS, AND BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES
                                                                             Sara M Brune1 Katie E Gunnell1 Erica V Bennett1 Amber D
Acknowledgements: Research Support by Sun Life Financial and                 Mosewich1 Benjamin J Schellenberg1 Peter R Crocker1 Catherine M
Canadian Institutes for Health Research - Institute of Aging: Mobility,      Sabiston2
                                                                             1
Musculoskeletal Health & Arthritis.                                            UBC 2McGill

                                                                             Self-conscious emotions such as shame and guilt are elicited by
                                                                             cognitive processes primarily regarding the self (Tracy & Robins, 2006).
                                                                             Guilt is often attributed to unstable and controllable factors and, in
4
interpersonal situations, generally results in reparative behaviour. In this   breast cancer completed reliable and valid self-report scales for passion,
study, university students (n=270; 163 females, mean age=20.98 yrs)            physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Cronbach alpha coefficients
textually described a personal situation in which they experienced body-       were .84 for both the harmonious and obsessive subscales. Results
related guilt. Six coders read the narratives and, using an inductive          indicate that 52 out of 122 (43%) participants reported sport and
approach of content analysis, developed first and second order codes.          physical activity as their passionate activity, the most common being
Finally, higher order themes were identified along the dimensions of           walking (58%), conditioning (17%), and swimming (10%). Pearson
context / triggers, cognitions, and behaviours. The primary triggers of        correlation analysis suggest that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
body-related guilt involved eating and exercise behaviours, with other         (MVPA) was positively correlated to both harmonious passion (r=.47)
themes for triggers including: drinking behaviour, appearance,                 and obsessive passion (r=.23). Sedentary behavior (i.e., screen time) was
downward comparison to others, identity incongruence, and athletic             positively correlated to harmonious passion (r=.20) but not obsessive
situations. However, beyond the triggers, many people did not report           passion (r=.03). Findings provide theoretical and practical applications
cognitions or reparative behaviours. When reported, themes for                 for understanding the role of passion in the lives of BCS.
cognitions included: regret, negative thoughts, rationalizations, desire to
change and lack of self-control. The themes for behaviours included:           SHAPING THE WAY WE LEARN TO COACH: THE
attempts to change behaviours, seeking social support, and avoidance.          CHILDHOOD LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF FIVE WOMEN
The data suggests that most guilt experiences were associated with             COACHES
lifestyle behaviours, with little evidence of reparative behaviours.           Bettina Callary1 Penny Werthner1 Pierre Trudel1
                                                                               1
Further research should use interview methods to carefully document the          University of Ottawa
experiences of body-related guilt.
Acknowledgements: Supported by a Social Sciences and Humanities                Research on how coaches learn to coach has explored how they learn in
Research Council grant to the last author.                                     formal and nonformal coaching education courses, and how they learn in
                                                                               informal experiences on the job, including how they learn from their
RIGHT AND LEFT HAND PERFORMANCE ON TWO                                         athletes, other coaches, and mentors (for example, Mallett, Trudel, Lyle,
VERSIONS OF THE GROOVED PEGBOARD IN CHILDREN                                   & Rynne, 2009; Werthner & Trudel, 2006, 2009). Jarvis (2006) offers a
Pamela J Bryden1 Eric A Roy2                                                   theory that learning is lifelong and occurs when an individual
1
  Wilfrid Laurier University 2University of Waterloo                           experiences a situation that is transformed, through thoughts, emotions,
                                                                               and/or actions, into knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, and skills.
Fifty-one right and left-handed children, (4-12 years), completed two          What a person has learned will influence how she or he experiences new
versions of the Grooved Pegboard task; the standard pegboard and a             learning situations. As part of a larger dissertation research study on the
pegboard 2.5 times the size of the original. Participants were required to     lives of women coaches, the purpose of this presentation is to illustrate
perform two tasks on each pegboard: place the 25 key-shaped pegs in            how preconscious learning in childhood, through primary and secondary
the oriented holes and remove the pegs from the holes. An age group            socialization, including the social environment, family life, school, and
(4-6, 7-9, 10-12 year olds) by pegboard size (standard, large) by task         athletic experiences, contributed to five Canadian women coaches’
(place, remove) by hand (preferred, non-preferred) repeated measures           approaches. Through four in-depth interviews with each of the
ANOVA was conducted. Results revealed several significant main                 participants, the learning experiences of the women were transformed
effects and interactions, but most interestingly there was a significant       into narratives. A thematic analysis was performed to delineate how
four-way interaction. Here, 10-12 year olds showed the typical adult           preconscious and incidental learning in childhood influenced the
finding (Bryden & Roy, 1999), where the preferred-hand advantage               women’s coaching knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, and skills. This
(PHA) was only significant for the place tasks, in both the standard and       presentation serves to broaden the scope of learning to help understand
large Grooved pegboards. In contrast, younger children showed a PHA            influences that impact coaches’ biographies, their coaching knowledge,
for both the place and remove tasks, for both pegboards. When the              and coaching approach.
effects of hand preference on performance abilities were examined for 7
to 12 year olds, left-handers showed a significant PHA for only the place      Acknowledgements: Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a comprehensive theory
task on the standard pegboard, while right-handers showed significant          of human learning: Lifelong learning and the learning society (Vol. 1).
PHAs for both tasks on both pegboards. This PHA for left-handers was           New York, NY: Routledge.
evident primarily in the 7-9 year olds, but not in the 10-12 year olds,
replicating recent work showing that left-handed adults show no PHA            REACH ADAPTATION TO ONLINE TARGET ERROR
on the standard Grooved Pegboard (McWhirter, et al., 2010).                    Brendan D Cameron1 Ian M Franks1 J. Timothy Inglis1 Romeo Chua1
                                                                               1
                                                                                 School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia
Acknowledgements: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
Council (PJB & EAR)                                                            Magescas et al. (2009) recently suggested that online error, unlike
                                                                               terminal error, does not lead to reach adaptation. The present study re-
AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN                                     examines adaptation to online target error, but uses a small target
PASSION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN BREAST CANCER                                 perturbation and eliminates online vision of the limb, factors that may
SURVIVORS                                                                      affect adaptation. We compared 3 groups: terminal error, online error,
Shaunna M Burke1 Catherine M Sabiston1                                         and control. All groups completed a pretest, exposure, and posttest
1
  McGill University                                                            phase. Participants made look-and-point movements to a target and we
                                                                               examined how repeated rightward target perturbations during the
While previous studies indicate a significant relationship between             exposure phases of the experimental groups influenced reaches to a
passion and well-being, there has been little research on this relationship    stationary target in the posttest. Exposure phases of each group
in special population groups such as cancer. The purpose of the present        contained an equal number of interleaved look-and-point and look-only
study was to (1) examine the reliability of the passion scales for breast      trials, the latter of which were designed to inhibit build-up of saccadic
cancer survivors (BCS); (2) identify the activities that BCS reported as       adaptation in the online error group. On look-and-point trials the target
passionate; and (3) examine the association between harmonious and             either disappeared at saccade onset and then re-appeared 3.75cm to the
obsessive passion and physical activity participation and sedentary            right when the hand landed (terminal error group), immediately jumped
behavior in BCS. The dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003)       right by 3.75cm at saccade onset and remained lit throughout the
was used as a guiding conceptual framework. Women (n=122; mean                 saccade and reach (online error group), or remained lit but stationary
age=55; 87% Caucasian) who were within 6 months post-treatment for             throughout the saccade and reach (control group). In all groups, vision
5
of the limb was only provided at the start and end of the reach. Our           BODY-RELATED PRIDE IN YOUNG ADULTS: A
results show that both the terminal error and the online error groups          DESCRIPTION OF CONTEXTS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES
developed significant aftereffects. It appears, therefore, that online error   IN SELF-REPORTED EXPERIENCES
can produce reach adaptation.                                                  Andree L Castonguay1 Leah J Ferguson2 Kent C Kowalski2 Diane E
                                                                               Mack3 Philip M Wilson3 Catherine M Sabiston1
                                                                               1
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEAM ATTRIBUTIONAL                                      McGill University 2University of Saskatchewan 3Brock University
STYLE AND TEAM SUCCESS
Albert V Carron1 Kim M Shapcott1 Luc J Martin1                                 The purpose of this study was to explore the dual-model of pride (Tracy
1
  University of Western Ontario                                                & Robins, 2007) to experiences of body-related emotions in young
                                                                               adults. Males and females (N=281; Mage=18.9, SD=2.4 yrs) provided a
Attributional style is a cognitive predisposition to explain the causes of     narrative describing a situation in which they experienced body-related
bad events in a habitual manner (Peterson & Seligman, 1984). Research          pride and completed an adjective rating scale. Four coders analyzed the
indicates that both individuals and groups develop a personal and a            narratives for triggers (e.g., muscularity), contexts (e.g. the beach), and
collective attributional style respectively which has important                cognitive and/or behavioural outcomes (e.g., feeling accomplished). For
implications for a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and affective             hubris pride, the triggers included evaluating appearance (e.g., body
outcomes (see Peterson, 1991). The present study examined the                  fatness, muscularity) or physical performance/fitness as superior
relationship between the attributional style of sport teams and their          compared to others. Contexts involved sports settings, swimming/beach,
success. Athletes (n = 442; 39 teams) completed the Team Attributional         and clothes shopping. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority,
Style Questionnaire (Shapcott & Carron, 2010) which involves                   whereas behaviours centered on strategies to show off. For authentic
responding to a series of negative events on the basis of their                pride, triggers were personal improvements or maintenance in
controllability,stability, universality, and globality. Statistical analyses   appearance and meeting or exceeding physical performance/fitness
supported the aggregation of individual athlete responses to represent a       goals, which occurred mostly in sports settings or alone. Feelings of
team explanatory style. Discriminant function analysis and post hoc            accomplishment and success were predominant outcomes. Males tended
ANOVAs showed that more successful teams (winning percentage of                to report stronger feelings of hubristic pride.
.501 or above, n = 21) were significantly (p < .05) more optimistic than
less successful teams (winning percentage of .500 or below, n = 18) on         PRECEDING MOVEMENT EFFECTS DURING DISCRETE
controllability (“we can fix this”) and universality (“every team has this     RECIPROCAL MANUAL AIMING
happen”). The results are discussed in terms of their relation to              Darian Cheng1 John De Grosbois1 Gordon Binsted1
                                                                               1
attribution theory, reformulated learned helplessness theory, and the            University of British Columbia
research focusing on individual athlete explanatory style and success.
                                                                               While most research in motor control has supported a highly online
SELF-CONTROLLED KR: DOES IT FACILITATE AN                                      control account of human limb movement, recent research suggests that
INTERNAL REPRESENTATION OF A SPATIAL MOTOR                                     there are priming effects between movements, when the movements are:
TASK?                                                                          a) performed in close succession and b) are similar in nature. In the
Michael J Carter1 Jae T Patterson1                                             present study, the individual components of the index of difficulty were
1
  Brock University                                                             perturbed during a discrete reciprocal manual aiming task. Participants
                                                                               performed sequences of 20 aiming movements with the index finger to
Self-controlled KR practice has revealed that participants provided the        targets presented to the left and right of the midline. Target perturbations
opportunity to control their KR is superior for motor skill acquisition        occurred between the 8th and the 12th movement, manipulating target
compared to participants replicating the KR schedule of a self-control         size in the first experiment and the distance between the two targets in
participant without the choice (e.g., yoked). To date, the learning            the second. The trials of interest were the trials that immediately
advantages of a self-controlled KR schedule have utilized motor tasks          followed the target perturbation, as we wanted to see how individuals
requiring acquisition of a temporal goal (e.g., push 5-keys in 1050ms).        would react to the change in the difficulty of the task. The results of the
In the present experiment, we examined the utility of self-controlled KR       experiment revealed that for the target size perturbation, two trials were
practice for the acquisition of a motor skill with a spatial goal and          required for movement time to coincide with the new index of difficulty.
whether self-controlled KR practice facilitates the development of an          While for the distance perturbation, movement times always coincided
accurate internal representation of the task goal. Twenty-four younger         with the given distance between the two targets. These findings suggest
adults were required to push and release a handle along a confined             that information gathered from these two components may lead to
pathway using their non-dominant hand to a target distance (133cm).            different     movement        control      strategies    used     by     the
The self-controlled participants controlled their receipt of KR after every    participant.
acquisition trial while the yoked participants replicated the KR schedule
of a self-controlled participant. The retention data revealed the SELF         Acknowledgements: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
condition (M=10.73) demonstrated less |CE| compared to the yoked               Council of Canada (Binsted & Cheng)
condition (M=17.79) in achieving the spatial goal. As well, the SELF
condition was more accurate in estimating their performance (indexed           MOTOR OUTPUT EFFECT OF OBJECTS PRESENTED IN THE
by AD) during the retention period. The findings suggest self-controlled       BLINDSPOT
KR practice generalizes to spatial goals and facilitates the development       Francisco L Colino1 Damon Uniat1 John P deGrosbois1 Darian
of an accurate internal representation, as evidenced by participant self-      Cheng1 Gordon Binsted1
                                                                               1
reports.                                                                         Department of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health & Social
                                                                               Development, University of British Columbia
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Canadian
Institute of Health Research                                                   Despite the absence of retinal input within the physiological blindspot,
                                                                               perceptual filling of the blindspot has been consistently shown;
                                                                               suggesting visual perception can exist without retinal drive. Moreover,
                                                                               motor output does not require conscious awareness of visual input
                                                                               (Binsted et al. 2007). In the present investigation, two experiments were
                                                                               conducted to examine if the motor system has access to unconscious
                                                                               input from the blindspot: one examining how objects presented in the
6
blindspot could modulate motor output (i.e. pointing) and a second               beliefs (F = 5.19 (4, 203), p <.05) and perceptions of body image (F =
examining the cortically evoked potentials associated with such                  4.25 (4, 203), p <.05). Specifically, more experienced exercisers
subconscious inputs. In both experiments, the blindspot of the right eye         reported higher confidence towards their exercise behaviour than less
was mapped using a modified protocol developed by Araragi &                      experienced exercisers. Additionally, more experienced exercisers
Nakamizo (2008). In E1 subjects pointed to objects presented either in           reported more positive feelings of attractiveness/satisfaction with their
the blindspot or outside of it (no target trials served as a control); if they   looks and higher fitness orientation. Results from this study can be
saw no target they were instructed to guess. In E2 we performed a                extended to interventions aimed at improving less experienced
visual detection task under similar conditions while recording EEG               exercisers’ confidence and body image cognitions.
(Brainvision DC, 64ch). Both endpoint position and variability was
sensitive to the occurrence and position of a target. EEG analyses               POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF
revealed deflections at visual and parietal sites (O1, PO3 and P3)               ORGANIZED SPORT AND DELIBERATE PLAY
independent of targets perception, but varying as a function of distance         Jean Côté1 Mark Bruner1
                                                                                 1
from blindspot centroid. Thus, despite the absence of conscious percept            Queen's University
due to subthreshold retinal input, visuomotor pathways can use target
location information to plan and execute actions.                                The positive youth development literature provides a number of
                                                                                 different frameworks that can be used to conceptualize the
Acknowledgements: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research                      “development of athletes.” In particular, the 5Cs – Competence,
Council                                                                          Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring/Compassion (Lerner,
                                                                                 Fisher, & Weinberg, 2000) can be hypothesized as desirable outcomes
FEELING TOGETHER AND PLAYING AS A TEAM: HOW ONE                                  that should emerge from regular participation in sport. Côté and
TEAM ENHANCED THEIR PERFORMANCE AND COHESION                                     colleagues (Côté, Bruner, Erickson, Strachan, & Fraser-Thomas, 2010)
BY LEARNING TO EFFECTIVELY SELF-REGULATE                                         recently reviewed the sport literature and proposed collapsing the 5Cs
Jamie Collins1 Natalie Durand-Bush1                                              into 4Cs (Competence, Confidence, Connection, Character/Caring).
1
  University of Ottawa                                                           This step was taken given the frequent integration of caring/compassion
                                                                                 within the character development literature in sport (e.g., Shields &
As highlighted by Kirschenbaum (1987), successful sport performance              Bredemeier, 1995) and the overlap between these three constructs (i.e.,
and skill development requires effective self-regulation (SR). SR is a           character, caring, and compassion). The 4Cs represent a promising
highly effortful process (Vohs & Baumeister, 2004) that does not                 framework to conceptualize and examine youth development in
necessarily develop through experience or maturation, but can be                 organized and non-organized (i.e., deliberate play; Côté, 1999; Côté,
enhanced through systematic interventions (Schunk & Zimmerman,                   Baker, & Abernethy, 2007) sport settings. This presentation will focus
2003). However, minimal research has focused on interventions to                 on the benefits of using the 4Cs to evaluate the impact of sport
assess how athletes can learn to better self-regulate. The purpose of this       participation on youth development. Specifically, the two different
study was to determine if and how a SR intervention led by a trained             contexts of youth sport participation that differ in the degree of youth
consultant and researcher could lead an elite curling team to enhance            and adult influence, organized sport and deliberate play, will be
their performance and cohesion. The four female athletes and male                contrasted as potentially providing distinct developmental
coach participated in a three-stage intervention spanning their 24-week          experiences.
competitive season. The intervention involved eight group intervention
sessions, multiple individual consulting sessions, observation, and a            WHAT'S YOUR NEXT MOVE? DIRECTIONAL BIASES FOR
final questionnaire. Results indicated that team members increased their         SEQUENTIAL LIMB AND EYE MOVEMENTS
self-awareness and capacity to self-regulate to feel, think, and behave          Christopher D Cowper-Smith1 Gail E Eskes2 David A Westwood3
                                                                                 1
the way they desired. They developed strategies to meet their goals and            Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford St.,
preferred standards (e.g., communication, humour, strategic planning)            Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 4J1 2Department of Psychiatry,
and effectively respond to obstacles (e.g., emotional outbursts, lack of         Dalhousie University, 5909 Veterans Memorial Lane, Halifax, Nova
focus). As a result, the athletes and coach perceived that the intervention      Scotia, B3H 2E2 3School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie
positively influenced their performance and team cohesion. This                  University, 6230 South St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, CANADA, B3H 3J5
presentation will outline the longitudinal process of developing SR with
sport teams.                                                                     There is considerable interest in movement direction encoding in the
                                                                                 central nervous system, in part because of potential applications to the
AN EXAMINATION OF FEMALES’ EXERCISE EXPERIENCE                                   development of neural prosthetic devices. Most studies in this field
ON EFFICACY BELIEFS AND BODY IMAGE PERCEPTIONS                                   focus on single movements, with little attention given to the interactions
Lisa M Cooke1 Krista Munroe-Chandler1                                            that may occur between successive movements. The purpose of our
1
  University of Windsor                                                          study was to determine, independent of movement effector system, if a
                                                                                 prior movement results in directional reaction time biases for subsequent
Previous research has suggested that female exercisers have a more               movements. In our experiments, participants made two consecutive eye
positive reflection of their body image than non-exercisers (Furnham,            movements or two consecutive arm movements in directions indicated
Titman, & Sleeman, 1994) and avid exercisers report higher levels of             by arrows presented at fixation. In experiment one, two target locations
self-efficacy in comparison to non-exercisers (Rodgers & Sullivan,               were shown during each trial. Here, movements were faster when offset
2001). The present study aimed to extend current literature by                   by 90 or 180 degrees from the first movement (relative to movements
examining the influence of a female’s exercise experience on her                 back to the original target location). This pattern is consistent with
efficacy beliefs and body image perceptions as suggested within the              ‘inhibition of return’ (IOR) typically found for repeated movements
applied model of imagery use in exercise (Munroe-Chandler &                      made in the same direction. In experiment two we presented four
Gammage, 2005). Female exercisers (N = 300, Mage = 34.2 yrs)                     possible target locations. Here we found that arm and eye movements
completed an efficacy belief questionnaire and the Multidimensional              were faster only when offset by 90 degrees from the initial movement;
Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 2000). Using a tertile split,           the well-established advantage for movements offset by 180 degrees was
participants were grouped into three levels of experience, with the              eliminated. Our results reveal an effect of set size (i.e. 4 vs. 2 possible
extreme groups reflecting less (n = 100, < 2 yrs) or more (n = 108, > 10         movement locations) on the spatial gradient of RTs for consecutive
years) experience. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed                  movements. That similar results were found for eye and arm movements
significant differences between the two extreme groups on efficacy               suggests the existence of a common motor programming principle that
7
may be useful for computational models attempting to ‘decode’ neural          in a free-throw shooting task. Nine participants completed 20 free-
signals for the implementation of neuroprosthetic devices.                    throw shots in each of the following 3 shooting styles: self-selected free
                                                                              throw (comfortable movement of the head), fixed head position (reduced
EVALUATION OF THE USE OF HEALING IMAGERY IN                                   movement of the head), and a jump shot (large vertical movement of the
ATHLETIC INJURY REHABILITATION                                                head). Head movement in the vertical direction, angle of head elevation,
Joel M Cressman1                                                              eye fixation frequency and duration were measured. Results indicated
1
  Wilfrid Laurier University                                                  an association between shooting style conditions and accuracy (χ2 (2) =
                                                                              18.55, p<0.05). Greater head movement and angle of head elevation
Healing imagery has been found to effectively reduce the time of              was found in the jump and self selected conditions in comparison of the
recovery from various athletic injuries when used in combination with         fixed condition. Additionally, longer duration and frequency of eye
other mental skills, such as self-talk and relaxation (Ievleva & Orlick,      fixations were found in the head fixed condition in comparison to the
1991). However, the literature remains void of a study that specifically      self-selected and jump conditions. Generally, the head fixed condition
examines healing imagery it’s potential benefits. The purpose of the          resulted in less accuracy, less head movement, and more eye fixations in
present study was to determine the effectiveness of a healing imagery         comparison to self selected and jump conditions. Our results suggest the
intervention through comparing injured athletes placed in an                  vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) compensates for head and eye
intervention group and control group on: satisfaction with rehabilitation,    movements and the coordination of head and eye movements may be
self-efficacy to recover, and recovery time. The sample consisted of 13       essential for accurate performance in far target aiming.
injured varsity athletes (intervention group, n=6; control group, n=7)
utilizing the athletic therapy services at Wilfrid Laurier University. A      FOOTBALL ATHLETES’ KNOWLEDGE OF CONCUSSION: A
significant interaction effect was found for satisfaction with                10-YEAR FOLLOW-UP
rehabilitation, as athletes’ in the intervention group increased in           Kim D Dorsch1 Dennis P Alfano2 Keisha Sharp1 Lisa Urban1
                                                                              1
satisfaction from week 2 to 3 while the control group decreased in              Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of
satisfaction during the same time period. Both groups were found to be        Regina 2Department of Psychology, University of Regina
significantly higher in task self-efficacy than coping self-efficacy during
injury rehabilitation. A follow-up qualitative analysis of the intervention   Despite the highly publicized and potentially severe consequences of
group revealed that the healing imagery intervention positively affected      concussion, athletes continue to possess many inaccuracies in
athletes’ in a unique, individualized manner. Results will be discussed       concussion-related knowledge. This leads to the presumption that
with respect to a gained understanding of imagery effects, study              improving athletes’ knowledge of concussion is necessary for any injury
limitations, and future directions.                                           prevention program. The purpose of this study was to examine the
                                                                              concussion knowledge of CIS football athletes and to compare these
                                                                              findings to those obtained from a similar sample 10 years earlier. A
EXAMINING THE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURS OF                                        convenience sample of 44 athletes (1999) and 55 athletes (2009)
ATHLETES IN TEAM SPORTS                                                       completed the Concussion Questionnaire which examines knowledge of
Alyson J Crozier1 Todd M Loughead1                                            concussion in four categories: Neurologic, 8 items examining
1
  University of Windsor                                                       knowledge of concussion and the brain; Equipment, 3 items looking at
                                                                              the role of protective equipment (e.g., helmet, cage, mouth guard) in
Athlete leadership has been defined as an athlete occupying a formal or       preventing concussion; Recovery, 5 items examining recovery from
informal role within a team who influences a group of team members to         concussion; and Signs and Symptoms, 9 items looking at knowledge of
achieve a common goal (Loughead et al., 2006). This definition                concussion signs and symptoms. Athletes were asked whether they
highlights two types of athlete leaders: formal athlete leaders (e.g.,        believed each statement was Definitely True, Probably True, Probably
designated by the coach or their teammates), and informal athlete             False, or Definitely False. When examining the overall accuracy of the
leaders (e.g., emerges through the interactions that occur within the         responses, athletes received a grade of F (less than 50% correct) for
team). To date, research has found that coaches and athlete leaders           every category in both years studied. Importantly, the 2009 sample’s
exhibit different leadership behaviours (Loughead & Hardy, 2005).             overall accuracy score in the Neurologic category decreased from 47%
However, no research has examined whether the leadership behaviours           to 38% (p < .01). It is clear from these data that education programs
exhibited by athletes differ based on their leadership role within the        regarding concussion are critically needed for this extremely vulnerable
team. Therefore, the purpose was to compare the leadership behaviours         population.
of formal athlete leaders, informal athlete leaders, and athlete non-
leaders. Athletes from a variety of team sports (N = 114) completed the       THE MODERATING EFFECT OF IMAGERY ABILITY ON
Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) that assessed         IMAGERY USE AMONG GOLFERS
their own leadership behaviours. The results of a one-way ANOVA               Molly V Driediger1 Lindsay R Duncan1 Craig R Hall1
                                                                              1
indicated that the behaviours of Training and Instruction and Social            University of Western Ontario
Support differed between groups. In particular, formal athlete leaders
exhibited significantly greater amounts of Training and Instruction, F(2,     The purpose of the present study was two-fold: To examine the
110) = 3.24, p < .05, and Social Support, F(2, 110) = 3.36, p < 0.05, than    relationships between imagery use and skill level (as defined by
athlete non-leaders. The results are discussed in terms of their              handicap); and to determine if golfers’ imagery ability moderates this
implications for understanding the role of athletes in the leadership that    relationship. Research to-date has included only one instrument to
occurs within team sports.                                                    measure imagery ability. This limitation was addressed by incorporating
                                                                              both the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised second version
HEAD MOTION AND EYE MOVEMENT BEHAVIOR IN THE                                  (MIQ-RS; Gregg, Hall, & Butler, 2007) and the Motivational Imagery
BASKETBALL FREE-THROW                                                         Ability Measure for Sport (MIAMS; Gregg & Hall, 2006) in order to
John Davis1 Jongil Lim1 Edward Ofori1 Andrew Kickertz1 Les G                  assess golfers’ ability to use four functions of imagery (CS, CG, MG-A,
Carlton1                                                                      and MG-M). The golfers (N = 136) were mostly male (n = 108) and
1
  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign                                  reported relatively high skill (M handicap = 14.02, SD = 8.74). Regression
                                                                              analyses were conducted to determine the role that imagery ability
Coordination between head and eye movements are critical for many far         played in the relationship between skill level and imagery use. As
target aiming tasks. The purpose of this investigation was to determine       expected, the results indicated that more skilled golfers used imagery
how head movement influences eye movements, fixations, and accuracy           more frequently. Also, visual imagery ability was found to moderate the
8
interaction between skill level and the use of CS, CG, and MG-M
imagery. The golfers who were “poor imagers” demonstrated a marked           LEARNING TO MANAGE STRESS AND ENHANCE WELL-
decrease in imagery use, as their skill level decreased. Sport               BEING: A HEARTMATH CARDIAC COHERENCE
psychologists working with athletes should aim to improve the quality        INTERVENTION WITH UNIVERSITY STUDENT-ATHLETES
of their athletes’ images by focusing on visual aspects of their imagery,    Natalie Durand-Bush1 Nicole Dubuc1 Christopher R Simon1
                                                                             1
thereby increasing their imagery use and ultimate performance.                 University of Ottawa

USING IMAGERY INTERVENTIONS TO INFLUENCE THREE                               Due to the challenge of balancing academic and sport training demands,
TYPES OF SELF-EFFICACY FOR EXERCISE                                          student-athletes experience higher levels of stress (Gould & Whitly,
Lindsay R Duncan1 Wendy M Rodgers2 Craig R Hall1 Philip M                    2009). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a self-
Wilson3                                                                      regulation intervention on the stress and well-being of 11 Human
1
  The University of Western Ontario 2University of Alberta 3Brock            Kinetics undergraduate student-athletes. Over the course of 6 weekly
University                                                                   15-minute intervention sessions, student-athletes learned how to self-
                                                                             regulate and manage their stress using the emWave cardiac coherence
The purpose of this study was to determine if guided imagery                 (CC) training software program; CC represents a physiological state in
interventions could be used to enhance task, coping, and scheduling self-    which the nervous, cardiovascular, hormonal and immune systems are
efficacy (SE) for exercise among a sample of female exercise initiates       working efficiently and harmoniously (HeartMath, 2010). During each
(N=232). Participants attended three guided imagery sessions                 intervention session, participants focused on maintaining desired
administered by the researchers before beginning a 12-week                   breathing patterns and positive emotions and thoughts, while receiving
cardiovascular exercise program. Control participants attended               visual feedback from the emWave program regarding their heart rate
nutritional information sessions in place of the imagery intervention.       variability and CC level. They also practiced sustaining CC on their own
The Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (Rodgers,              once per day for 3-5 minutes and completed a log. In a final interview,
Wilson, Hall, Fraser, & Murray, 2008) was used to assess task, coping,       they shared their perceptions regarding the impact of the intervention.
and scheduling self-efficacy for exercise. The effectiveness of the          Results indicated that 6 of the 11 student-athletes considerably improved
various imagery interventions for influencing the three types of self-       their ability to sustain CC, 3 showed moderate improvement, and 2 had
efficacy over time were assessed with two doubly multivariate                little to no improvement. Moreover, 9 of the 11 student-athletes reported
ANOVAs: the first from baseline to 6 weeks and the second from 6             lower levels of stress, and 6 reported increased well-being including an
weeks to 12 weeks. The first analysis demonstrated that in response to       enhanced ability to control emotions, focus, relax, and maintain a
the different imagery interventions, the three types of SE were              positive attitude.
differentially influenced over time. The results of analysis two were
non-significant suggesting that the main changes in SE occurred in the
first six weeks of the intervention. It was concluded that task, coping,     PROPRIOCEPTIVE CONTRIBUTIONS TO FREEZING OF
and scheduling SE for exercise are independent from one another and          GAIT IN DOORWAYS
that mental imagery interventions can be used to influence exercise-         Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens1 Frederico Pieruccini-Faria1 Quincy J
related cognitions.                                                          Almeida1
                                                                             1
                                                                               Wilfrid Laurier University
Acknowledgements: Acknowledge the Social Sciences and Humanities
Research Council for supporting this research                                An upcoming doorway has been shown to interfere with in parameters
                                                                             of gait and lead to freezing episodes (FOG), yet the mechanism
EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELITE                                     underlying how perception of self-motion contributes to FOG is poorly
ATHLETES' SELF-REGULATION ABILITY OF THE STRESS                              understood. The objective of this study was to determine how FOG is
RESPONSE AND WORLD RANKING USING                                             affected by perception of self-motion through a doorway. Participants
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS RESPONSE PROFILING                                with PD (N=10) that experience FOG on a daily basis were recruited to
Margaret Dupee1 Penny Werthner1                                              participate in this study. Three conditions of walking through doorways
1
  University of Ottawa                                                       in darkness were included: (i) walking through a doorway with only the
                                                                             door outline visible; (ii) both door outline visible and limbs illuminated
The elite sport environment can be very stressful for many athletes.         with glow tape; (iii) complete darkness. As control conditions,
Some athletes cope easily with the multitude of possible stressors           participants walked away from the door into an open space in the dark
associated with the quest for elite athletic performance, many other         and with limbs illuminated. A chi-square analysis of frequency of FOG
talented athletes struggle and often fail to achieve their expected          identified a main effect of condition (x 2(4)=53.39, p<0.01). Wilcoxon
performance potential. This research was designed to explore the             tests were then used to determine how FOG occurrences differed across
relationship between elite athletes’ self-regulation ability of the stress   conditions. FOG episodes were lower when participants received
response and their ranking at the world level using psychophysiological      information about their body position when passing through the
stress assessment profiling. Fifteen elite level athletes’                   doorway only. Step length was significantly decreased in the dark
psychophysiological stress response patterns were recorded during a          doorway condition in comparison to both control conditions. Cadence
nine stage stress assessment. Respiration rate, heart rate, skin             variability was statistically higher in the dark doorway condition
conductance, electromyography, and peripheral body temperature were          compared to the dark no door condition, confirming an effect of the
monitored. There was a significant negative correlation between elite        door. Results will be discussed in terms of sensory contributions to
athletes’ overall self-regulation ability and their ranking at the world     perceptual causes of FOG.
level. Only the EMG-trapezius self-regulation score significantly
contributed to the model predicting athletes’ world ranking. Our results     THE INFLUENCE OF ADAPTIVE SCHEDULES ON MOTOR
suggest the existence of a relationship between elite athletes’ overall      LEARNING IN YOUNG ADULTS.
self-regulation ability and their ranking at the world level. This may       Kinga L Eliasz1 Laurie R Wishart2 Timothy D Lee1
                                                                             1
indicate that higher ranking athletes are better psychophysiological self-     McMaster University, Department of Kinesiology 2McMaster
regulators. Thus, training for optimal self-regulation of the stress         University, School of Rehabilitation Science
response may enhance sport performance.
                                                                             Learning is facilitated when practice schedules are adapted to a learner’s
Acknowledgements: Funding provided by Own the Podium                         performance compared to equivalent amounts of random practice (Choi
9
et al. 2008). Task switching could either be sensitive to the learner's       assessed using video-mediated recall. Prior to analysis, the sample was
actual performance or act as a reward for successful goal achievement.        divided by competitive suffering duration into long and short duration
We examined this by comparing two groups that were either rewarded            groups. A significant mixed RM ANOVA interaction effect, F(4, 96) =
for goal achievement with a task switch or a task repetition. Participants    2.569, p < .05, partial η2 = .097,indicated differences in coping function
learned to perform four spatially distinct key-press patterns as fast as      use between each group across three phases of competitive suffering.
possible and without error through a discovery process. Their goal was        Post-hoc analysis revealed that the short duration group used more EFC
to beat their best movement time (MT) for each specific pattern. For          during initiation and at the peak of suffering, while also using less AvC
example, when a learner in the WinShift (WS) schedule achieved                during the initiation phase, in comparison to long duration competitive
success (a “win”) they switched to a different pattern; failure to beat       sufferers. These findings suggest that athletes adapt their coping efforts
their best time resulted in immediate repetition of the same pattern. The     throughout emotional episodes, and that coping function use may
opposite contingency was used in the WinRepeat (WR) group. The                distinguish athletes who are quickly able to regain a positive affective
results for both MT and errors in retention tests performed on the same       state.
day as practice and the next day were significantly better for the WR
group, where a “win” was rewarded with a task repetition. Analysis of         Acknowledgements: This research was supported through funding from
the acquisition data revealed that both groups “won” frequently early         the Sport Sciences Association of Alberta (SSAA)
and less frequently later in practice. This meant that later in acquisition
the WS group had mostly blocked practice while the WR group had
mostly random practice. These findings reveal that the effectiveness of       USING POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT THROUGH
adaptive practice depends on the nature of contextual interference            SPORT TO PROMOTE THE UNITED NATIONS MILLENIUM
promoted by the algorithm.                                                    DEVELOPMENT GOALS
                                                                              William R Falcao1 Gordon A Bloom1 Wade D Gilbert2
                                                                              1
Acknowledgements: This study was funded by NATURAL SCIENCES                     McGill University 2California State University, Fresno
AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH COUNCIL.
                                                                              In 2000, the United Nations (UN) hosted a world summit to set their
EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEAM NORMS                                 major goals and objectives. This summit produced the UN Millennium
AND COACH-ATHLETE INTERACTIONS                                                Development Goals (MDGs), a set of eight quantified goals that
Karl Erickson1 Mark W Bruner1 Jean Côté1                                      addressed key social problems in the world. The UN has recognized the
1
  School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University                  potential of sport and physical activity settings for addressing the
                                                                              MDGs. The coach plays the primary role in shaping the youth sport
Group norms have been identified as important in the functioning of           environment, and consequently has a major impact on the quality of
sport teams (Munroe, Estabrooks, Dennis, & Carron, 1999). However,            youths’ experience in sport. Framed around the principles of positive
minimal research has delved into the underlying mechanisms shaping            youth development, this study developed and implemented sport-related
these norms. State space grids (SSG: Lewis, Lamey, & Douglas, 1999)           activities which addressed the UN MDGs of health, education, and
are a novel systems-based method for analysing coach-athlete                  empowering women. Participants included six youth sport coaches from
interactions (C-AI), which may influence norms within sport teams. The        both recreational and competitive leagues. Multiple methods were used
purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between team norms       to collect data. Coaches perceived the project as successful and the
and C-AI. Seventeen female athletes (M age = 15 yrs) from two                 activities were seen as beneficial for athletes and for the team. In
competitive synchronized swimming teams completed a survey                    particular, the coaches believed the activities improved the athletes’
assessing practice and social norms (Carron, Prapavessis & Estabrooks,        values towards health, education, and empowering women. In addition,
1999). Quantitative measures of observed C-AI during practice were            coaches believed the activities increased team cohesion and their players
then derived using SSG analysis. Discriminate function analysis (DFA)         showed more caring, compassion, and character (indicators of PYD).
revealed that perceptions of norms significantly discriminated athletes       Overall, results demonstrated that typical youth sport settings can be
between the teams, Wilks’ Lambda=.449, p<.05. Four follow-up                  used to teach citizenship skills and promote PYD.
regressions used observed C-AI to predict each of the discriminative
norms. Results revealed that practice attendance norms were predicted         SCHOOL TRAVEL PLANNING: A CANADIAN PILOT
by coach corrective feedback, social attendance norms were predicted          EVALUATION
by non-sport related C-A discussion, and social interaction norms were        Guy Faulkner1 Theresa Beesley2 Ron Buliung1 Jacky Kennedy3
                                                                              1
predicted by sport-related C-A discussion. Concentration during practice        University of Toronto 2York University 3Green Communities Canada
norms were not predicted by any C-AI measures. Results of this
exploratory study provide evidence linking C-AI with perceptions of           Active school transport (AST) may be an important source of children's
team norms. The findings also point to the complexity of this                 physical activity (PA). 'School Travel Plans' (STP) may increase AST
relationship.                                                                 by addressing school specific concerns such as road safety and
                                                                              traffic. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the potential
ENDURANCE ATHLETES' COPING EFFORTS THROUGHOUT                                 impact of school travel planning (STP) for increasing AST in Canada.
COMPETITIVE SUFFERING EPISODES                                                To this end, a pilot School Travel Planning (STP) intervention was
Blair Evans1 Sharleen D Hoar2                                                 conducted at twelve schools in four Canadian provinces. STP
1
  Wilfred Laurier University 2University of Lethbridge                        Facilitators worked with the schools to create and implement an action
                                                                              plan encouraging active transportation choices at each school. The
Endurance athletes must effectively cope with competitive suffering, a        intervention was evaluated using parental self-report (n=1520). The
negative affective state brought about by perceived goal failure, for         results showed that thirteen per cent of families reported that they drove
optimal performance during competition. The current study aimed to            less to/from school because of the Travel Plan implementation. Thirty-
distinguish the sequential coping efforts of athletes who endured shorter,    seven percent of children walked to school and 43% from school to
and longer, episodes of competitive suffering. Eleven male and 15             home. Distance and convenience were the primary reasons given for
female competitive runners (Mage= 35.8, SD= 12.1) completed a 5km             continued driving. In conclusion, while data provides tentative support
time-trial task and were unknowingly provided with pace-times that            for the STP process in Canada, it is critical that future STP initiatives
were slowed by five percent to induce competitive suffering. Following        explicitly address parental convenience and time constraints as barriers
the time-trial, suffering duration and coping function use (problem-          to greater AST.
focused, PFC; emotion-focused, EFC; and avoidance, AvC) were
10
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTAL AND SPORT CLIMATE                                   IS HIGH SCHOOL SPORT ENHANCING THE DEVELOPMENT
IN UNDERSERVED SETTINGS                                                        OF STUDENT-ATHLETES?
Ryan Flett1 Dan Gould2 Larry Lauer2                                            Tanya Forneris1 Martin Camiré1 Pierre Trudel1
1
  Athletic Coaching Education, West Virginia University 2Institute for the     1
                                                                                 University of Ottawa
Study of Youth Sport, MSU
                                                                               Research has shown that sport is a context that can lead to positive youth
A quantitative study of the relationship between demographic factors,          development. However, to date, much of this research has focused on
team climate, and youth experiences was conducted in urban Detroit.            the athlete and has employed qualitative methodologies. This
Players from underserved baseball and softball leagues were asked to           presentation will provide an overview of two quantitative studies that
complete surveys. Participants included 239 youth, ages 10 to 19 (M =          examined the perspectives of all stakeholders (administrators, coaches,
14.5); 64% were boys and 72% identified as ‘black.’ Dependent                  parents and athletes) within the context of high school sport on elements
measures included positive and negative subscales from the YES-2               related to positive youth development. The results of these studies
(Hansen & Larson, 2005). Predictors included demographics and three            indicate that there are significant discrepancies across stakeholders
survey measures: Caring Climate Scale (Newton et al., 2007); and the           between their expectations and actual experiences of sport to enhance
Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports’ (Smith, et al., 2008)             youth development. In addition, the results indicate that there are
Mastery/Ego subscales. Multiple regressions showed that caring climate         discrepancies across stakeholders in their perceptions of how well
(β=.251, p < .001), mastery (β=.175, p = .021), and ego (β=.157, p =           coaches teach elements that promote the development of athletes. Coach
.007) had positive relationships with positive youth experiences. Ego-         education appears to play a critical role in coaches’ perceived ability to
climate was associated with negative experience (β=.617, p < .001).            teach elements that foster positive youth development. Therefore, based
Girls described their sport experiences more positively (p = .002).            on these findings, it appears that in order for youth sport to be a context
Canonical correlations revealed significant relationships between age,         that further enhances positive youth development, more work is needed
dedication to sport/team, and mastery-orientation, with positive               to ensure that all sport stakeholders share the same philosophy and work
experiences (i.e., networking, personal initiative, and team/social skills).   together towards a common goal. This presentation will conclude with
Canonicals for negative experiences reinforced a strong relationship           an overview of practical implications as well as a discussion of policy
with ego-climates. Positive climate improved positive experiences but          issues related to communication and education.
not negative ones; negative climate increased negative experience. As
such, only perfect climates (high positive and low negative) provide           GIVING THE PEOPLE WHAT THEY WANT: PRELIMINARY
optimal youth sport settings.                                                  MARKET RESEARCH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
                                                                               CANADA’S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY GUIDE FOR ADULTS
Acknowledgements: Thank Detroit/PAL for their partnership and                  LIVING WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY
funding support                                                                Brianne L Foulon1 Kathleen A Martin Ginis1 Amy E Latimer2
                                                                               1
                                                                                 McMaster University 2Queen's University
FACING AN EXERCISE CHALLENGE: RELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH, SELF-                                        Regular physical activity for people with SCI has been related to
REGULATORY EFFICACY AND PERSISTENCE.                                           numerous benefits, but half of this population remains inactive (Martin
Parminder K Flora1 Lawrence R Brawley1                                         Ginis et al., 2010). The SCI community has expressed the desire for
1
  University of Saskatchewan                                                   useful and accessible physical activity information (Boyd & Bardak,
                                                                               2004).It has been suggested that Canada's Physical Activity Guide for
Maddux and Gosselin (2003) discuss the role of self-regulatory efficacy        Adults Living with SCI (CPAG-SCI) be created (Martin Ginis & Hicks,
(SRE) in solving problems and state that when faced with a challenge,          2007).As a phase of a SCI Action Canada initiative, the purpose of this
high SRE individuals remain task-diagnostic and search for solutions.          study was to determine what people with SCI want in CPAG-SCI and
Low SRE individuals remain self-diagnostic and reflect on inadequacies         why. Seventy-eight adults with SCI (Mage=45.06) completed a survey,
which distracts them from solutions. We examined whether problem-              choosing preferred content items and formatting options. Items were
solving (PS) approach (self-diagnostic vs. task-diagnostic) was related to     compiled based on the current CPAG, social-cognitive theories and
SRE in the context of exercise. First, we hypothesized that higher pre-        focus-group feedback. The majority of items listed were preferred by at
challenge SRE would be related to a task-diagnostic PS approach.               least 85% of the sample, with the least preferred item preferred by 67%.
Second, we hypothesized that task-diagnostic scores would be related to        Of the items preferred by paraplegics, items that increased knowledge
less pre to post-challenge change in SRE. Third, for post-challenge, we        were considered most important (chi2=4.34,p<.05), while tetraplegics
hypothesized SRE would be related to persistence. University students          did not consider any type of preferred item more important. CPAG-SCI
completed baseline measures of SRE before reading an exercise                  as a booklet or interactive website was preferred (both 43.6%) and text
challenge and then responded to post-challenge SRE and persistence. PS         with pictures (83.3%), photographs (57.7%), bright colours (48.7%),
approach was also assessed. Consistent with hypothesis 1, pre-challenge        simple messages (61.5%) and a pull-out calendar (70.5%). These results
SRE was related to PS approach, r = .661, p < .001. Individuals                will be used in creating CPAG-SCI with the goal of tailoring the guide
reporting a more task-diagnostic PS approach reported higher pre-              to the specialized needs of the SCI population, in order to successfully
challenge SRE. Consistent with hypothesis 2, PS approach was related           encourage physical activity participation.
to change in SRE scores, r = -0.420, p < .05. Individuals with a stronger
task-diagnostic approach reported less pre to post-challenge change in         PERCEPTION OF COACHING BEHAVIORS, COPING, AND
SRE. Consistent with hypothesis 3, there was a post-challenge                  GOAL ATTAINMENT IN A SPORT COMPETITION
relationship between SRE and persistence, r = 0.648, p < .01. To our           Véronique Franche1 Patrick Gaudreau1 Michel Nicolas2
                                                                               1
knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a relationship between PS          University of Ottawa 2Université de Dijon
approach and SRE and persistence in an exercise-challenge context.
Implications for next-step investigations of possible moderator effects in     The importance of good coach-athlete relationship to promote optimal
the relationship between SRE and PS approach are offered.                      performance and well-being among athletes has often been highlighted
                                                                               by sport scientists. This short-term prospective study examined the
Acknowledgements: Funded by Social Sciences and Humanities                     mediating role of coping during a sport competition in the relationship
Research Council Award No. 752-2009-2473 and Canada Research                   between perceived coaching (i.e., supportive and unsupportive
Chair Provincial Award.                                                        behaviors) and goal attainment. A total of 80 athletes involved in
                                                                               various individual sports participated in this study. At Time 1 (i.e., a few
11
days before a competition), participants were invited to evaluate the        chosen as the most frequent target for comparison, likely because their
behaviors of their coaches. At Time 2 (i.e., within three hours after a      shared similarities provide a more realistic comparison (Franzoi &
competition), they were asked to complete measures of coping and goal        Klaiber, 2007). Body dimensions related to muscularity (i.e., muscle
attainment. Results from multiple regression demonstrated that               mass or tone) were likely compared most frequently because college-
supportive coaching behaviors was positively associated to both task-        aged males tend to place great importance on this aspect of the body,
oriented coping and goal attainment. Similarly, unsupportive coaching        which is consistent with Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954).
behaviors was associated to disengagement-oriented coping.
Furthermore, both task- and disengagement-oriented coping were               EXAMINING THE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURS OF COACHES
associated with goal attainment. As expected, the relationship between       AND ATHLETES: AN ATHLETE’S PERSPECTIVE
supportive coaching behaviors and goal attainment was significantly          Shannon N Gesualdo1 Todd M Loughead1
                                                                             1
mediated by task-oriented coping. However, disengagement-oriented              University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
coping was not a significant mediator in the relationship between
unsupportive coaching behaviors and goal attainment. This study lent         Leadership can be defined as a process whereby a person influences a
credence for the importance of athletes’ social environment on their         group of individuals to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2010). Not
coping processes during a competition.                                       surprisingly, within a sport team, effective leadership has been assigned
                                                                             great value by both coaches and athletes, each crediting the other for
OPTIMIZING POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN SPORT                               their role in contributing to the success of the team. In fact, previous
PROGRAMS: EXAMINING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN                                     research has shown that coaches and athletes use different types of
PROGRAM CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENTAL                                    leadership behaviours (Loughead & Hardy, 2005). However, it should
EXPERIENCES                                                                  be noted that athletes were asked to evaluate the behaviours provided by
Jessica Fraser-Thomas1 Sarah Jeffery-Tosoni1 Theresa                         all athlete leaders on their team. Another method of examining
Beesley1 Nicholas Holt2                                                      leadership behaviours is to ask the athletes how they perceive their own
1
  York University 2University of Alberta                                     leadership behaviours. The participants were 114 athletes competing in a
                                                                             variety of interdependent team sports. The athletes completed the
Among growing societal concern for youth’s healthy development, it           Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) and were asked
has been proposed that sport programs can serve as contexts to foster        to evaluate their own leadership behaviours as well as the leadership
healthy psychosocial development and life skills (Fraser-Thomas et al.,      behaviours of their coach. The results showed that coaches were
2005). Despite this, little research has focused on how different types of   perceived by athletes to exhibit training and instruction and autocratic
sporting programs may be facilitating positive experiences and               behaviours to a greater extent than athletes. Conversely, athletes were
outcomes among youth. The purpose of this study was to examine               judged to exhibit more social support, positive feedback, and democratic
associations between program characteristics and youths’ developmental       behaviours than coaches. The results are discussed in terms of their
experiences within these programs. Two hundred fourteen youth aged           implications for understanding the role of leadership from both coaches
10-18 involved in a diverse range of programs completed the Youth            and athletes.
Experience Survey for Sport (YES-S; MacDonald et al., 2009). Results
indicate sport type (i.e., team/individual), competition level (i.e.,        SIGHT TRUMPS SOUND: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
recreational/competitive), coach characteristics (i.e., age, gender) and     VISUAL AND AUDITORY DISTRACTION
contextual factors (i.e., number of coaches, group size) are associated      Cheryl M Glazebrook1 Christina Ko1 Luc Tremblay1 Timothy N Welsh1
                                                                             1
with significantly different experiences in the areas of initiative, goal      Faculty of Physical Education and Health/University of Toronto
setting, cognitive skills, and negative experiences. Findings suggest
further exploration is necessary to fully understand the processes and       Previous research has revealed that the presentation of non-target
mechanisms that may be contributing to more positive or negative             information in an alternate modality from the target can influence
experiences in youth sport programs. Discussion will focus on how            performance on perceptual localization tasks. This influence is enhanced
findings can begin to inform future guidelines and reform strategies in      as the potential for information gain from the second stimulus increases.
youth sport programs.                                                        If this enhanced influence can also be observed in goal-directed aiming
                                                                             movements, the influence of a visual distractor on an auditory target
Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council -          should be greater than vice versa because a visual stimulus provides
Sport Canada Research Initiative                                             more accurate spatial information than an auditory stimulus. The present
                                                                             study tested this prediction by examining the kinematics of aiming
BODY-RELATED SOCIAL COMPARISONS IN COLLEGE-                                  movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a
AGED MEN                                                                     distracting stimulus in the other modality. When present, the distracting
Dr. Kimberley Gammage1 Lindsay E Cline1                                      stimulus was delivered simultaneous to the target modality at: a spatially
1
  Brock University                                                           coincident location, to the left, or to the right of the target. The results
                                                                             revealed that movement trajectories and endpoints were biased towards
Social comparisons can have a negative impact on body image (van den         the distracting stimulus only when aiming to auditory target locations
Berg et al., 2007), with outcomes such as body dissatisfaction, and          (the distractor was visual). No biases were observed when the targets
negative thoughts and feelings about the body particularly in women          were visual (the distractor was auditory). Thus, the distractor influenced
(Bergstrom & Neighbors, 2006). Less is known about the body-related          participants’ movements only when the secondary modality provided
social comparisons in men. The present study examined the nature of          more accurate spatial information than the target modality. The
body-related social comparisons made by college-aged men.                    unidirectional nature of this effect supports the notion that the influence
Participants (N=49) completed measures of the frequency and direction        of a secondary stimulus depends on the potential for information
(positive or negative) of body-related comparisons they make to various      transmission.
targets (e.g., same-sex friends, models/celebrities) and on various body
dimensions (e.g., appearance, strength). The results showed college-
aged men compared themselves most frequently to same-sex friends and
peers, and most frequently on the dimension of muscle mass or tone.
They also made the most positive body-related comparisons to same-sex
parents and on the dimension of co-ordination. Consistent with the
existing literature, the results indicate same-sex friends and peers are
12
MOTORIC INTERACTIONS WITH ANOTHER PERSON: HOW                                 BURNOUT AS A FUNCTION OF INTERCOLLEGIATE
DO INDIVIDUALS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER                                  ATHLETES’ PERFECTIONIST ORIENTATIONS: A PERSON-
ADJUST?                                                                       ORIENTED APPROACH
David A Gonzalez1 Breanna E Studenka1 Cheryl M Glazebrook2 James              John K Gotwals1
L Lyons1                                                                      1
                                                                                Lakehead University
1
  Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University 2Faculty of Physical
Education and Health, University of Toronto                                   This study investigates the functional nature of perfectionism in sport
                                                                              through a person-oriented comparison of healthy and unhealthy
When asking for a cup of coffee, performing the goal of the movement          perfectionist athletes’ experience of burnout symptomatology. A sample
(grasping the cup) might be different for the person serving the coffee.      of 117 Canadian intercollegiate varsity student-athletes (M age = 21.28
These types of coordination occur on a daily basis, however little            years, SD = 2.05) completed multidimensional measures of sport-based
attention is paid to how the end goal for the person handing the coffee is    perfectionism (i.e., the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-
accomplished or what they perceive the end goal is (i.e. person drinks        2 [Sport-MPS-2: Gotwals & Dunn, 2009]) and athlete burnout
their coffee or they place the coffee on the counter?). This type of          symptomatology (i.e., the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire [ABQ;
interpersonal has profound implications for individuals with Autism           Raedeke & Smith, 2001]). An iterative cluster analytic protocol
Spectrum Disorder (ASD) research, as it may be more difficult for them        conducted upon the participants’ mean Sport-MPS-2 subscale scores the
to anticipate how another person would use an object. Therefore the           revealed that the sample could be represented by four theoretically
purpose of this experiment was to determine how controls and                  meaningful        clusters:     labelled, Parent-Oriented       Unhealthy
individuals with ASD would interact with a confederate was asking to          Perfectionists, Doubt-Oriented      Unhealthy      Perfectionists, Healthy
hand a tool to the confederate. Theory of Mind (Baron-Cohen et al.,           Perfectionists, andNon-Perfectionists. Inter-cluster comparisons of the
1985) would suggest that these individuals may more difficulties in           groups’ mean scores across the three ABQ subscales (i.e., reduced
producing this joint-action paradigm. However the results demonstrate         accomplishment, sport devaluation, and exhaustion) revealed that
that both the controls and individuals with ASD hand the tool to the          healthy perfectionists reported (a) lower levels on all three athlete
confederate in a manner that facilitates the use by the confederate (i.e.     burnout indices in comparison to both doubt-oriented unhealthy
comfortable orientation for the confederate). This suggests that both the     perfectionists and non-perfectionists and (b) lower levels of exhaustion
controls and individuals with ASD incurred the cost of the movement           in comparison to parent-oriented unhealthy perfectionists (all ps ≤ .05).
(awkward posture) to allow the confederate to have a beginning state          Discussion focuses on (a) the fit between the present findings and
comfort to accomplish the task in an easier manner.                           perfectionism/burnout theory, (b) directions for future examinations of
                                                                              the functional nature of perfectionism, and (c) the benefits of utilizing a
Acknowledgements: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research                   person-oriented approach in perfectionism research.
Council, Woodview Manor
                                                                              Acknowledgements: This study was supported by a grant awarded to the
A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION OF HEALTHY                                          author by Lakehead University’s Senate Research Committee.
PERFECTIONISM AMONG INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETES
John K Gotwals1 Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere2                                      CROSSED APRAXIA WITHOUT APHASIA IN A LEFT
1
  Lakehead University 2University of Alberta                                  HANDER WITH A RIGHT HEMISPHERE STROKE
                                                                              Mark Gravely1 Eric A Roy2 Sandra E Black3
                                                                              1
Disagreement surrounding the concept of healthy perfectionism is                Heart and Stroke Foundation Centre for Stroke Recovery; Sunnybrook
prominent in the perfectionism literature (Flett & Hewitt, 2002). Sport-      Health Sciences Centre; Department of Kinesiology, University of
based research that investigates healthy perfectionism directly from the      Waterloo 2Heart and Stroke Foundation Centre for Stroke Recovery;
perspective of individuals who display healthy perfectionist tendencies       Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo 3Heart and Stroke
could provide insight into this issue (Flett & Hewitt, 2005; Rice, Bair,      Foundation Centre for Stroke Recovery; Division of Neurology,
Castro, Cohen, & Hood, 2003). Therefore,the aim of this study was to          Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre; Brill Chair in Neurology,
qualitatively explore achievement with athletes identified as having          Department of Medicine, University of Toronto
healthy perfectionist tendencies. Among an initial pool of 117 Canadian
intercollegiate varsity student-athletes, potential participants were         Limb apraxia is a disorder of skilled movement characterized by the
identified based on the relative degree to which their Sport                  inability to use tools and pantomime or imitate gestures. Apraxia most
Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 (Gotwals & Dunn, 2009) score           often results from left hemisphere lesions and is frequently accompanied
profile was consistent with descriptions of healthy perfectionism. Seven      by aphasia. Here we present the case of an 82 year old, left-handed man
athletes (3 females and 4 males; M age = 21.32 years, SD = 2.81) from a       seen one month after an ischemic stroke affecting the right frontal lobe
variety of sports participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews      and basal ganglia. Assessment revealed a marked limb apraxia,
were transcribed verbatim and a thematic content analysis of the data         including impairments to pantomime, imitation, and conceptual praxis
was performed. This analysis led to the emergence of three themes:            tasks. Language testing revealed a minor anomic aphasia with relatively
personal expectations, dealing with challenge and the role of others.         preserved speech production and comprehension, but a marked agraphia
Within the theme of personal expectations athletes spoke about the            and alexia. The patient also demonstrated difficulty with working
importance of having goals, exerting effort and maintaining mental            memory and constructing drawings of common objects from memory.
focus. Athletes also revealed that having a positive outlook and problem      We argue that this is a case of “crossed apraxia” in which lateralization
solving helped in dealing with sport performance challenges. Finally, the     for praxis control, typically involving the left hemisphere, is controlled
critical role of others (e.g., parents, teammates and coaches) in athlete’s   by the right hemisphere. Despite crossed praxis, this patient’s preserved
sport experiences was also discussed. The results of this study are           verbal comprehension and speech implies these functions are controlled
discussed within the context of perfectionism/achievement motivation          by the intact left hemisphere. The deficits observed on conceptual praxis
theory.                                                                       tasks suggest that unlike verbal comprehension action comprehension
                                                                              like praxis is subserved by the right hemisphere. Although relatively
Acknowledgements: This study was supported by a grant awarded to the          rare, other cases of “crossed-apraxia” have been reported in the
authors by Lakehead University’s Senate Research Committee.                   literature, and provide insight into the potential dissociation among the
                                                                              neural representations underlying praxis, language, reading and writing.
13
Acknowledgements: Funded by Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario            an imagery use measure suitable for youth athletes; the Sport Imagery
(EAR and SEB)                                                                 Questionnaire – Children’s Version (SIQ-C) a 21-item questionnaire
                                                                              assessing the frequency of imagery use. The purpose of the present
CAN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BE ASSESSED DISTALLY TO                                 study was to replicate and extend Hall et al.’s results by focusing on
BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS AND SELF EFFICACY IN                                soccer only, to more accurately examine developmental differences,
CHILDREN?                                                                     expand the age groups from 7-14 year olds to also include 15 and 16
Casey Gray1 Harry Prapavessis1 Daniela Rivas1 Nerissa                         year olds, and supplement the data by interviewing coaches about their
Campbell1 Justine Wilson1 Erin McGowan2                                       encouragement of the use of imagery and how and when strategies of
1
  The University of Western Ontario 2The University of Alberta                play are introduced. The participants included 111 boys and 95
                                                                              girls, Mage = 11.67, Myears of soccer experience = 6.51. Gender and
The present study investigated the stability of relationships between         age were examined in relation to frequency of imagery use. MANOVA
basic psychological needs satisfaction as well as task and barriers self-     results indicated no differences in imagery use in relation to gender and
efficacy with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a              a significant main effect for age group for motivational specific imagery,
sample of children (aged 10-14 years). Children (N = 46; 23 females)          F (4, 192) = 6.31, p < .01, η2 = .11. These results are similar to Hall et
completed physical activity specific measures of basic psychological          al.; the two youngest age groups used significantly (p < .05) more
needs satisfaction and self-efficacy at baseline. One (T1) and 6 weeks        motivational specific imagery than the two oldest age groups. These
(T2) later children completed a 7 day physical activity recall tapping        results partially replicate the findings of Hall et al. and provide support
moderate to MVPA. Task self-efficacy, autonomy and competence                 for the appropriateness of the SIQ-C as an imagery use assessment tool
were significantly correlated with T1 MVPA (r’s = .34, .40 & .39, p’s <       with youth athletes.
.05) and accounted for 22% (p < .01) of the associated variance. The
relationship between T2 MVPA and competence was significant (r =
.29, p = .05) and the correlation between T2 MVPA and autonomy                INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF INTERPERSONAL
approached significance (r = .27, p = .07) however, these variables were      COACHING STYLES ON SELF-DETERMINED MOTIVES AND
not predictive of T2 MVPA when analysed by hierarchical multiple              RUGBY PERFORMANCE USING THE HIERARCHICAL
regression. Evidence that in this sample of children relationships            MODEL OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION.
between psychological constructs and MVPA diminished when they                Jacquelyn P Gregson1 Philip M Wilson1
                                                                              1
were measured 6 weeks apart underscores the importance of assessing             Brock University
these variables proximally.
                                                                              Understanding the mechanisms through which self-determined motives
EXAMINING THE ACCEPTABILITY OF INTERVAL AND                                   are influenced and the consequences associated with the different motive
ENDURANCE EXERCISE TRAINING PROTOCOLS FOR                                     forms is an important social agenda in the context of sport (Horn, 2008).
PROMOTING EXERCISE PARTICIPATION                                              Using the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Alex E Green1 Norah J MacMillan1 Jonathon E Ross1 Amy E                       (HMIEM; Vallerand, 1997) as a guiding framework, the purpose of the
Latimer1 Brendon J Gurd1                                                      current study was to examine a sequence of motivational processes of
1
  School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University,               interpersonal coaching styles on basic psychological needs, to self-
Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6                                                       determined motives and the motivational consequence of sport
                                                                              performance. Participants (N = 231) were Canadian Interuniversity
Compared to endurance training (ET), high-intensity interval training         Sport female rugby players (Mage = 20.13; SD = 2.26) . Structural
(HIIT) and moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT) are time efficient     equation modeling analysis (with bootstrapping estimates) provided
methods of improving fitness. However, interval training is significantly     limited support for the proposed model whereby sources of interpersonal
more intense than ET and the acceptability of these protocols for             support predicted psychological need satisfaction that in turn predicted
increasing exercise participation is unclear. Thus, we examined 11            self-determined motives and perceived performance from rugby players
participants’ (19.9±1.1 yrs) preference for and social cognitive response     (IFI/CFI = 0.86; RMSEA = 0.08 [0.07 - 0.09]). The final model tested in
to each protocol (e.g. task and scheduling self-efficacy). Following a        the SEM analysis accounted for 16 percent of perceived performance in
ramp test to determine peak work rate (PWR), participants completed, in       women’s rugby, 51 percent of self-determined motives for sport, and
random order, one session of HIIT (8x1min at 120% PWR, 2min                   between 27 to 56 percent of psychological need satisfaction in sport.
recovery), MIIT (10x4min at 90% PWR, 2min recovery), and ET                   Overall, the results of this study provide some evidence that the HMIEM
(30min+4x13min at 65% PWR, 2min recovery). In a survey two weeks              proposed by Vallerand (1997) may be tenable in terms of understanding
after completing all 3 protocols, 44% of participants preferred HIIT and      motivational factors that contribute to performance in women's rugby.
44% preferred ET. Repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc tests
revealed that participants’ anticipated enjoyment, affective attitudes, and   Acknowledgements: Research support provided by Social Science and
task and scheduling self-efficacy were greater for HIIT and ET vs.            Humanities Research Council of Canada, & Ontario Graduate
HIIT, p<0.05. Greater intentions to implement HIIT and ET vs. MIIT            Scholarship Program.
both once (3.9±1.8 and 4.8±1.7 vs. 2.8±1.7, p<0.05) and twice (3.3±1.4
and 3.7±1.6, vs. 2.3±1.3,p<0.05) per week were reported. Participants         WHAT COMES FIRST? A TEST OF TWO MODELS TO
reported greater positive outcome expectancies for ET vs. MIIT                PREDICT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY USING SELF-EFFICACY
(27.5±6.0 vs. 20.8±8.4,p<0.05). This suggests that HIIT and ET elicit a       AND OUTCOME EXPECTANCY
greater effect on social cognitive predictors of behaviour versus MIIT        Eva Guérin1 Shane N Sweet1 Michelle S Fortier1
                                                                              1
despite differences in intensity and duration.                                  University of Ottawa

DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFERENCES IN YOUTH SOCCER                                     According to Self-Efficacy Theory (SET), behaviours such as physical
PLAYERS’ USE OF IMAGERY                                                       activity (PA) are influenced by self-efficacy via the mediating effect of
Melanie Gregg1 Leisha Strachan2                                               outcome expectations. However, peculiar findings from certain studies
1
  The University of Winnipeg 2University of Manitoba                          have revealed that outcome expectancy may not directly influence PA,
                                                                              thus fuelling a debate regarding the extent to which this latter construct
Youth athletes are taught sport specific motor skills, strategies, routines   may impact PA. Such findings would also appear to call into question
and to cope under pressure; imagery is a psychological technique that         where self-efficacy falls in this sequence. Therefore, the purpose of this
may enhance this learning process. Hall et al. (2009) recently modified       study was to examine these propositions by testing two theoretical
14
models in predicting PA levels: the first with outcome expectancy as the      construed similarly across groups. However, there was no support for
mediator (SET), the second with self-efficacy in the mediating position.      strong invariance (i.e., having the same means and intercepts across
Participants were 225, predominantly female (65%) university students         groups). Therefore caution should be noted when comparing means of
with a mean age of 20.7. The variables were assessed cross-sectionally        scores derived from the PNSE between groups.
through a self-report questionnaire available online. Results indicated a
poor fit for the first model, as outcome expectancy was not a significant     Acknowledgements: Funding for this research was provided by the
predictor of PA (ß = .04, p = .56). Interestingly, there was a good fit for   Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
the second model as outcome expectancy influenced self-efficacy (ß =
.31, p < .001) and self-efficacy predicted PA (ß= .38, p < .001).             IS LEVEL OF PAIN ACCEPTANCE DIFFERENTIALLY
Although these findings failed to support the SET sequence, they              RELATED TO ARTHRITIS-SPECIFIC SOCIAL COGNITIONS
suggest that perhaps the reverse may be true of behaviours that are not       AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?
inherently pleasurable such as PA. Future interventions should outline        Nancy C Gyurcsik1 Lawrence R Brawley1 Kevin S Spink1 Karen E
clear outcome expectations prior to developing one’s confidence for PA.       Glazebrook1 Tara J Anderson1
                                                                              1
                                                                                College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan
THE REFFICACY SCALE: A PREMILINARY INVESTIGATION
TO DEVELOP A REFEREE EFFICACY SCALE.                                          Individual differences in pain-related factors may help clarify why some
Felix Guillen1 Deborah Feltz2 Lori Dithurbide2                                women with arthritis are more active. Pain acceptance, which involves
1
  Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 2Michigan State                   being willing to pursue activities despite pain, may be associated with
University                                                                    social cognitive correlates of activity. Our first purpose was to examine
                                                                              whether self-regulatory efficacy to cope with arthritis barriers and the
Sport officiating is a difficult job. One social-cognitive variable that      likelihood and value of arthritis outcomes distinguished women of
may influence the effective performance of a sports official is his/her       higher versus lower pain acceptance, after controlling for pain intensity.
self-efficacy beliefs. Based on self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977,          The second purpose was to examine whether the two acceptance groups
1997), highly confident (i.e., high self-efficacy) referees should be more    differed in activity. Participants (Mage=47.69 years) completed online
accurate in their decisions, more effective in their performance, more        measures of pain acceptance and intensity, social cognitions, and then
committed to their profession, and have more respect from coaches,            endurance activity two-weeks later. Two acceptance groups were
administrators, and other officials. In this study, we defined referee        formed (n=59/group; median split). A hierarchical discriminant function
efficacy (refficacy) as the extent to which referees believe they have the    analysis revealed that after controlling for pain intensity, social
capacity to perform successfully in their job, and began a preliminary        cognitions accounted for 13% of the variance in pain acceptance (final
investigation to develop an instrument to measure the concept. A total of     model λ = .73, χ2 (4) = 36.01, p < .01). Self-regulatory efficacy and pain
1,988 referees from the U.S. and Spain and from a variety of different        intensity contributed the most to group separation. A t-test revealed the
sports completed 38 items relating to referee efficacy. Approximately         higher acceptance group engaged in significantly more activity
50% of the sample was randomly chosen to conduct an exploratory               (Mhigher=208.39      vs. Mlower =142.73     minutes/week, p<.05).     Pain
factor analysis (EFA). Preliminary results of the EFA indicated that a        acceptance, a disease-related individual difference, complements theory-
single factor structure might be most appropriate for the Refficacy Scale     based arthritis-related social cognitions linked to participation in
(ReffS). All items were retained and the remaining sample was used to         activity, offering a clearer description of factors related to the
conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results from the CFA            differential levels of activity among individuals with arthritis.
indicated a moderate model fit (CFI = .835; NNGI = .825; RMSEA =
.044) on the one-factor model where all items loaded significantly (p<.5)     Acknowledgements: Funded by Social Sciences and Humanities
on the factor. Further research is required to increase and improve the       Research Council grant #410-2005-2292.
validity of this scale.
                                                                              INFANT BOUNCING DURING SPRING FREQUENCY
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL NEED SATISFACTION IN EXERCISE                               PERTURBATIONS
SCALE: AN INVESTIGATION OF MEASUREMENT                                        Olinda D Habib Perez1 Coren Walters-Stewart2 Alexandre Mineault-
INVARIANCE ACROSS GROUPS                                                      Guitard3 D. G. E Robertson1 Natalie Baddour2 Heidi Sveistrup4
Katie E Gunnell1 Bruno D Zumbo2 Philip M Wilson3 Diane E                      1
                                                                                Sch. of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa 2Mechanical Engin.,
Mack3 Peter R Crocker1                                                        University of Ottawa 3Civil Engin., University of Ottawa 4Sch. of Human
1
  School of Human Kinetics, The University of British                         Kinetics, Rehabil. Sci., University of Ottawa
Columbia 2Department of Education and Counselling Psychology, and
Special Education, The University of British Columbia 3Department of          Infants explore their environments often using repetitive movements of
Physical Education and Kinesiology, Brock University                          multiple degrees of freedom to create a motor sequence. Previous
                                                                              research suggests that infants suspended in a commercial spring-
Given the utility of Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan & Deci,           mounted harness bounce at two frequencies using distinct mechanisms
2002) in exercise contexts (Wilson et al., 2008), an important research       of control (Vallis, 1998). We determined how typically developing
priority concerns examining the validity of scores derived from               infants bounced when the system natural frequency was experimentally
instruments that assess perceptions of competence, autonomy and               modified. Infants aged 5 to 12 months bounced while suspended over
relatedness in exercise contexts. This investigation examined properties      two AMTI force platforms from four spring systems with natural
of measurement invariance of scores derived from the Psychological            frequencies of 1.0 (C1), 1.3 (C2), 1.5 (C3) and 2.0 (C4) Hz. Kinematic
Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale (PNSE; Wilson et al., 2006). Two          data and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) were recorded
groups were examined: (1) individuals living with osteoporosis (N =           continuously. The results showed that across conditions, infants spent a
220; M= 66.56 years, SD = 10.68) and (2) non-osteoporotic                     relatively equal percent of time on the ground and in the air during each
students/staff from a university in Central Canada (N = 283 M = 26.77         bounce cycle with the peak VGRFs decreasing as the bounce frequency
years, SD = 9.19). Four nested models with increased equality                 increased. Bounce heights varied as a function of bounce strategy: a)
constraints (Wu, Li, & Zumbo, 2007) were tested using procedures              infants who bounced at similar frequencies across conditions (C1 to C4
advocated by Jöreskog (2004). Results supported configural and weak           from 2.01 to 2.28 Hz) generated similar bounce heights in all conditions;
invariance of scores from the PNSE (weak invariance: S-Bx2 =                  while b) bounce height decreased across conditions in infants whose
646.99, p < .001, CFI = .98, CFI = |.01|, RMSEA = .072 [.065, .079]).         bounce frequency changed as a function of natural spring frequency
As such, the constructs of competence, autonomy and relatedness were          (C1: 1.05 Hz; C2: 1.25-1.29 Hz; C3: 1.42-1.43 Hz; C4: 1.75-1.76
15
Hz). Thus, infants adapt to different natural system frequencies by either    MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS: THE
maintaining a fixed frequency across conditions or by adapting the            INFLUENCE OF PARENTS ON THEIR CHILD
bounce frequency to closely match the system frequency.                       Sebastian Harenberg1 Erwin Karreman1 Harold A Riemer1 Kim D
                                                                              Dorsch1
                                                                              1
DOES A RULE CHANGE ELIMINATING BODY CHECKING                                    Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies - University of Regina
ALTER THE RELATIVE AGE EFFECT IN ONTARIO MINOR
ICE HOCKEY?                                                                   The reason for young children’s participation in a specific sport has been
David J Hancock1 Brad W Young1 Diane M Ste-Marie1                             identified as multifold (e.g., meeting friends, improving skills, etc.).
1
  University of Ottawa; Ontario, Canada                                       However, the initial decision to participate in a sport is often not made
                                                                              by the child but by the parents. In this context it appears that organized
In sport, relative age effects (RAE) occur when there is an over-             sport programs are not focused on satisfying the motivations of the
representation of athletes born early in a selection year, as compared to     children but on the parents. The potential discrepancy between the
relatively younger athletes who are born later in the selection year. It      motivation of the child and his/her parents might impact continued sport
has been posited that slight age differences within a one-year cohort lead    participation. This study examines the motivation of the parents and how
to performance and participation advantages, typically based on physical      these influence the motivation of the children to participate in organized
development (Wattie, Cobley, & Baker, 2008). Recently, Hockey                 ice hockey. Three hundred and thirty ice hockey players (female n = 32)
Canada prohibited body checking in the 9- and 10-year-old age division        between the age of 9 and 10 and both parents filled out the Participation
(Atom), which allowed us to examine how reduced physicality within            MotivationQuestionnaire.Thedimensions achievement, team, fitness, and
the sport might alter the RAE. The purpose of the study was to                 excitement showed acceptable reliability (a> .70) for the data of the
investigate the RAE of athletes who played with, or without, the body         players, fathers, and mothers. The data for each family were matched.
checking rule by inspecting the birth rate distributions of Atom players.     Multiple regressions were used to examine the predictability of the
Separate analyses for a cross-sectional and a quasi-longitudinal dataset      child’s motivation from the parents’ motivation on each of the four
demonstrated significant RAEs in both samples regardless of whether           dimensions. All multiple regressions were significant (p < .01) however,
body checking was permitted. Inspection of effect sizes and                   the R2 value was relatively low for each analysis (.11 - .05). In
standardized residuals revealed slight decreases in the strength of the       conclusion, children’s motivation for participation in hockey is only
RAE when body checking was not permitted, though this was limited to          slightly influenced by the motivation of the parents. Implications and
the second and third birth quartiles. Furthermore, it appeared that the       future research directions are discussed.
changes in RAEs were most prevalent at lower levels of competition.
Results indicate that the physical nature of a sport might, in fact, impact   MOTOR LEARNING: IS IT WORTH THE
the RAE. Discussion focuses on implications the results have for sport        PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFORT?
scientists examining moderating factors of the RAE.                           Amanda Hart1 Jae T Patterson1 Steve Hansen2 David Ditor1
                                                                              1
                                                                                Brock University 2Nipissing University
Acknowledgements: We would like to acknowledge the Ontario Hockey
Federation for their assistance with the current study.                       Previous research has demonstrated that participants presented with
                                                                              augmented information after (e.g., retroactively) versus prior to (e.g.,
SELF-SELECTION OF FEEDBACK: YOKED GROUPS AND                                  proactively) a motor response, learning is enhanced (Patterson & Lee,
THE INFLUENCE OF ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE                                        2008; 2010). Theoretical explanations of these findings are related to the
SCHEDULES OF FEEDBACK                                                         cognitive effort invested by participants during motor skill acquisition.
Steve Hansen1 Jacob Pfeiffer2 Jae T Patterson2                                The present study extended previous research by utilizing the
1
  Nipissing University 2Brock University                                      physiological index of heart rate variability (HRV), previously shown to
                                                                              be sensitive to the degree of cognitive effort invested during
A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-selects their          the performance of a motor task (e.g., increase cognitive effort results in
feedback schedule receives feedback on the same number of trials and          decreased HRV). The present study examined changes to HRV during
on the same trials as the self-selected group. This yoked group               motor skill acquisition in participants practicing in either a proactive or
demonstrates inferior learning compared to the self-selected group.           retroactive condition. All participants were required to learn 18 different
Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback,                   key-pressing sequences, ranging between 2 and 4 key presses in
information is provided on trials where the yoked individual might not        response to a motor prime. The dependent variables of interest were
request feedback and also not receive feedback on trials where it would       motor recall success (RS) and HRV. As expected, the proactive
be a learning experience. Subsequently, this leads to a decrement in          condition demonstrated superior proportional RS during acquisition,
retention. This study examined the learning of a 6-component serial           with the retroactive condition (M=.68) demonstrating superior
response task for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of              proportional RS compared to the proactive condition (M=0.32) during
feedback opportunities, but who self-selected their schedule. The yoked       retention. Measures of HRV indicated higher HRV values for the
with self-selection group was predicted to have a higher level of             proactive condition in the in the retention period compared to the
retention than the traditional yoked group because of the conceptual link     retroactive condition (p<.05). Thus, the cognitive effort invested by
between feedback and learning opportunities. The traditional yoked            participants as a function of their practice condition differentially
group had significantly higher AE than the yoked self-selected group in       impacted both their motor and physiological response, evidenced during
the first block of acquisition. In retention, the yoked self-selected group   tests of learning. The theoretical and practical implications of these
committed a significantly lower number of errors than both the                findings for motor skill acquisition will be discussed.
traditional yoked and self-selected groups. The current results suggest
that a yoked self-selected group can produce efficient learning effects       FREELY CHOSEN CADENCE DURING A SECRET
and can be a viable control group for future studies.                         MANIPULATION OF INSPIRED OXYGEN CONTENT AND
                                                                              AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
                                                                              Geoffrey L Hartley1 Stephen S Cheung2
                                                                              1
                                                                                Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University 2Department of
                                                                              Physical Education and Kinesiology, Brock University

                                                                              Freely chosen cadence (CAD) represents a central rhythmic movement
                                                                              that has been suggested as resistant to internal and external stressors.
16
Twenty participants cycled for 60 minutes at a constant Rate of               apraxia is evaluated using only one performance modality such as
Perceived Exertion (RPE) of 14 on an ergometer that permitted free            imitation. Apraxia though is thought to arise from breakdowns at
manipulation of both CAD and resistance (TOR). During Session 1,              different stages in gesture production and so needs to be assessed over
inspired oxygen content (FiO2) was secretly manipulated in an A-B-A-B         multiple modalities reflecting sensory-perceptual, conceptual and
fashion between normoxia (21%) and hypoxia (16%) at 15-minute                 production dimensions of performance. Functional performance in daily
intervals. During Session 2, ambient temperature (Tam) was secretly           living is also multi-factorial and places demands on comparable
manipulated between 20 and 35°C in an A-B-A pattern at 20-minute              dimensions of performance. Given these commonalities it would seem
intervals. Subjects were deceived to the true nature of the study or the      important to capture these dimensions of performance in measures of
presence of any external manipulations. The synchronicity between             function in daily living. Accordingly we developed the Apraxia
power output (PO) and CAD and TOR was analyzed using Auto-                    Behavioural Checklist (ABC) which captures performance that reflects
Regressive Integrated Moving Averages. Changes in environmental               sensory-perceptual, conceptual and production errors. In this study
conditions caused significant perturbations in PO that were highly            involving 30 people with left-hemisphere stroke we examined the
correlated to TOR (FiO2 manipulation: stationary r2 = 0.962, Ljung-Box        relationship between performance on the conceptual, pantomime, and
= 0.132 and Tam manipulation: stationary r2 = 0.978, Ljung-Box =              imitation subtests of the Waterloo-Sunnybrook Apraxia Battery and
0.115), while CAD was unaffected (FiO2 manipulation: stationary r2 =          observations of comparable dimensions of functional performance on
0.570, Ljung-Box = 0.258 and Tam manipulation: stationary r2 = 0.595,         the ABC. Several of the apraxia tests were found to be significantly
Ljung-Box = 0.289) during the manipulation of FiO2 and Tam,                   correlated with performance on the ABC. The implications of these
respectively. These findings support previous research that suggests that     findings for understanding the relationship between apraxia and function
CAD is a centrally-regulated and voluntary motor behaviour that is            in daily living are discussed.
unaffected by environmental stressors.
                                                                              Acknowledgements: Toronto Rehabilitation Institute
Supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
Discovery 227912-2007.                                                        DETECTING PERSISTENT ATTENTION IMPAIRMENTS IN
                                                                              HIGH FUNCTIONING YOUNG ADULTS WITH A MILD
A MARKET TEST OF A TAILORED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY                                 CLOSED HEAD INJURY
HANDBOOK FOR PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY                                   Janna Hendrickson1 Amanda Clark2 Lana Ozen2 Myra Fernandes2 Eric
Alexandra C Hatchell1 Nick Paterson1 Carolyn Barg1 Marie-Josee                Roy1
Perrier1 Kathleen A Martin Ginis2 Amy E Latimer1                              1
                                                                                Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo 2Department of
1
  Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario 2McMaster University,                 Psychology, University of Waterloo
Hamilton, Ontario
                                                                              Mild closed head injuries (mCHI) are commonly associated with reports
Physical activity (PA) information is in high demand but scarcely             of persistent attention and memory impairment yet standardized
available to people with spinal cord injury (SCI). To meet this demand,       neuropsychological tests often prove unable to detect these complaints.
effective informational resources are needed. Research suggests that          The purpose of this study was to determine if a more sensitive measure
tailored messages increase the relevance of PA information. The               of attention impairment would better dissociate mCHI participants from
purpose of this study was to market test a tailored PA handbook among         controls. The Slip Induction Task was administered to 43 undergraduate
people with SCI (n = 11, 72.7% men, Mage = 43.2 ± 9.5, Myears post injury =   students (21 mCHI). This task involves participants learning a sequence
13.7 ± 10.7). Participants completed a baseline questionnaire assessing       of hand movements to targets and after the sequence is well learned,
functional ability and social cognitions (e.g., barrier self-efficacy,        occasionally requiring unexpected movements. These changes to the
outcome expectancies). Participants were randomly assigned to receive         routine often induced action slips, where the participant incorrectly
a PA handbook tailored to baseline information (n = 6) or a generic PA        moved to the expected target. Surprisingly, we found that mCHI
handbook (n = 5). The usability, appeal, and relevance of the handbook        participants made fewer action slips than controls. However, when the
were assessed at 2 weeks. The groups were compared using t-tests and          unexpected movement was completed correctly, the mCHI participants
Cohen’s d effect sizes. The tailored handbook was read more                   took significantly longer to make this change than controls.
thoroughly than the generic handbook (t = -2.086, df = 9, p = 0.067, d =      Furthermore, only mCHI participants’ speed on altered sequences
-1.22). Despite being a similar length, participants in the generic           predicted their likelihood of making errors. These results suggest that
condition expressed greater concern about the length of the handbook          while the mCHI participants were more accurate, this came at a cost
(t = 1.990, df = 9, p = 0.078, d = 1.21). The tailored handbook was also      with respect to the amount of time required to correctly complete an
rated as being more enjoyable, easier to read, and was considered to          unexpected movement. This implies that changes to the routine placed
have more relevant and novel content compared to the generic handbook         greater demands on the mCHI participants as reflected in a reduction in
(d > 0.60). Results provide some evidence for using tailored messages         speed to compensate for their comparable accuracy.
when creating informational resources regarding PA for the SCI
population.                                                                   EXPLORING POSSIBILITIES FOR POSITIVE YOUTH
                                                                              DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SPORT
Acknowledgements: Heather Gainforth (Recruitment), Rebecca Bassett            Nicholas L Holt1
                                                                              1
(Recruitment), and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research                  University of Alberta
Council of Canada (Funding)
                                                                              This presentation will provide a brief overview of findings from several
THE RELATIONSHIP OF LIMB APRAXIA TO AN                                        recent studies examining possibilities for positive youth development
OBSERVATIONAL MEASURE OF FUNCTIONAL                                           through sport. First, findings of two studies examining life skills
PERFORMANCE IN DAILY LIVING                                                   associated with sport participation will be presented. These findings
Debbie A Hebert1 Eric A Roy2                                                  show that youth consistently associate teamwork and social skills with
1
  Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy,                sport participation, and these skills appear to transfer from sport to other
University of Toronto 2University of Waterloo                                 life contexts. However, there is little evidence that coaches and parents
                                                                              attempt to directly teach life skills that will promote positive youth
Apraxia is a common impairment following stroke, although the extent          development. The focus of the presentation will then shift to examining
to which apraxia is related to function in daily living is not clear due to   inequities in sport participation. Brief overviews of studies examining
how both apraxia and functional performance are measured. Commonly,           (a) benefits and challenges associated with sport participation among
17
low-income families and (b) the uptake and effectiveness of the
Children’s Fitness Tax Credit will be presented. The presentation will         FOOTEDNESS AND SPATIAL ABILITY: DOES A
conclude by offering two policy recommendations arising from these             RELATIONSHIP EXIST?
findings. First, youth sport coaches and parents must prioritize life skills   Robyn Hubbert1 Pamela Bryden1
                                                                               1
and positive youth development before winning, performance, and talent           Wilfrid Laurier University
development. Second, policies must provide direct and sustained
funding to children from low-income families (rather than tax credits) to      Research in the area of limb preference and brain laterality has focused
increase the likelihood these children will gain developmental benefits        on handedness, rather than lower limb preference, despite the fact that
from their involvement in youth sport.                                         footedness has been shown to be a better predictor of language
                                                                               lateralization (Elias & Bryden, 1998). While the findings are
Acknowledgements: This research has been supported by grants from              inconsistent, some work has found that increased spatial ability is seen
the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and Alberta                in those who are ambidextrous (Burnett, et al., 1982). How footedness
Heritage Foundation for Medical Research                                       may relate to spatial ability is not known. In the current experiment, 38
                                                                               individuals (aged 18 to 23 years) completed six spatial tests, the
THE ROLE OF CONTACT IN ADHERENCE IN HOME-BASED                                 Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ), and the Waterloo
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS FOR OLDER                                      Footedness Questionnaire (WFQ). No relationship between spatial
ADULTS: A META ANALYSIS                                                        performance and handedness was found. With respect to footedness,
Jonathan Hood1 Albert Carron1 Shauna Burke1                                    some relationships were found. Overall, it was found that scores on the
1
  University of Western Ontario                                                WFQ were significantly correlated with only performance on the Hidden
                                                                               Figures task. When the WHQ was used to divide individuals into
Research supports the conclusion that home-based exercise programs             footedness groups, a gender by footedness AVOVA revealed significant
are problematic from the perspective of long-term adherence (e.g.,             effects of footedness on both the Card Rotation task and the Maze
Burke et al., 2006). However, there also is evidence that periodic contact     Tracing task. Here, left-footedness was associated with worse
from health care professionals and/or experimenters can ameliorate non-        performance on both of these tasks. Interestingly, dividing the sample
adherence (e.g., Burke et al., 2006). Our purpose of the present study         into strong versus weak footedness showed that weak footedness was
was to quantify, through the use of meta-analysis, the impact of source,       associated with worse performance on all spatial tasks. The results
type, and frequency of contact on the exercise involvement of adults 50        provide moderate support the notion that footedness may be a better
years or older involved in home-based exercise programs. A secondary           predictor of the lateralization of spatial abilities compared to
problem was to examine the influence of a number of potential                  handedness.
moderators. A total of 65 studies containing over 5000 participants
produced 299 effect sizes for analysis. The overall effect size                Acknowledgements: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
(Hedges g = -.123, p > .05) indicated that for participants exercising in a    Council (PJB)
home-based program, there was a small (albeit nonsignificant) reduction
in exercise involvement) over the duration of the intervention. None of        HABITS BIAS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SELF-REPORTS
the moderator variables examined—medical condition, gender, age,               Amanda L Hyde1 David E Conroy1
                                                                               1
activity status, duration of program, type of physical activity, and study       The Pennsylvania State University
design—changed the basic relationship. Also, overall, neither source,
type, nor frequency of contact changed the relationship. The results are       The association between objective and self-report assessments of
discussed in terms of social support theory and research.                      physical activity is typically considered an indicator of measurement
                                                                               validity for the self-report. This study considered intraindividual
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL                                  associations between weekly self-reported physical activity recall and
HISTORY OF ATHLETES QUESTIONNAIRE (DHAQ)                                       pedometer steps as individual differences. We hypothesized that people
Melissa J Hopwood1 Joseph Baker2 Clare MacMahon1 Damian Farrow3                with high physical activity habits would be worse at retrospectively
1
  Victoria University 2York University 3Victoria University / Australian       reporting their physical activity behaviors due to a lack of awareness of
Institute of Sport                                                             automatic behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 31, 19 women)
                                                                               completed an assessment of physical activity habit and weekly self-
Investigations of training history profiles of highly skilled athletes and     reports of physical activity (Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire) while
the contextual factors associated with their pathway toward expertise are      concurrently wearing pedometers for four weeks as part of a class
essential for providing recommendations for effective sport                    assignment. A multilevel random effects model was tested to
programming. However, several limitations in the sport expertise               accommodate the weekly data nested within people. Both weekly
development literature restrict the application of current knowledge to        variation in and overall self-reported physical activity predicted weekly
practical settings. Results and recommendations from existing studies          steps (βweekly= 73.57, p < .05; βaverage= 19.29, p < .05). In addition,
are inconsistent, with discrepancies likely related to a combination of        people who had stronger physical activity habits had weaker
small sample sizes and differences in measurement tools. Furthermore,          associations between self-report and steps than people with weaker
the questionnaires and interview guides utilized are generally poorly          physical activity habits (β = -12.86, p < .05). These results suggest self-
validated. To begin to address these limitations the Developmental             reports of physical activity are underestimated by people with high
History of Athletes Questionnaire (DHAQ) was constructed and                   physical activity habits. We speculate a lack of awareness may be the
rigorously validated. Fifteen athletes, thirteen parents, and nine coaches     mechanism behind this finding, however; future research is necessary to
participated in the validation process. Athletes completed the DHAQ            support this theory.
twice, and all athletes, parents, and coaches participated in a semi-
structured interview. Responses from athlete’s time 1 completion of the        ELITE HOCKEY INSIDERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF GAME
DHAQ were compared to a) time 2 to assess test-retest reliability, b) the      ATMOSPHERE, PARENT INVOLVEMENT, AND ATHLETE
athlete interview to assess concurrent validity, and c) the parent and         ENJOYMENT IN CANADIAN MINOR HOCKEY
coach interviews to assess convergent validity. Percent agreement values       Sarah M Jeffery-Tosoni1 Jessica L Fraser-Thomas1 Joseph Baker1
                                                                               1
and intraclass correlation coefficients were utilized to develop criteria        York University
for classifying the reliability and validity of each questionnaire item,
resulting in a robust instrument for the collection of athlete                 The need to study Canadian minor hockey culture is made clear by
developmental histories.                                                       extensive literature and media coverage reporting violence and
18
aggression as undeniably rampant (e.g., Loughead & Leith, 2001), and            further changes were made so the scale could be used in the main study
consistent associations between this aggressive culture and decreased           (e.g., subscales were removed due to low reliability scores). A total of
perceptions of sport enjoyment among youth (Petlitchkoff, 1993).                35 items across nine subscales were included in the adapted MCOPE. A
Factors contributing to this increasingly aggressive culture include game       confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the fit of the scale’s
atmosphere and parent involvement (Goldstein & Iso-Ahola, 2008).                structure using responses from 244 hockey officials. Goodness-of-fit
Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a comprehensive           indices showed a moderate fit to the data: χ2 (524, n = 244) = 1025;
understanding of minor hockey culture by qualitatively examining                RMSEA = 0.062; SRMR = 0.081; CFI = 0.919; NNFI = 0.908), which
perceptions of athlete enjoyment, game atmosphere, and parent                   was deemed acceptable for an adapted version of a questionnaire.
involvement held by elite hockey insiders in Canadian minor hockey.             Reliability coefficients ranged from .68 to .87. In conclusion, the
Participants included ten elite Canadian hockey insiders (e.g., played          MCOPE used in this study is a valid and reliable option to measure
OHL, NCAA; coached NHL), all of whom emerged from the Canadian                  coping strategies adopted by hockey officials.
minor hockey system and engaged in a 30-60 minute in-depth, semi-
structured interview. Preliminary findings highlight the need to stop the       PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
over-professionalization of minor hockey, and the general need for              INTENTIONS AND BEHAVIOUR IN YOUNG AND MIDDLE
parents to step back and play a more supportive role in their children’s        AGE ADULT CANCER SURVIVORS: AN APPLICATION OF AN
hockey.                                                                         INTEGRATED MODEL
                                                                                Melanie R Keats1
                                                                                1
Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council                 Dalhousie University
of Canada # 752-2010-1645; Ontario Graduate Scholarship Science &
Technology                                                                      A theoretical model integrating the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
                                                                                and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) was used to examine the
REACH ENDPOINTS DO NOT VARY WITH STARTING                                       influence of autonomous motives on physical activity intentions and
POSITION AND MOVEMENT PATH OF THE                                               behaviours in 104 adult (24-44 years) cancer survivors. Survivors of
PROPRIOCEPTIVE TARGET                                                           breast (44%), lymphoma (35%), testicular (15%), and colorectal (6%)
Stephanie A Jones1 Katja Fiehler2 Denise Y Henriques1                           cancer completed a mailed survey that included measures of behavioural
1
  York University, Toronto, Ontario 2Philipps University Marburg,               regulation, TPB, physical activity, medical, and demographic variables.
Marburg, Germany                                                                Results showed that survivors who met current physical activity
                                                                                guidelines reported better affective (p=.001), and instrumental attitudes
Does varying the start location of the left hand affect reaches to the felt     (p=.002), subjective norm (p=.012), perceived control (p=.002),
(proprioceptive) or felt and seen (visual-proprioceptive) left hand? A          intentions (p<.000), identified regulations (p<.000), and intrinsic
robot manipulandum guided the left hand (actively) from one of 6 (start)        motivation (p<.000). Forced entry hierarchical regression analyses
sites to one of 5 remaining (target) sites. Participants reached with their     demonstrated that the integrated model accounted for 56% of the
right hand to the current felt or felt and seen (visible for 1 sec) location    variance of behavioural intention, with perceived control
of the left hand or to remembered visual targets. Participants were fairly      (ß=.41, p<0.001) and identified regulation (ß=.31,p<0.01) making the
accurate and precise when localizing the left hand, although less so than       only significant unique contributions. Further analysis showed that
for visual targets (Mean horizontal error = 0.88cm, SD = 0.87cm; mean           intention, perceived control, and identified regulation explained 24% of
sagittal error = 1.24cm, SD = 0.96cm). Accuracy and precision of reach          the variance in physical activity behaviour with identified regulation
endpoints varied with target type. In the proprioceptive task, horizontal       (ß=.40, p<0.001) making the only significant independent contribution.
errors were deviated to the right. In both proprioceptive tasks sagittal        While the TPB has traditionally predominated the physical activity and
errors were deviated towards the body, suggesting that participants felt        cancer literature, it appears that interventions that consider and
their left hand to be closer to their body than its actual position.            incorporate the principles of SDT may provide a more complete
Proprioceptive reaches were also less precise (ellipse area = 3.96cm2)          understanding of activity-related behaviour change in young and
than visual-proprioceptive reaches (ellipse area = 1.39cm2) and visual          middle-age adult cancer survivors.
reaches (ellipse area = 1.75cm2). There was no difference in precision
for reaches to visual and visual-proprioceptive targets. These changes in       Acknowledgements: I wish to acknowledge Dr. Chris Blanchard for his
accuracy and precision across target type do not vary with starting             feedback on the data analyses.
position of the left hand-target. We are currently assessing whether
visual and proprioceptive information are optimally integrated within           INFLUENCE OF ANKLE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON POSTURAL
this task, and if integration varies with movement path of the hand-            STRATEGY SELECTION
target.                                                                         Ashleigh Kennedy1 Coren Walters-Stevens1 Arwen Moore1 Gordon
                                                                                Robertson1 Arnaud Guével2 Nicoleta Bugnariu3 Heidi Sveistrup1
                                                                                1
ASSESSMENT OF VALIDITY OF THE MCOPE FOR HOCKEY                                    University of Ottawa 2Université de Nantes 3University of North Texas
OFFICIALS
Erwin Karreman1 Kim D Dorsch1 Harold A Riemer1 David M                          The nervous system (NS) combines sensory feedback, reflexes and
Paskevich2 Robert J Schinke3                                                    descending central commands to generate effective postural control in
1
  University of Regina 2University of Calgary 3Larientian University            changing environments. Although it is clear that neuromuscular fatigue
                                                                                alters sensory feedback, its impact on postural control is poorly
The modified-COPE (MCOPE) scale consists of 48 items divided over               understood. We investigated the effect of ankle neuromuscular fatigue
12 subscales and was originally developed to measure coping strategies          on postural strategies used to control standing balance in conditions of
employed by athletes (Crocker & Graham, 1995). In this study, the               support surface perturbations. We hypothesized that following ankle
MCOPE was used in a sample of hockey officials. It can be argued that           fatigue the NS will regulate the center of mass (COM) through a
officials face stressful situations that are comparable to those of athletes.   combination of ankle and hip strategies. Fifteen young healthy adults
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to validate the MCOPE for               completed 10 pre- and 10 post-fatigue perturbations trials, each
hockey officials. Minor modifications were made to some of the                  consisting of 1-minute sinusoidal anterior/posterior support surface
original items. Items were changed because they were double-barrelled           oscillations with an unexpected postural perturbation generated by an
(i.e., items referring to more than one concept that may be interpreted         increase in the oscillation frequency from 0.25 Hz to 0.5 Hz. Ankle
differently), or to reflect the unique situations hockey officials find         plantar and dorsiflexors were fatigued to 50% of maximum contraction.
themselves in. Based on initial correlational and reliability analyses,         Displacement of the hip, COM and temporal activation of the postural
19
muscles were used to identify changes in postural control due to fatigue.   Acknowledgements: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Natural
Analysis demonstrated a post-fatigue shift from predominantly ankle-        Sciences and Engineering Research Council
based control to a complex combination of ankle and hip muscle
activity. The COM displacement was maintained while hip displacement        THE EFFECT OF VIDEO OBSERVATION ON WARMTH AND
increased significantly post-fatigue. The data suggest that post- ankle     COMPETENCE RATINGS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH SPINAL
fatigue individuals ensure stability by shifting from isolated ankle        CORD INJURY
control to one incorporating aspects of a hip strategy.                     Kerry E Kittson1 Heather Gainforth1 Jaymi Edwards1 Renee
                                                                            Bolkowy1 Amy E Latimer1
                                                                            1
POINT OF AIM AND EYE MOVEMENT BEHAVIOR IN A                                   Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
ROLLING TASK
Andrew Kickertz1 Jongil Lim1 Mary J Carlton1 Edward Ofori1 Les G            People with physical disabilities are rated as having high warmth and
Carlton1                                                                    low competence, and as a result are often stigmatized. Being perceived
1
  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign                                as an exerciser can mitigate this stigma. The purpose of this study was to
                                                                            examine whether videos of physically active individuals with a spinal
Skilled bowlers (N = 7) participated in an experiment examining visual      cord injury (SCI) can reduce negative perceptions held by people who
fixations and accuracy in a rolling task. Bowlers performed trials          are able-bodied. The use of videos in this research area is novel. One
looking at each of 4 visual targets: 20, 40, and 60 feet down the 60-foot   week after completing a baseline questionnaire assessing perceptions of
bowling lane, and at a location of their choosing. Error in ball position   warmth and competence of an individual with SCI, 171 participants
relative to the visual target increased with visual target distance.        (Mage 20.73 ± 1.54 yrs; 77.84% female) viewed a video featuring an
Variable error at the visual target was significantly lower in the self-    individual with SCI engaging in physical activity in a competitive
selected condition as compared to the 40- and 60-feet conditions.           setting, a non-competitive setting or a control setting. The post-video
Variable and absolute error relative to the pins (60 feet down the lane)    questionnaire evaluated participants’ perception of warmth and
was lowest in the self-selected aiming point and second lowest when         competence of the featured individual. A 2 (Time) x 3 (Video) repeated
aiming 60 feet down the lane. Absolute error at the pins was                measure ANCOVA controlling for sex revealed that warmth ratings did
significantly lower in the free condition as compared to the 40- and 60-    not change after watching the video, F(2, 167) = 1.57, p = .21. The Time
feet conditions. Final fixation duration, defined as the last visual        x Video interaction was significant for competence ratings, F(2, 167) =
fixation (at least 100 ms in which the angle of the eye remains within a    7.64, p < .01. While competence ratings increased for all groups, p <
1ocone) prior to movement initiation, was significantly longer than the     .003, change scores were greater for the competitive video group
average duration of all fixations during the movement. The average          compared to the other groups, F(2, 171) = 7.64, p = .001. Videos of
fixation was significantly longer than the last fixation before release.    physically active individuals with SCI, particularly competitive sport
The final fixation duration and the duration of the last fixation before    videos, can reduce negative perceptions of competence held by people
ball release did not vary with ball accuracy at the visual target or with   who are able-bodied.
accuracy at the pins. Final fixation duration tended to increase with
visual target distance suggesting that final fixation duration increases    HOW GOOD ARE PROFESSIONAL SPORTS DRAFTS AT
with task difficulty.                                                       PREDICTING CAREER PERFORMANCE?
                                                                            Daniel R Koz1 Jessica Fraser-Thomas1 Joe Baker1
                                                                            1
AN EVALUATION OF SENSORY AND SEMANTIC                                         York University
CONTRIBUTIONS TO IMITATION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH
PARKINSON’S DISEASE                                                         The forecasting of talented players is a crucial aspect of building a
Lauren K Kielstra1 Quincy J Almeida2 Eric A Roy3                            successful sports franchise. Professional sports invest significant
1
  The Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research and                    resources in making player choices in sport 'drafts'. The current study
Rehabilitation Centre and the University of Waterloo 2The Sun Life          examined career performance against draft round for the NFL, NHL,
Financial Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation                    NBA and MLB for players drafted from 1980-1989 (N=10,800) against
Centre 3University of Waterloo                                              the assumption of a linear relationship between draft round and
                                                                            performance (i.e., that players with the most potential will be selected
Higher order motor impairments are rarely investigated in movement          before players of lower potential). Multiple linear regression analyses
disordered populations such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). However,           calculated the relationship between career performance variables and
individuals with PD have been shown to elicit signs of apraxia with         draft round. Within the NHL and NBA there was no relationship
deficits in the spatial and temporal organization of gestures. According    between career performance and draft round beyond the first round of
to the model of Roy et al (1991), it was hypothesized that both sensory     the draft. In the NFL weak relationships were found for both offensive
and conceptual systems would contribute to the deficits in PD. The goal     and defensive positions between draft round and career performance.
of the present study was to evaluate if individuals with PD would be less   MLB pitchers showed a medium relationship between draft round and
accurate during imitation of gestures without vision of their limbs,        statistical performance and a low correlation for career longevity, where
and/or less accurate during gestures that do not involve access to          batters showed a small relationship for both statistics and longevity.
semantics. 48 PD and 16 healthy controls completed a set of imitation       Results highlight the challenges of accurately evaluating amateur talent.
tasks involving meaningful and meaningless gestures performed with          Findings will be discussed within the context of previous literature on
and without vision. Z-scores were computed for the PD relative to the       the accuracy of professional drafts.
controls. PD performed worse on meaningless gestures compared to
meaningful gestures (p<.001), indicating that access to semantics           ACTIVE TRANSITION: A PILOT STUDY OF A WEBSITE-
facilitates performance. While it was predicted that withdrawal of vision   DELIVERED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION FOR
would cause a decline in performance, this was only the case for the        UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
meaningless gestures (p<.023). Imitation of meaningful gestures was         Matthew Kwan1 Guy Faulkner1 Steven Bray2
                                                                            1
more accurate with vision withdrawn (p<.015). These findings suggest          University of Toronto 2McMaster University
that without access to semantics (meaningless) imitation depends on
visual information about the limb. With access to semantics                 Transition into university has been associated with dramatic declines in
(meaningful) visual information may compete with accessing the stored       Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA; Kwan & Faulkner,
representation thus leading to degraded performance.                        2010). While research has begun to uncover some of the reasons behind
                                                                            the decline, few attempts have addressed the population-specific
20
perturbations in social and environmental conditions. Thus, Active            paired participants. Participants performed two blocks, with their
Transition was developed; a theoretically informed website-delivered          position relative to their partner changing between blocks. Finally, in the
physical activity intervention. The current study piloted the 6-week          two-choice (TC) task, the participant performed both parts of the task
intervention, examining its feasibility and impact on PA cognitions and       alone. In the individual task, no significant correspondence effect was
behaviours. Sixty-five residence students (n = 44 females) were assigned      observed. A strong effect was observed in the TC task. A joint-
to either an intervention (n = 38) or comparison (n = 27) group. Over         correspondence effect was seen when participants first performed with a
the intervention, both MVPA and PA cognitions declined significantly          partner. When the participants’ position relative to their partner was
across both conditions. No significant differences in MVPA declines           changed, there was no correspondence effect. We had expected that if
emerged, but the intervention condition and intervention users engaged        the joint-correspondence effect depended on implicitly coding one’s
in 60 more minutes of weekly MVPA. Repeated measures ANOVAs,                  position relative to a partner, changing the direction of this spatial
found significant interactions between intervention conditions and            relation would lead to participants re-coding their new position and
intentions (F(1,61)= 6.91, p< .05); intervention conditions and perceived     maintain the correspondence effect.
control (F(1,61)= 3.73, p= .06); and intervention usage and perceived
control (F(1,61)= 5.13, p< .05). Overall, these findings support the          Acknowledgements: Supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering
feasibility of the intervention and its acceptability to the target           Research Council
audience. Future work must continue to develop innovative strategies to
encourage greater engagement in interventions designed at attenuating         THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY EVALUATION AND
declines in MVPA during this life transition.                                 INVESTMENT, DIETARY RESTRAINT, AND EXERCISE
                                                                              DEPENDENCE IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council             Larkin Lamarche1 Kimberley L Gammage2
                                                                              1
of Canada                                                                       Exercise Sciences, University of Toronto 2Applied Health Sciences,
                                                                              Brock University
AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-
EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE IN A CONTINUOUS                                      Compared to body image evaluation (body dis/satisfaction), investment
EDUCATIONAL GYMNASTICS ROUTINE                                                (or importance) in one’s body has been largely ignored in the research.
Kaitlyn LaForge1 Philip J Sullivan1                                           Limited research has indicated that investment is associated with
1
  Department of Physical Education and Kinesiology, Brock University          psychological outcomes such as body dissatisfaction, social anxiety, and
                                                                              depression. Even less research has investigated its relationship to
Research has consistently shown a moderate, positive correlation              behaviours (i.e., disordered eating symptoms, clothing choices). Dietary
between efficacy and sport performance (Moritz, Feltz, Fahrbach, &            restraint (DR) and physical activity (PA) may also be associated with
Mack, 2000). This relationship has been shown to be reciprocal over           evaluation of and investment in one’s body, as they are often used to
seasons (e.g., Myers, Payment, & Feltz, 2004), and across trials (e.g.,       achieve the ideal body. The current study examined the relationship
Feltz, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to examine the self-       between body image (evaluation and investment) and DR and PA.
efficacy-performance relationship within one continuous routine. Forty-       University men and women (N = 235) completed a series of
seven undergraduate students (27 male, 20 female) performed a                 questionnaires measuring the evaluation of and investment in one’s
gymnastic routine while using a self-efficacy scale following a 9-week        body, DR, and PA. Separate regressions by gender were conducted to
educational gymnastics course. A path analysis revealed that self-            predict DR and PA from evaluation and investment controlling for BMI
efficacy was not a significant predictor of performance, nor was              and social physique anxiety. For women, the overall models predicting
performance a significant predictor of self-efficacy. However, previous       DR and PA were significant (DR: F(4, 147) = 5.82, R2adj = .12; PA: F(4,
performance was a significant predictor of subsequent performance (p <        151) = 4.37, R2adj = .08). For DR, investment was a significant predictor,
.01; βs ranged from .517 to .679). These findings are consistent with         whereas, body evaluation was a significant predictor of PA. The overall
previous research suggesting that past performance is a stronger              models predicting DR and PA were not significant in men. The results
predictor of future performance than self-efficacy (Feltz, 1982; Feltz &      highlight the importance of assessing both the evaluation of and
Mugno, 1983). Self-efficacy may not be a significant predictor of             investment in one’s body, as these constructs may impact health
performance due to performance barriers which prevents efficacy from          behaviours differently.
operating as a causal influence (Feltz, 1982), or self-efficacy may be
embedded in previous performance which could inflate past                     ACTIVE HOMES: A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF A
performance scores (Feltz, Chow, & Hepler, 2008). Future studies will         PEER-MEDIATED, HOME-BASED STRENGTH TRAINING
address limitations in protocol when studying self-efficacy and               SESSION FOR PEOPLE WITH PARAPLEGIA
performance within continuous trials.                                         Amy E Latimer1 Lawrence R Brawley2 Kathleen A Martin Ginis3 Harry
                                                                              Prapavessis4 Jennifer Tomasone1
                                                                              1
IS THE SPATIAL POSITION OF A CO-ACTOR CODED IN                                  School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University 2College
SHARED REPRESENTATIONS?                                                       of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan 3Department of Kinesiology,
Melanie Y Lam1 Romeo Chua1                                                    McMaster University 4School of Kinesiology, The University of Western
1
  School of Human Kinetics - University of British Columbia                   Ontario

The Simon task affords two response alternatives that can be distributed      Only one third of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) engage in
amongst a pair of participants to create a joint action task. While no        strength training. In this population, lack of knowledge, resources,
correspondence effect is typically observed when performing a go/no-go        accessible facilities, and confidence often hinder physical activity
(G-NG) task, when completing the exact same task alongside another,           participation. The purpose of this theory-driven pilot study was to
the effect arises just as it would if the task were carried out by one        examine the efficacy of peer-mediated, home-based introductory
person responsible for both responses (Sebanz et al., 2003). These            strength-training sessions for people with SCI. A fitness professional
results suggest that knowledge about another person’s task is integrated      and a peer with SCI visited the homes of 11 people with paraplegia not
into one’s own action plans. We examined whether the joint-                   involved in strength training (54.5% women). The structured visit
correspondence effect is influenced by one’s spatial position relative to a   targeted sources of self-efficacy while introducing participants to
partner. We compared performance on variants of the Simon task. In            strength training and a personal training plan. Task and self-regulatory
the individual G-NG task, participants carried out one part of the task       efficacy, intentions, planning, and weekly minutes of moderate plus
alone. In the joint G-NG task, the two parts were distributed between         intensity training were assessed one week before and two and four
21
weeks post visit. Separate paired t-tests comparing baseline to Weeks 2      no changes in the athlete burnout questionnaire, however the fast rhythm
and 4 indicated that participants had stronger intentions,                   group showed a trend towards a reduction in this score. Choice reaction
 Mpre=14.20±5.49 s. Mwk2=16.30±5.52, Mwk4=18.86±2.19; ps<.04, and            time decreased and calculation ability increased for both music therapy
more defined plans to engage in strength training after the                  groups. The critical flicker frequency improved and the calculation
visit, Mpre=10.45±7.22 vs. Mwk2=17.91±8.04, Mwk4=22.00±8.37; ps<.02.         errors decreased for the slow rhythm group only. This suggests a
Post-visit, participants reported engaging in more strength training than    physiological advantage for slow music as a method of recovery from
before, Mpre=34.54 ± 45.03 min vs. Mwk2=65.00 ± 49.65 min, Mwk4 =            psychological fatigue. These results are interpreted in an
87.19 ± 71.76 min; ps<.06. There was no change in self-efficacy. A           action/perception dissociation framework.
single, peer-mediated home visit is a promising strategy for increasing
the volume of strength training among people with paraplegia.                SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND LEARNING A NEW
                                                                             COORDINATION TASK
Acknowledgements: Research Support from the Social Sciences and              Yeou-Teh Liu1 Zong-Yi Luo1 Gottfried Mayer-Kress2 Karl M Newell2
                                                                             1
Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Ontario Neurotrauma              National Taiwan Normal University 2Penn State University
Foundation
                                                                             The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a self-
HOW DO YOU WANT TO LEARN A NEW STRATEGY?                                     organized criticality (SOC) practice condition would have a higher
ATHLETE PREFERENCES FOR MODEL DEMONSTRATION                                  improvement rate in performance outcome than a typical progressive
CHARACTERISTICS                                                              difficulty of practice regimen. The roller ball task was used where
Barbi Law1 Jenny O2 Craig Hall3                                              participants undergo a phase transition from failure to successful
1
  Nipissing University 2California State University, East Bay 3The           performance after sufficient practice. The findings from two
University of Western Ontario                                                experiments showed that the SOC condition had the fastest rate of
                                                                             improvement and the highest performance success level. The success
The purpose of this study was to examine athletes' preferences for           probability in the SOC practice regime was close to the theoretically
specific demonstration characteristics when employing the strategy           predicted value of 50%. It appears that the SOC practice condition - by
function of observational learning. Athletes consistently report that        scaling task difficulty to skill level in a self-controlled adaptive strategy
learning strategies is the second most common reason for using               - facilitates the learning of new movement coordination pattern by
observational learning (Cumming et al., 2005; Law & Hall, 2009;              keeping the participant close to the parameter region of the transition of
Wesch et al., 2007), yet research has focused on skill-based                 the movement dynamics.
demonstrations (McCullagh & Weiss, 2001) and lacks insight into the
process of learning strategies. Athletes (N = 488) competing at              WHERE’S MUSCULARITY IN PHYSICAL SELF-CONCEPT?
recreational through elite levels self-reported their preferences when       Christina C Loitz1 Wendy M Rodgers1
                                                                             1
observing a model to learn a new strategy along the following                  University of Alberta
dimensions: modality, focus of attention, speed, angle, model type, skill
level, and similarity. MANOVA analyses revealed that gender and              Men and women initiate and maintain a regular exercise regime in the
previous competitive experience interact to influence athletes'              pursuit of a muscular body. Despite muscularity being a likely reason to
preferences for viewing live and video-based models, slow motion             exercise, there is currently no physical self-concept (PSC) instrument
versus real-time demonstrations, and for specific viewing angles. Main       that includes muscularity. The purpose of this study was to develop and
effects for gender indicated that females preferred viewing highly skilled   assess items that operationalize muscularity as two constructs: muscle
models and males preferred models of the same gender. As well, main          tone (MT), muscle bulk (MB), in contrast to the known constructs:
effects for competitive level showed that club level athletes prefer         muscle strength (MS), and bodyfat (BF). Thirty-two items were
viewing all aspects of a strategy and fast motion demonstrations; varsity    developed (8 items/ construct). Academic experts (N=18) agreed to rate
athletes prefer self-modeling and viewing elite models; and recreational     the content relevance and representativeness, and to provide evaluative
athletes prefer viewing skilled recreational athletes. These findings have   comments. The data were analyzed according to Rogers (2010). The
implications for intervention design and interpreting the effectiveness of   median scores for the relevance of the items ranged from fair to
strategy-based modeling experiences.                                         excellent, the representativeness ranged from good to excellent.
                                                                             Conceptually, the experts agreed with the ideas of MT and MB,
EFFECTS OF RELAXING AND FAST RHYTHM MUSIC ON                                 although they offered suggestions for modifications. Some items were
RECOVERY FROM EXERCISE-INDUCED PSYCHOLOGICAL                                 interpreted as having negative connotations. Lack of clarity regarding
FATIGUE                                                                      the self versus other perspective, and whether ratings reflected actual or
Jing Li1 Heather Carnahan2                                                   perceived viewpoints were raised as issues. A lack of common
1
  Nanjing Sport Institute, China & Wilson Centre, University of              understanding and breadth of words used to achieve multiple items
Toronto 2Dept. of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy &            emerged as problematic. Finally, whether the concepts of MT and MB
Wilson Centre, University of Toronto                                         apply to the whole body was questioned. In conclusion, perspective,
                                                                             experience, evaluative implications of language and type of expertise of
It has been shown that music therapy helps to alleviate tension and          the panel need to be considered when operationalizing muscularity.
reduce psychological fatigue. However, it is not clear what the influence
is of the rhythm of the music on the recovery from exercise induced          THE ROLE OF ENJOYMENT AND MOTIVATIONAL
psychological fatigue. Thirty national level athletes participated in this   CLIMATE IN RELATION TO THE PERSONAL
study and were randomized to one of three groups: a control group            DEVELOPMENT OF TEAM SPORT ATHLETES
without music therapy; a slow rhythm group (60-80 beats/min); and a          Dany MacDonald1 Jean Côté1 Mark Eys2 Janice Deakin1
                                                                             1
fast rhythm group that listened to the same music but with the rhythm          Queen's University 2Wilfrid Laurier University
digitally altered to be twice as fast. The two music therapy groups
listened for 30 minutes per day for one week. Prior to the treatment and     Sport has been identified as a context in which youth encounter positive
at the end of the week the following dependent variables were collected:     and negative experiences. However, relatively little is known about the
athlete burnout questionnaire, choice reaction time, critical flicker        factors that lead to positive and negative personal development among
frequency, and arithmetic calculation capacity. Results showed               sport participants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role
differential effects between the perception of psychological fatigue and     of enjoyment and motivational climate on positive and negative personal
the physiological evidence of fatigue. The slow rhythm group showed          development of team sport participants. A sample of 510 athletes
22
between the ages of 9 and 19 completed questionnaires on positive and        the information-processing capacity of the motor system is not broadly
negative personal development, enjoyment, and motivational climate.          reflected by a simple line function.
 Stepwise multiple regression analyses examined the effects of
enjoyment and motivational climate on the personal development of the        Acknowledgements: Supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering
athletes. Results demonstrated that positive experiences in sport were       Research Council.
most strongly predicted by affiliation with peers, self-referenced
competency, effort expenditure, and a task climate. Negative                 TEAM ATTRIBUTIONS IN SPORT: A META-ANALYSIS
experiences were most strongly predicted by an ego climate and other-        Luc J Martin1 Albert V Carron1 Kim M Shapcott1
                                                                             1
referenced competency. Results suggest that creating an environment            University of Western Ontario
that encourages peer affiliation and personal achievement can result in
the positive personal development of youth sport participants.               Historically, the predominant focus of attributions research in sport has
                                                                             been on the individual athlete. In overview, results show athletes are
AN EXAMINATION OF GENDER, AGE, AND INCOME LEVEL                              self-serving, assuming high responsibility for success and substantially
ON MOST USED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CONTEXTS                                      lower responsibility for failure. More recently, the appearance of the
Meghan E Marcotte1                                                           Greenlees et al. (2005) Causal Dimension Scale for Teams (CDS-T) has
1
  University of Ottawa                                                       led to increased interest in team-oriented attributions. Individual studies
                                                                             (e.g., Dithurbide, Sullivan, & Chow, 2009; Greenlees et al. 2007)
Physical activity (PA) contexts have been associated with PA                 indicate the presence of a weak team enhancing bias--that the self-
participation and adherence. Studies have shown that in general middle       serving bias is not characteristic of teams. The purpose of the present
aged and older adults preferred to exercise alone whereas university         study was to determine empirically (via meta-analysis) whether team-
aged adults preferred exercising with others outside of a structured class   oriented attributions are team enhancing. A secondary issue was to
setting. This study sought to determine whether an exerciser's personal      compare results from two operational measures—those from Weiner’s
characteristics would influence the PA contexts engaged in the most.         conceptual model versus those from Greenlees CDS-T. Standard
The present study examined the following personal characteristics:           literature searches produced 23 studies containing 83 effect sizes. The
gender, age, and income. Participants (N = 313) completed an online          results showed a strong team enhancing bias when measures based on
survey indicating which PA contexts they used the most: (a) with others      Weiner’s conceptualization were used (Hedges’ g = .95, .62, .11, .28 for
in a structured setting; (b) with others in an unstructured setting; (c)     ability, effort, task difficulty and luck respectively). While a similar
alone with others around; and (d) completely alone. The results              team enhancing pattern was present from attributions secured with the
suggested that all three personal characteristics may influence an           CDS-T, the effects were considerably weaker (Hedges g = .32, .14, .90,
individual's use of PA context. For example, for outdoor activities,         .22, for locus of causality, external control, stability, and team control
females engaged in PA with others in an unstructured setting                 respectively).
substantially more (38.5%) than with others in a structured setting
(4.7%). In addition, the findings showed a wide distribution of responses    MOTOR PREPARATION AND THE EFFECTS OF PRACTICE
indicating use of the four PA contexts by individuals of all genders, age    Dana Maslovat1 Nicola J Hodges1 Romeo Chua1 Ian M Franks1
                                                                             1
groups, and income levels. Although preliminary, these findings could          School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia
serve to direct PA initiatives for adults.
                                                                             The purpose of the current research was to examine the effects of
Acknowledgements: Partners of Southwestern Ontario in motion                 practice on motor preparation. Participants performed four days of
                                                                             practice in a simple RT paradigm. Three different unimanual
A RE-EVALUATION OF FITTS (1954): VERIDICAL TARGET                            movements were chosen that differed in movement amplitude and
WIDTH AND EFFECTOR PRECISION INFLUENCE THE                                   number of elements and included: short (20°), long (40°), and two-step
SCALING OF REACH TRAJECTORIES.                                               (stop at 20°continue to 40°) movements. On day 1 and 4, a startling
Kendall Marriott1 Ali Mulla1 Matthew Heath1                                  stimulus was used to probe the preparation process by triggering the
1
  School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario                   prepared movement. We found evidence for a sequence length effect for
                                                                             control trials on day 1 whereby the two-step movement had an increased
The classic theorem of Paul Fitts’ (1954) asserts that the combined          reaction time; however, with practice, this effect was minimized.
effects of movement amplitude and target width (index of difficulty: ID)     During startle trials, all movements were triggered at a short latency
define movement times (MT) for goal-directed reaches. Moreover, Fitts’       with similar consistency to control trials. Collectively these results
theorem states that reaches yielding the same ID produce equivalent          suggested that participants fully prepared all movements in advance,
MTs regardless of the response’s amplitude and width combination. The        including the sequenced movement. We hypothesized that complexity
present study examined the utility of Fitts theorem in the context of        may relate more to the neural commands needed to produce the
reaches to virtual targets wherein width- and amplitude-based ID             movement, rather than a sequencing requirement. These results are
changes (3, 4, 5 and 6 bits of information) were presented in separate       discussed in terms of current theories for sequential movement
blocks (à la Fitts) and randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis. In   preparation.
addition, we examined whether finger- (Experiment 1: N = 12) and
stylus-directed (Experiment 2: N = 12) reaches influence MT/ID               Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements for this study go to a Natural
relations. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that blocked and random trial          Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada grant awarded to
presentations elicited a linear increase in MT as a function of increasing   Ian M. Franks.
ID (Fs > 61); however, slopes for MT/ID relations were markedly
shallower in the width as compared to the amplitude manipulation.            THE RELATIVE ROLES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Moreover, slopes for amplitude-based ID manipulations were equivalent        TEACHERS AND PARENTS IN ADOLESCENTS’ LEISURE
across finger- (b = 101 ms; R2 = 0.99) and stylus-directed (b = 134 ms;      TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR
R2 = 0.99) reaches whereas slopes for width-based manipulations were         M. Lindley McDavid1 Anne E Cox1 Anthony J Amorose1 Peter J Smith1
shallower in the former condition (finger-directed: b = 5 ms: R2 = 0.87;     1
                                                                               Illinois State University
stylus-directed: b = 58 ms: R2 = 0.99). Importantly, examination of
reach endpoints indicates that the differences observed here cannot be       The purpose of this study was to explore the relative contributions of
tied to between-condition differences in error rates. Thus, the present      various types of perceived parent and physical education teacher social
findings add to the extant literature insomuch as they demonstrate that      support to adolescent leisure-time physical activity motivation and
23
behavior within the framework of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci          French et al., 2010). Quantitative work suggests that at least some of
& Ryan,2000). In line with SDT, it was hypothesized that greater               these perceptions persist after camp ends (Ullrich-French et al., 2010),
perceptions of autonomy support, involvement and modeling would                but little is known about kids’ understanding of how camp experiences
positively relate to physical activity behavior and that these relationships   continue to impact them after the 4-week program is over. We
would be mediated by self-determined motivation. Middle school                 conducted 8-month follow-up interviews with 10 PALS campers who
students (N = 161) completed a paper survey during their physical              had participated in the previous qualitative study. Campers were
education class which assessed the study variables. Structural equation        purposively sampled to include a cross-section of ages, gender,
modeling was used to test three models (one model for each type of             ethnicity, and prior experience at PALS. Interviews were content
social support) that specified the mediating role of self-determined           analyzed and compared across the two time points. Four categories of
motivation in the relationship between social support variables and            persistent change emerged: increased activity, improved self-perceptions
physical activity behavior. In the models, each parent and physical            and personal skills (e.g., increased competence), social skill
educator social support variable had a significant, positive, direct           development (e.g., learning how to choose and make friends), and
relationship to self-determined motivation and indirect relationship           improved relationships at home and school. An improved understanding
(mediated by self-determined motivation) to physical activity behavior,        of kids’ perceptions of the impact of positive youth development
which were of similar magnitude. The findings suggest that mothers and         programs on their lives has important implications for program
fathers both have significant roles in their adolescent’s leisure-time         development and targeted interventions.
physical activity motivation and that physical educators, although not
present in the leisure-time physical activity context, serve an equally        Acknowledgements: Funding was provided by a Kinley Trust Grant.
important role in supporting adolescents’ leisure-time physical activity.
Additionally, adolescent self-determined motivation for leisure-time           PERFORMING IN THE CLUTCH: PRIOR EXPOSURE TO
physical activity seems to be a strong determinant of self-reported            PRESSURE REDUCES CHOKING IN SPORTS
leisure-time physical activity behavior.                                       Desmond McEwan1 Rodney Schmaltz2
                                                                               1
                                                                                 McMaster University 2Grant MacEwan University
DOMAIN-SPECIFIC PERFECTIONISM IN SPORT AND
ACADEME: LINKS TO PERCEIVED COMPETENCE AND                                     In sports, athletes are often susceptible to performance decrements when
TASK VALUE                                                                     placed in high-pressure situations—a phenomenon known as “choking.”
Keith A McDonald1 John G Dunn1 Janice L Causgrove Dunn1                        In the current study, we sought to determine if the mindset participants
1
  University of Alberta                                                        are in affects their athletic performance in these situations. Using a
                                                                               simulated golf task, we examined the impact of prior exposure to
This study examined differences in domain-specific levels of                   differing levels of pressure on later performance in a high-pressure
perfectionism in sport and academe among a sample of 255 male and              situation. Participants first completed a round of five putts under low
female intercollegiate athletes (M age = 20.97 years). Participants            (n = 39), moderate (n = 38), or high (n = 42) pressure. The mean
completed sport- and school-modified versions of Hewitt and Flett's            likelihood for participants to successfully make a given shot on these
(1991) Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt-MPS) and an                five putts was not significantly different between groups (Mlow =
instrument designed to measure perceptions of competence in sport vs.          34.36±25.53, Mmod = 33.16±26.41, Mhigh = 37.14±25.21). Following a
school, and the extent to which success in sport vs. school was valued.        short break, participants completed a single putt under high pressure as a
Results of a repeated-measures MANOVA revealed that participants had           simulation of the clutch situations that commonly result in choking. A
higher perfectionist tendencies in sport than school on all three              binary logistic regression revealed that participants who completed the
perfectionism dimensions measured by the Hewitt-MPS (all ps < .001).           initial round of putting under high pressure performed significantly
Results of single-sample t-tests indicated that participants had higher        better on the ensuing high-pressure shot than participants who had prior
perceptions of competence in sport than in school (p < .001), and placed       experience under low pressure (ß = 1.163; p = 0.031). The results of
more importance/value on achieving success in sport than in school (p <        this study seem to support the notion that being in a high-pressure
.001). Results provide support for the continued use of domain-specific        mindset or “psychologically warmed-up” to pressure results in stronger
measures when assessing motivational constructs such as perfectionism          athletic performances in subsequent high-pressure situations than when
in different achievement domains and highlight the potential role that         athletes are previously in a low-pressure mindset and “thrown into the
perceived competence and perceived task value play in the development          fire.”
of perfectionism (McArdle, 2010). Individuals appear to develop
stronger perfectionist orientations in domains where they feel they can        Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Dr. Karen Buro of
succeed and where they place the most value on success.                        Grant MacEwan University for her aid with the statistical analysis of
                                                                               this project.
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant from the
Sport Science Association of Alberta                                           A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF ACADEMIC
                                                                               ADJUSTMENT IN FIRST YEAR COLLEGIATE FEMALE
PARTICIPANTS’ EXPERIENCES OF LONG-TERM CHANGE                                  ATHLETES
FOLLOWING A POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT                                         Carolyn McEwen1 Kimberley Dawson1
                                                                               1
PROGRAM FOR LOW-INCOME YOUTH                                                     Wilfrid Laurier University
Meghan H McDonough1 Sarah Ullrich-French2 Amanda J Kraemer1
1
  Purdue University 2Washington State University                               First year student athletes transitioning from high school to university
                                                                               experience simultaneous transitions socially, athletically, and
The Purdue Athletes Life Success (PALS) camp is a positive youth               academically. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the
development program for low-income youth. PALS focuses on physical             multi-dimensional transition experience of first-year collegiate athletes
activities with an integrated character development and social skills          transitioning to higher level sport and academics. A sample of eleven
curriculum. Previous research with PALS demonstrated that changes in           female varsity hockey, basketball, and volleyball athletes participated in
social relationships with peers and staff are associated with changes in       a series of three semi-structured interviews at tryouts, midseason, and
self-perceptions, motivation for activity, and hope (Ullrich-French et al.,    post termination of athletic season. Transcripts were analyzed using
2008). Qualitative work suggests participants see those relationships as       phenomenological analysis. Analysis demonstrated the majority of
facilitating positive outcomes including self-perceptions, social skills,      participants adjusted successfully athletically and socially, but struggled
and motivation for physical activity (McDonough et al., 2009; Ullrich-         academically. Results surrounding academic adjustment will be the
24
focus of this presentation. Only two participants were able to achieve a         of the public health advertisements however, there were 35 comments
7.0 grade point average (B-) to maintain their Athletic Financial Award          questioning the believability of the commercial advertisements
(awarded upon recruitment to the team). Many athletes experienced an             (χ =36.719; p<.001). More reference was made to guilty feelings,
increase in the quantity and quality of work demanded of them at                 laziness and needing to go to the gym in the public health condition then
university and lacked confidence in their ability to meet these new              the commercial condition (χ =12.857, p < .001). Viewing public health
standards. Academics were the primary source of stress for the                   advertisements may have influenced exercise-related cognitions because
participants, who lacked the necessary time management skills to                 the message was more believable and attainable. Participants who saw
effectively balance academics with social and athletic commitments.              the commercial advertisements may have dismissed them as unrealistic
Factors that impacted academic performance and recommendations for               and unattainable (e.g. “it isn’t this easy to lose weight and get fit”).
athletic departments and university administrators will be discussed.            Future research should examine the believability and impact of such ads.

Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council                Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanitites Research Council
of Canada
                                                                                 THE EFFECTS OF TASK DEMANDS ON MANUAL
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY EXPERIENCES OF ABORIGINAL                                      ASYMMETRIES IN LEFT-HANDED AND RIGHT-HANDED
YOUTH                                                                            INDIVIDUALS.
Tara-Leigh F McHugh1                                                             Tracy E McWhirter1 Pam Bryden2 Eric A Roy1
1                                                                                1
  University of Alberta                                                            University of Waterloo 2Wilfrid Laurier University

There is a current focus on the “obesity epidemic” among Canada’s                Our work on manual asymmetries has shown that the preferred-hand
Aboriginal peoples, particularly Aboriginal youth. Physical activity is          advantage increases with task complexity in right-handers, but little is
often promoted in an effort to address obesity, yet the voices of                known about these effects in left-handers. The purpose of this study was
Aboriginal youth in the physical activity literature is limited. Thus, the       to investigate whether hand differences in performance are affected by
purpose of this research was to explore the physical activity experiences        task demands in left-handers as they are in right-handers. We tested both
of Aboriginal youth. Eight Aboriginal youth (ages 15-18 years)                   left-(n=25) and right-(n=84) handed younger adults on the grooved
participated in one-on-one interviews and follow-up focus group                  pegboard task, a measure of fine motor control. As in our previous work,
discussions; five themes emerged. Participants explained how physical            we varied task demands by comparing performance on two phases of
activity: (1) is collective, (2) is part of me, (3) builds bonds, (4) takes      this task, the place phase in which participants pick up the pegs from a
money, and (5) makes you better, faster, stronger, smarter. This                 receptacle and place them into a series of 25 holes and the replace phase
research is unique in that it fills a significant gap in the physical activity   which involves removing the pegs from the holes and returning them to
research literature by employing qualitative methods that support and            the receptacle. Participants performed two trials with each hand on each
highlight the voices of Aboriginal youth. The participants were very             phase. A 2(hand used) X 2(task) ANOVA on pegboard performance for
explicit in their hopes for the development of culturally specific               each handedness group revealed a significant task effect for each group,
programs that can support Aboriginal youth to be more physically                 with the place phase taking significantly longer. For the right-handers
active. Specifically, they argued that funding is needed if youth are to         there was also a preferred-hand advantage with the right hand taking less
overcome the financial barriers that often prevent them from being               time and this preferred-hand advantage was significantly greater for the
physically active. This research has important implications in that it           place phase. Interestingly, however, no hand differences in performance
serves as a first step in better understanding the physical activity             were found for the left-handers nor did task demands affect manual
experiences of Aboriginal youth. Such understanding is needed as it              asymmetries in performance. The implications of these findings for
could serve as the foundation for the development of more effective and          understanding the effects of hand preference on manual asymmetries
appropriate physical activity programs and interventions for Aboriginal          will be discussed.
youth.
                                                                                 Acknowledgements: Research support Natural Sciences and
Acknowledgements: Thank you to the participants for taking the time to           Engineering Research Council (PB and ER) and HSFO (ER)
participate and share their knowledge, and to the University of Alberta
for providing funding to complete this research.                                 THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AGING EXPECTATIONS
                                                                                 AND VARIOUS MODES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
SEEING IS BELIEVING? EXAMINING THE INFLUENCE OF                                  Brad A Meisner1 Patricia L Weir2 Joseph Baker1
                                                                                 1
COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH ADVERTISING                                           York University, School of Kinesiology & Health Science 2University of
RELATED TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY                                                     Windsor, Department of Kinesiology
Nicole C McLeod1 Tanya R Berry1 Genevieve Montemurro1
1
  University of Alberta                                                          Evidence shows that older adults who expect decline with age are less
                                                                                 likely to engage in 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous walking
Public health advertisements often focus on being active to improve              activities in the previous week compared to those with affirming aging
overall health. Commercial advertisements tend to focus on                       expectations. The objective of the current study was to explore the
attractiveness and fast “results.” How such advertisements are                   impact that aging expectations have on other modes of physical activity.
interpreted is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine               In the Greater Toronto Area, 249 community-dwelling middle-aged and
thoughts generated while viewing physical activity advertisements.               older adults (M=70 years) returned a self-administered, cross-sectional,
Participants (N=240) were randomly assigned to view four public health           mailed-in survey. Measures of interest were the Expectations Regarding
or four commercial advertisements and asked to list five thoughts they           Aging survey (ERA-12) and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly
had while viewing the ads. Comments were coded as positive about                 (PASE). Bivariate correlations revealed significant positive associations
physical activity, negative about physical activity or other (e.g.,              between overall aging expectations and a) overall physical activity
comments about the advertisements themselves). Interrater reliability            (r=.19, p<.01), b) participation in strenuous sport (r=.15, p=.02), and c)
was checked and some re-coding was conducted until consensus was                 lawn work or yard care (τ=.14, p=.01). Examination of the ERA-12 sub-
reached (final Kappa (K) = 0.96 commercial; K= 0.94 public health).              scales revealed that these overall effects were driven by the physical
More positive comments were made about physical activity (N = 98) in             health ERA sub-scale only. Furthermore, physical aging expectations
the public health condition than in the commercial condition (N =                were also associated with participation in light sport activities (r=.14,
21; χ =55.74; p<.001).There were no comments about the believability             p=.03), moderate sport activities (r=.15, p=.02), and light housework
25
(τ=.12, p=.04). Findings suggest that expectations of decline with age,      reliability and validity of the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire
namely declines in physical health, are associated with decreased reports    (TPQ).
of participation in various modes of physical activity. Promoting
positive aspects of aging may help maintain levels of physical activity      CHANGES IN BODY-RELATED ISSUES AMONG
across the lifespan.                                                         ADOLESCENT YOUNG WOMEN: SOCIAL PHYSIQUE
                                                                             ANXIETY, BODY MASS INDEX, AND SELF-PERCEPTIONS OF
Acknowledgements: Research support from Social Sciences and                  SPORT COMPETENCE AND STRENGTH
Humanities Research Council of Canada Doctoral Fellowship (BAM)              Amber Mosewich1 Peter Crocker1 Bruno Zumbo1
                                                                             1
and Standard Research Grant (PLW, JB).                                         University of British Columbia

THE INTERACTION OF RELATEDNESS AND SOCIAL                                    Understanding self-perceptions in young women is important, especially
CLIMATE ON EXERCISE AND WEIGHT-LOSS                                          given their relationship to a variety of health-related behaviours and
SATISFACTION IN AN 8-WEEK WEIGHT-LOSS PROGRAM                                emotions. This study explored, in a sample of 501 adolescent women
Melinda S Morgan1 Dominique Perreault1 Andrew B Lumb1 Celine M               over a three year time period, whether the changes in social physique
Blanchard1                                                                   anxiety (SPA), body mass index (BMI), and self-perceptions of sport
1
  University of Ottawa                                                       competence (COMP) and strength (STRENGTH) were related. The
                                                                             predictability of initial status and rate of change in each variable by the
Self-determination theory research asserts a direct relationship between     other variables was also examined. It was intended to also consider
fulfillment of basic needs and well-being. In the sport and exercise         physical activity, but modeling was not viable, possibly due to the
domain, the need for relatedness has been largely ignored in favour of       random nature of the data. This study involved a reanalysis of
the concepts of autonomy and competence (Kowal & Fortier, 2000). The         previously published data (Crocker et al., 2006) using latent growth
primary purpose of this study was to examine the influence of both           curve modeling. Participants with a higher starting score in SPA,
relatedness and social climate in relation to health behaviours and          COMP, and STRENGTH had a lower rate of change. All latent growth
weight-loss and exercise satisfaction in an 8-week weight-loss               curves were estimated simultaneously in one comprehensive model to
program. Participants (n = 84) registered in a weight-loss program           test the relation between the change trajectories. Model fit was
targeting both diet and exercise components were recruited from 14           supported by RMSEA (.088), TLI (.96), CFI (.98), and SRMR (.02),
health centers in the Montreal region. Each client was matched with a        with a variety of significant relations among initial status and rate of
trainer that worked with them closely during the program’s duration.         change in the variables. For example, rate of change in SPA was
Health Behaviours were measured at Time 1. Health Behaviours (HB),           negatively related to the rate of change in COMP (-.32) and
Relatedness to Trainer (RT), Social Climate at the Gym (SC) and              STRENGTH (-.37) and positively related to initial status of
Weight-loss Program Self-Determined Motivation (WSM) were                    STRENGTH (.18). Rate of change in BMI and SPA were not related. In
measured at Time 2, 4 weeks into the program. Upon completion of the         multiple predictor models, indicators showed little predictive ability
8-week program, Exercise Satisfaction (ES) and Weight-loss                   beyond simple models.
Satisfaction (WS) were measured at Time 3. Objective measures of
weight lost (Lbs.) were also measured at all time points. The results        Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Social Sciences
showed that RT and SC interacted to predict ES and WS. Further,              and Humanities Research Council.
evidence was found for mediated-moderation with the interaction of RT
X SC acting on WS indirectly through Time 2 HB after controlling for         DISTINCT ACTIVATION PRIOR TO MOVEMENT ONSET
WSM and Time 1 HB. These results indicate that both RT and SC at the         INDEXES THE RECRUITMENT OF CORTICAL AREAS
gym are important predictors of exercise-related satisfaction and act        RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ONLINE CONTROL OF DISCRETE
indirectly through HB. Implications and future directions are discussed.     REACHING MOVEMENTS
                                                                             Ali Mulla1 Olav Krigolson2 John De Grosbois3 Gordon
THE APPLICATION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP                               Binsted3 Matthew Heath1
                                                                             1
THEORY TO PARENTING AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH AND                                  School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario 2Department of
WELL-BEING                                                                   Psychology, University of British Columbia 3School of Human Kinetics,
Katie L Morton1 Julian Barling2 Ryan E Rhodes3 Louise C                      University of British Columbia Okanagan
Mâsse1 Bruno D Zumbo1 Mark R Beauchamp1
1
  University of British Columbia 2Queen's University 3University of          Goal-directed reaches performed with limb vision are more accurate and
Victoria                                                                     less variable than their limb occluded counterparts: a finding attributed
                                                                             to the increased use of continuous feedback for online limb adjustments.
Parenting behaviours serve as critical social influences for adolescent      Moreover, recent electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence indicates that
health and well-being. In the present research we draw from                  the P300 represents a cortical potential providing a relational index of
transformational leadership theory to develop a valid and reliable           online limb control. In the present study, EEG waveforms and the
measure of transformational parenting, and examine the links between         behavioural components of reaches were examined using a double-step
transformational parenting and adolescent health-enhancing cognitions.       paradigm wherein responses were performed with and without
Transformational leadership involves empowering and supporting               continuous limb vision. Notably, in advance of each trial, participants
followers to achieve higher levels of functioning, and it is these           were informed of whether or not vision of their limb would be available
processes that make transformational leadership theory (Bass & Riggio,       during the response. Results showed a significant EEG amplitude
2006) especially relevant for understanding parenting behaviours. Data       difference at visual and frontal electrode sites from approximately 200-
were collected from 857 adolescents, who rated the behaviours of their       300 ms after the participant was made aware of the availability of limb
mothers and fathers. The results provide support for a second-order          vision. Additionally, differences in waveforms were related to absolute
measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive       differences in the extent reach trajectories were controlled. Specifically,
relationships between transformational parenting behaviours, self-           detailed analyses of the movement trajectories revealed increased online
regulatory efficacy for physical activity (adj. R² = .10, p = <.001),        control for limb visible trials when compared to limb occluded
healthy eating (adj. R² = .12, p = <.001), and adolescent subjective well-   conditions. Thus, differences in cortical activation prior to movement
being (adj. R² = .25, p < .001) were found. In conclusion, the results of    onset between limb conditions may index distinct pre-movement
this research support the application of transformational leadership         recruitment of cortical areas responsible for presetting the motor system
theory to parenting behaviours and adolescent health promotion, and the      to adopt a specific mode of trajectory control.
26
                                                                               ADOLESCENT GIRLS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR PHYSICAL
                                                                               ACTIVITY BEHAVIORS AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT.
SITUATIONAL FAMILIARITY IMPROVES DECISION                                      Karen J Murphy1 Diane Gill2
                                                                               1
QUALITY IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS                                                  Memorial University of Newfoundland 2University of North Carolina at
Desmond E Mulligan1 Nicola J Hodges1                                           Greensboro
1
  School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia
                                                                               This study explored how social relationships and environment impact
We employed a framework of field-based observation, utilizing helmet-          physical activity attitudes and behaviors for adolescent girls. Guided by
mounted camera technology, to investigate pattern-matching aspects of          a social ecological framework and following a phenomenological
decision-making by experts and non-experts during competitive play in          interpretive tradition, focus group interviews were conducted with 32
ice hockey. We examined both the frequency with which experts and              girls (17 African American, 15 Caucasian) between the ages of 11 and
non-experts reported a decision-making scenario as familiar, or typical        13 who attended public middle schools. Adolescent girls indicated that
to them, and the resulting quality of those decisions. Expert (n=23) and       parents and peers play a significant role in shaping their physical activity
non-expert (n=14) ice hockey players were videotaped from egocentric           behaviors as does the physical and social environments in which they
and exocentric positions during competitive game situations. Decision          live. Themes that emerged from the analyses of data include (a)
points (n=118) were isolated from the game tapes and player decision           differing conceptualizations of physical activity, (b) parents and peers as
quality resulting from each situation was scored independently by two          facilitators of activity, (c) lack of girls’ active space in school and
expert coaches. Retrospective interviews were conducted using a                neighborhood environments, and (d) policy restrictions on girls’ access
cognitive task analysis methodology (Hoffman et al., 1998). Prompted           to physical activity time. African American girls reported conceiving of
by the game videos, players were queried about the role that situational       physical activity as unstructured play, often outside, where as White
familiarity played in their decision-making process. Experts described         girls considered physical activity to be closely related to adult-directed,
decision-making situations as ‘familiar’ more often than non-experts           organized sport. Girls described a desire for more physical activities
(p=.021). Further, the decisions that were judged to be familiar were          with mothers and female relatives. A lack of playground space at school
also judged by coaches to be of superior quality to those decisions that       and unsafe community environments hindered girls' physical activity.
were based on situations that were perceived as ‘unfamiliar’ (p=.01).          Educational policies that prevent middle school girls from participating
This pattern-matching aspect of the decision-making process, which             in school sport programs, as well as restricting recess and lunch periods
isolates decision quality as a function of familiarity, has not previously     to inside spaces impeded access to desired physical activity outlets by
been examined in dynamic, time-sensitive environments. In light of our         girls in this study. Findings support previous research and extend
findings, we discuss the processes which underpin the decisions of             understanding of girls’ perceptions of physical activity by allowing girls
highly skilled athletes under time constrained situations, in view of          to voice their opinions and concerns.
models of decision making based on pattern-matching theories of
expertise.                                                                     "THE ONLY DISABILITY IS A BAD ATTITUDE”: EXPLORING
                                                                               ATHLETES’ EXPERIENCES IN A SUCCESSFUL SPORT
USING IMAGERY TO IMPROVE THE SELF-EFFICACY OF                                  PROGRAM FOR ATHLETES WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES.
YOUTH SQUASH PLAYERS                                                           Jennifer Murphy-Mills1 Matt Vierimaa1 Mark W Bruner1 Jean Côté1
Krista Munroe-Chandler1 Craig Hall2 Jenny O2 Nathan Hall3                      1
                                                                                 Queen's University
1
  University of Windsor 2University of Western Ontario 3University of
Alberta                                                                        Previous research suggests that sport participation can have important
                                                                               benefits for youth’s physical and psychosocial development (Fraser-
Bandura (1997) proposed that imagery was one way to enhance self-              Thomas, Côté, & Deakin, 2005). While this research provides valuable
efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to establish whether an         insight into the types of positive outcomes that may be acquired through
individualized Motivational General-Mastery (MG-M) imagery                     sport, the existing literature primarily focuses on the experiences of
intervention could help enhance self-efficacy among a youth athlete            able-bodied athletes. Limited research has examined the sport
population. Participants included five youth squash players (Mage =            experiences of athletes with disabilities (Martin, 2006). The purpose of
10.80 SD = 1.93) competing in either regional or provincial                    this study was to gain an understanding of athletes’ experiences in a
tournaments. A single subject multiple baseline design was employed            successful swim program for athletes with physical disabilities and their
spanning 13-18 weeks. Baseline, intervention and post-intervention             able-bodied siblings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with
measures included The Sport Imagery Questionnaire for Children (SIQ-           eight athletes with disabilities and two able-bodied siblings. Interviews
C; Hall et al. 2009) and a squash specific self-efficacy questionnaire.        were transcribed verbatim and were subjected to a content analysis
The intervention consisted of daily imagery practice and weekly one on         procedure in which raw meaning units were grouped into salient themes
one meetings with the researcher to perform his or her imagery practice.       (Côté et al., 1993). Results indicated that participation in this program
Based on visual inspection of the data points (Beretvas & Chung, 2008)         provided athletes with a myriad of positive experiences. More
and d1 statistic as an effect size metric (Busk & Serlin, 1992), the results   specifically, athletes’ responses regarding the outcomes derived from
indicated marked improvements in self-efficacy for four of the five            this program revealed four common themes: 1) redefined capabilities, 2)
athletes. In addition, all but one athlete reported an increase in their use   affirmed sense of self, 3) expanded social networks, and 4) enhanced
of MG-M imagery from baseline to post-intervention. The results from           acceptance. Processes facilitating the development of these outcomes
this study will help researchers and practitioners understand the use of       are discussed. Practical implications for program administrators,
MG-M imagery as a means to improve athletes’ self-efficacy.                    coaches, and athletes are presented along with recommendations for
                                                                               future disability sport research.
Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
                                                                               INTERPRETIVE DESCRIPTION AS A METHODOLOGY FOR
                                                                               SPORT PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH
                                                                               Kacey C Neely1 Madelyn P Law2 Nicholas L Holt1
                                                                               1
                                                                                 University of Alberta 2University of Toronto

                                                                               Qualitative research approaches have become increasingly important in
                                                                               sport psychology. However, descriptive studies (using interviews and
                                                                               content analysis) have dominated the literature. As such, there is a need
27
for greater diversification of approaches to generating knowledge within    the present study revealed the expected RT effects, with longer RTs to
sport psychology. To address this gap in the literature, the purposes of    valid cues at CTOAs > 350ms. The expected trajectory deviations were
this study were twofold: (1) present a novel methodological approach        not observed. The absence of trajectory deviations was surprising as
that may be useful for advancing qualitative research in sport              these deviations were found using similar CTOAs in our earlier work. It
psychology; and (2) present an exemplar study using the methodology.        is possible that the absence of trajectory effects resulted from using two,
The exemplar study examined former youth athletes’ experiences of           rather than three, target locations. That is, the larger separation between
sport and the meaning of these experiences in their current adult lives.    targets or having them in different sides of visual space may have
Thorne’s (2008) interpretive description methodology was used. Semi-        reduced the attention-action link or the degree of completion between
structured interviews were conducted with 27 former provincial level        competing responses.
athletes (M age = 22.05 years). Analysis produced an overarching
interpretive finding that participants were overscheduled during            Acknowledgements: Funding provided by Natural Sciences and
adolescence. Despite some negative experiences, participants were able      Engineering Research Council and Undergraduate Research Opportunity
to draw personally meaningful benefits from youth sport that influenced     Studentships through the Faculty of Physical Health and Education,
their young adult lives. Athletes also anticipated that their past          University of Toronto
experiences would influence their behaviors as future guardians of youth
sport. The exemplar study demonstrates how interpretive description can     WII “FIT”? CORRELATES OF TIME SPENT VIDEO-
be used and adds to the ongoing methodological sophistication that is       EXERCISING
occurring in the field of sport psychology.                                 Erin O'Loughlin1 Erika Dugas2 Catherine Sabiston3 Jennifer
                                                                            McGrath4 Beatrice Lauzon5 Jennifer O'Loughlin6
                                                                            1
VISUOMOTOR MENTAL ROTATION IS MEDIATED BY A                                   McGill University & Centre de recherche du CHUM 2Centre de
SERIAL PROCESS OF RESPONSE SUBSTITUTION                                     recherche du CHUM 3McGill University 4Concordia
Kristina A Neely1 Matthew Heath2                                            University 5Université de Montréal 6Université de Montréal & Centre de
1
  University of Illinois-Chicago 2The University of Western Ontario         recherche du CHUM

In the visuomotor mental rotation (VMR) task, participants point to a       Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity and related
location that deviates from a visual cue by a predetermined angle. This     cardiometabolic consequences in adolescents, however screen time
task elicits slower reaction times (RT) than standard tasks wherein the     (watching television, browsing the Internet, playing computer games)
visual cue is spatially compatible with the movement goal. RTs are          has increased in the past 20 years. Active video games (AVG), such as
reduced when the standard and VMR responses elicit a degree of              Wii fit, may be effective at increasing physical activity (PA) levels
dimensional overlap (i.e., 0° and 5°) or when the transformation            among sedentary adolescents. The purpose here was to identify the
involves a perceptually familiar angle (i.e., 90° or 180°; Neely & Heath,   personal, cognitive, and behavioural determinants of High-Gamers (HG)
submitted). One caveat to this finding, however, is that past work          who play AVG ≥ 1hr/day. Data were available in AdoQuest, an ongoing
examined standard and VMR responses in separate blocks of trials.           longitudinal investigation of 1843 students initially aged 10-12 years.
Thus, RT differences between tasks not only reflect the computational       The analytic sample included 1244 participants who completed a mailed
demands of the transformations, but also the temporal cost of               self-report questionnaire in 2008-9 (aged 14-15 yrs). Using univariate
visuomotor inhibition. The present work used a randomized task design       analyses, HG were significantly (p< .05) more likely to be male and to
to isolate the magnitude of the RT difference between standard and          spend more time than “non-gamers” watching television, using the
VMR tasks across a range of equally spaced angles. Between-task             computer, playing video-games, and doing their homework. HG were
difference scores were least for small (i.e., 30°) and perceptually         less likely to be employed, drink alcohol, binge drink and use other
familiar (i.e., 90 and 180°) angles relative to large and less familiar     psycho-active substances. Finally HG had a higher BMI and were more
angles (i.e., 60, 120, 150, and 210°). This finding suggests RTs reflect    likely to perceive themselves as being overweight. In conclusion, AVG
the time required to prepare and inhibit an automatic motor response to     could be an effective form of PA for adolescents; HG may still need to
the visual cue and then compute the requisite transformations for the       limit
response. Moreover, the rate at which the response is prepared is
influenced by the angular disparity between standard and VMR                Acknowledgements: ICE grant and the INSPQ
responses and the perceptual familiarity of the transformation angle.
                                                                            INTERSPERSING OBSERVATION WITH PHYSICAL
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Natural Sciences           PRACTICE OF A VISUOMOTOR ROTATION PROMOTES A
and Engineering Research Council as well a Graduate Thesis Award            MORE IMPLICIT MODE OF LEARNING AND UPDATING OF
from The University of Western Ontario.                                     AN INTERNAL MODEL THAN PURE OBSERVATION
                                                                            Nicole T Ong1 Beverly Larssen1 Nicola J Hodges1 Romeo Chua1 Ian M
REDUCING NUMBER OF TARGET LOCATIONS MEDIATES                                Franks1
                                                                            1
TRAJECTORY DEVIATION EFFECTS IN AN IOR PARADIGM                               University of British Columbia
Heather F Neyedli1 Dovin S Kearnan1 Timothy N Welsh1
1
  University of Toronto                                                     The presence of aftereffects in a visuomotor adaptation task implies that
                                                                            an existing internal model has been updated. Previously we reported that
Consistent with action-centered models of attention, we have recently       although observers adapted to a perturbation (30º rotation) they did not
shown that movement trajectories deviate toward a distracting cue at        show aftereffects. In this experiment we tested 2 observer groups
short (<100ms) cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs) and away from          (n=8/gp) who were more actively engaged in watching (encouraged
the cue at longer (>750ms) CTOAs. The deviations resemble the               through imagery and estimation), with one group additionally
facilitatory and inhibitory reaction time (RT) effects seen in similar      performing 50 trials interspersed during observation. Hand movement
paradigms using keypress responses (e.g., Posner & Cohen, 1984). The        estimation trials (t=25/200) allowed us to assess explicit knowledge and
purpose of the present study was to further explore the trajectory          hypotheses about the mode of learning. These estimations were
deviations at eight CTOAs in a critical range of 100 to 975ms in an         compared to an additional Actor group (n=10). The pure Observation
effort to examine the time course of these deviations in greater detail.    group improved their ability to estimate hand movement of the video
Due to the increased length of this experiment caused by the use of eight   model during adaptation. Although the Actor and Mixed groups adapted
CTOAs we used only two target locations in the present study, as            their movement, they did not improve in estimation. As before, the pure
opposed to three locations in our earlier work. Analysis of the data from   Observation group did not show aftereffects, whereas the Actor and
28
Mixed groups did (p<.05). Surprisingly, aftereffects in the Mixed group        classification of 73%. Gender and students’ majors showed significant
(75% observation) were larger than the Actors. We suggest that                 differences in health domains. The results suggest that physical
observation encourages a more explicit mode of learning, enabling              education courses enable students to experience an enjoyable and
performance benefits without corresponding changes to an internal              valuable learning setting.
model of the mapping between motor output and sensory input.
However, some physical practice interspersed with observation can              ACTIVITY PREFERENCES, COGNITION, AND BODY MASS
change the manner with which learning is achieved, encouraging more            INDEX: WHO EXPECTS WHAT?
implicit learning resulting in an update of an existing internal model.        Melanie R Pankratow1 Tanya R Berry1 Genevieve Montemurro1
                                                                               1
                                                                                 University of Alberta
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Natural Sciences
and Engineering Research Council funding to the second author                  Canada’s Physical Activity Guide recommends taking part in endurance,
                                                                               flexibility and strength activities each week to stay healthy. How these
EXPLORING THE FEMALE ADVANTAGE IN FINE                                         types of physical activity relate to social cognitive variables is unknown.
VISUOMOTOR CONTROL                                                             According to Bandura, engaging in behavior involves expectations about
Will Oud1 Leigh Bloomfield2 Eric A Roy3 Pamela J Bryden4                       the outcome of the behavior, and expectations of one’s ability to do the
1
  Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care 2Simon Fraser                             behavior. For example, in strength training, self-efficacy is shown to be
University 3University of Waterloo 4Wilfrid Laurier University                 positively and moderately related to outcome expectancies. The purpose
                                                                               of this research was to examine how endurance, flexibility, and strength
Females enjoy an advantage on tasks requiring fine visuomotor control.         activities relate to exercise self-efficacy or outcome expectancies.
Our work using the grooved pegboard (GPB) supports these findings,             Participants (N=730) named preferred activities, which were coded as
but why do females exhibit this advantage? Peters argued this advantage        endurance, flexibility, or strength. Participants self-reported height,
arose because females have smaller fingers. Indeed he found when peg           weight, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies. Results showed
placing times were corrected for finger size that the female advantage         significant relationships between body mass index (BMI) and self-
disappeared. In this study we reasoned that if finger size is important,       efficacy, F (2, 721) = 3.196, p<0.05, and outcome expectancies, F (2,
the female advantage should be sensitive to the size of the pegs: this         721) = 4.455, p<0.05, and between preferred activity and outcome
advantage should be reduced when using larger pegs. We also explored           expectancies, F (2, 721) = 4.979, p<0.05. There was also a significant
an alternate explanation: the demands of the task for fine visuomotor          interaction between BMI and preferred activity and outcome
control. This factor was examined by comparing two subtasks in the             expectancies, F (4, 721) = 2.679, p<0.05. Overweight participants who
GPB, the place task involving picking up the pegs from a receptacle and        preferred strength activities had the highest outcome expectancies. This
placing them in the holes and the replace task which involved removing         helps to inform why people of different body weights may take part in
the pegs from the board and replacing them in the receptacle. Our work         different activities.
has shown that the place task requires greater visuomotor control.
Accordingly if the female advantage is sensitive to these demands it           THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON COACHES' USE OF
should be larger in the more demanding place task. Our study involving         PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING
32 females and 30 males revealed that the female advantage was                 Kyle J Paquette1 Philip J Sullivan2 Lauren Capstick1
                                                                               1
significantly larger for the small than the large pegs, but did not change       University of Ottawa 2Brock University
as a function of task. These findings support the importance of finger
size as an explanation for the female advantage. The implications of           The influence of gender in sport has been well documented (Fortier,
these findings for understanding gender differences in visuomotor tasks        Vallerand, Briere, & Provencher, 1995). Within the discipline of sport
will be examined.                                                              psychology, gender differences have been found in athletes’ attitudes
                                                                               towards general psychological services (Martin, Wrisberg, Beitel, &
Acknowledgements: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research                    Lounsbury, 1997), working with sport psychology consultants (Martin,
Council (EAR & PJB)                                                            2005), and using sport psychology training on their own (Anderson,
                                                                               Hodge, Lavallee, & Martin, 2004). Similar findings have been reported
THE HEALTH RELATED SELF-EFFICACY IMPACT ON                                     with coaches (Zakrajsek & Zizzi, 2007). The present study examined the
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIORS AMONG COLLEGE                                      influence of athlete and coach gender on coaches’ use of psychological
STUDENTS IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN                                                    skills training. Canadian curling coaches (n = 147) completed a revised
Tsung-I Pai1 Shu-Yuan Chang2                                                   version of Bull, Albinson, and Shambrook’s (2002) Mental Skills
1
  Chia Nan University pharmacy and Science, Taiwan 2Fooying                    Questionnaire (MSQ) which measures seven factors: imagery ability,
University, Taiwan                                                             mental preparation, self-confidence, anxiety and worry management,
                                                                               concentration ability, relaxation ability, and motivation. A 2 by 2
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between         factorial MANOVA was run to see if the seven factors of the revised-
physical activity participation and health related self-efficacy of college    MSQ differed by gender of coach or gender of athlete. There was no
students in southern Taiwan. Self-efficacy theory as a theoretical             significant interaction, and no main effect for gender of coach. However,
framework explains individuals’ beliefs about themselves. Participants         there was a significant (p < .001) main effect for gender of athletes.
were 117 female and 323 male college students randomly selected from           Follow up tests revealed that coaches reported a significantly greater
five schools. The participants were asked to complete a single survey          frequency of each of these PST skills with female athletes than their
booklet and a demographic questionnaire. The Health-Specific Self-             male counterparts (p < .01). These results are consistent with previous
Efficacy Scale measured students’ self-efficacy in the health domain.          research and suggest that gender of athlete may be a significant factor on
The Physical Activity Identity was used to understand the degree of            psychological skills use by athletes. Implications for coaching education
role-identity in physical activity. The physical activity self-efficacy        and sport performance are discussed.
proved to be a major factor to with physical activity behaviors. Physical
activity identity and total health related self-efficacy were cognitive
factors influencing students’ perceptions and behaviors in physical
activity. A combination of cognitive factors including, nutrition self-
efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, alcohol resistance self-efficacy,
and physical activity identity predicted students’ healthy or unhealthy
coping mechanisms with an average overall percentage of correct
29
EXAMINING THE MEDIATING ROLE OF COHESION IN THE                                USING SMALLEST SPACE ANALYSIS TO TEST THE SELF-
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATHLETE LEADERSHIP AND                                    DETERMINATION CONTINUUM HYPOTHESIS
ATHLETE SATISFACTION IN YOUTH SPORT                                            Stéphane Perreault1
Kyle F Paradis1 Todd M Loughead1                                               1
                                                                                 Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
1
  University of Windsor
                                                                               The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether or not a self-
The purpose was to examine whether cohesion served as a mediator               determination continuum underlies the different types of motivation
between athlete leadership and athlete satisfaction in youth sport. The        which regulate an athlete’s behaviour. In order to test this postulate
participants were 205 youth athletes (Mage = 15.01 years; SD = 1.27).          which emanates from organismic integration theory (Deci & Ryan,
Each athlete completed a questionnaire that assessed perceptions of            1985, 1991), the correlations between the different types of motivation
formal and informal athlete leader behaviours using the Leadership             compiled in Chatzisarantis, Biddle, Hagger & Smith’s meta-analysis
Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980), cohesion using the Youth         (2003) were reanalyzed using a Facet Theory approach. More precisely,
Sport Environment Questionnaire (Eys et al., 2009), and athlete                correlation coefficients, corrected for sampling error and measurement
satisfaction using the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (Riemer &            error, were analyzed with smallest space analyses. Results indicate the
Chelladurai, 1998). The following mediation relationships were found:          presence of an axial model confirming the idea that a simplex pattern
(a) task cohesion partially mediated relations between formal task             underlies the data (i.e., a self-determination continuum). However,
athlete leadership and team task athlete satisfaction, (b) task cohesion       supplementary analyses also show that a two-dimensional model (Task
fully mediated relations between formal task athlete leadership and            interest and internalization) can also represent the data adequately.
individual task athlete satisfaction, (c) social cohesion partially mediated   Results are discussed with respect to those reported in Chatzisarantis et
relations between formal social athlete leadership and social athlete          al.’s (2003) study as well as various methodological and theoretical
satisfaction, (d) task cohesion partially mediated relations between           considerations.
informal task athlete leadership and team task athlete satisfaction, (e)
task cohesion fully mediated relations between informal task athlete           Acknowledgements: This study was made possible by a grant received
leadership and individual task athlete satisfaction, and finally (f) social    by the author from SSRHC and FQRSC.
cohesion partially mediated relations between informal social athlete
leadership and social athlete satisfaction. Findings from the present          BABY, IT’S COLD OUTSIDE: THE INFLUENCE OF SEASON
study augment the group dynamics literature as theoretical and practical       ON PARTICIPATION IN LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL
implications are discussed.                                                    ACTIVITY FOR PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI)
                                                                               Marie-Josee Perrier1 Amy E Latimer1 Kathleen A Martin
THE IMPACT OF TASK-IRRELEVANT CUTANEOUS                                        Ginis2 SHAPE-SCI Research Team3
                                                                               1
PERTURBATION ON VIBROTACTILE LETTER LEARNING                                     Queen's University 2McMaster University 3SCI Action Canada
Steven R Passmore1 Bernadette A Murphy2 Jessica Bossé 2 Timothy D
Lee3                                                                           Seasonal variation affects participation in leisure time physical activity
1
  University of Manitoba 2University of Ontario, Institute of                  (LTPA). Among people with spinal cord injury, extreme weather
Technology 3McMaster University                                                conditions present additional environmental barriers to LTPA. The
                                                                               objective of this study is to estimate the influence of season on the
The purpose of this study was to quantify the cognitive demands                number of minutes people with SCI spend engaged in specific types of
associated with tactile information processing while the cutaneous             LTPA.       Participants      included      696      individuals    (76%
system was perturbed by concurrent task-irrelevant stimulation. In a           men, Mage=46.81±13.41, Myears-post-injury=15.19±11.10)      with      SCI
between-participants experimental study, 24 healthy volunteers, naïve to       interviewed about time spent in LTPA at two time points, which
Morse Code interpretation participated. Twelve participants received           spanned two seasons. Between group differences for the baseline level
task-irrelevant stimulation while the other 12 were not perturbed during       of LTPA were assessed in a regression analysis. Season marginally
vibrotactile letter acquisition, followed by immediate and 24-hour             predicted the total moderate/heavy intensity LTPA, β=0.12, p=0.06.
delayed retention and transfer tests. During acquisition, vibration            Season was a significant predictor of moderate/heavy intensity exercise,
patterns representing 8 Morse Code letters were individually and               β=0.14, p=0.03, but not sport, βs=0.01, p=0.86. Individuals interviewed
randomly delivered to the palmar surface of the distal aspect of the right     in the summer exercised more than those interviewed in the winter, even
5th digit.. Participants responded with the letter they believed was           when controlling for age, sex, and injury status. Within person
communicated, and augmented accuracy feedback was displayed.                   differences across seasons were assessed using a repeated-measures
Retention trial conditions were identical to acquisition with exception of     ANCOVA controlling for age, sex, and injury status. The main effect of
the removal of augmented feedback. Transfer required participants to           season was significant for total LTPA, F(3,695)=3.00; p=0.03 and
motorically reproduce the temporal components of Morse Code patterns           specifically exercise, F(3,695)=3.85; p=0.01, but not sport,
via sequences of key presses/releases. Response accuracy and total             F(3,695)=0.59; p=0.63. Participants exercised more in the summer than
response time (TRT) were recorded and analysed. The results indicated          in the winter. Evidently, effort should be placed on promoting sport and
that while accuracy increased, and TRT decreased across acquisition            providing support for exercise during winter months.
trials, participants with a perturbed cutaneous system were significantly
less accurate at letter identification than participants without               WHEELS IN MOTION: MOBILITY’S RELATIONSHIP WITH
perturbation. All participants demonstrated decay in the accuracy of           SELF-EFFICACY AND LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
information in the retention tests. Transfer to a novel task was actually      IN PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY
facilitated by the presence of task-irrelevant nerve perturbation. The         Sen Hoong Phang1 Kathleen A Martin Ginis1 Valerie Lemay2 Francois
findings are discussed relative to current models of tactile attention and     Routhier2
                                                                               1
information processing.                                                          McMaster University 2Universite Laval

                                                                               Bandura’s (1986) Social Cognitive Theory was used as a framework to
                                                                               determine if wheelchair-use self-efficacy and exercise barrier self-
                                                                               efficacy would mediate the relationship between wheelchair mobility
                                                                               and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in people with spinal cord
                                                                               injury (SCI). Fourty-six people with SCI (76% male, 80.4% paraplegic)
                                                                               participated in this study. Participants completed The Wheelchair Skills
30
Test version 4.1 (WST 4.1; 2008) which measured wheelchair mobility,         theme system drawing from the reflexive viewing of the footage and
a modified barrier self-efficacy questionnaire (McAuley & Mihalko,           assembled a story board for narration. The aim of this research paper
1998)which measured exercise barrier self-efficacy, the Wheelchair           was to better understand the complexity involved in coaching and the
Mobility Confidence Scale (WMCS; Rushton & Miller, 2009) which               journey of the coaching expertise development. As a critical agent in
measured wheelchair-use self-efficacy, and the Physical Activity Recall      mediating the development of athletic proficiency this reflexive viewing
Assessment for people with SCI (PARA-SCI; Martin Ginis, Latimer,             evoked a better understanding of the coach’s expertise development.
Hicks & Craven, 2005) which measured LTPA. It was hypothesized
that (1) there would be a positive relationship between wheelchair           ADAPTIVE LOCOMOTION AND SELF-SAMPLED VISION:
mobility and LTPA, and (2) wheelchair-use self-efficacy and exercise         THE EFFECTS OF AGE & TASK COMPLEXITY
barrier self-efficacy would mediate this relationship. Linear regression     Adrian Popescu1 Keith Runnalls1 Brian Maraj1
                                                                             1
models showed a positive association between wheelchair mobility and           University of Alberta
LTPA (β = .29, p < .05). Exercise barrier self-efficacy was a significant
partial mediator, explaining 47.7% of the variance in the mobility-LTPA      This study investigated the effects of environment complexity and aging
relationship, while wheelchair-use self-efficacy was not. This represents    on adaptive locomotion under voluntary sampled vision. Eight young
the first study to determine the relationship between wheelchair             and eight old adults, independent walkers with normal or corrected-to-
mobility, self-efficacy, and LTPA in people living with SCI.                 normal vision, volunteered to participate. They walked at a self-selected
                                                                             pace and pointed with the dominant foot at the center of a target flush to
A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF MASTERS SWIMMERS’                                    the ground followed by the post targeting task (PTT): walking or stair
COMMITMENT                                                                   climbing. Intermittent vision was sampled as needed during approach
Matthew E Piamonte1 Bradley W Young1 Nikola Medic2                           via a hand-held momentary switch connected to a pair of Plato LCD
1
  University of Ottawa 2Edith Cowan University, Perth, AUS                   goggles (Translucent Technology, Toronto, ON). A six-camera
                                                                             Visualeyez motion analysis system (PTI, Burnaby, BC) captured
The Sport Commitment Model (SCM; Scanlan et al., 2003) is a                  kinematic data. The approach footfall variability revealed a two-phase
framework for understanding the determinants of commitment to sport          approach with adjustments spread out over the last three steps regardless
participation. Using a modified version of the SCM (Wilson et al.,           of experimental manipulations. Older adults decreased the approach
2004), a longitudinal survey of 190 international-level Masters              velocity as the PTT complexity increased and had, overall, more
swimmers (91 m, 99 f;M age = 51.9 yrs; range = 26–80) was conducted          accurate target pointing as compared to young adults. Intermittent vision
on two occasions, one year apart. In Analysis 1, groups were designated      resulted in longer cumulative distance over the three adaptive steps and
based on change scores for determinant constructs over the year. A           larger cumulative distance variability for the complex PTT only.
series of repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant interactive          Intermittent vision condition resulted in longer last step length and
effects between determinant groups and time for functional commitment        swing duration as well as increased last step length and last step stance
(FC), but not for obligatory commitment (OC). Post-hoc paired                duration variability. Vision was necessary only for 42% of the approach.
sample t-tests showed that groups increasing in enjoyment and                Visual samples coincided with the last two steps; the common sampling
satisfaction, personal investment, and involvement opportunities had         strategy had one or two samples.
increased FC, while groups decreasing in enjoyment and satisfaction had
decreased FC (all ps < .01). In Analysis 2, simultaneous multiple            MULTIPLE LEVELS OF CODING MODULATE ACTION CO-
regression analyses indicated that changes in FC (R2 = .34, p < .001)        REPRESENTATION IN A JOINT SIMON TASK
were significantly predicted by changes in enjoyment and satisfaction        Andrew Potruff1 Matthew Ray2 Daniel Weeks3 Jay Pratt1 Tim Welsh2
(β = .46) and personal investment (.22), while changes in OC (R2 =           1
                                                                               Department of Psychology, University of Toronto 2Faculty of Physical
.18, p < .001) were significantly predicted by personal investment (.26)     Education and Health, University of Toronto 3Department of
and involvement alternatives (.17) and inversely predicted by social         Psychology, University of Lethbridge
support (-.27) (all ps < .05). Results provide support for the efficacy of
the SCM in contributing to an understanding of the dynamic nature of         In a series of previous experiments, we have shown that the completion
sport commitment.                                                            of social tasks may involve the representation of the actions of our
                                                                             partners. Motivated by the recent proposal that such action co-
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a Social Sciences           representation may only occur when a partner is in peri-personal space,
and Humanities Research Council-Sport Canada Strategic Initiative            participants in our present study performed a JSE task in three separate
Grant.                                                                       conditions: (1) Close: seated .2m apart with stimuli appearing on a 17”
                                                                             screen; (2) Far: seated 1.5m apart with stimuli appearing on a 17”
EXAMINING OLYMPIC COACH’S JOURNEY THROUGH                                    screen; and, (3) Far-Projector: seated 1.5m apart with the stimuli
VIDEO ETHNOGRAPHY                                                            appearing on a 1.5x2.5m white board. Of additional interest to us was
Maria V Planella1 Timothy Hopper1 Geraldine H Van Gyn1                       the fact that examining the role of peri-personal space necessitated the
1
  University of Victoria, BC                                                 introduction of separate response spaces. Thus, in a departure from our
                                                                             previous work, participants executed their responses on separate
This paper discusses the results of a research project which aimed to        keyboards. The observed JSEs in the Far and Far-Projector conditions
capture, explore and communicate the occupation and complex                  were consistent with our previous work. However, we did not observe a
development of an Olympic coach. The researcher used an innovative           JSE in what could be considered the baseline condition (Close
research process utilizing Video-Ethnography as a tool to better             condition). We attribute this latter outcome to be related to the
understand the coaching culture with a unique representation of its          introduction of separate work spaces. We contend that perceptual-motor
intricacies (Sparkes, 2002). The video ethnography study was carried         interactions occur at multiple, interactive levels and that the spatial
out over a one year period during training sessions and three main           relations between the partners, the stimulus environment, and the
international     competitions;    Commonwealth        Games,      World     response locations are all potential modulators of action co-
Championships and Olympic Games. The case study illustrated the              representation.
career journey of a five-times Olympic coach of middle distance
athletics which involved much more than the predictable roles and            Acknowledgements: This research was funded by Natural Sciences and
responsibilities. The study focused on reviewing, with the coach selected    Engineering Research Council and an Early Researcher Award from the
video footage from his practice sessions and competition, with reflexive     Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation.
viewing and constructivism of narrative reality. The coach developed a
31
EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DESCRIPTIVE                                position, while a significant increase in the proportion of left catching
NORMS AND SELF-REGULATORY EFFICACY IN AN                                      goaltenders was found across the levels of competition. Study two
ACTIVITY SETTING                                                              examined laterality differences through a 90-year retrospective analysis
Carly S Priebe1 Kevin S Spink1                                                of player performance measures within an evolving system. Regression
1
  University of Saskatchewan                                                  analysis indicated right shot preferences were associated with scoring
                                                                              more goals, while left shot preferences were related to assisting more
While there is evidence that descriptive norms (others’ behaviour) affect     goals. Among goaltenders, right catching preferences were associated
individual physical activity behaviour (PA; Priebe et al., 2009), little is   with an increased save percentage compared to left-catching
known about how this effect occurs (Rimal, 2008). One possibility is          goaltenders. Results suggest ice hockey supports models of skilled
that normative messages about others engaging in PA capture verbal            perception, and provides new information in the area of laterality and
persuasion and vicarious experience, two sources of efficacy identified       strategic frequency-dependent effects in ice hockey.
by Bandura (1977). The purpose of this study was to examine whether a
relationship existed between descriptive norms for PA and self-               THE YOUTH SPORT ENVIRONMENT: A DESCRIPTIVE
regulatory efficacy (SRE). Using an experimental design, university           ANALYSIS
students were assigned to either a descriptive norm (n=51) or control         Elaine Raakman1 Kim Dorsch1 Daniel Rhind2
                                                                              1
(n=58) condition. Those in the norm condition received four email               University of Regina 2Brunel University
messages encouraging them to be active because other students were
doing it while those in the control received four messages encouraging        To what extent does the phenomenon of poor behaviour occur in youth
activity. Based on self-efficacy theory, it was predicted that SRE would      sport? Some experts posit that roughly 10% of athletes are exposed to
be higher in the norm condition. While post-intervention SRE was              unacceptable coaching behaviours within the youth sport context
higher in the norm versus the control condition, results from a t-test        (David, 2005). However, few studies have attempted to quantify the
revealed that the difference was not significant (p > .05). Also, PA did      extent to which poor behaviours occur by all youth sport participants
not differ between conditions, a result consistent with the SRE findings.     (coaches, players, and spectators). The purpose of this study is to use
Further examination of SRE appears warranted for two reasons. First, a        data provided by an independent sport monitoring program, Justplay
trend existed for higher SRE in the norm condition. Second, there exists      Behavioural Management Program (JBMP), to describe these
the possibility that identity with the norm reference group used in the       behaviours. Through the JBMP officials are asked to rate the
messages (i.e., students) may have been too low for SRE to be impacted        behavioural conduct of coaches, players, and spectators on a scale from
(Rimal et al., 2005).                                                         1 Very Good to 5 Very Poor. Ratings of 4 and 5 are known as critical
                                                                              incidents (CI; conduct deemed unacceptable by the official). This
Acknowledgements: Supported by a Social Sciences and Humanities               descriptive analysis examines multiple youth sports (hockey, baseball,
Research Council Vanier Graduate Scholarship (1st author).                    football) over three seasons with regard to the extent of CI by all the
                                                                              participant groups. Analyses show that CI occurred in 40% of all hockey
INTERSEGMENTAL COORDINATION IN CHILDREN WITH                                  games, 37% of football games, and 36% of baseball games. Of these CI,
AND WITHOUT DCD IN BALL CATCHING                                              coaches account for 42.6% (42.5% hockey; 34.7% baseball, 50.7%
Eryk Przysucha1 Brian Maraj2                                                  football), players for 26.7% (29.5% hockey; 31.1% baseball, 19.5%
1
  Lakehead University 2University of Alberta                                  football), and spectators for 30.2% (26.7% hockey; 34.2% baseball,
                                                                              29.6% football). These numbers indicate behaviours, which may have
The purpose of this inquiry was to examine how children with (M = 10.5        long-term negative effects on participants, occur to a worrisome degree.
years) and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (M = 10.9
years) recruited the relevant degrees of freedom needed for an                DETERMINING RESEARCHER INFLUENCE IN COACHING
interceptive task such as ball catching. Ten balls were projected, at the     SCIENCE: THE RESEARCHER INFLUENCE FACTOR (RIF)
speed of 7m/s, to the dominant side of the participant. Two digital           Sandrine Rangeon1 Wade Gilbert1 Mark W Bruner2
                                                                              1
cameras (60 Hz) were used for the purpose of 3D reconstruction, and             Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fresno,
APAS system was used to extract the angular displacement of the               USA 2School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University,
shoulders and trunk. Significant differences were found between the           Canada
groups in trunk (Mnodcd = 31 deg vs. Mdcd = 16 deg) (t (18) = 4.69, p <
.001), but not in shoulder actions (Mnodcd = 66 deg vs. Mdcd = 64 deg).       How can one evaluate the influence of a particular researcher in a given
Also, typically developing children exhibited tight coupling between the      field? Similar to how the impact factor measures a journal’s prominence,
angular displacement of the two elements, as compared to children with        the Researcher Influence Factor (RIF) aims to assess the prominence of
DCD who decoupled the actions of the shoulder and trunk (rnodcd = .84         individual researchers in a field of study. The RIF takes into account the
vs. rdcd = .58) (t (18) = 4.84, p <. 001). Children with DCD were also        citations received by a researcher’s publications in a given field, as well
more variable in the magnitude of the resulting correlations (rnodcd = .15    as an estimation of a researcher’s social capital through collaborations
vs. rdcd = .28). From these results we suggest that inter-segmental           with other researchers. Specifically, the RIF formula developed and used
coordination is jeopardized in children with DCD, and that this may be        to evaluate a researcher’s prominence included the number of citations
due to the less than optimal recruitment of degrees of freedom                received by publications as a primary author, the number of citations
associated with trunk action.                                                 received by publications as a secondary author divided by two, and the
                                                                              number of connections to other researchers as revealed by a co-
SHOOTING SIDE ORIENTATION AND ELITE                                           authorship network. Analysis of the coaching science field revealed a
PERFORMANCE IN ICE HOCKEY                                                     dominance of North American researchers. Top researchers in coaching
Jared Puterman1 Jörg Schorer2 Joe Baker1                                      science were found to be predominantly male professors affiliated with
1
  York University 2Westfälische Wilhelms-University                           kinesiology departments at North American universities. Overall, the
                                                                              field appears to be influenced by a small set of researchers with similar
Little is known regarding the implications of motor asymmetries for           profiles, but specialized in different research areas of coaching science.
skilled performers in dynamic, time-constrained, team-based activities        The RIF formula will also be discussed in comparison to other ways of
such as ice hockey. Two studies were conducted to examine laterality          assessing researchers’ influence such as the h-index.
differences in ice hockey. Study one investigated laterality distributions
across three leagues of increasing league calibre. Among skating              Acknowledgements: Funding support provided by the Division of
players, skill level was related to changes in laterality patterns based on   Graduate Studies, California State University, Fresno
32
                                                                                alteration trials in which they occasionally encountered unexpected
IDEOMOTOR CODING IN INDIVIDUAL AND JOINT ACTION                                 arrow cues that required them to deviate from the learned sequence. The
TASKS                                                                           unexpected arrow cues differed from the routine in either in spatial
Matthew Ray1 Dovin Kearnan1 Tim Welsh1                                          location only, in pointed direction only or in both location and direction.
1
  Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto               The SIT was administered to 25 older and 30 younger adults and
                                                                                surprisingly, while both age groups committed the most errors when
According to ideomotor theory, actions and their resultant effects share a      only the pointed direction of the cue changed, the older adults made
common representation. It is thought that ideomotor coding facilitates          fewer action slips overall. This increased accuracy in the older adults
joint action because co-actors can use predicted effects to anticipate          however was also accompanied by a slower pace of task, suggesting
their partner’s action. The present study investigated this account by          that older adults may have favored accuracy over speed. Patterns of
using a modification of the conventional individual and joint Simon             responding before and after correctly performed trials versus error trials
tasks in which participants were instructed to focus on generating an           were also examined and will be discussed with regard to what
effect (activating a light in the space contralateral to the response) rather   they reveal about potential age differences in the strategies used in
than on making a response to the target stimuli. Previous research on the       performing the task.
individual two-choice task has shown that these instructions cause a
reversal of the Simon effect (shorter RTs when stimuli appear on the            INVESTIGATING THE COMBINATION OF A SELF-
side of space of the effect than on the side of the response). If ideomotor     MODELING INTERVENTION WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL
coding facilitates individual and joint action planning, then a reversal in     SKILLS TRAINING ON GYMNASTS’ COMPETITIVE
the Simon effect should be observed in the individual and joint Simon           PERFORMANCE.
task with instructions to generate the effect. In contrast to predictions,      Amanda M Rymal1 Andrea Billings1 Diane M Ste-Marie1
                                                                                1
the omnibus analysis did not reveal reversed Simon effects in either              University of Ottawa
condition. Examination of the data revealed high inter-individual
variability in the direction of the Simon effects. Of the people who            Self-modeling (SM) involves an observer viewing oneself on an edited
demonstrated the expected reversal in the individual task, few also             video showing desired behaviors (Dowrick, & Dove, 1990). Researchers
showed the reversal in the joint task. In sum, it seems that ideomotor          have explored the impact of SM in the motor learning context (Clark, &
codes may be difficult to form or employ in a joint condition in this task.     Ste-Marie, 2006) however few researchers have investigated SM in
                                                                                competition (Ste-Marie, Rymal, Vertes, & Martini, 2009). Also, the
Acknowledgements: Funded by Natural Sciences and Engineering                    combination of SM and psychological skills training (PST) on
Research Council, an Early Researcher Award from the Ontario                    competitive performance has yet to be explored. The purpose of this
Ministry of Research and Innovation, and a Life Sciences Scholarship.           research was to investigate whether a SM video combined with PST
                                                                                could enhance competitive performance. Eighteen gymnasts were
QUIET-EYE IN DARTS -WHEN SEEING FOVEALLY                                        divided into two groups; SM+PST (n=10) and SM (n =8). The SM+PST
NOTHING IS AS GOOD AS TOTAL SIGHT                                               took part in workshops one month prior to the competitions wherein
Rebecca Rienhoff1 Lennart Fischer1 Jörg Schorer1 Bernd Strauß1                  links between SM and psychological skills were made. The SM group
1
  University of Muenster, Department of Sport Psychology                        did not do the workshops. Gymnasts competed at four competitions; two
                                                                                received the SM video and two did not. For the video competitions,
Quiet-Eye (QE) is defined as final fixation or tracking gaze prior to the       participants viewed their video three times prior to warm-up and once
task movement. Vickers (2000) showed in darts that hits depend on the           before competing. A significant main effect for time was
onset, offset and duration of the QE. The hypothesis of the mechanism           obtained, F(1,16)=11.57, p < .05, indicating that gymnasts’ performance
of QE is that the longer and better timed duration of foveal vision is          increased later in the season. Although the scores later in the season
used for a better information processing resulting in superior                  were higher when they received a SM video (M = 12.60, SD = 0.89)
performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foveal        than when they did not (M = 12.32, SD = 1.10), this was not significant.
and peripheral vision in darts and the dependency of QE on this                 Also, no group differences were found (SM+PST, M = 12.45, SD =
information using the moving window paradigm. Seventeen novice and              1.21; SM, M = 12.13, SD = 0.90). The strengths, limitations and
14 skilled dart players participated in this study and threw three blocks       implications will be discussed.
(baseline, foveal & peripheral vision) of 15 darts aiming at the bull's-
eye. As dependent variables, throwing accuracy and consistency, as well         Acknowledgements: Funded by Social Sciences and Humanities
as perceptual performance were measured using the Eye-Link II-system.           Research Council research grant (DSM) and a doctoral Social Sciences
Significant differences were found between skilled and novices in               and Humanities Research Council award (AR)
accuracy and consistency, F(1, 29) = 34.00, p < .01, ηp² = .54; F(1, 29) =      GROOVED PEGBOARD PERFORMANCE REFLECTS
29.30, p < .01, ηp² = .50. Differences between blocks were observed in          SPECIFIC SYMPTOMATIC DEFICITS IN PARKINSON’S
consistency, F(2, 58) = 90.20, p <.01, ηp² = .76. Interaction were              DISEASE
demonstrated for consistency too, Fs (2, 58) = 10.19, p < .01, ηp² = .26.       Michael D Sage1 Eric A Roy2 Pamela J Bryden3 Quincy J Almeida3
                                                                                1
QE duration showed only significant differences found between                     Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research & Rehabilitation
blocks, F (2, 54) = 6.05, p < .01, ηp² = .18. Taken together these results      Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University; Graduate Department of
raise the question of the neccessity of foveal vision and therefore             Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto 2Kinesiology Department,
information processing in quiet-eye. Possible other mechanisms will be          University of Waterloo; Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science,
discussed.                                                                      University of Toronto 3Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders
                                                                                Research & Rehabilitation Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University
MEASURING ACTION SLIPS IN OLDER AND YOUNGER
ADULTS                                                                          The current study evaluated the relationship between the grooved
Rhiannon Rose1 Amanda Clark1 Eric Roy1                                          pegboard (GP) and upper limb motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease
1
  University of Waterloo                                                        (PD). 125 individuals with PD from the SLF MDRC completed the GP
                                                                                and symptoms of PD were measured using the Unified PD Rating Scale
Sustained attention is critical when performing tasks that provide              (UPDRS I-III). For the analysis an average of two trials of the GP was
minimal stimulation. A measure of this facet of attention is the Slip           used, following the procedure outlined by Bryden & Roy 2005, and
Induction Task (SIT). In this task participants first learned a sequence of     included both a place and replace phase. If the GP was not completed in
hand movements cued by arrows, then they performed a series of                  5 minutes participants were stopped and a second trial was not
33
performed. Correlation analysis of subsets of the UPDRS and GP phases         for both the total time (TT) and the sum of the segmental times (SST).
were undertaken to evaluate the relationship between GP and PD                Retention tests revealed that the proactive group performed with less
symptoms. Side specific motor symptoms were correlated with both              |CE| for SST, while the retroactive group performed with less |CE| for
phases of the GP (place r=.507; replace r=.422) for the less affected but     TT for at least one pattern; suggesting that self-regulated practice
not the affected limb. This finding is in line with previous work that        eliminated the clear advantage for providing modeled information
suggested the GP place phase is reflective of contralateral striatal neuron   retroactively. The retention results also revealed that learners who chose
loss on the less affected side (Bohnen et al. 2007). Rigidity and UPDRS       to switch patterns frequently during practice, regardless of when the
III had the strongest correlations with the GP place phase (r =.539 to        model was presented, had less |CE| and VE for SST and less VE for TT
.645) for both limbs, while tremor had no relationship with GP. This          than learners who self-regulated with infrequent task switches;
suggests the GP place phase reflects rigidity and bradykinesia, two           suggesting that learner-imposed contextual interference enhanced
cardinal symptoms of PD. Implications will be discussed with respect to       retention.
the relationship between the complex visuomotor control in the GP
place phase and functional deficits reported by individuals with PD.          Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Natural Sciences and
                                                                              Engineering Research Council.
Acknowledgements: Research Support: Parkinson’s Society of Canada
                                                                              LINGERING EFFETS OF RELATIVE AGE IN BASKETBALL
PROPRIOCEPTIVE RECALIBRATION INCREASES WITH                                   PLAYERS' POST ATHLETIC CAREER
GREATER VISUOMOTOR DISTORTIONS                                                Jörg Schorer1 Steve Cobley2 Maike Tietjens1 Joe Baker3
Danielle Salomonczyk1 Erin K Cressman2 Denise Y Henriques3                    1
                                                                                Westfälische Wilhelms-University Münster, Germany 2Leeds
1
  Department of Psychology, Centre for Vision Research, York                  Metropolitain University, UK 3York University
University 2School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa 3School of
Kinesiology and Health Science, Centre for Vision Research, York              Relative age effects (RAEs) are known to affect likelihood of attaining
University                                                                    sporting excellence (Baker, Schorer, & Cobley, 2010). However,
                                                                              research examining the enduring long-term consequences is limited.
Goal-directed reaches are rapidly adapted following exposure to               Cobley, Schorer, and Baker (2008) observed RAEs for soccer coaches,
misaligned visual feedback of the hand. It has recently been shown that       but not for soccer referees. This study examined the RAE among male
exposure to misaligned visual feedback of the hand also results in partial    players in the first German basketball league and determined the
sensory recalibration, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand             longevity of this effect to post athletic careers in basketball. Birth-dates
position are realigned to match visual estimates. In the present study we     of 142 players, 26 coaches, 32 referees, and 16 commissioners were
examined the relationship between reach (motor) adaptation and                obtained from the official First German basketball league for the
changes in sense of felt hand position (proprioceptive recalibration) by      2009/10 season. Dates were categorized into quartiles according to the
determining the influence of increasing levels of distorted visual            calendar date used for annual age-grouping for international basketball.
feedback on sensory and motor recalibration. To examine                       As expected significant RAEs were revealed for players, χ²(3) =
proprioceptive recalibration, we determined the position at which             12.99, p < .01, ω = .30. Furthermore, there were descriptive trends
subjects felt their hand was aligned with a reference marker after            observed for the other groups; however, these differences were not
reaching to targets with a cursor that was rotated 30o, 50o or                statistically significant due to the small samples. Therefore, all post-
70o clockwise relative to hand motion. Subjects exposed to the                athletic career groups were combined, which resulted in a significant
70o rotation recalibrated the position at which they felt their hand was      RAE, χ²(3) = 10.22, p = .02, ω = .37. These results suggest that there
aligned with a reference marker the most (15o leftwards), while subjects      could be persistent long-term consequences to the RAEs thought to
exposed to the 30o rotation recalibrated proprioception the least (only       originate during the early stages of a playing career. As others have
7o leftwards). This pattern in sensory recalibration is similar to the        indicated (Musch & Grondin, 2001), RAEs are a persistent inequality in
changes observed in subjects’ reaches (reach aftereffects were 34o vs.        high performance sport; one that, unfortunately, is not easily remedied.
16o for subjects who trained with the 70o vs. 30o rotation respectively).
Given the similar trend in sensory and motor recalibration, the results of    EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLLECTIVE
the current study suggest that proprioceptive recalibration may be            EFFICACY AND TEAM EXPLANATORY STYLE
related to the extent that movements are adapted.                             Kim M Shapcott1 Albert V Carron1 Luc J Martin1
                                                                              1
                                                                                University of Western Ontario
Acknowledgements: DYH is an Alfred Sloan Fellow; DS is funded by
and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Doctoral                Within the sport realm, collective efficacy is considered an important
Scholarship.                                                                  construct that influences all aspects of team behaviour (Bandura, 1986).
                                                                              As such, a considerable amount of research has examined the
EFFECTS OF SELF-REGULATION OF PRACTICE TRIAL                                  relationship between collective efficacy and behavioural (e.g.,
ORDER AND PROACTIVE AND RETROACTIVE AUDITORY                                  performance), cognitive (e.g., team goals), and affective (e.g., cognitive
MODELS IN LEARNING SEQUENTIAL-TIMING PATTERNS.                                anxiety) outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to extend
Elizabeth A Sanli1 Jae T Patterson2 Timothy D Lee1                            previous research to determine the relationship between team
1
  McMaster University 2Brock University                                       explanatory style (the cognitive predisposition to explain the causes of
                                                                              bad events in a habitual manner) and collective efficacy beliefs.
Two empirical effects, previously shown to be advantageous to learning,       Athletes (n = 148; 14 teams) completed the Team Attributional Style
were contrasted in this study: a) self-regulation of practice trial order     Questionnaire (TASQ; Shapcott & Carron, 2010) and the Collective
(vs. experimenter-defined), and b) retroactively-presented model              Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports (CEQS; Short, Sullivan, & Feltz,
information (vs. proactively-presented). The purpose was to assess if         2005). Statistical analyses supported the aggregation of individual
self-regulated practice modified the effects of the timing of modeled         athlete responses to represent a group-level construct for both team
information for the learning of three sequential-timing patterns. Each of     attributional style and collective efficacy beliefs. Partial least squares
the patterns consisted of unique temporal parameters between the              (PLS) structural modeling technique showed that the four factor
presses (and accompanying auditory tone) of the same sequence of five         attributional style model (i.e., controllability, universality, globality, and
keys. Auditory information was modeled either before (proactively) or         stability) accounted for 22% of the variation of the global measure of
after (retroactively) each trial, and practice order was learner-regulated.   collective efficacy. The findings will be discussed in terms of their
Absolute constant error (|CE|) and variable error (VE) were calculated        implications for the dynamics of sport teams.
34
                                                                               DO YOU THINK WHAT I THINK? DIFFERENCES IN CLIENT
Acknowledgements: Funded by Social Sciences and Humanities                     AND TRAINER PERCEPTIONS ACROSS PERSONAL
Research Council.                                                              TRAINERS WITH DIFFERENT INTERACTION STYLES
                                                                               Christopher Shields1 Steven R Bray2 Jeffery Graham2
                                                                               1
UNDERSTANDING RELATIONAL PERCEPTIONS IN                                          Acadia University 2McMaster University
CARDIAC REHABILITATION: EARLY FINDINGS AND
POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS                                                          In proxy-led exercise, interaction style (e.g., collaborative, directive) has
Christopher Shields1                                                           been shown to impact participants' social cognitions. Despite the
1
  Acadia University                                                            potential importance of understanding trainer and client perceptions
                                                                               within proxy-led exercise contexts, little work has examined (a) the
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) represents a clear form of what is known as        perceptions exercise leaders hold of their clients relative to their own
proxy-agency where patients receive assistance to help them                    interaction styles or (b) the potential discrepancies in the perceptions
successfully self-regulate lifestyle change. In situations of proxy-agency     trainers and clients hold of each other's abilities. The purpose of this
it has been suggested that in addition to self-efficacy, relational            study was to examine differences in personal trainers' (PT) perceptions
perceptions such as proxy-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy        of their clients' abilities as well as discrepancies in the perceptions held
(RISE) beliefs may be important correlates of participants’ social-            by PT and their clients among PT who identify as either collaborative or
cognitions. However, only recently has research begun to emerge                directive in their interaction style. After 1 training session, PT-client
highlighting the importance of these relational perceptions in exercise.       dyads completed measures of self-efficacy, relational efficacies, division
Indeed, work within CR as well as healthy populations has supported the        of responsibility, and reliance. PT also reported their predominant
relationships of proxy-efficacy with both adaptive (e.g., intentions) and      interaction style. Collaborative PT saw their clients as less reliant, had
maladaptive (e.g., reliance) social cognitions. Despite their potential        more confidence in their client, and felt more responsibility for aspects
importance, RISE beliefs have gone largely unexamined within an                of training (ps<.04). Also, the pattern of discrepancies in client-PT
exercise rehabilitation context. The current presentation draws evidence       perceptions appeared to differ by interaction style (p=.06) with
from two prospective studies to highlight the importance of                    collaborative PT's other-efficacy in their client being higher than their
understanding the interrelationships between relational and self-              clients' own self-efficacy whereas the opposite emerged for directive
perceptions (e.g., self-regulatory efficacy) in cardiac rehabilitation, with   PTs (p<.01). Findings underscore the importance of leader interaction
a specific focus on RISE beliefs. Results suggest that RISE beliefs are        style when examining perceptions in proxy-led exercise.
related to both relational perceptions and social cognitions relevant to
self-regulation. These findings are discussed in relation to the possible      Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
implications for practitioners with respect to the delivery of exercise-       grant 41020060927
based CR.
                                                                               USING THE STAGES OF CHANGE TO UNDERSTAND
Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council              DIFFERENCES IN EXERCISE AND HEALTH-RELATED
grant 41020060927                                                              PERCEPTIONS OF THOSE WITH DIABETES
                                                                               Christopher Shields1 Jonathon Fowles1 Peggy Dunbar2 Rene
PERSONAL TRAINERS AND THEIR CLIENTS:                                           Murphy1 Arlene Perry1
                                                                               1
PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE OF THE ROLE OF RELATIONAL                                   Acadia University 2Diabetes Care Program of Nova Scotia
EFFICACIES IN PREDICTING SELF-EFFICACY AND
INTENTION TO RETURN                                                            The Stage of Change (SOC) model is commonly used to guide physical
Christopher Shields1 Steven R Bray2 Jeffery Graham2                            activity (PA) promotion in clinical and professional practice and there is
1
  Acadia University 2McMaster University                                       evidence that stage-matched programs are beneficial. While the SOC
                                                                               model outlines indicators of change, these may not capture all key
In situations of proxy-agency, relational efficacies (e.g., proxy-efficacy,    differences across stages, particularly within symptomatic populations
RISE beliefs, other efficacy) are theorized to impact self-efficacy (SE)       where clinical markers and health-related perceptions must be
and the effort expended in joint tasks. Personal trainers (PT) are proxy-      considered. In the present study we examined efficacy perceptions,
agents and are in an interesting position balancing development of their       attitudes, self-rated health and fitness, clinical health indicators and PA
clients’ capabilities while also fostering a long-term commitment from         across SOC in a sample of individuals with diabetes. Participants
clients. As such, they provide an important context in which to study          completed measures of SOC, efficacies, attitudes, perceived health and
relational efficacies and their impact on other variables. The purpose of      fitness and PA. Waist girth, BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol and BP were also
this study was to examine (1) whether PT other-efficacy and client RISE        assessed. MANOVA showed those in earlier SOC reported lower task
beliefs contribute to client SE and (2) whether relational efficacies          and self-regulatory efficacies compared to those in later stages (ps< .01).
contribute to clients’ decisions to continue the with their PT. PT and         T-tests revealed that participants reported lower task efficacy compared
client pairs completed measures of relational and self-efficacies after        to self-regulatory efficacy (ps<.01 ). MANOVAs also showed that those
sessions 1 and 5 of a 5-session block. Clients also reported intention to      in earlier SOC perceived themselves to have lower fitness and be in
continue with their PT after session 5. Hierarchical regression showed         worse health (ps<.01) despite no differences in clinical markers other
PT other efficacy (R2ch=.22) and clients’ RISE beliefs (R2ch=.17, ps<          than BMI (p < .01). Those in later SOC were more physically active (ps
.04) to be separate significant predictors of clients’ SE with both being      <.01). These findings highlight task-efficacy and health perceptions as
positively associated with SE. A second model showed that after                potential areas to target among those with diabetes who are inactive but
controlling for client SE, proxy-efficacy and RISE beliefs were additive       thinking about engaging in PA.
predictors of clients’ intentions to continue to work with their PT
(R2ch=.49, p<.01). These initial findings are in line with theory and          Acknowledgements: Funded by the Lawson Foundation
suggest that relational perceptions held by both the client and the PT
impact important outcomes for both client and trainer.

Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
grant 41020060927
35
BALANCE CONFIDENCE, QUALITY OF LIFE, AND                                      AFFECTIVE AND SELF-PRESENTATIONAL RESPONSES TO
EXERCISE HABITS AMONG HEALTHY POST-MENOPAUSAL                                 AN EXERCISE IDENTITY CHALLENGE: INVESTIGATING
FEMALES                                                                       IDENTITY AND THE ROLE OF THE OTHER
Jacqueline A Simatovic1 Lindsay R Duncan1 Craig R Hall1 Gammage               Gwenyth S Stadig1 Shaelyn M Strachan1 Mary Jung2 Larry
Kimberley2 Allan Adkin2                                                       Brawley3 Kevin Spink3
1
  The University of Western Ontario 2Brock University                         1
                                                                                University of Ottawa 2University of British Columbia at
                                                                              Okanagan 3University of Saskatchewan
The purpose of this research was to examine baseline levels of balance
confidence, quality of life (QOL), and physical activity among healthy        According to Identity Theory (IT), individuals seek to maintain
post-menopausal women between 50 and 90 years of age. Twenty-four             consistency between their identity and identity-relevant feedback
participants (Mage = 58.8, SD =4.6) completed a questionnaire inventory       received from others. Individuals’ reactions to identity-relevant
consisting of the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, the           feedback remain understudied in IT, especially in the exercise domain.
Short-Form 36 Health Survey, the QOL Questionnaire of the European            This study examined reactions of individuals exposed to an exercise
Foundation for Osteoporosis, and a questionnaire assessing activities         identity confirming or disconfirming public situation. Based on IT,
performed in the previous 4 weeks. Participants reported high levels of       individuals receiving identity disconfirming feedback in the presence of
balance confidence (M = 95.48, SD = 5.69). Participants also reported         others were hypothesized to demonstrate greater negative affect and
high energy levels, high general health perceptions, high mental              attempts to self-present as exercisers as compared to individuals
functioning and emotional well-being, and high physical functioning in        receiving confirming feedback. A MANOVA analysis assessed
the areas of activities of daily living, jobs around the house, mobility,     differences on affective and self-presentational reactions to feedback
and leisure/social activities. Hours of physical activity were positively     between confirming and disconfirming conditions. The overall model
related to reported energy levels (r = 0.41, p< .05). Reported energy         was significant (p = .01). Univariate follow-up analyses revealed that
levels had a significant (p< .05), positive relationship with emotional       individuals in the disconfirming condition reported greater negative
well-being (r = .68), social functioning (r = .47), mobility (r = .52),       affect (p < .01) and displayed significantly different self-presentation
perceptions of general health (r = .57), mental functioning (r = .44), and    reactions than confirmed individuals. Specifically, disconfirming
overall QOL (r = .44). The women who participated in this study appear        participants expressed greater disagreement with feedback (p < .01),
to have high levels of physical functioning and QOL. A strong link            were more likely to rationalize feedback (p < .01) and expressed a
between physical activity and energy levels was observed. This may            greater desire to portray themselves differently (p < .01) than confirmed
have important implications for the participant’s QOL. The data               participants. In the exercise domain, findings support the IT tenet that
presented here are part of a 10-year longitudinal study examining the         individuals seek to achieve consistency between their identity and
relationship between exercise participation, dietary habits, bone mineral     identity-relevant perceptions that others have of them.
density, and QOL.
                                                                              CONDUCTION APRAXIA CAN ARISE FROM DAMAGE TO
EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A SKILL BUILDING                              EITHER HEMISPHERE AND THE DEFICIT IS ASSOCIATED
INTERVENTION IN COMPETITIVE ATHLETES WITH                                     WITH IMPAIRED ABILITY TO IMITATE MEANINGLESS
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS                                                          GESTURES
Natasha A Spassiani1 Jessica L Fraser-Thomas2                                 Vessela Stamenova1 Sandra E Black1 Eric A Roy2
1
  University of Illinois at Chicago 2York University                          1
                                                                                University of Toronto 2University of Waterloo

Sport has been used as a means to provide opportunities for the (re)-         Conduction Limb Apraxia is defined as a deficit in imitation with
integration of marginalized persons into society (Elling & Knoppers,          preserved pantomime of gestures. The Conceptual Production Systems
2005), highlighting the importance of designing appropriate sporting          Model suggests that conduction apraxia could be caused by either an
environments to aid in the development of life skills among persons with      impaired ability to analyze visual gestural information (if the patient is
developmental delays (DD). The purpose of the current study was to            also impaired on gesture identification) or by loss of the ability to use
examine behaviour patterns before, during, and following the                  visual information in the control of movement (if gesture identification
implementation of a four week skill building training (SBT) package           is intact). In both cases, the model predicts deficits in imitation of
which targeted mental and social skills, among four Special Olympic           meaningless gestures. Our aim was to examine the frequency of such
track and field athletes with DD. The SBT package focused on                  cases and to establish if in fact these patients have deficits in
improving adaptive behaviours (positive self talk, leadership skills,         meaningless gestures imitation. In review of our database of stroke
focus and task involvement) and decrease maladaptive behaviours               patients with apraxia assessments, 74 right-handed patients had
(negative self talk and off task behaviours). Data was collected through      completed all four transitive tasks (pantomime, concurrent imitation,
mixed methods including frequency of observed behaviours, researcher          delayed imitation and gesture recognition) necessary to establish
field notes, and athlete interviews. Overall, the SBT was effective for all   conduction apraxia. Ten patients suffered from conduction apraxia
athletes. Specifically, athletes showed improvements and greater              (deficits in both concurrent and delayed imitation, but preserved
consistency in the adaptive behaviours of focus, task involvement,            pantomime): one left hemisphere damage (LHD) patient also had
positive self talk, and leadership qualities, as well as a decrease in        gesture identification deficits and nine (6 LHD, 3 right hemisphere
negative self-talk patterns and off task behaviours during the                damage (RHD)) had no gesture identification deficits. Nine out of these
intervention phase when compared to baseline; however, long-term              10 patients had deficits in both delayed and concurrent imitation of
effectiveness varied depending on the targeted behaviour and the athlete.     meaningless gestures, while one LHD patient had deficits in concurrent,
Findings are discussed within the context of Bandura’s Social Learning        but not delayed imitation.
Theory, and directions for future investigation are explored.                 Overall, these findings largely support the model, which predicts the
                                                                              occurrence of conduction apraxia should be associated with deficits in
                                                                              imitation of meaningless gestures. In addition, both left and right
                                                                              hemisphere damage caused this pattern suggesting that this process is
                                                                              bilaterally represented.
36
EXPLORING CORRELATES OF BOREDOM PRONENESS:                                      previous studies have examined the influence of emotionally abusive
ENJOYMENT OF WALKING, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND                                    coaching practices on the development of athletic expertise. This article
ESTIMATES OF WALKING DISTANCES                                                  presents athlete’s perceptions of the influence of emotionally abusive
Jodie A Stearns1 John C Spence1                                                 coaching practices on their development in sport. Methods were
1
  University of Alberta                                                         established in congruence with the methodology of grounded theory.
                                                                                Data were gleaned from open-ended interviews with 14 retired elite
The purpose of this research was to explore the relation of boredom             athletes, 6 males and 8 females, from a variety of sports. Recorded
proneness to enjoyment of walking (EW), self-reported physical activity         interview sessions were transcribed verbatim and themes were coded
(PA; i.e., METS-walking and Total PA), and estimates of time required           from the transcripts using open, axial, and selective coding techniques
to walk 1, 2, 3, and 5 kms. Boredom proneness, or a tendency to lack            (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). The data were interpreted to suggest that
interest and motivation, involves two main components, internal and             athletes’ experiences of emotional abuse were perceived to influence
external stimulation. Those high on internal stimulation (IS) have              their motivation, self-confidence, commitment, and achievement
difficulty maintaining interest and keeping themselves entertained, while       outcomes in sport. Several findings are supported by previous research.
those high on external stimulation (ES) are in constant need of novel and       Recommendations are made for future research.
challenging opportunities within their environment. A survey was
administered to 64 undergraduate students (22 males, 43 females) at the         COMPARING INDIVIDUAL REACTIONS TO EXERCISE
University of Alberta (M age = 23.12, SD = 5.59). Significant                   IDENTITY CONSISTENCY AND INCONSISTENCY: A TEST OF
associations were observed between IS and EW (r = .31, p < .05) and             IDENTITY THEORY PREDICTIONS
total PA (r = .25, p < .05) while a small but non-significant relationship      Shaelyn M Strachan1 Mélanie G Perras1 Larry R Brawley2 Kevin S
existed with METS-walking (r = .23, p = .06). Conversely, ES was                Spink2
                                                                                1
significantly associated with overestimates of time required to walk 1 (r         University of Ottawa 2University of Saskatchewan
= .33, p < .05), 2 (r = .33, p < .05) and 5 kms (r = .32, p < .05) and
yielded small but non-significant relations with 3 kms (r = .22, p = .13).      According to Identity Theory, individuals react differently when they
In conclusion, students, who have difficulty keeping themselves                 perceive their behaviour to be consistent versus inconsistent with their
entertained and interested, tend to enjoy walking and report larger             identity. Inconsistent judgments are associated with negative affect,
amounts of PA. Those who are in constant need of entertainment from             decreased self-efficacy and motivation for identity-relevant behaviour;
their environment tend to overestimate the amount of time it takes to           consistent judgments are associated with low negative affect, enhanced
walk 1, 2, and 5 kms.                                                           self-efficacy and maintained motivation. Strength of identity influences
                                                                                the magnitude of reactions. This study compared individuals’ reactions
STARTLE REACTION TIME IS NOT MODULATED BY                                       to judgments of exercise identity-behaviour consistency and
EMOTIONAL VALENCE                                                               inconsistency. Participants in this 2 (consistency judgement) x 2
Andrew J Stevenson1 Dana Maslovat1 Ian M Franks1                                (high/low exercise identity) factorial design were 79 university students
1
  School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia                      who judged themselves as consistent and inconsistent with their identity
                                                                                at two different time points. At both times, participants completed
Studies have reported increased activity in motor cortical areas during         measures of exercise identity, self-efficacy, affect, intentions for
emotional processing. Additionally, exposure to unpleasant emotional            exercise, past exercise and perceptions of consistency. MANOVA
images, as compared with pleasant and neutral images, has been shown            procedures revealed significant judgment (p < .001) and identity main
to accelerate premotor reaction times (PRT) of upper limb ballistic             effects (p < .001). Consistency judgments were associated with greater
extension movements. In the present study, we examined the effects of           percent consistency, past exercise, and self-efficacy for future exercise
an auditory startling stimulus during exposure to unpleasant, as                than were inconsistency judgments (p’s < .04). High exercise identity
compared with pleasant, neutral and blank images. An auditory startling         individuals reported more exercise and greater self-efficacy than low
stimulus has been shown to accelerate simple reaction times to latencies        identity individuals (p’s <. 001). An interaction was also detected (p
(<65 ms) too fast to invoke cortical activity, leading to the subcortical       <.02). Individuals reported greater negative affect when they judged
storage and triggering hypothesis (Valls-Solé et al., 1999; Carlsen et al.,     themselves to be inconsistent than consistent and this effect was stronger
2004). Thus, we hypothesized that any PRT differences due to emotion            for high identity individuals (p < .001). Also, while high identity
would be absent during startle trials. Analyses revealed no difference in       individuals reported similar intentions for exercise regardless of their
PRTs for unpleasant, neutral and pleasant images for control tone (82           consistency judgment, low identity people reported greater intentions
dB) trials, but all three categories were significantly faster than trials      when they judged themselves to be consistent (p < .09). Findings
when a blank screen was present, a result we attributed to attention            support Identity Theory predictions in the context of exercise.
mechanisms. Following startle tone (124 dB) trials, there were no
differences in PRT for all four conditions (unpleasant, neutral, pleasant       Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
and blank); however, PRTs were accelerated compared to control tone
trials. These results suggest that differences due to cortical activities are   TRAINING DIFFERENCES AND SELECTION IN A TALENT
not present when a startling stimulus is used.                                  IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
                                                                                Bernd Strauß1 Joe Baker2 Sebastian Bagats1 Dirk Büsch3 Jörg Schorer1
                                                                                1
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by NSERC                            Westfälische Wilhelms-University Münster, Germany 2York University
                                                                                Toronto 3Institute of Applied Training Science Leipzig, Germany
INFLUENCES OF EMOTIONALLY ABUSIVE COACHING
PRACTICES ON ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT                                                Contemporary models of human expertise (e.g., Ericsson, Nandagopal,
Ashley E Stirling1                                                              & Roring, 2009; Howe, Davidson, & Sloboda, 1998) emphasize the
1
  University of Toronto                                                         crucial role that experience and training play in skill acquisition.
                                                                                However, the value of different forms of training across development is
Previous research has indicated that experiences of emotional abuse             not clear. This study compared training histories of young athletes who
exist in sport (Gervis & Dunn, 2004; Gravely & Cochran, 1995; Kirby,            were selected (n = 65) during talent identification camps with athletes
Greaves & Hankivsky, 2000; Stirling & Kerr, 2007, 2008), and that               from the same camps who were not-selected (n = 64). Participants
emotionally abusive coaching practices are often rationalized as a              completed a telephone interview that collected information about
necessary means for athlete development (Palframan, 1994; Stirling &            handball specific training as well as general training in other sports. As
Kerr, 2007, 2009; Tomlinson & Yorganci, 1997). Interestingly, no                hypothesized, selected players had different training profiles than those
37
not-selected, although these effects were restricted to females. More         Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the Social Sciences
specifically, selected females performed more sport-specific training         Research Council of Canada
than their not-selected counterparts and had greater involvement in
sports outside their area of expertise (i.e., non-sport-specific training).   INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF BIRTH PLACE AND
These results suggest training behaviors can distinguish between skill        DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ELITE ATHLETE
levels even within a single step along the athlete development pathway,       DEVELOPMENT.
at least in females. Furthermore, they suggest that non-specific training     Mark W Surya1 Mark W Bruner1 Dany J MacDonald1 Jean Côté 1
                                                                              1
may have value during early athlete development. The inconsistent               Queen's University
effects across sex groups highlight the need to control for sex in
examinations of expertise development. Further work is necessary to           Previous research has reported an overrepresentation of elite athletes
confirm these results in other populations.                                   born in small city centers (Côté et al., 2006). However, little is known
                                                                              about the developmental opportunities that smaller cities offer to
THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE, COMPETITIVE, AND                                  promote elite athlete development. The purpose of this study was to
INDIVIDUALISTIC GOALS ON BEHAVIOR, PERFORMANCE,                               quantitatively compare the organized and non-organized sport activities
AND GOAL ORIENTATIONS                                                         of elite athletes from different birth place sizes. Participants included 37
Cheryl P Stuntz1 Kelly E Garwood1                                             CIS athletes (n small city=15; nlarge city=22). A retrospective semi-structured
1
  St. Lawrence University                                                     interview guide was used to compare the developmental sport activities
                                                                              of the athletes from larger (>100,000) and smaller (<100,000) cities. A
While most work on motivational climate in physical activity contexts         discriminant function analysis (DFA) was conducted wherein four
examines only mastery and performance climates (e.g., Duda &                  developmental activities (organized sport activity, sport camps, non-
Balaguer, 2007), a look to earlier and current work in the educational        organized sport activity in school, non-organized sport activity out of
domain (e.g., Ames, 1984; Roseth, Johnson, & Johnson, 2008)                   school) were entered as predictors of the athlete’s developmental
demonstrates the need to examine cooperative climates as well.                environment (larger/smaller cities). Results revealed that the four
Cooperative climates emphasize working together to reach group goals.         developmental activities significantly discriminated between athletes
The current study examined the influence of assigned individualistic,         from larger and smaller cities, Wilks’ Lambda =.441, p<.001. An
competitive, and cooperative goals on behavior, performance, and task,        examination of the standardized discriminant function coefficients
ego, and cooperative goal orientations. College students (N =198) were        revealed that participants from smaller cities engaged in more non-
randomly assigned to experimental conditions. After hearing the               organized (i.e. deliberate play) activities in comparison with participants
assigned goal, participants played prisoner’s dilemma tasks and               from larger cities. Findings from this study provide evidence that
completed questions assessing task, ego, and cooperative goal                 varying developmental activities can lead to elite athlete development.
orientations. Results showed that the cooperative group participants used     Recommendations for future research examining the benefits of non-
significantly fewer competitive behaviors and scored more points than         organized sport participation are presented.
competitive and individualistic group participants did, even after
controlling for partner’s behavior and points scored. Cooperative group       PATTERNS OF MOTIVATION AND ONGOING EXERCISE
participants also defined success in terms of working with partners more      ACTIVITY IN CARDIAC REHABILITATION SETTINGS. A 24-
than competitive and individualistic group participants did; task and ego     MONTH EXPLORATION FROM THE TEACH STUDY
orientations did not vary between the three groups. As social                 Shane N Sweet1 Heather Tulloch2 Michelle S Fortier1 Andrew L
orientations generally predict beneficial motivation-related outcomes         Pipe2 Robert D Reid2
                                                                              1
(e.g., Hodge, Allen, & Smellie, 2008; Stuntz & Weiss, 2009), promoting          University of Ottawa 2University of Ottawa Heart Institute
a cooperative atmosphere in sport appears to have multiple benefits.
                                                                              Few studies have explored exercise and motivational patterns of cardiac
VALIDATING A SCALE OF YOUTH SPORT COACHING                                    rehabilitation patients in the long term. The first purpose of this study
EFFECTIVENESS.                                                                was to explore if differential patterns of exercise exists in cardiac
Philip Sullivan1 Tammy Whitaker-Campbell1 Nicholas Holt2 Gordon               rehabilitation patients over a 24-month period. A second aim was to
Bloom3                                                                        examine the trajectories of motivational constructs and their relationship
1
  Brock University 2University of Alberta 3McGill University                  with emerging patterns of exercise. Cardiac rehabilitation patients
                                                                              (n=251) completed an exercise, barrier self-efficacy, outcome
Coaching in youth sport has been recognized to have tremendous impact         expectations and self-determined motivation questionnaire over a 2-year
on the beliefs and behaviors of the athletes. Although coaching               period. Latent class growth modeling was used to classify patients in
behavior is mediated by the perceptions of youth sport participants           different exercise and motivational patterns. Three exercise patterns
(Horn, 2008; Smith & Smoll, 2002), coaching effectiveness is typically        emerged: inactive, non-maintainers and maintainers (16%; 67% and
measured through either the self-assessment of coaches or the objective       17% of sample per pattern, respectively). Multiple trajectories were
recording of behaviors. One scale that was designed to assess coaching        found for barrier self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-
from the athlete perspective is the Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport         determined motivation (3, 5, and 4, respectively). Analyses showed that
(CBS-S; Côté et al., 1999). However, the scale has not been used much         patients in high barrier self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and self-
in the research literature and does not appear to have been validated as a    determined groups had greater probability of being in the maintainer
measure of coaching effectiveness. The current study investigated the         exercise group. This study demonstrated that cardiac rehabilitation
psychometric properties and validity of the CBS-S with a sample of 315        participants vary significantly in maintaining exercise patterns over a
youth sport participants. Analyses examined the assumptions of                24-month period. Identifying a patient’s motivational profile could help
multivariate data analysis (i.e., multicollinearity), convergent validity,    cardiac rehabilitation programs tailor their intervention to optimize the
and factor structure of the scale. These procedures resulted in a             potential for continued exercise activity.
modified 24-item CBS-S that measures coaching effectiveness with
respect to four interrelated factors – physical training and conditioning,    Acknowledgements: Research supported grant from the Heart and
technical skills, mental preparation, and competition strategies. The         Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HBR 4600). Shane N. Sweet was
scale shows acceptable factor structure (CFI = .933, RMSEA = .044),           supported by a doctoral fellowship from the Social Science and
and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas ranging from .72 - .88).          Humanities Research Council of Canada.
The result is a simple, valid and reliable instrument to assess youth sport
coaching effectiveness from the athletes’ perspective.
38
INTEGRATING SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY AND SELF-                               Acknowledgements: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
EFFICACY THEORY TO PREDICT 4-MONTH PHYSICAL                                   Council of Canada
ACTIVITY IN CARDIAC REHABILITATION PARTICIPANTS
Shane N Sweet1 Michelle S Fortier1                                            A GROUNDED THEORY OF THE ROLE OF SOCIAL AGENTS
1
  University of Ottawa                                                        IN ADOLESCENT ATHLETES’ PROCESS OF LEARNING TO
                                                                              COPE
Although Self-Determination Theory and Self-Efficacy Theory are               Katherine A Tamminen1 Nicholas L Holt1
                                                                              1
prominent in the physical activity (PA) literature, there has been a recent     University of Alberta
call for theory comparison and integration (Noar & Zimmerman, 2005).
This study sought to test a longitudinal integrated model of these two        The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory of
theories in order to predict PA at the end of a 4-month cardiac               adolescent athletes’ process of learning to cope and the role of parents
rehabilitation program. Participants (N = 109) answered self-report           and coaches within this process. Interviews were conducted with 17
questionnaires for self-determination and self-efficacy variables, as well    athletes (8 females, 9 males, M age = 15.6 years) 10 parents (8 mothers,
as for PA over the 4-month period. Data were analyzed using AMOS to           2 fathers), and 7 male coaches. Interviews were analysed using
assess the path analysis and model fit. Prior to integration, perceived       grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). The core
competence and self-efficacy were combined and labeled as confidence,         category of learning to cope was an experiential process for adolescent
as one factor emerged from a factor analysis. After controlling for 2-        athletes, suggesting that athletes must gain personal experience in
month PA and cardiac rehabilitation site, self-determined motivation          dealing with stressors in order to learn how to cope. Athletes learned
was the sole predictor of 4-month PA, however this relationship was           about coping by being exposed to multiple situations in their sport and
negative (beta= -.20, p = .01). Although confidence did not predict 4-        by reflecting on their stressors and coping efforts. Parents and coaches
month PA, it had a strong relationship with 2-month PA (beta= .34, p <        helped athletes learn to cope by creating a trusting environment which
.001) and mediated the outcome expectation - PA relationship. Results         facilitated the learning process, and by using specific strategies for
diverged from theoretical predictions as self-determined motivation           assistance which included: questioning and reminding, sharing
negatively predicted PA. In addition, self-efficacy theory variables          experiences, providing perspective, ‘dosing’ stress experiences,
influenced PA cross-sectionnally rather than longitudinally in this study,    initiating informal discussions, direct instruction, and creating learning
suggesting that these construct may have a more proximal impact on            opportunities. Parents and coaches also negotiated a number of
behaviour. The contrary nature of these results will be discussed.            ‘balancing acts’ which influenced the creation of a trusting environment
                                                                              as well as the specific strategies they used to help athletes learn to cope.
Acknowledgements: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council             Learning about coping appeared to be characterized by an athlete’s
of Canada funded the research project and a doctoral fellowship for           ability to flexibly use coping strategies in an independent and persistent
Shane N. Sweet                                                                manner.

THE EFFECT OF COLD EXPOSURE ON OLDER AND                                      Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a Doctoral
YOUNGER ADULTS' HAPTIC PERCEPTION AND MANUAL                                  Scholarship from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
PERFORMANCE                                                                   of Canada and a Human Performance Grant from the University of
Panteha Tajmir1 Nasim Mohajeri2 Lawrence E Grierson 3 Heather                 Alberta.
Carnahan4
1
  Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy,                DOES PROPRIOCEPTION DIFFER DURING A FORCE
University of Toronto 2The SickKids Learning Institute, The Hospital for      MATCHING TASK IN PD PATIENTS WHO EXPERIENCE
Sick Children, Toronto, ON 3Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto,        FREEZING OF GAIT?
Ontario: The SickKids Learning Institute, The Hospital for Sick               Tracy Tan1 Quincy J Almeida1 Fariborz Rahimi2
Children, Toronto, ON 4Department of Occupational Science and                 1
                                                                                Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research & Rehabilitation
Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto; Toronto Rehabilitation           Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University 2Department of Electrical
Institute, Toronto, Ontario                                                   Engineering, University of Waterloo

Research has demonstrated that older adults have a lower capacity to          It has been suggested that a proprioceptive deficit may exist in
maintain core temperature and have lower cutaneous thermal sensitivity        Parkinson’s disease (PD); however proprioception has not been studied
than younger adults when exposed to colder environments. Reduced              in those who experience freezing of gait (FOG). Proprioception was
haptic acuity in this population may lead to an increased number of           investigated through stimulation of proprioceptive receptors via patellar
delays, errors, and frustrations in achieving everyday tasks like             tendon vibration. In a force matching task to either 10% or 30% MVC,
preparing a subway token, or replacing a hearing aid. A vast number of        response to vibration with and without vision of a force target was
studies on the impact of cold temperature have examined the                   compared between 15 PD with FOG (PD FOG), 15 PD without FOG
performance of humans interacting with cold objects at room                   (PD non FOG), and 15 non-PD control participants (Controls). In a 15-
temperature. However, because cold is commonly experienced                    second trial, vision of the target was provided for the first 10 seconds
environmentally, it is imperative to develop a deeper understanding of        but in the last 5 seconds, four conditions were possible: i) vision, no
how immersion in cold influences haptic performance. In this study            vibration; ii) vision, vibration; iii) no vision, no vibration; or iv) no
healthy older and younger volunteers participated in a battery of haptic      vision, vibration. The expected healthy response to vibration was an
functioning, perceptual acuity, and psychomotor performance tests at          overshoot of the target. With vibration, a non-significant overshoot was
room temperature (21oC) and in a simulated cold weather environment           found in Controls and no response was found in PD non FOG. When
(1oC). Our data suggest that, in general, older individuals perform           vision was removed, neither Controls nor PD non FOG significantly
poorer than younger individuals on tests of manual dexterity and haptic       undershot the target. Interestingly, in the PD FOG group, undershooting
acuity regardless of temperature. However, these decrements are               was found with both the addition of vibration (F(2,42)=5.27,p
exacerbated for tests of uni-manual and bimanual visuomotor
coordination when performed in the cold. The results are discussed in
regards to the impact cold weather may have on the occupational
performance of older adults.
39
FORCE AND TIME CONTROL IN BIMANUAL FINGER FORCE                              BODY CHECKING EXPOSED: A QUALITATIVE LOOK AT
PRODUCTION                                                                   THE ROLE OF BODY CHECKING IN YOUTH HOCKEY
Amanda S Therrien1 Ramesh Balasubramaniam1                                   Kim A Thompson1
1                                                                            1
  McMaster University                                                          University of Ottawa

Central predictive mechanisms cause self-produced forces to be               In sport, including hockey, overly aggressive behaviours have been
perceived as weaker leading to a compensatory, over production of the        excused because they occur within a contact sport (Eitzen, 2006).
force magnitudes required when there is no reference. Earlier work has       Through experience and reinforcement as their participation in sport
focused on the serial production of unimanual forces, but the influence      increases, young athletes learn to integrate aggression into their style of
of visual feedback in the bimanual production of forces remains less         play (Loughead & Leith, 2001). Players’ toughness and willingness to
clear. Evidence has been found for synergistic activation of the desired     “pay the price” are often expected and praised within the hockey world
musculature in both rhythmic coordination and multi-effector force           (Theberge, 1997). Although these unwritten rules are not formulated
production tasks. These synergies served to minimize variability and         into an explicit code that can be read from start to finish, they are still
stabilize performance variables of interest. In this study, we examined      part of an informal set of understandings that are used not only by
the effect of timing constraints on repetitive unimanual and bimanual        players but also often appear to be promoted and emphasized by coaches
force production sequences. Participants produced series of pinch grip       and parents. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how parents and
forces in time to a metronome and to visually specified force                players deal with prevailing pressures of integrating and accepting body
magnitudes. Periodically, the metronome, visual feedback of force            checking in competitive youth hockey. More specifically, the paper
output or both were removed 10 s in to the trail, with participants          presents findings from an in-depth case study of one “Peewee AA” (11-
performing continued responses for the remaining 20 s. In continuation       12 years old) boys’ hockey team in which the perceptions of parents and
trials, a negative lag-1 autocorrelation in the inter-response intervals     players in relation to body checking are explored. While Hockey
(IRIs) was observed as is commonly seen in motor timing research.            Canada(2010) states that when correctly taught, body checking can
Removal of visual feedback however, resulted in an increase in the force     enhance a player’s enjoyment of the game, the findings of this study are
magnitudes produced as well as an increase in variability in the             inconsistent with the aforementioned statement. Despite players’
bimanual condition. We suggest that attenuation of sensory signals           apprehensions, body checking was encouraged for what it explicitly
occurs for the two limbs equally and the resulting perceptual errors are     symbolizes in terms of portraying desired competitive character,
compensated independently resulting in an increase in force magnitude        winning hockey games, as well as characterizing young players’
from the collective effort of both effectors.                                masculinity. Clearly, body checking was one symbol that inferred
                                                                             various meanings, depending on the situation, the audience, as well as
Acknowledgements: NSERC, CRC, all members of SNL Lab at                      the purpose.
McMaster University
                                                                             Acknowledgements: Dr. Janice Ahola-Sidaway, Thesis Supervisor
HOW MUCH IS TOO MUCH? THE CULTURE OF
COMPETITIVE YOUTH HOCKEY                                                     SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF BALANCE CONTROL AND
Kim A Thompson1                                                              POSTURAL ADAPTATION WITH AND WITHOUT THE
1
  University of Ottawa                                                       ADDITION OF DIFFERENT DEGREES OF COGNITIVE
                                                                             LOADING IN HEALTHY CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS
The evolution of youth sport programs, including hockey, has resulted in     Jodi Trapp1 Eryk Przysucha1
                                                                             1
the creation of adult-controlled organizations (Fiore, 2003), whereby          Lakehead University
children and their parents are the product of an entire social system of
youth hockey, one that is largely created, organized, and run by adults      The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different degrees
(Robinson, 1998). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the                of cognitive loading on balance control and postural adaptations in ten
involvement of parents in creating and sustaining the youth hockey           children (8-10 years of age) and ten university aged adults. A 2 (children
culture and questions at which point, if ever, does competitive youth        versus adults) x 2 (quiet standing versus lean task) x 3 (cognitive task 1
hockey become too much? The paper presents findings from an in-depth         versus cognitive task 2 versus no cognitive task) mixed factorial design
case study of one “Peewee AA” boys’ hockey team. Qualitative data            with repeated measures on the last two factors was used. An AMTI force
were gathered through participant-observation, direct observation, and       platform recorded the Center of Pressure (COP) movement. Traditional
interviews throughout a full season timeline. Findings showed that youth     measures included area of sway (Ao), path length (L), anterior-
hockey becomes a “lifestyle”, whereby the demands were remarkably            posterior(AP) and lateral sway (Lt). Fourier analysis was used to
comparable to that of a professional endeavour, allotting minimal time       compute frequency and power distributions of postural sway. The
for “kids to be kids”. Goffman (1961) used the concept of ‘total             balance tasks included quiet standing assessing balance control, and a
institution’ to refer to an isolated, enclosed social system, in which       leaning task used for the assessment of postural adaptations. The leaning
individuals spend their time and have limited physical and social contact    task required participants to lean as far as possible forward and
with the outside world. The competitive youth hockey environment,            backward, from the vertical, while maintaining balance. Object
commonly dictated by hegemony and hierarchy, implicitly maintained a         identification and numeric classification task were used to manipulate
hold on families. Although parents were cognizant of the consequences        the degree of cognitive loading. A total of 18 trials were completed by
such a hectic schedule incurs, including early specialization, sibling       each participant with each trial lasting 20 seconds. The results will be
sacrifices, physical and emotional fatigue, as well as time away from the    discussed in the context of current theories of motor control as applied
family household, they rationalized the abundance of ‘hockey time’ as        to attention and control of posture.
“it is what it is”. But is this truly in the best interest of young hockey
players?                                                                     A TEST OF THE 2 X 2 MODEL OF PERFECTIONISM: WELL-
                                                                             BEING IN THE SPORT DOMAIN
Acknowledgements: Dr. Janice Ahola-Sidaway, Thesis Supervisor                Jérémie Verner-Filion1 Patrick Gaudreau2 Véronique Franche2
                                                                             1
                                                                               Université du Québec à Montréal 2University of Ottawa

                                                                             The 2 x 2 model of dispositional perfectionism posits that four within-
                                                                             person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed
                                                                             perfectionism (i.e., high/high, high/low, low/high, low/low) can be
40
distinguished on the basis of their distinct etiological and functional            eccentricity. Notably, detailed analyses of reach trajectories indicated
features. The goal of this study was to examine whether subtypes of                that the observed MFR could not be attributed to differences in the
perfectionism are distinctively associated with subjective well-being              online control of the movement. Thus, our results suggest that retinal
(i.e., positive affect, subjective vitality, and life-satisfaction) in the sport   motion signals require some minimum time to be incorporated into a
domain. A sample of 208 athletes, aged from 14 to 28 years (M                      response and/or that a critical movement amplitude is required to elicit
= 18.30, SD = 3.25), completed the short form of the Multidimensional              the MFR. Moreover, our results provide the first direct evidence that the
Perfectionism Scale (Cox, Enns & Clara, 2002), the 10-item positive                elicitation of the MFR is not attributed to putative differences in online
affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson,              control.
Clark & Tellegen, 1998), the Subjective Vitality Scale (Ryan &
Frederick, 1997) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (Pavot & Diener,             RELATIVE AGE EFFECTS AND ELITE CANADIAN WOMEN’S
1993). Results of moderated multiple regression analyses provided                  ICE HOCKEY
support for the hypotheses of this model. Pure self-oriented                       Patricia L Weir1 Kristy L Smith1 Chelsea Paterson1 Sean Horton1
                                                                                   1
perfectionism was associated with equally high levels of positive affect             Department of Kinesiology, University of Windsor
and vitality, and to significantly higher levels of life-satisfaction
compared to non-perfectionism. Furthermore, pure socially prescribed               The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes born earlier in a
perfectionism was associated with significantly lower levels of positive           sport’s selection year are advantaged in terms of selection and playing
affect, vitality, and life-satisfaction compared to other subtypes of              opportunities. While prevalent in men’s sports, little work has been
perfectionism. This study provided initial support for the tenets of the 2         directed at examining the RAE in women’s sports. The studies to date
x 2 model of perfectionism in the sport domain.                                    present an equivocal pattern of findings across a variety of women’s
                                                                                   sports and competition levels. The purpose of the present study was to
ANGULAR MOMENTUM REGULATION DURING A BALLET                                        examine the prevalence of RAEs in elite Canadian women’s ice hockey.
TURN AS A BALANCE CONTROL INDICATOR                                                Relative age and player position information on 660 female hockey
Coren Walters-Stewart1 Gholamreza Rouhi1 Gordon E Robertson1                       players, across two levels of playing competition, were gathered from
1
  University of Ottawa                                                             the Hockey Canada website. The chi-square analyses revealed no
                                                                                   differences in the distribution of relatively older and younger players
In contrast to walking, during which angular momentum is ultimately                across the levels of competition, and overall there was a higher
used for locomotion[1], in ballet, when performing a turn, angular                 proportion of players born in Q2 (32.88%) than in Q4 (16.82%). Within
momentum is used to accomplish a rotation. This study characterizes the            the context of player position, both forwards and defense followed this
mechanisms used by a dancer to generate and control angular                        same distribution. While different than the patterning of RAEs seen in
momentum and quantifies the transfer of angular momentum                           men’s hockey, the overall trend is similar in that opportunities for
throughout. Our results demonstrate that the period during which the               females to participate at an elite level are concentrated among relatively
heel makes contact with the ground is an important domain of analysis              older players. The mechanism underlying this distribution is not related
in considering the dancer’s ability to develop angular momentum about              to maturational differences in height and weight. We anticipate that the
the main axis of the turn. In addition, significant transfers of angular           increasing growth and popularity of women’s ice hockey will result in
momentum occur between the extended leg and the trunk as a result of               the RAE becoming even more pronounced at all levels of participation.
the technique in which the extended leg leads the turn. While the
principal motion of the turn occurs about the z-axis, considerable                 Acknowledgements: Hockey Canada
changes in momentum (thus, an external moment) occur in the axes
parallel to the ground, as well. Yet, the balance of the dancer is                 ME, MYSELF, AND VIRTUAL I: USING IDEOMOTOR
maintained by continuously transferring momentum between the                       PRINCIPLES TO DESIGN A HUMAN-COMPUTER
mediolateral and anterioposterior axes. If angular momentum is not                 INTERFACE
transferred between these axes, external moments create torque about               Tim Welsh1 Sanjay Chandrasekharan2 Ali Mazalek3 Michael
the ankle joint and can cause the dancer to lose his or her balance. When          Nitsche3 Paul Clifton3 Andrew Quitmeyer3 Firaz Peer3 Friedrich
deviations from vertical result in a torque about the ankle joint, the body        Kirschner3
                                                                                   1
is further accelerated from a stable upright position similar to a tripping          Faculty of Physical Education & Health, University of Toronto 2School
situation[2]. A counteracting torque is required to arrest and reverse the         of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology3Digital
torque created by a gravitational force component.                                 Media Program, Georgia Institute of Technology

THE MANUAL FOLLOWING RESPONSE: IN-MOTION OR                                        The field of human-computer interaction (HCI) is in a period of rapid
STATIONARY BACKGROUND CUES DO NOT INFLUENCE                                        development. Tangible and embodied interfaces, in which the fingers
THE ONLINE CONTROL OF REACHING MOVEMENTS                                           and/or body are used to manipulate virtual objects, are gaining in
Jeffrey T Weiler1 Matthew Heath2                                                   popularity in many computing contexts. Because these new interfaces
1
  The University of Western Ontario 2The University of Western Ontario             offer a more direct sensori-motor mapping than conventional mouse- or
                                                                                   keyboard-based interfaces, it is becoming increasingly important for
A number of researchers have demonstrated that retinal motion signals              HCI designers to consider fundamental aspects of the interaction
influence goal-directed reaches in the direction of the observed motion:           between perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. With this in mind,
a behavioral phenomenon referred to as the manual following response               we have employed empirical and theoretical advances in ideomotor
(MFR). In the present study, we sought to determine if retinal motion              theory to shape the development of a new embodied interface. The
cues influence online reaching control as well as determine if target              interface was designed to more effectively map the whole body
eccentricities influence the MFR. Participants completed mediolateral              movements of a user onto the movements of a virtual representation of
reaches to briefly presented (i.e., 150 ms) targets (eccentricities: 10.2          the user (avatar). It was thought that translating the user’s movements to
and 19.5 cm) within a stationary, left or rightward moving (50°/s)                 the avatar would facilitate performance and allow the user to more easily
random dot kinematogram. Target onset served as the movement                       relate to the avatar and the virtual world. The present paper reports a
imperative cue and occurred in time with activation of background                  testing of the new interface in which the user made an avatar complete a
motion. Results indicated that reaction times increased with increasing            series of aiming movements (using both limbs) to virtual targets that
target eccentricity; however, the different background motion conditions           appeared in random locations using the embodied, joystick, or keyboard
did not modulate this effect. In addition, left and right background               interface. The embodied interface provided clear accuracy and response
motion cues elicited a reliable MFR, but only for the 19.5 cm target               time advantages over keyboard and joystick interfaces. These data
41
suggest that an embodied mapping of actions to virtual worlds is               .55), whereas social constraints (β = .34) and personal investments (.32)
superior to mappings based on keyboards or joysticks.                          predicted obligatory commitment (OC; R2 = .22), ps< .001. Regarding
                                                                               gender, females reported higher enjoyment and FC levels, ps < .006. A
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by grants from                   series of regression analyses to examine gender effects revealed no
NSERC and NSF.                                                                 differences for predictors of FC, with enjoyment (β m = .51; f = .26) and
                                                                               personal investments (m = .35; f = .54) significant. Personal investments
BIO/NEUROFEEDBACK: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR                                       (m = .39; f = .26) and social constraints (m = .26; f = .46) predicted OC
ATHLETE PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION LEADING UP                                   for both, whereas enjoyment (-.22) and involvement alternatives (-.25)
TO AND DURING THE 2010 WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES                                    uniquely predicted female and male levels, respectively, ps < .04.
Penny C Werthner1 Margaret Dupee1                                              Exploration of differences across young (35-44), middle (45-54) and
1
  University of Ottawa                                                         older (55+ yr) age groups showed no significant mean differences for
                                                                               predictors, FC or OC. Regression analyses showed similar results for FC
Bio/neurofeedback training targets the development of an athlete’s             across all groups, with enjoyment and personal investments significant
psychological skills, such as focus, management of anxiety, and                predictors, ps < .05. The OC model did not fit the 55+ group (p = .15).
recovery/relaxation ability in order to enhance overall performance.           Social constraints (β y= .54; mid = .26), personal investments (y= .34;
Focus training provides tools for the athlete to help them develop             mid = .44), and enjoyment (y = -.34; mid = -.31) each predicted OC for
alertness and concentration and manage emotions, fears and distractions.       the two younger groups, whereas social support (-.29) and involvement
Anxiety management training equips the athlete with skills to shift into a     opportunities (.28) were predictors only for 35–44 yr-olds, ps <.05.
parasympathetic dominant state at will and regulate, or turn off, the
stress response. Training to engage the body in deep relaxation serves to      Acknowledgements: Supported by a SSHRC-Sport Canada Strategic
release stress from the nervous system. In the present study, funded           Initiative Grant
byOwn The Podium (OTP), 16 athletes were trained for 30-45 hours,
using bio/neurofeedback instrumentation to learn to control                    CAN MOTOR SKILLS BE LEARNED BY PLAYING A VIDEO
physiological and neurological function. Sensors were attached to the          GAME?
body for the purpose of acquiring biological and neurological signals          Camille Williams1 Alex Margarit2 Heather Carnahan3
                                                                               1
such as those produced by muscles, sweat glands, body temperature,               Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science & Wilson Centre,
respiration, and heart rhythm (i.e. biofeedback modalities) and                University of Toronto 2Department of Computer Science, University of
brainwaves (i.e. neurofeedback modality). Each of the 16 athletes who          Toronto 3Department of Occuational Science and Occupational Therapy
participated in the three year study improved their overall ability to self-   & Wilson Centre, University of Toronto
regulate. Most improvement was in self-regulation of respiration rate,
muscle tension and peripheral body temperature. The electrodermal              Personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, gowns and masks,
response (arousal regulation) and heart rate variability ranges did not        are intended to minimize risk of exposure to infections and are
reach the required criteria consistently, indicating that work would need      sometimes misused due to improper acquisition of skills or decay of
to be continued on those modalities.                                           skills between acquisition and clinical practice. Training and assessment
                                                                               of these skills often follow didactic models or online instruction. Our
THE PERCEPTUAL SIZE-WEIGHT ILLUSION DOES NOT                                   purpose was to develop an interactive computer simulation or video
REQUIRE INCORRECT EXPECTATIONS ABOUT OBJECT                                    game that will enable procedural practice of PPE skills. The salient
MASS                                                                           features of the skill were determined using the Delphi method.
Justin A White1 David A Westwood1                                              Electronic surveys were iteratively distributed to experts asking them to
1
  School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University                 rate the importance of checklist and global rating items for evaluating
                                                                               performance of PPE skills. The Delphi survey highlighted the
Here we show that a perceptual size-weight illusion can occur even             importance of including hand hygiene, risk assessment and PPE
when participants show no expectation that the masses of the two               sequencing into the simulation. In addition the survey informed the
objects ought to be different, calling into question the validity of           design of the video game that considered principles of skill learning and
expectation-mismatch accounts of the illusion. In the critical                 performance in its design. The simulation allowed users to practice
experimental group, participants lifted a large and small object with the      using PPE in isolation as well as selecting and using PPE for specific
same mass but different colors. Unlike a group who lifted objects with         clinical scenarios and enabled procedural practice of PPE skills in the
the same colors, participants in the different color group showed              absence of scheduling difficulty and space for physical practice.
equivalent grasping dynamics for the two objects on the first lifting          Comparison of donning and doffing PPE both before and after training
attempts, indicating that they did not hold incorrect expectations about       on the video game showed benefit to this type of video game simulation
object mass. Both groups showed an equally robust perceptual SWI over          training.
15 repeated lifts. The results from this study are consistent with a
density-based account of the perceptual SWI according to which                 Acknowledgements: This work was supported by funding to HC from
participants judge the heaviness of an object based on its density relative    NSERC and the BMO Financial Chair in Health Professions Education
to the norm for other members of its class.                                    Research

EXPLORING THE SPORT COMMITMENT OF REGIONAL-                                    BIRTH ORDER AND ATHLETIC ATTAINMENT
LEVEL MASTERS ATHLETES AS A FUNCTION OF GENDER                                 Robert T Williamson1 Kimberley Dawson2
                                                                               1
AND AGE                                                                          BSc Wilfrid Laurier University 2PhD Wilfrid Laurier University
Jennifer C Wigglesworth1 Bradley W Young1 Nikola Medic2
1
  University of Ottawa 2Edith Cowan University                                 Over the past several years, interest in the relationship between siblings
                                                                               and athletic performance has increased (Davis & Meyer, 2008). Athletes
The Sport Commitment Model (SCM; Scanlan et al., 2003) examines                become more prepared for higher levels of competition when competing
motivations behind continued sport participation. Using a modified             in sport with siblings and view competition against siblings different
SCM (Wilson et al., 2004), we surveyed 193 regional/provincial level           than competing against non-siblings (Davis & Meyer, 2008). Currently,
Ontario adults from mixed sport types (99 m, 94 f; Mage = 51.5). Two           there is a limited amount of research in the athletic area evaluating how
separate multiple regressions showed that enjoyment (β = .45) and              birth order affects sport attainment. The purpose of the present study
personal investments (.31) predicted functional commitment (FC; R2 =           was to evaluate the frequency of ordinal positions in varsity athletes. It
42
was hypothesized that later born siblings may have an advantage in their      return to their team in the following season (N=148; 10 teams). It was
sport development, and therefore, reach higher levels within sport.           predicted that higher PC perceptions would be associated with greater
Therefore, we would expect to see a greater representation at the varsity     intention to return. PC was assessed using a modified multidimensional
level. A sample of 87 varsity athletes (male n=44, female n=43) from          Psychological Climate Questionnaire (Brown & Leigh, 1996) and a 3-
various sports at a southern Ontario university were surveyed.                item intention to return measure. After controlling for players nested
Participants answered questions regarding their birth order, sport            within teams (ICC=.05), the results from a multilevel model revealed
participation with siblings, motivation to participate, and perceived sport   that intention to return the next season was predicted by the four
influence by siblings. Participants were classified as youngest, oldest, or   subscales of PC. Overall, this model explained 15% of the variance in
in the middle of their siblings. Using a chi-square, anticipated equal        intention to return, with most variance (12%) occurring at the player
representation was found for oldest siblings (x2 = 0.31, p=.90), an over      level. Two PC subscales significantly predicted intention to return –
representation was found for youngest siblings (x2 = 12.45, p<.05), and       role-clarity (b = .25, p < .001) and self-expression (b = .08, p < .05).
an under representation was found for middle children (x2 = 8.82,             These results are consistent with findings in other areas that role clarity
p<.05). Interestingly, no varsity athletes were found to be only              (Kahn, 1990) and an environment that encourages self-expression
children. The findings of this study suggest preliminary evidence that a      (James, 2008) are related to a climate that sustains personal engagement.
birth order effect exists in sport. Future studies are need to determine
the external validity of these findings and explain why the phenomenon        PERCEIVING TEAM AS SAFE AND MEANINGFUL: IS
occurs.                                                                       PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE ASSOCIATED WITH
                                                                              PERCEIVED EFFORT IN ELITE ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS?
A GROUP-MEDIATED COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL                                        Kathleen S Wilson1 Kevin S Spink1 Lawrence R Brawley1 Patrick
EXERCISE INTERVENTION FOR OBESE ADOLESCENTS                                   Odnokon2 Carly S Priebe1
                                                                              1
A. Justine Wilson1 Mary E Jung2 Anita G Cramp1 Jacqueline                       University of Saskatchewan 2Saskatchewan Health Research
Simatovic1 Harry Prapavessis1 Cheril Clarson1                                 Foundation
1
  The University of Western Ontario 2University of British Columbia
Okanagan                                                                      Psychological climate (PC) can be described as the extent to which
                                                                              individuals perceive their group to be a psychologically safe and
Physical activity (PA) has been identified as an essential component of       meaningful environment. Further, PC is thought to be related to the
effective weight loss programs for obese youth. The group-mediated            degree of personal engagement of the individual in that environment
cognitive-behavioural (GMCB) intervention model is based on social            (Brown & Leigh, 1996; James et al., 2008). The purpose of this study
cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and group dynamics literature                using elite hockey players was to examine the relationship between PC
(Cartwright, 1951) and was developed to teach individuals self-               and a form of personal engagement - perceived effort (PE), while
regulatory skills important in leading an independently active lifestyle.     accounting for the nesting of players within teams (ICC=.10). Prior to a
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a 12-week       practice near the end of the season, players (N=160; 8 teams) completed
exercise and GMCB intervention on obese adolescent’s PA behaviour,            a multidimensional measure of PC modified from an instrument used in
body composition and fitness at 13-weeks and 6-months post-                   the work setting (Brown & Leigh, 1996) and a 6-item PE measure
intervention. Fifty-five obese adolescents (female = 33, BMI ≥                developed for this study. A multilevel model procedure used 4 subscales
95thpercentile; 10-16 years) completed this intervention. Assessments         of PC to significantly predict PE, accounting for 18% of the variance,
consisted of the 7-day Physical Activity Recall interview (Blair, 1984),      most of which was individual level. Examination of the coefficients
dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, Balke VO2 max test, and maximal             revealed that the role clarity subscale of PC was the only significant
voluntary contractions for the upper and lower body. All variables were       predictor of PE, with greater perceptions of role clarity (b = 0.36, p =
assessed at baseline, 13-weeks and 6-months. Repeated measures                .003) associated with greater PE. These findings suggest that when a
MANOVAs were used to examine all data. Follow-up ANOVAs                       player perceived the team to be psychologically safe, he reported
indicated significant main effects for time in the expected direction for     working harder. Further, the emergence of role clarity as a key PC
both frequency,F(2, 52) = 17.72, p < .001, and volume of PA, F(2, 52) =       indicator was consistent with the suggestion that clear role expectations
6.03, p < .01; percent body fat, F(2, 72) = 14.88, p < .001; lower body       in a group are related to perceptions of a safe environment and to
strength,F(2, 76) = 3.14, p < .05; and VO2 max, F(2, 25) = 2.45, p < .05.     increased involvement (Kahn, 1990).
These findings suggest that an exercise program enhanced with GMCB
sessions can result in favourable, long-term physical outcomes in obese       THE VALUE OF JARVIS FOR STUDYING COACH LEARNING:
adolescents.                                                                  EXPLAINING HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER-COACHES’
                                                                              LEARNING PATHWAYS
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Social Sciences          Geoffrey Winchester1 Diane M Culver1
                                                                              1
and Health Research Council, The Lawson Foundation and The                      School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa
Children’s Health Foundation.
                                                                              The approximately 52,000 volunteer Canadian teacher-coaches do not
PLAYER PERCEPTIONS OF TEAM ENVIRONMENT:                                       require formal coach education and remain relatively unstudied. Thirty-
EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN                                            one Ontario high school teacher-coaches were interviewed. In Jarvis’
PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE AND INTENTION TO RETURN                                 theory of human learning, learning occurs when our life experiences
Kathleen S Wilson1 Kevin S Spink1 Lawrence R Brawley1 Patrick                 transform our biographical repertoires. Individuals receive information
Odnokon2 Carly S Priebe1                                                      via the senses, the perceived content of which can be transformed
1
  University of Saskatchewan 2Saskatchewan Health Research                    cognitively, emotively, and/or practically into knowledge and/or skills.
Foundation                                                                    Our analysis revealed three groups of teacher-coaches, each sharing
                                                                              important biographical experiences affecting their learning pathways.
Whether an individual chooses to engage in a situation is thought to be a     Rookie coaches lack experience in sport to reflect upon and practically
function of how it is perceived and interpreted (Kahn, 1990). If the          transform into coaching knowledge and skills. Their learning is mainly
situation is perceived to be psychologically safe and meaningful (i.e.,       future directed and intentional as they seek to cognitively transform the
positive psychological climate), then personal engagement is predicted.       information they seek from interactions with colleagues and other
As psychological climate (PC) has been associated with the intention of       sources like the Internet. Ex-varsity athlete coaches often learn to coach
individuals to stay with a group (Langkamer & Ervin, 2008), our study         through emotive transformation elicited by reflection on their former
examined this relationship in regard to the intention of hockey players to    coaches’ behaviours. Previously experienced coaches learn through
43
practical experience, often as assistant coaches and by observation. They     PERFORMANCE AND PERCEPTION ARE NOT RELATED IN
use cognitive and practical transformation to learn through creative          FITTS'S LAW
variation based on reflection and information gained in informal              Howard N Zelaznik1 Laura Forney2 Thomas A Brown1
                                                                              1
situations. Jarvis helps us understand the learning pathways of these           Purdue University 2Louisiana State University
teacher-coaches, and plan for appropriate learning opportunities.
                                                                              Previously we reported an experiment that demonstrated that individual
PREDICTORS OF RECREATIONAL SPORT COMMITMENT                                   differences in Fitts's Law performance were not related to individual
AMONG ONTARIO SENIORS GAMES PARTICIPANTS:                                     differences in perception of the target width in these tasks. We inferred
GENDER AND AGE EFFECTS                                                        from these data that the work relating golf hole size perception to
Bradley W Young1 Stacie Carey1 Nikola Medic2                                  performance as well as softball hitting to ball size judgments might be
1
  University of Ottawa 2Edith Cowan University                                related to response bias processes. In the present study, we use a much
                                                                              simpler set of Fitts's Law tasks to replicate the previous work, as well as
The Sport Commitment Model (SCM; Scanlan et al., 2003) is a                   to extend this work to different manipulations of the perception of target
framework for understanding the determinants of sport commitment. As          width. Eighty subjects, split into two groups performed two Fitts's Law
no research has applied SCM to older recreational athletes, we studied        tasks, a 10 cm and a 20 cm distance to a 1 cm wide target. Half of the
its predictors among Ontario Senior Games participants, generally, and        subjects then made a judgment of target width to a set of targets that
as a function of gender and age. We surveyed 132 participants (82 m, 50       ranged from 8 mm to 12 mm (20% range) or from 9 mm to 11 mm (10%
f; M age = 64.3) from 23 sports. Separate multiple regressions showed         range). We found that in each group, research participants did not show
that enjoyment (β = .39) and personal investments (.27) predicted             a relation between Fitts's Law performance and judgment of target
functional commitment (FC; R2 = .39), whereas social constraints (β =         width. These results extend and replicate the work reported last year
.45), personal investments (.36), and involvement alternatives (.20)          that showed no relation between perception and performance. We
predicted obligatory commitment (OC; R2 = .40). While males had               speculate that individuals need to know how well they performed for
higher involvement alternatives levels, females had higher personal           this relation to be observed.
investment levels. A series of regression analyses to examine gender
effects showed that enjoyment predicted FC for both, yet personal
investments (.32) only explained females’ FC. Personal investments
predicted OC for both, whereas social constraints (.41) and involvement
alternatives (.53) only predicted male and female OC levels,
respectively. Regarding age, there were no mean differences for
predictors between young (55-64 yr; n = 59) and old (65-78; n = 51)
cohorts. Regression analyses showed that personal investments and
enjoyment predicted the young group’s FC, yet only enjoyment (.57)
predicted the old’s FC. Personal investments and social constraints
explained OC levels for both, but involvement alternatives (.34)
predicted only for the young group. We discuss how findings compare
with SCM results for younger athletes, and why certain predictors may
apply uniquely to older recreational sportspersons.

Acknowledgements: SSHRC-Sport Canada Strategic Initiative Grant

IDENTITY STATUS IN SPORT CANADA CARDED ATHLETES
Selina D Zaluski1 Gerald R Farthing1
1
  University of Saskatchewan

Identity development has been conceptualized through Marcia’s (1966,
1967, 1980) identity status model, whereby an individual can adopt an
identity status (i.e., achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, or diffusion)
that varies along a continuum between commitment and crisis (Marcia,
1980). With Canada’s top athletes spending close to 40 hours per week
training and rating sport as the most important aspect of their lives (Ekos
Research Associates, 2005), the question arises whether such devotion
impacts identity development. Accordingly, the present study aimed to
examine identity status in Canadian national team athletes. As part of a
larger study, questionnaires were completed by Sport Canada carded
athletes and by students from a Canadian university. Identity status was
assessed using the Extended Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status
(EOMEIS-2) (Bennion & Adams, 1986). Results indicated likeness and
variation, with athletes scoring similarly to university students in
measures of identity diffusion, moratorium, and achievement, but
scoring higher than university students in identity foreclosure. With this
latter finding supporting the view that that the task of identity formation
can be challenging given sport’s push for commitment and conformity
(Pearson & Petitpas, 1990) , the discussion will focus on how
transitioning to adulthood may be a unique process for Canadian high
performance athletes.

Acknowledgements: This study received funding from the Social
Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

				
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