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Risk Communication Theory Comparison

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					                                                          Health Action Theories and Approaches*

                                                         Operant
                         Stimulus - Response                                           Operant Conditioning
Psychology Paradigm                                     Conditioning                                           Cognitive-Behavioral Era
                              Paradigm                                                       Model+
                                                          Model



                                                                         Protection     Extended Parallel
                              Fear appeal             Parallel Process   Motivation   Process Model- EPPM Health Belief Model - HBA
      Stimuli
                       Fear Appeals (mass            Fear Appeals,                    Fear Appeals (mass
                       media, interpersonal,         Threat and                       media, interpersonal, Cues to action - Internal,
                       group messages, direct        Danger                           group messages, direct External
                       experience                    Information                      experience
    Appraisals -
  Motivational and     Fear Reduction-               Danger control
 Cognitive Factors-    Avoidance, attenuation of     and fear control                 Threat: Susceptibility & Threat: Susceptibility &
  (Susceptibility &    fear. Threat                  (happening in                    Severity                 Severity
     Severity)         (Susceptibility & Severity)   parallel fashion)

    Appraisals -
Resources: Internal,                                                                                           Perceived Benefits &
 Individual - (Self-                                                                  Self-Efficacy:           Perceived Barriers.
Efficacy: Response                                                                    Response Efficacy        Caluculated and given
      Efficacy)                                                                                                value to predict outcome.

   Resources:
  Environmental,
    Structural
                          Social Learning                                             Not theory-
Social Comparison                            Cognitive Theory- Cognitive - behavioral
                          Theory- Albert                                              commercial
Theory- Sociology                            Brain Science     approach
                          Bandura                                                     approach

                                                Elaboration
 Theory of Reasoned        Social Cognitve   Liklihood Model-     Stages of Change
    Action- TRA                Theory               ELM              Model- SOC          Social Marketing
                                             Stimuli
                                             (Message) -
Observation/
                                             Processed
Interaction with Peers
                                             Centrally vs
                                             Peripherally


                                                                1-Precontemplation, 2-
                                                                Contemplation


Attitudes, Subjective,
Norm - Social Beliefs     Perceived self-
                                                                3- Preparation, 4-
about efficacy            efficacy:
                                                                Action & 5-
behaviors.                Ourcome
                                                                Maintenance
Caluculated and given     Expectations
+/-value
Social participation is
a resource
  Outcome Results                                  Danger Control
                                                   Responses                Danger Control
                                                   (Attitudes,              Responses (Attitudes,
                        Either threat reduction or Intentions,              Intentions, Behaviors)
                                                                                                   Intentions & Behaviors
                        defensive fear reduction. Behaviors) Fear           Fear Control
                                                   Control (Defensive       (Defensive avoidance,
                                                   avoidance,               Reactance, Denial)
                                                   Reactance,
                                                   Denial)

Most Potent Effects
     in Model                                                                                      Perceived Barriers,
                                                  Danger Control
                                                                                                   Perceived susceptibility

Least Potents Effects
      in Model

                                                  Fear Control                                     Perceived severity




                        * Based on Witte, K et. Al. (2001). Effective health risk messages . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

                                            Communication of Health 'Risks' - COHI 175 B00
                                         Department of Communication: Human Information Processing
                                                      University of California, San Diego
                                                            Professor Mary M. Fox
Intentions &                                                                   Wants, needs,
Behaviors. The result                                                          desires of target
of the relative                                                4-Action & 5-   populations.
importance of attitude                                         Maintenance     Product, Price,
and perceived social                                                           promotion,and
norms                                                                          place.



                         Perceived self-
                                           Central                             See Stanford Heart
Tailors message          efficacy:
                                           Processing-                         Disease Prevention
content                  Ourcome
                                           attention as work                   Project
                         Expectations
                                           Peripheral
                                           Procesing -
                                           quick apeals:
                                           celebrity,
                                           automatic.
                                           Subject to
                                           change.

				
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