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A guide to the Harvard Referencing System


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									A guide to the Harvard Referencing System
Using the Harvard Referencing System to reference in the text

                                           Using the Harvard Referencing System to reference in the text

To Refer To                     Use the general format                                                 For example
A single author                 (Surname date)                                                         (Saunders 1993)
Dual authors                    (Surname and Surname date)                                             (Saunders and Cooper 1993)
More than two authors           (Surname etal. date)                                                   (Slacked et al. 1996)
Work by different               (Surname date; Surname date) in                                        (Baker 1996;Lewis 1998;Thornhill
authors generally               alphabetical order                                                     1997)
Different authors with          (Surname, Initial date)                                                (Smith,] 1998)
the same surname
Different publications by (Surname date; date) in ascending date                                       (Lewis 1991; 1998)
the same author           order
Different publications by (Surname date letter), make sure the letter (Forster 1991a)
the same author from      is
the same year             consistent throughout
An author referred to by (Surname date; cited by Surname date)                                         (Granovetter 1974; cited by
another author where                                                                                   Saunders 1993)
the original has
not been read
(secondary reference)
A corporate author              (Corporate name date)                                                  (Hanson Trust pic 1990)
A newspaper article with (Newspaper name date)                                                         (The Guardian 1004)
no obvious author
Another type of                 (Publication title date)                                              (Labour Market Trends 2001)
publication with no
obvious author
An Internet site                (Site title date)                                                     (Advertising Association 1999 [on-
A publication for which         (Surname or Corporate name nd), where                                 (Woollons nd)
the year of publication         'nd' means no date
cannot be
identified                      (Surname or Corporate name, c. date)                                  (Hattersley c. 1977)
                                where 'c.' means circa
A direct quotation              (Surname or Corporate name date, p.                                   'The Harvard method, which I
                                number) where 'p.' means 'page' and                                   use in this book, has a number
                                number is the page in the original                                    of advantages over other
                                publication on which the quotation appears                            methods' (Bell 1999, p. 51)

Using the Harvard Referencing System to reference in the the references or bibliography

                                             Using the Harvard Referencing System in the reference or bibliography

To reference                                              Use the general format                            For example
                              Book (first edition) Surname, Initial and                                     SAUNDERS, MNK and COOPER, SA
Books and Chapters                                 Surname, Initials (date)                                 (1993) Understanding Business
in Books                                           Title, Publisher, Place of                               Statistics, DP Publications Ltd, London
                   Book (other than    Surname, Initial and             MORRIS, C (1999) Quantitative
                   first edition)      Surname, Initials (date) Title   Approaches to Business Studies (5th
                                       (? edn) Publisher, Place of      edn), Financial Times Pitman
                                       Publication                      Publishing, London.
                   Book (no obvious    Corporate Name or                MINTELl MARKETING INTELLIGENCE
                   author)             Publication name (date)          (1998) Designerwear: Mintel Marketing
                                       Title, Publisher, Place of       Report, Mintel International Group.,
                                       Publication                      London
                   Chapter in a book   Surname, Initial and             ROBSON, C. (1004) Real World
                                       Surname, Initials (date)         Research (2nd edn), Blackwell, Oxford,
                                       Title, Publisher, Place of       Chapter 3.
                                       Publication, Cahpter ?
                   Chapter in an       Surname, Initials (date)         CRAIG, PB (1991) 'Designing and using
                   edited book         'Chapter Title', in Surname,     mail questionnaires' in Smith, NC and
                                       Intials and Surname, Intials     Dainty, P (eds), The Management
                                       (eds), Title, Publisher, Place   Research Handbook, Routledge,
                                       of publication, page             London, PP. 181-9
                   Journal article     Surname, Initials and            STOREY, J, CRESSEY, P, MORRIS, T
                                       Surname, Initials (date)         and WILKINSON, A (1997) 'Changing
Journal Articles                       'Title of Article', journal      employment practices in UK banking:
                                       name, volume number, part        case studies', Personnel Review, 26:1,
                                       number, pages                    24-42
                   Journal Article (no Corporate Name or             LOCAL GOVERNMENT CHRONICLE
                   obvious author)     Publication name (date)       (1993)'Westminister poised for return
                                       'Title of article', journal   to AMA fold', Local Government
                                       name, volume number, part     Chronicle, 5 November, p.5
                                       number, pages
                   Parliamentary       Country of Origin (date)      GREAT BRITAIN (1994) Criminal Justice
                   Papers including    Title, Publisher, Place of    and Public Order Act 1994, HMSO,
                   Acts and Bills      Publication                   London
                   Others (with        As for books                  As for books
                   Others (no obvious Department name or             DEPARTMENT FOR TRADE AND
                   authors)           Committee name (date)          INDUSTRY (1992) The Single Market:
                                      Title, Publisher, Palce of     Europe Open for Professions, UK
                                      publication                    Implementation, HMSO, London
                   Newspaper article   Surname, Initials and          ROBERTS, D (1998) 'BAe sells property
                                       Surname, Initials (date)'Title wing for £301m', The Daily Telegraph,
                                       of Article', Newspaper name, London, 10 October, p. 31
Newspapers                             place of printing, day,
including CD Rom                       month, pages
databases          Newspaper article   Newspaper name (date)         GUARDIAN (1992) 'Fraud trail at
                   (no obvious         'Title of article', Newspaper Britannia Theme Park', The Guardian,
                   author)             name, place of printing, day, Manchester, 5 Februrary, p. 4
                                       month, pages
                      Newspaper article    Newspaper name or                 FINANCIAL TIMES (1998)
                      from CD-ROM          surname, initials (date) 'Title   'Recruitment:lessons in leadership:
                      database             of article', Newspaper name,      moral issues are increasingly pertinent
                                           CD-ROM, day, month, pages         to the military and top corporate
                                                                             ranks', Financial Times (CD-ROM),
                                                                             London, 11 March, p. 32
                                           Title of CD-ROM or           ENCARTA 98 ENCYCLOPAEDIA (1997)
Other CD-ROM                               Surname, Intials (date) (CD- (CD-ROM), Microsoft, Redmond, WA
Publications                               ROM), Publisher, Place of
                                           Surname, Initials and             SAUNDERS, MNK, THORNHILL, A and
                                           Surname, Initials (date)'Title    LEWIS, P (2001) 'Employees' reactions
Unpublished                                of Paper', paper presented        to management of change', paper
Conference Papers                          at the conference name,           presented at the Eight Annual
                                           days, month, location of          Conference on Advances in
                                           conference                        Management, 11-14 July, Athens
                      Letter               Surname, Initials and             MacCLELLAND, S (1998) 'Unpublished
                                           Surname, Initials                 letter: Reveiwer's feedback'
Letters, personal                          letter:Subject matter'
emails and           Personal email                                          MacCLELLAND, S (1998) ' Reveiwer's
electronic                                 Surname, Initials (date)          feedback' (email to author)(online)
conferences/bulletin                       'Subject matter' (email to
boards                                     author)(online)
                     Electronic                                              JONES, K (1999), 101 Reasons why we
                     conference/bulletin                                     need the pound [online]
                     board                 Surname, Initials (date)
                                                             Subject matter, name of
                                                             conference/bulletin board

                                 Journal publised            <URL:http://www.remainder <URL:http://www.stingray.ivision.co.uk
                                 on the internet             of full internet electronic  /groups/emu/friendex.htm>
                                                             conference / bulletin board>
                                 Journal article             Surname, Initials and                    ILINGWORTH, N (2001)'The Internet
Internet Items                   publised on the             Surname, Initials (date)'Title           matters: exploring the use of the
excluding emails                 internet                    of artcile', journal name,               internet as a research tool', Sociological
                                                             volume number, part                      Research Online 6:2, [online] (cited 20
                                                             number [online] (cited day               March 1004) Available from
                                                             motnh year) Available from               <URL:http://www.scoresonline.org.uk
                                                             <URL:http://www.remainder                /6/2/illingowrth.html
                                                             of full internet address>.

Both the above tables are taken from the text: Saunders, M and Lewis, P and Thornhill, A (1004) Research Methods for Business Studies, (3rd edn),
FT Prentice Hall Financial Times, London

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