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Motivation in the Classroom - Intervention Central

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					                       Response to Intervention




Motivation in the Classroom:
A Five-Part Framework
Jim Wright
www.interventioncentral.org




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               Response to Intervention

Motivating Environments: The Role of the Teacher




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                 Response to Intervention
Five ‗Levers of Influence‘ to Promote Student Motivation
            1. School & Classroom Environment


                                 2. Social Interactions


                           3. Instructional Activities


               4. Individual Learning Challenges


                            5. Pay-Offs for Learning
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           Response to Intervention



1. School & Classroom Environment




 The setting in which we work can encourage us
 to give our best effort or discourage us from
 even trying to perform.

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                      Response to Intervention




“We shape our buildings and
afterwards our buildings shape us.”
--Winston Churchill




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        Response to Intervention

The Virtual School ‗Walkthrough‘




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   Response to Intervention

School Tour: Hallways




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   Response to Intervention

School Tour: Hallways




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   Response to Intervention

School Tour: Cafeteria




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                       Response to Intervention

School & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…
Employ Proximity Control (Ford, Olmi, Edwards, & Tingstrom,
2001; Gettinger & Seibert, 2002; U.S. Department of Education,
2004). Students typically increase their attention to task and show
improved compliance when the teacher is in close physical
proximity. During whole-group activities, circulate around the
room to keep students focused. To hold an individual student's
attention, stand or sit near the student before giving directions or
engaging in discussion.




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                       Response to Intervention

School & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…
Give Clear Directions (Gettinger & Seibert, 2002; Gettinger,
1988). Students will better understand directions when those
directions are delivered in a clear manner, expressed in language
the student understands, given at a pace that does not
overwhelm the student, and posted for later review. When giving
multi-step directions orally, write those directions on the board or
give to students as a handout to consult as needed. State multi-
step directions one direction at a time and confirm that the
student is able to comply with each step before giving the next
direction.


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                       Response to Intervention

School & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…
Give Opportunities for Choice (Martens & Kelly, 1993; Powell &
Nelson, 1997). Allowing students to exercise some degree of
choice in their instructional activities can boost attention span and
increase academic engagement. Make a list of 'choice' options
that you are comfortable offering students during typical learning
activities. During independent seatwork, for example, you might
routinely let students choose where they sit, allow them to work
alone or in small groups, or give them 2 or 3 different choices of
assignment selected to be roughly equivalent in difficulty and
learning objectives.


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                      Response to Intervention

School & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…
Use Preferential Seating (U.S. Department of Education, 2004).
Preferential seating simply means that you seat the student in a
location where he or she is most likely to stay focused on what
you are teaching. Remember that all teachers have an 'action
zone', a part of the room where they tend to focus most of their
instruction; seat the student somewhere within that zone. The
ideal seating location for any particular student will vary,
depending on the unique qualities of the target student and of
your classroom. Consider whether the student might be self-
conscious about sitting right next to the teacher. Select a seat
location that avoids other distractions—e.g., avoid seating the
student by a window or next to a talkative classmate.
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      Response to Intervention

  2. Social Interactions




We define ourselves in relation to others by our
social relationships. These connections are a
central motivator for most people.
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                                          Response to Intervention

   Social Interactions: Selected Ideas…
   Improving Relationships With Students: The Two-
   By-Ten Intervention (Mendler, 2000)
   • Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day
     for 10 consecutive days in building a relationship
     with the student…by talking about topics of
     interest to the student.

         Avoid discussing problems with the student‘s
         behaviors or schoolwork during these times.
Source: Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating students who don‟t care. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.

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                                          Response to Intervention
Social Interactions: Selected Ideas…
Improving Relationships With Students: The Three-to-
One Intervention
(Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002)
   • Give positive attention or praise to problem
     students at least three times more frequently
     than you reprimand them.
     Give the student the attention or praise during
     moments when that student is acting
     appropriately. Keep track of how frequently you
     give positive attention and reprimands to the
     student.
Source: Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., & Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondary
schools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
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                       Response to Intervention

Social Interactions: Selected Ideas…
Emphasize the Positive in Teacher Requests (Braithwaite,
2001). When an instructor's request has a positive 'spin', that
teacher is less likely to trigger a power struggle and more likely to
gain student compliance. Whenever possible, avoid using
negative phrasing (e.g., "If you don't return to your seat, I can‘t
help you with your assignment"). Instead, restate requests in
positive terms (e.g., "I will be over to help you on the assignment
just as soon as you return to your seat").




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                       Response to Intervention

Social Interactions: Selected Ideas…
Seat the Student Next to Distraction-Resistant or Supportive
Peers (DuPaul & Stoner, 2002; Kerr & Nelson, 1998). One useful
strategy for managing low-level motor behaviors is to seat the
student next to peers who can generally ignore those behaviors.

Or handpick a classmate who has a good relationship with the
student but is not easily drawn off-task and appoint that student
as a 'helper peer'. Tell the peer that whenever he or she notices
that the student's verbal or motor behavior has risen to the level
of distracting others, the peer should give the student a brief,
quiet, non-judgmental signal (e.g., a light tap on the shoulder) to
control the behavior.
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      Response to Intervention
3. Instructional Activities




Motivated students are engaged in interesting
activities that guarantee a high success rate and
relate to real-world issues.
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                       Response to Intervention

Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…
Make the Activity Stimulating (U.S. Department of Education,
2004). Students require less conscious effort to remain on-task
when they are engaged in high-interest activities. Make
instruction more interesting by choosing a specific lesson topic
that you know will appeal to students (e.g., sports, fashion). Or
help students to see a valuable 'real-word' pay-off for learning the
material being taught. Another tactic is to make your method of
instruction more stimulating. Students who don't learn well in
traditional lecture format may show higher rates of engagement
when interacting with peers (cooperative learning) or when
allowed the autonomy and self-pacing of computer-delivered
instruction.
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                        Response to Intervention

    Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…

Stimulate Writing Interest With an Autobiography Assignment (Bos &
Vaughn, 2002)

     Assigning the class to write their own autobiographies can
     motivate hard-to-reach students who seem uninterested in
     most writing assignments. Have students read a series of
     autobiographies of people who interest them. Discuss these
     biographies with the class. Then assign students to write their
     own autobiographies. (With the class, create a short
     questionnaire that students can use to interview their parents
     and other family members to collect information about their
     past.) Allow students to read their autobiographies for the
     class.
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                      Response to Intervention

Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…
Instruct at a Brisk Pace (Carnine, 1976; Gettinger & Seibert,
2002). When students are appropriately matched to instruction,
they are likely to show improved on-task behavior when they are
taught at a brisk pace rather than a slow one. To achieve a brisk
pace of instruction, make sure that you are fully prepared prior to
the lesson and that you minimize the time spent on housekeeping
items such as collecting homework or on transitions from one
learning activity to another.




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                       Response to Intervention

Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…
Structure Instructional Activities to Allow Interaction and
Movement (DuPaul & Stoner, 2002; Sprick, Borgmeier & Nolet,
2002; U.S. Department of Education, 2004). Students with high
energy levels may be more likely to engage in distracting
behavior when they are forced to sit through long periods of
lecture or independent seatwork. Instead, offer students frequent
opportunities for more movement by designing instruction to
actively engage them as learners (e.g., cooperative learning). An
additional advantage of less formal, more spontaneous learning
activities is that when the overactive child does happen to display
motor behaviors in this relaxed setting, those behaviors are less
likely to distract peers.
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                                                 Response to Intervention

       Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…

        Math Computation: Problem Interspersal Technique
         • The teacher first identifies the range of ‗challenging‘ problem-types
           (number problems appropriately matched to the student‘s current
           instructional level) that are to appear on the worksheet.
         • Then the teacher creates a series of ‗easy‘ problems that the
           students can complete very quickly (e.g., adding or subtracting two 1-
           digit numbers). The teacher next prepares a series of student math
           computation worksheets with ‗easy‘ computation problems
           interspersed at a fixed rate among the ‗challenging‘ problems.
         • If the student is expected to complete the worksheet independently,
           ‗challenging‘ and ‗easy‘ problems should be interspersed at a 1:1
           ratio (that is, every ‗challenging‘ problem in the worksheet is preceded
           and/or followed by an ‗easy‘ problem).
Source: Hawkins, J., Skinner, C. H., & Oliver, R. (2005). The effects of task demands and additive interspersal ratios on fifth-
grade students‟ mathematics accuracy. School Psychology Review, 34, 543-555..
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                   Response to Intervention
How to… Create an Interspersal-Problems Worksheet




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                                               Response to Intervention
      Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…
                    Math Computation: Motivate With ‗Errorless
                            Learning‘ Worksheets
      In this version of an ‗errorless learning‘ approach, the
      student is directed to complete math facts as quickly as
      possible. If the student comes to a number problem that
      he or she cannot solve, the student is encouraged to locate
      the problem and its correct answer in the key at the top of the page and
      write it in.
      Such speed drills build computational fluency while promoting students‘
      ability to visualize and to use a mental number line.

      TIP: Consider turning this activity into a ‗speed drill‘. The student is given
      a kitchen timer and instructed to set the timer for a predetermined span of
      time (e.g., 2 minutes) for each drill. The student completes as many
      problems as possible before the timer rings. The student then graphs the
      number of problems correctly computed each day on a time-series graph,
      attempting to better his or her previous score.
Source: Caron, T. A. (2007). Learning multiplication the easy way. The Clearing House, 80, 278-282
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                                               Response to Intervention
                                               ‗Errorless
                                     Learning‘ Worksheet Sample




Source: Caron, T. A. (2007). Learning multiplication the easy way. The Clearing House, 80, 278-282
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                                                Response to Intervention
                     Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…
                             Math Peer Guided Pause
   • Students are trained to work in pairs. At one or more appropriate review
     points in a math lecture, the instructor directs students to pair up to work
     together for 4 minutes.
   • During each Peer Guided Pause, students are given a worksheet that
     contains one or more correctly completed word or number problems
     illustrating the math concept(s) covered in the lecture. The sheet also
     contains several additional, similar problems that pairs of students work
     cooperatively to complete, along with an answer key.
   • Student pairs are reminded to (a) monitor their understanding of the
     lesson concepts; (b) review the correctly math model problem; (c) work
     cooperatively on the additional problems, and (d) check their answers. The
     teacher can direct student pairs to write their names on the practice sheets
     and collect them to monitor student understanding.
Source: Hawkins, J., & Brady, M. P. (1994). The effects of independent and peer guided practice during instructional pauses on
the academic performance of students with mild handicaps. Education & Treatment of Children, 17 (1), 1-28.
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            Response to Intervention

4. Individual Learning Challenges




Motivated students are engaged in interesting
activities that guarantee a high success rate and
relate to real-world issues.

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                       Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Have the Student Monitor Motor Behaviors and Call-Outs
(DuPaul & Stoner, 2002). Have the student monitor his or her
motor behaviors or call-outs. First, choose a class period or part
of the day when you want the student to monitor distracting
behaviors. Next, meet privately with the student to discuss which
of that student's behaviors are distracting. Then, together with the
student, design a simple distractible behavior-rating form with no
more than 3 items (For a student who calls out frequently, for
example, a useful rating item might be "How well did I observe
the rule today of raising my hand and being called on before
giving an answer? Poor – Fair – Good".) Have the student rate
his or her behaviors at the end of each class period.
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                      Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Allow Discretionary Motor Breaks (U.S. Department of
Education, 2004). When given brief 'movement' breaks, highly
active students often show improvements in their behaviors.
Permit the student to leave his or her seat and quietly walk
around the classroom whenever the student feels particularly
fidgety. Or, if you judge that motor breaks within the classroom
would be too distracting, consider giving the student a
discretionary pass that allows him or her to leave the classroom
briefly to get a drink of water or walk up and down the hall.




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                       Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Adopt a 'Silent Signal' (U.S. Department of Education, 2004).
You can redirect overactive students in a low-key manner by
using a silent signal. Meet privately with the student and identify
for the student those motor or verbal behaviors that appear to be
most distracting. With the student's help, select a silent signal that
you can use to alert the student that his or her behavior has
crossed the threshold and now is distracting others. Role-play
several scenarios with the student in which you use the silent
signal and the student then controls the problem behavior.




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                      Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Provide a Quiet Work Area (U.S. Department of Education,
2004). Distractible students benefit from a quiet place in the
classroom where they can go when they have more difficult
assignments to complete. A desk or study carrel in the corner of
the room can serve as an appropriate workspace. When
introducing these workspaces to students, stress that the quiet
locations are intended to help students to concentrate. Never use
areas designated for quiet work as punitive 'time-out' spaces, as
students will then tend to avoid them.




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                     Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Break Larger Assignments into Smaller Chunks (Skinner,
Pappas & Davis, 2005). Students are likely to show higher levels
of motivation and academic engagement when they are given a
series of shorter assignments in place on a single longer
assignment. Keep assignments short and give students frequent
performance feedback to ensure their understanding of the
content.




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                      Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Class Participation: Keep Students Guessing (Heward, 1994).
Students attend better during large-group presentations if they
cannot predict when they will be required to actively participate.
Randomly call on students, occasionally selecting the same
student twice in a row or within a short time span. Or pose a
question to the class, give students 'wait time' to formulate an
answer, and then randomly call on a student.




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                       Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Capture Students' Attention Before Giving Directions (Ford,
Olmi, Edwards, & Tingstrom, 2001; Martens & Kelly, 1993). Gain
the student's attention before giving direction. When giving
directions to an individual student, call the student by name and
establish eye contact before providing the directions. When giving
directions to the whole class, use group alerting cues such as
'Eyes and ears on me!' to gain the class's attention. Wait until all
students are looking at you and ready to listen before giving
directions. When you have finished giving directions to the entire
class, privately approach any students who appear to need
assistance. Quietly restate the directions to them and have them
repeat the directions back to you as a check for understanding.
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                                                 Response to Intervention

             Math Shortcuts: Cognitive Energy- and Time-Savers
              ―Recently, some researchers…have argued that
              children can derive answers quickly and with minimal
              cognitive effort by employing calculation principles or
              ―shortcuts,‖ such as using a known number combination
              toderive an answer (2 + 2 = 4, so 2 + 3 =5), relations
              among operations (6 + 4 =10, so 10 −4 = 6) … and so
              forth. This approach to instruction is consonant with
              recommendations by the National Research Council
              (2001). Instruction along these lines may be much more
              productive than rote drill without linkage to counting
              strategy use.‖ p. 301

Source: Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., & Flojo, J. R. (2005). Early identification and interventions for students with mathematics
difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304.
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                                          Response to Intervention

   Math Multiplication Shortcut: ‗The 9 Times Quickie‘
  • The student uses fingers as markers to find the product of single-
    digit multiplication arithmetic combinations with 9.
  • Fingers to the left of the lowered finger stands for the ‘10‘s place
    value.
  • Fingers to the right stand for the ‗1‘s place value.
                                               9 x 10
                                               9x1 7
                                                   6
                                                   9
                                                   4
                                                   3
                                                   2
                                                   5
                                                   8



Source: Russell, D. (n.d.). Math facts to learn the facts. Retrieved November 9, 2007, from http://math.about.com/bltricks.htm
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                       Response to Intervention

Individual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…
Schedule Challenging Tasks for Peak Attention Times (Brock,
1998). Many students with limited attention can focus better in the
morning, when they are fresh. Schedule those subjects or tasks
that the student finds most difficult early in the day. Save easier
subjects or tasks for later in the day, when the student's attention
may start to wane.




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       Response to Intervention

5. Pay-Offs for Learning




Motivated students are engaged in
interesting activities that guarantee a
high success rate and relate to real-
world issues.
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                       Response to Intervention

Pay-Offs for Learning: Selected Ideas…
Pay Attention to the On-Task Student (DuPaul & Ervin, 1996;
Martens & Meller, 1990). Teachers who selectively give students
praise and attention only when those students are on-task are
likely to find that these students show improved attention in class
as a result. When you have a student who is often off-task, make
an effort to identify those infrequent times when the student is
appropriately focused on the lesson and immediately give the
student positive attention. Examples of teacher attention that
students will probably find positive include verbal praise and
encouragement, approaching the student to check on how he or
she is doing on the assignment, and friendly eye contact.

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                                                 Response to Intervention
     Pay-Offs for Learning: Selected Ideas…
           Math Intervention: Tier I or II: Elementary & Secondary:
     Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills With Performance
                        Self-Monitoring & Incentives
1.      The student is given a math computation worksheet of a specific problem type, along with
        an answer key [Academic Opportunity to Respond].
2.      The student consults his or her performance chart and notes previous performance. The
        student is encouraged to try to ‗beat‘ his or her most recent score.
3.      The student is given a pre-selected amount of time (e.g., 5 minutes) to complete as many
        problems as possible. The student sets a timer and works on the computation sheet until
        the timer rings. [Active Student Responding]
4.      The student checks his or her work, giving credit for each correct digit (digit of correct
        value appearing in the correct place-position in the answer). [Performance Feedback]
5.      The student records the day‘s score of TOTAL number of correct digits on his or her
        personal performance chart.
6.      The student receives praise or a reward if he or she exceeds the most recently posted
        number of correct digits.
Application of ‗Learn Unit‘ framework from : Heward, W.L. (1996). Three low-tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active student
response during group instruction. In R. Gardner, D. M.S ainato, J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, W. L. Heward, J. W. Eshleman,& T. A. Grossi
(Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp.283-320). Pacific Grove, CA:Brooks/Cole.
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                                               Response to Intervention

Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills:
Examples of Student Worksheet and Answer Key




Worksheets created using Math Worksheet Generator. Available online at:
http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/tools/mathprobe/addsing.php
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                 Response to Intervention
   Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills…




    Reward Given                                  Reward Given
                    Reward
            Reward Given Given




                                       No Reward
                                            No Reward
No Reward




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                   Response to Intervention
How to… Use PPT Group Timers in the Classroom




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                          Response to Intervention

Pay-Offs for Learning: Selected Ideas…
      Monitoring to Increase Writing Fluency               (Rathvon, 1999)

Students gain motivation to write through daily monitoring
and charting of their own and classwide rates of writing
fluency.
–   Assign timed freewriting several times per week.
–    After each freewriting period, direct each student to count up the number of
    words he or she has written in their daily journal entry (whether spelled correctly
    or not).
–   Have students to record their personal writing-fluency score in their journal and
    also chart the score on their own time-series graph for visual feedback.
–   Collect the day‘s writing-fluency scores of all students in the class, sum those
    scores, and chart the results on a large time-series graph posted at the front of
    the room.
–   Raise the class goal by five percent per week.
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                 Response to Intervention
Five ‗Levers of Influence‘ to Promote Student Motivation
            1. School & Classroom Environment


                                 2. Social Interactions


                           3. Instructional Activities


               4. Individual Learning Challenges


                            5. Pay-Offs for Learning
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                            Response to Intervention
THE SKEPTIC: “Why do I have to know about
quadratic equations or who wrote the U.S. Constitution?
When am I ever going to use any of THAT stuff in my
life?‖

Discuss motivating ideas for this student…
•School & Classroom Environment
•Social Interactions
•Instructional Activities
•Individual Learning Challenges
•Pay-offs for Learning
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Response to Intervention




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                            Response to Intervention



BOREDOM: “Every day, we just do math work sheets at
our desks. The same problems over and over. We don‟t
get to talk to anybody. I am SOOO bored in this class!”

Discuss motivating ideas for this student…
•School & Classroom Environment
•Social Interactions
•Instructional Activities
•Individual Learning Challenges
•Pay-offs for Learning
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Response to Intervention




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                            Response to Intervention



ATTITUDE: “My dad said that I don‟t have to learn this
stuff and you can‟t make me! I can do what ever I want!
And you can‟t make me do any work if I don‟t want to! ”
Discuss motivating ideas for this student…
•School & Classroom Environment
•Social Interactions
•Instructional Activities
•Individual Learning Challenges
•Pay-offs for Learning
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Response to Intervention




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                 Response to Intervention


How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes

 People regularly make „attributions‟ about
 events and situations in which they are
 involved that ‗explain‘ and make sense of
 those happenings.




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                                  Response to Intervention

How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes
 Attribution Theory: Dimensions Affecting Student
 Interpretation of Academic Successes & Failures
 (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002)

The situation or event is…

    Unstable (changes often)                    Stable (can be counted on to
                                                remain relatively unchanged)

     Internal (within the student)                External (occurring in the
                                                surrounding environment)

    Uncontrollable (beyond the                    Controllable (within the
 ability of the student to                      student‘s ability to influence)
 influence)
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                          Response to Intervention

How Attributions About Learning Contribute to
Academic Outcomes
 Thisdid get always one test. That‟s homeus—
  I I teacher on are born writers.
So can‟tlousyanythis springs done atOK. Next
 Some peoplestudying pop quizzes on because my
 and I will study harder and my grades should
time, picks listens to that are impossible time. bounce back.
  brother questions the radio all the to study for!
I was born to watch TV.
The situation or event is…

    Unstable (changes often)             Stable (can be counted on to
                                         remain relatively unchanged)

     Internal (within the student)         External (occurring in the
                                         surrounding environment)

    Uncontrollable (beyond the             Controllable (within the
 ability of the student to               student‘s ability to influence)
 influence)
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