Unit Four Everyday Use for Your Grandma Teaching Periods 8 by wuxiangyu

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									            Unit Four Everyday Use for Your Grandma
Teaching Periods: 8
Teaching Object:
·English majors of junior year
Teaching Aims
·To enable students to get better understanding of the text
·To help students learn to use new words and useful expressions in the text
·To enable students to learn to paraphrase some complicated sentences
·To enable students to learn the use of rhetoric devices in the text
·To help students appreciate the techniques of short story writing
·To enrich students’ knowledge of American Black culture
Teaching Focus:
·Cultural Information
·Language points and expressions
·The theme of the story
·Figures of speech
Teaching Difficulties:
·Appreciation of English short story writing
·Paraphrasing some sentences
·Identifying figures of speech
·Probing the theme of the story
Teaching Procedures
·Background information
·Questions to ponder
·Stylistic analysis
·Detailed study of the text
·Rhetorical devices and effective writing skills
Time Allocation: 8 periods, 360minutes
·Background information (45 minutes)
·Intensive study of the text (225 minutes)
·Exercise (90 minutes)

I. Background information
1. About the author
   Alice Walker (1944-), poet, novelist and essayist.
   Life career:
was born into a poor rural family in Eatonton, Georgia.
   Also, she is a vegetarian, gardener, world
traveler and spiritual explorer.
   Lost sight of one eye by accident at eight
   Valedictorian (毕业典礼致告别辞者) of her class in high school Entered Spelman,

a college for black women in Atlanta, Georgia
   Transferred to Sarah Lawrence College in New York after two years at Spelman
   Traveled to Africa as an exchange student during junior year
   Worked in the Welfare Department in New York City after graduation
   Active in the Civil Rights Movement, the women's movement, the anti-apartheid
movement, the anti-nuclear and the environmental movement and the movement to
protect indigenous people.
   Started her own publishing company in 1984
   Her writing career began with the publication of a volume of poetry in 1968, which
was followed by a number of novels, short stories, critical essays and more poetry.
Now she is regarded as one of the most prominent writers in American literature and a
most forceful representative of women‟s literature and black literature.
   Literature achievements:
   Volumes of poetry: Once (1968), Revolutionary Petunias and other Poems (1973)
   Biography: A Biography of Langston Hughes (1973)
   Collections of short stories: Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women (1973)
   Novels: The third Life of Grange Copeland (1970), Meridian (1977), The Color
Purple (1982), The Temple of My Familiar (1989), By the Father‟s Smile (1998)
Background information
   Of all the works, the most significant novel is The Color Purple (1982), which won
all the three major book awards in America—the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book
Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award. The novel was an instant
bestseller and made into an equally successful movie in 1985.
   Her early poems, novels and short stories dealt with themes familiar to readers of
her later works: rape, violence, isolation, troubled relationships, multi-generational
perspectives, sexism and racism.
   Her works are known for the portrayals of the African American woman‟s life. She
depicts vividly the sexism, racism and poverty that make that life often a struggle. But
she also portrays as part of that life, the strengths of family, community, self-worth,
and spirituality. Many of her novels depict women in other periods of history than our
own. Alice Walker is at her best when portraying people living in the rural areas. As a
black writer, she is particularly interested in examining the relationships among the
blacks themselves.
   She continues not only to write, but to be active in environmental,
feminist/womanist causes, and issues of economic justice.
2. The Black Power Movement
   Black Power was a political movement that arose in the middle 1960s, that strove
to express a new racial consciousness among Blacks in the United States.
   The movement stemmed from the earlier civil rights movements. It represented
racial dignity and self reliance (i.e. freedom from white authority in both economic
and political arenas).
   Some African Americans sought cultural heritage and history and the true roots of
black identity as their part of the movement.
Background information

3. About the text
   “Everyday Use” (1973) is included in the Norton Anthology of Short Fiction, 2nd
Edition, 1981. “Everyday Use”, one of the best-written short stories by Alice Walker,
describes three women. The mother is a working woman without much education, but
not without intelligence or perception. The two daughters form a sharp contrast in
every conceivable way: appearance, character, personal experiences, etc.
   The story reaches its climax at the moment when Dee, the elder daughter, wants the
old quilts only to be refused flatly by the mother, who intends to give them to Maggie,
the younger one. The old quilts, made from pieces of clothes worn by grand- and
great-grand-parents and stitched by Grandma‟s hand, are clearly a symbol of the
cultural heritage of the black people. Their different feelings about the quilts reveal
their different attitudes towards their heritage as blacks.

II. Questions to ponder:
1.What is implied by the subtitle “ for your grandmama”?
2.What kind of woman is the mother? What kind of girl is Maggie & Dee? Describe
the three characters in your own words.
3.Why do you think colored people asked fewer questions in 1927?
Questions to ponder
4.What is the mother‟s feeling toward Dee? How is it changed in the course of the
5. Why did Dee want the quilt so much?
6. Why did Maggie want the quilt?
7. What did the old quilts stand for?
Questions to ponder:
1.What is implied by the subtitle “ for your grandmama”?
    —It's implied that the story is written in honor of the grandma mentioned in it and
that the ordinary old thing may be something precious for the young.
2. Describe the three characters in your own words:
Mother: a working black woman without much education, large, big-boned woman
with rough hands, with intelligence and perception
The two daughters form a sharp contrast in every conceivable way: appearance,
character, personal experiences, etc.
Maggie: innocent, timid, kind-hearted girl, homely and ashamed, burn scars down her
arms and legs, less-educated, lack self-confidence
Dee: beautiful, well-educated, snobbish, intelligent, capable, vanity , wants nice
things, egotism, want to get valuable heritages of the fam
3.Why do you think colored people asked fewer questions in 1927?
    —Because they were more seriously looked down upon by white men at that time,
and they were not as awaken as they are today.
4.What is the mother‟s feeling toward Dee? How is it changed in the course of the
    —At first the mother liked Dee because of her beauty, taste, and education. But
with the development of the story, her love was transferred to a dislike because of

Dee's egotism, which was obviously revealed when she insisted on taking the quilts
while her sister Maggie gave up keeping it willingly to satisfy her desire.
5. Why did Dee want the quilt so much?
   — for decoration
6. Why did Maggie want the quilt?
   — remember her grandma
7. What did the old quilts stand for?
—The old quilts, made from pieces of clothes worn by grand-and great-grand-parents
and stitched by Grandma‟s hand, are clearly a symbol of the cultural heritage of the
black people. Their different feelings about the quilts reveal their different attitudes
towards their heritage as blacks.

III. Stylistic analysis
1. Type of literature: a short story — plot, character, point of view, setting, climax,
theme and the methods to develop the theme
2. Organization: introduction →development →climax →conclusion
Plot: Dee‟s coming back to fetch Grandma‟s everyday use (especially the old quilts)
and her changed attitude toward them.
3. Characters:
1) Dee (Wangero) — a round character
    —fashionable, rebellious, strong-minded and ill-tempered, a sense of vanity
    — a symbol of the modern black women
    — superficial love of black tradition
2) Maggie — a flat character
    — docile, timid, shy, good-tempered, kind-hearted and unselfish, a strong sense of
    — inheritor of black culture, genuine love of black tradition
    — a symbol of the tradition black weak women
Text analysis
3) “I” (Mama/ Mrs Johnson)— a flat character
    — uneducated but sensible
    — physically strong but spiritually weak, a sense of      inferiority
    — cherish “grandma‟s everyday use”
    — a symbol of the black working women: the majority of black women
4)Asalamalakim (Hakim-a-barber)— a flat character
    — a black Muslim boy
    — a symbol of another kind of African culture
Point of view: the first-person narrator
          Place —“my courtyard”
          Time —in the middle of 1960s
climax —Dee wanted to take away the old quilts but “I” took them back and gave
them to Magg
Theme: the relationship among the three black women and their different attitudes

towards the old quilts — how to deal with the black traditional culture.
Methods: flashback, foreshadowing, contrast
Structue of the Text:
Part I Preparation
Part II Mother‟s recall
Part III Meeting (Climax)
Part Ⅳ Parting

IV. Detailed study of the text:
1. wavy: having regular curves
   A wavy line has a series of regular curves       along it.
   The wavy lines are meant to represent water.
   Here in the text the word describes the marks in wavy patterns on the clay ground
left by the broom.
  2. An extended living room: an enlarged living room by a new addition to the
original space.
     Extended means prolonged, continued; enlarged in influence, meaning, scope, etc.
e.g. extended care: nursing care provided for a limited time after a hospital stay
     extended family: a group of relative by blood, marriage or adoption, often
including a nuclear family, living together, esp. three generations are involved.
  3. groove: a long narrow path or track made in a surface, esp. to guide the movement
of sth. (here the explanation is not proper)
     A groove is a wide, deep line cut into a surface.
     The cupboard door slides open along the groove it fits into.
4. homely: simple, not grand, (of people, faces, etc.,) not good-looking, ugly
     If someone is homely, they are not very attractive to look at;
5. awe: Awe is the feeling of respect and amazement that you have when you are
faced with sth. wonderful, frightening or completely unknown.
e.g. The child stared at him in silent awe.
Section I of Part I
The setting: yard, house
Maggie: appearance
   comparison with her sister: eying her with a mixture of envy and awe
Sister has held life in the palm of one hand
To have made it: if you make it, you are successful in achieving sth. Difficult, or in
surviving through a very difficult period.
e.g. I believe I have the talent to make it.
e.g. You are brave and courageous. You can            make it.
Detailed study of the text:
5. confront: to face boldly or threateningly, encounter
     If a problem, task, or difficulty confronts you, or you are confronted with it, it is
sth. that you cannot avoid and must deal with
e.g. I was confronted with the task of designing and building the new system.
6. totter: to move in an unsteady way from side to side as if about to fall, to walk with

weak unsteady steps
e.g. The old lady tottered down the stair.
7. curse: If you curse, you use rude or offensive language,usu. because you are angry
about sth.
8. insult: If sb. insults you, they say sth. rude to you or offend you by doing or saying
sth. which shows they have a low opinion of you.
9. embrace: to take and hold (another or each other) in the arms as a sign of love, hug
    Smile into each other‟s face:
  10. limousine: A limousine is a large and very comfortable car, esp. one with a glass
screen between the front and back seats. Limousines are usually driven by a chauffeur
      Sedan / saloon is a car with seats for four or more people, a fixed roof, and a boot
(the space at the back of the car, covered by a lid, in which you carry things such as
luggage, shopping or tools) that is separate from the seating part of the car.
    convertible: a car with a soft roof that can be folded down or removed 带帆布顶
    sports car: a low usu. open car with room for only 2 people for traveling with high
power and speed 跑车
   coupe [ ku:pei] a car with a fixed roof, a sloping back, two doors and seats for four
people 两箱轿车
   station wagon (Am E) / estate car (Br.E) a car which has a long body with a door at
the back end and space behind the back seats 旅行汽车
11. gray / grey: used to describe the colour of people‟s hair when it changes from its
original colour, usu. as they get old and before it becomes white
    Johnny Carson: a talk show anchorman
12. tacky: (Am.E, slang) shabby
Detailed study of the text:
13. nightgowns: also nightdress, long-loose garment
14. overalls: a single piece of clothing that combines trousers and a jacket. 工装裤
   Your wear overalls over your clothes in order to protect them from dirt, paint, etc.
while you are working
15. hog: pig, esp. a fat one for eating
16. sledge hammer: large, heavy hammer for swinging with both hands, a large heavy
hammer with a long handle, used for smashing concrete 长把大锤
17. barley: 大麦
18. pancake: a thin, flat circle of cooked batter (糊状物) made of milk, flour and eggs.
usu. rolled up or folded and eaten hot with a sweet or savory filling inside
Detailed study of the text
19. Who ever knew a Johnson…:the woman‟s family name
20. With one foot raised in flight…with my head turned in whichever way is farthest
from them: Indirect speech act meaning ready to escape, leave as quickly as possible
because of discomfort, nervousness, timidity
21. sidle: walk as if ready to turn or go the other way
    If you sidle somewhere, you walk there uncertainly or cautiously, as if you do not

want anyone to notice you
e.g. A man sidled up to me and asked if I wanted a ticket for the match.
22. shuffle: slow dragging walk
      If you shuffle, you walk without lifting your feet properly off the ground, you
move your feet about while standing or move your bottom about while sitting, often
because you feel uncomfortable or embarrassed
e.g. He slipped on his shoes and shuffled out of the room.
e.g. I was shuffling in my seat.
      totter , sidle

23. blaze: to burn with a bright flame v.
    e.g. A wood fire was blazing, but there was no other light in the room.
    n. the sudden sharp shooting up of a flame, a very bright fire
    e.g. The fire burned slowly at first, but soon burst into a blaze.
24. sweet gum tree: a large North American tree of the witch hazel (榛子) family, with
alternate maplelike leaves, spiny (多刺的) fruit balls, and flagrant juice
   美洲金缕梅, 落叶灌木或小乔木. 原产于北美和亚洲. 其分叉小枝从前用为魔
杖, 这寻找地下水.
25. dingy: dirty and faded
    A building or place that is dingy is rather dark and depressing and does not seem
to have been well looked after,.
e.g. This is the dingiest street of the town.
    clothes, curtains, etc. that are dingy are dirty or faded.
26. raise: to collect together
    raise an army / raise enough money for a holiday
e.g. His wife raised the money by selling her jewellery.
e.g. We‟re trying to raise funds to establish a scholarship.
27. underneath: (so as to go) under (sth.)
e.g. The letter was pushed underneath the door.
(Here it suggests a repressive and imposing quality in her voice.)
28. make-believe: a state of pretending or the things which are pretended
e.g. She lives in a make-believe world / a world of make-believe.
e.g. Don‟t be afraid of monsters, the story is only make-believe.
e.g. The little girl made believe she was a princess.
29. shove: to push, esp. in a rough or careless way
    e.g. There was a lot of pushing and shoving to get on the bus.
    e.g. Help me to shove this furniture aside.
      If you shove sb. or sth., you push them with a quick, rather, violent movement.
    e.g. He dragged her out to the door and shoved her into the street.
 30. dimwit: (infml) an ignorant and stupid person
    dim: faint, not bright
    wit: intelligence, wisdom
    at one‟s wit‟s end: at the end of one‟s tether.

31. organdy: (Br. E organdie) very fine transparent muslin (麦斯林纱, 平纹细布)
with a stiff finish (最后一层涂饰), very fine rather stiff cotton material used esp.
for women’s dresses           蝉翼纱, 玻璃纱
32. pump: low shoe that grips the foot chiefly at the toe and the heel
33. stare down any disaster in her efforts: face up and defeat any disaster with her
    stare down: two people looking at each other persistently until one shifts his eye.
34. flicker: to move backwards and forwards unsteadily
    e.g. shadows flickered on the wall
             flickering eyelids
    e.g. even the self-assurance of Ogilver flickered.
35. stumble: to stop and /or make mistakes in speaking or reading aloud
    to catch the foot on the ground while moving along and start to fall
    e.g. She stumble at/over the long word
    e.g. He stumbled and stopped reading.
stammer: to speak or say with pauses and repeated sounds, either habitually or
because of excitement, fear, etc. stammerer
stutter: to speak or say with difficulty in producing sounds, esp. habitually holding
back the first consonant. Stutter.
36. good-naturedly: naturally kind, ready to help, to forgive, not to be angry
    A person or animal that is good-natured is naturally friendly and does not easily
get angry.
    a good-natured policeman
37. mossy:
    moss: any of several types of a small flat green or yellow flowerless plant that
grows in a thick furry mass on wet soil, or on a wet surface
38. hook: to catch with or as if with a hook
    to hook a fish / a rich husband
   Here: to attack with the horn of the cow
39. soothe: to make less angry, excited or anxious, comfort or calm, to make less
    soothing words
    soothe one‟s feelings
  40. shingle: a small thin piece of building material (such as wood) often with one
end thicker than the other for laying in overlapping rows as a covering for the roof or
sides of building
cf: tile; a flat or curved piece of fired clay, stone, or concrete used esp. for roofs,
floors, or walls and often for ornamental work.
41. porthole: also port, a small usu. circular window or opening in a ship for light or
42. shutter: a. one that shuts; b. movable cover (wooden panel or iron plate, hinged, or
separate and detachable) for a window or door, to keep out light or burglars.

cf: Venetian blinds
e.g. The shop front is fitted with rolling shutters.
    c. device that opens to admit light through the lens of a camera
43. pasture: land where grass is grown and where cattle feed on it
44. furtive: stealthy, If sb. is furtive, he / she behaves as if he / she wants to keep sth.
secret or hidden.
e.g. They suddenly looked furtive when I got into the room.
e.g. I watched him furtively pencil a note and slip it between the pages.
e.g.A woman with furtive look sidled up to me and asked furtively whether I had /
wanted porn CDs.

45. hang about: to wait or stay near a place without purpose or activity
46. washday: also washing day, the day when clothes are washed
47. impressed with her: impressed by her manner,
48. well-turned: (of a phrase) carefully formed and pleasantly expressed
    a well-turned phrase: 恰当的词语
49. cute: delightfully pretty and often small
    If you describe sb. as cute you mean that you find them attractive, often in a
sexual way
50. scald: to burn with hot liquid
   e.g. He scalded his tongue on / with the hot coffee
        scalding: boiling or as hot as boiling
51. court: If a man courts a woman, he pays a lot of attention to her because he wants
to marry her.
52. flashy: over-ornamented, unpleasantly big, bright, etc. and perhaps not of good
quality Something that is flashy is so smart, bright and expensive that you find it
unpleasant and perhaps vulgar
    a flashy sports car / cheap flashy clothes
53. recompose: reshuffle; calm down
   compose: to make (esp. oneself) calm, quiet, etc.
   e.g. Jean was nervous at first but soon composed herself.
54. kinky: (esp. of hair) having kinks
   kink: a backward turn or twist in hair, a rope, chain, pipe, etc.
55. wriggle: to twist from side to side
56. loud: attracting attention by being unpleasantly        colourfu
57. rope: (of 2 or more mountain climbers) to be fastened together with the same rope
    The word here means the plaits or the pigtails are fastened together
58. gliding: to move noiselessly in a smooth, continuous manner, which seems easy
and without effort
    glider: a plane without an engine
59. something of a(n)... : (infml) rather a(n), a fairly good
    You use the expression something of in the following ways.
      If you say that a person or thing has something of a particular quality, feeling,
etc., you mean that they have it to some extent.

    If you say that a person is something of an actor, something of a poet, etc., you
mean that the person can act, write poetry, etc. to some extent
  e.g. Dr. Mitra, a scholar and something of a philosopher.
    If you say that a situation is something of a mystery / a surprise, etc., you mean
that it is slightly mysterious, slightly surprising
  e.g. He is something of a book collector / a liar / a musician.
  e.g. I am something of a carpenter myself, you know
60. make sth. of oneself: be successful
    e.g. He is a clever boy--- I hope he'll make sth. of himself.
61. peek: (infml) to look at sth. quickly, esp. when one should not
    e.g. They caught him peeking through the hole at what was going on in the room
peep: to look at sth. quickly and secretly
    e.g. It‟s rude to peep at other people‟s work.
    e.g. He took a peep at the back of the book to find out the answers to the
    Peek & Peep are not clearly distinguishable when denoting to see what is
concealed, or hidden.
peer: to look very carefully or hard, esp. as if not able to see well
    e.g. She peered through the mist, trying to find the right path.
    e.g. He peered at me over the top of his glasses.
62. stoop: to bend the head and shoulders forwards and down
63. cower: to bend low and draw back as from fear, pain, shame, cold etc.
64. go through motions with Maggie‟s hand:
    Here “motions” refer to trying to shake hands with Maggie.
    If you go through the motions, you say or do sth. that is expected of you without
being very sincere or serious about it. Or you pretend to do sth. by making the
movements associated with a particular action.
  e.g. The doctor was sure that the man wasn‟t ill, but he went through the motions of
examining him.
    e.g. I can go through the motions of putting imaginary food into my mouth.
 65. give up on
    If you give up on sth., you abandon all hope of doing it or of understanding it
66. limp: lacking strength or stiffness
    n. a way of walking with one foot dragging unevenly
    v. to walk with an uneven step, one foot or leg moving less well than the other
67. There you are: I told you so.
    e.g. There you are. I knew I was right. That‟s what I expected. I knew you
couldn‟t trace it further back.
        There I was not: You are not right.
      Literally the sentence in the text could possibly understood as follows:
      I was not there before the name “Dicie” appeared in our family, so why...
      But “There I was not” is obviously a quick, short cut answer to “there you are”.
68. crop up: arise, happen or appear, unexpectedly
    e.g. Some difficulties have cropped up at work so I‟ll be late coming home

69. Model A car: in 1909 Henry Ford mass-produced 15 million Model T cars and
thus made automobiles popular in the States. In 1928 the Model T was discontinued
and replaced by a new design - the Model A - to meet the needs for growing
competition in car manufacturing.
      Here he thinks she is quaint, attractive because it is strange and something rather
old fashioned.
70. ream: sl. say it, spit it
71. out of the way: not blocking space for the forward movement of
     e.g. I will move the chair out of your way.
     e.g. He ran through the crowd, pushing people out of his way.
     e.g. Her social life got in the way of her studies.
     We got the name out of the way: we finished talking about it, we set the problem
     When we got topic A out of the way, we discuss topic .
72. trip: If you trip over something, you knock your foot against something when you
are walking and lose your balance so that you fall or nearly fall.
        I tripped and fell...
        She tripped over a stone...
   e.g. He put each foot down carefully to avoid tripping up.
   Here: to make a mistake as in a statement or behavior
   e.g. This lawyer always tries to trip witness up by asking confusing questions.
73. salt-lick shelters: shelters where blocks of rock salt were kept for cattle to lick
74. doctrine: A doctrine is a principle or belief, or a set of principles of beliefs, which
is thought by its supporters to be absolutely true and therefore the only one acceptabl
64. style: The style of a particular person or group is all the general attitudes, likes,
dislikes, and ways of behaving that are characteristic of them.
     Purple is not my style.
     Raising cattle is not my style: I am not interested in raising cat.
75. gone and married: colloq.
76. collard: 宽叶羽衣甘蓝
77. go on through the chitlins etc.
   chitlins: also chitlings, chitterlings: the intestines of hogs esp. when -prepared as
78. greens: green vegetables
79. talk a blue streak: speak very fast and very much
     blue streak: sth. that moves very fast, a constant stream of works
     streak: thin line or band, different from what surrounds it.
80. rump: the part of an animal at the back just above the legs. When we eat this part
of a cow it is called a rump steak (后腿部的牛排)
   (humour) of a human being the part of the body one sits on, bottom
81. her hand closed over the butter dish: A butter dish is a small rectangular container
which you can simply put your hand close over
82. if I could have: here if means whether

83. churn: a container in which milk is moved about violently until it becomes butter ,
Am.E a large metal container in which milk is stored or carried from the farm (搅乳
器, 盛奶罐)
84. clabber: (not found in Longman or Collins) curdle --- to form into curds, cause to
85. whittle: to cut (wood) to a smaller size by taking off small thing pieces
 86. dasher: a devise having blades for agitating a liquid or semisolid
87. centerpiece: The centerpiece of a set of things that is greatly admired is sth. that
you show as the best example of the set
    e.g. The centerpiece of the navy is the nuclear submarine.
88. alcove: an alcove is a small area in a room which is formed by one part of a wall
being built further back than the rest of the wall, a partially enclosed extension of a
room, often occupied by a bed or by seats, 凹室
89. to do with the dasher: use the dasher to make sth. artistic
   e.g. I‟ll do sth. artistic with the dasher
   e.g. I don‟t know what to do with those books, what to use them for, where to put
   Someone who is artistic is able to create or appreciate good painting, sculpture.
   Something that is artistic relates to art or to artists. A design, arrangement, pattern,
etc. that is artistic is beautiful or attractive.
90. sink: a depression (part of a surface lower than the other parts) in the land surface
   e.g. The rain collected in several depressions on the ground.
91. rifle: to search through and steal everything valuable out of a place
    e.g. The thieves rifled his pockets of all their contents.
    e.g. The burglar rifled the safe.
    e.g. The bad boy rifled the apple tree.
   Here in the text, the word “rifle” means to look thorough to see what to take, and
indicates that Dee was trying to find sth. she did not deserve.
92. hung back: be unwilling to act or move
    e.g. The bridge looked so unsafe that we all hung back in fear.
93. piece: to make by joining pieces together
94. quilt: to sew, stitch in layers with padding in between
95. Lone Star and Walk Around the Mountain pattern:
      the lotus and yellow crane tower pattern.
96. scrap: small piece, bit
      a scrap of paper
      e.g. Scrap of bread were thrown to the birds.
      e.g. There was not a scrap of food left, we‟ve eaten it all.
97. teeny: teeny weeny: also teensy weensy (used esp. to children) very small.
98. top: the most important or worthiest part of anything
99. priceless: of great value
    invaluable, priceless, expensive, costly, dear, precious, sumptuous, luxurious
    valueless: worthless, useless

100. furious: frenzied, angry, violent
101. temper: particular state or condition of the mind with regard to anger, an angry,
impatient or bad state of mind
     e.g. John is in a temper today.
102. stump: n. the part of a plant, (esp. a tree) remaining attached to the root after the
trunk is cut; v. put an unanswerable question to, puzzle, perp
   If something stumps you, you cannot think of any solution or answer for it.
  e.g. The question has stumped philosophers since the beginning of time.
     e.g. It‟s unusual for Jeremy to be stumped for an answer.
     e.g. You‟ve got me stumped there.
103. snuff: tobacco made into powered for breathing into the nose, esp. used in former
104. dopey: [„doupi] showing dullness of the mind or feelings caused or as if caused
by alcohol or a drug, sleepy and unable to think clearly, stupid
105. hangdog: (of an expression on the face) ashamed, guilty, cowed
106. portion: an individual‟s lot, fate, or fortune, destiny, one‟s share of good and evil
     e.g. Utter disaster was my portion.
     e.g. What would be my portion on the day the enemy invaded?
107. heritage: property that descends to an heir, sth. transmitted by or from a acquired
predecessor, sth. possessed as a result of one‟s natural situation or birth

V. Rhetorical devices & Effective Writing Skills
1) Rhetorical devices
1. Parallelism:
    chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle
2. Metaphor:
    She washed us in a river of...burned us...
3. Simile:
     Maggie‟s hand is as limp as a fish.
4. Personification:
    She was determined to stare down any disaster in her efforts
5. Rhetorical question:
    Who can ever imagine me looking a strange white man in the eye?

2) Effective writing skills
1. successful portrayal of characters
2. using many elliptical, colloquial, and simple sentences to achieve certain effect
3. using languages which suit the background of characters

VI. Assignment:
  Write a composition about 1000 words titled “My Appreciation of Everday Use for
Your Grandmama”


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