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					                      D1/B123MH/LMC




Play with Materials




   Teaching Studies
                                   D1/D123MH/LMC




                   CONTENTS

                              Page no


1   Water Play                 3


2   Sand Play                  6


3   Woodwork                   9


4   Clay                      11


5   Dough                     14


6   Construction              16




                      2
                                                                                                  D1/D123MH/LMC




                                                   Section 1
                                                    Water

                                     Apparatus, Equipment and Resources

Funnels                                                       Corks
Tubes and piping                                              Sponges
Sieves, colanders, plastic bottles, buckets                   Straws
Different sized/shaped containers                             Watering Cans, Pumps, Syringes
Transparent containers                                        Droppers, Siphons, Squeezy bottles
Clock                                                         Apparatus for floating and sinking for eg wood, balsa,
Shapes/Toys/Divers/Submarines                                 stones, pumice, cork, metal things
Frogman/Stones/Boats                                          Hollow Containers
Wheels                                                        Colouring
                                                              Bubbles


Sensory Play                                  Imaginative Play                           Exploratory Play

Looking, listening,                           Creative: make believe
smelling, feeling, tasting

Visits - explorations

        A rainy day walk: puddles in the playground,
         collecting and measuring rain
        A walk on a snowy day, snow and ice
        A visit to a pond, river, stream
        A visit to the sea
        Water hydrants


                                                              Wetting and Dissolving

                                                                      adding things to water … cold/warm. What
                                                                       happens?
                                                                      Does stirring help? (salt, white sugar, brown
                                                                       sugar, flour, starch, cocoa, jelly cubes, food
                                                                       colours, sand, gravel, gelatine, tea bags,
                                                                       coffee bags, health salts, dried milk,
                                                                       soapflakes)

                                                              Wetting and Drying

                                                                      absorption - using different materials
                                                                      rusting : rotting : evaporating


Patterns

        ripples
        waves
        water makes circular patterns when objects
         are dropped into it
        reflections



                                                          3
                                                                                          D1/D123MH/LMC



Fluidity and transparency

       water spreads and flows (ways of moving
        water) it will not flow uphill
       water finds its own level
       water takes the shape of its container
       transparency



                                                      Floating and sinking

                                                              what floats - what sinks in tap water … in
                                                               salty water
                                                              buoyancy - make an object float and sink (eg
                                                               plasticine, milk bottle top)
                                                              surface tension



Measurement

       depth : width : volume
       full … empty … little … much
       conservation of volume
       series



                                                      The force of water

                                                              still and moving water
                                                              moving to and fro in water, it has a
                                                               resistance.
                                                              directing, squirting: pushing, pulling,
                                                               squeezing water
                                                              the direction of flow
                                                              displacement of water



                                            VOCABULARY

water                       colours                   stir                         squeeze
wet/dry                     absorption                shake                        hard
splashing                   drainage                  insoluble                    gently
siphoning                   washing line              lather                       squirt
pouring                     timing                    bubbles                      jet
empty/full                  mixing                    soap film                    stream
half/full                   straining                 drying up                    trickle
overflowing                 blowing                   evaporate                    drops
squirt                      container                 ripples
float/sink                  transparent               reflections
volume capacity             colourless                waves
above/below                 disappear                 pull
deep/shallow                dissolve                  push




                                                  4
                                                                            D1/D123MH/LMC




                    Examples of Learning and Development

Skills                   Concepts               Knowledge             Attitudes



Communicating            Movement : flow        Form                  Co-operation

Imagining                Cause and effect       Function              Sharing

Describing               Capacity               Properties of water   Concentration

Recalling                Volume                 Protective clothing   Perseverance

Predicting               Force                  Equipment             Motivation

Questioning              Weight                                       Open-mindedness

Reasoning                Speed                                        Awareness of others

Problem-solving          Colour

Hypothesising            Floating

Planning                 Sinking

Testing                  Mixing

Evaluating               Dissolving

Researching              Evaporating

Designing                Density

Inventing                Stability

Selecting                Temperature

Manipulating : pouring   Empty

Co-ordinating            Full

Making                   Overflowing

Handling                 Displacement

Positioning              Viscosity

Sensing                  Change

Balancing




                                            5
                                                                                               D1/D123MH/LMC




                                                 Section 2
                                                   Sand


Containers                                                                     Sand

Different sizes and shapes:                                                    Wet and dry
outside sand pit                                                               Coarse and fine
large group sand trays                                                         Different colours
individual drawers




                                                   Equipment


Measures - different shapes and sizes                       animals - zoo and farm
plastic bottles and containers:                             cars, lorries, bulldozers
clear and opaque                                            boats, containers for ponds,
funnels, tubes                                              flags,
sieves, colanders, plant pots,                              play people
sand wheels                                                 dinosaurs
rakes, spades, scoops                                       rocks, twigs, fir cones,
sifters (flour, salt/pepper)                                sand bricks
moulds, buckets                                             shells
scales/buckets                                              roadways/bridges
scales/balances
cups, saucers, jugs
pots and pans




Sensory Play                               Imaginative Play                             Exploratory Play




Acquisition of skills                                       Creative use of materials
Knowledge concepts




Safety                                  Care of Materials

Floor - surface movement areas          Hygiene - washing sand regularly
Clothing - protection                   Sweeping up
Eyes and hands                          Good quality sand which will not
                                        stain




                                                        6
                                                         D1/D123MH/LMC




Sensory Play                             Imaginative Play

Looking, listening                       Domestic - cooking, pouring
Smelling, feeling                        Creating imaginary gardens, zoos,
                                         farms, harbours, landscapes,
                                         building sites, road ways




Exploratory Play                         Dry Sand

Flow, texture, control differences       Pouring, sprinkling, sifting,
between wet and dry sand.                sieving.
Riddling/sieving/grading                 Force of sand to move wheels.
                                         Flow of sand in an egg timer.
                                         Sand clocks.
                                         Sand pendulums.
                                         Blowing sand.
                                         Different coloured sands.




Wet Sand                                 Mathematics

What happens when we add sand            Weighing, balancing.
to water, or water to sand?              Conservation of volume.
Trickling, dripping, eroding,            Capacity.
flooding and digging down into           Counting.
wet sand.                                Shapes.
Moulding, building.                      Depth.
Making sand sculptures.                  Width.
Excavating.                              Length.
Burying things.                          Time - clocks and sand timers.
                                         Comparatives - heavy/light,
                                         more/less, full/empty, large/small.




Patterns and creations

Smoothing, raking, printing,
taking plaster moulds from
impressions.
Drawing and writing in sand.
Making pictures.
Sand for collages.
Coloured sand.




                                     7
                                                                               D1/D123MH/LMC




                      Examples of Learning and Development

Skills                     Concepts                 Knowledge            Attitudes



Communicating              Texture :   wet          Form                 Co-operation
                                       dry
Imagining                                           Function             Sharing
                                       rough
Describing                                          Materials            Concentration
                                       smooth
Recalling                              fine         Tools                Perseverance
                                       coarse
Predicting                                          Properties of sand   Motivation
                           Movement
Questioning                                                              Open-mindedness
                           Cause and effect
Reasoning                                                                Awareness of others
                           Capacity
Problem-solving
                           Volume
Hypothesising
                           Force
Planning
                           Weight
Testing
                           Mass
Evaluating
                           Friction
Researching
                           Speed
Designing
                           Colour
Inventing

Selecting

Manipulating: pouring
                moulding
                Sieving

Co-ordinating

Making, handling

Positioning

Sensing

Balancing

Controlling




                                                8
                                                                                           D1/D123MH/LMC




                                               Section 3
                                               Woodwork


Organisation


Number of children.
Supervision      -         training
                           checking tools
                           monitoring
                           safety
                           clearing away




Equipment


Workbench with at least 1 vice and tray and tools.
The workbench needs to be strongly made firm and at an appropriate height.

Tools (full size) :        Claw hammers, medium and small
                           pincers
                           Gimlets
                           Tenon saw
                           Hacksaw (and blades)
                           Sandpaper - coarse and fine
                           Ruler and pencils/chalk
                           Nails, round headed, assorted sizes 1” - 6”
                           Screws, a few - 1”
                           Standard metal file

Suitable storage, preferably with shadow to enable inspection at a glance.

NB       Keep all tools well sharpened as appropriate and in good condition.
         Provide appropriate tools for the age of the children.




Other Resources


Wood off-cuts. Soft white wood is best.
Sawdust, shavings, bark, twigs.
Assorted wooden wheels, large buttons, wire, round and square doweling, lollipop sticks, wooden pegs, balsa
wood, cotton reels, match sticks and other ‘junk’ that may be useful.
Strong glue. Hot glue gun for older children.
Dustpan and brush.




                                                        9
                                                                                      D1/D123MH/LMC




Activities


Bark rubbing                                        Bark moulds with plaster
Collage - twigs, leaves, sawdust                    Feely bags of wooden objects
Collections of wooden objects                       Tree related materials
Printing - wood blocks, leaves                      Paper making
Visits                                              Recycling
Wood as a habitat -         minibeasts              Carving
                            animals                 Floating and sinking - wooden items
                            birds                   Weaving
Wood for imaginative environments                   Model making
Constructions - hollow blocks, bricks               Comparisons with other materials
Changing     - wetting
                   varnishing
                   painting
                   polishing
                   drying




Skills                       Concepts               Knowledge                  Attitudes


Sawing                       Texture -    rough     Safety                     Awareness of others
Hammering                                 smooth    Use of tools               Tenacity
Drilling                                  fine      Properties of wood         Persistence
Screwing                     Size
Gluing                       Shape
Sanding                      Length
Painting                     Weight
Varnishing                   Symmetry
Clamping                     Friction
Envisaging                   Strength
Measurement                  Density
Imagining                    Floating/Sinking
Communicating
Describing
Recalling
Predicting
Questioning
Reasoning
Problem solving
Hypothesising
Planning
Testing
Evaluating
Selecting
Controlling




                                                   10
                                                                                               D1/D123MH/LMC




                                                 Section 4
                                                   Clay


Basic Equipment


       Large, smooth working surface at suitable standing height
        - an old wooden table
        - trestle table or old door covered with linoleum
        - formica topped table
        - marble slab

NB      Not small boards

       Smooth waterproof covering extending about 1 metre beyond edges of table
        - if using 2 groundsheets, make sure there is a good overlap

       Washable containers with well-fitting lids
        - polythene dustbin
        - anything suitable for storage of clay ready for use eg plastic sheet

       Aprons/overalls
        - strong, cotton ones: old shirts, blouses, pyjama jackets
        - simple ‘pull’ fasting is best
        - elasticated cuffs are helpful

       Cleaning materials
        - bowl with scrubbing brushes
        - absorbent cloths
        - sponges
        - dustbin and stiff brush
        - ‘towelling’ for drying hands




Additional Equipment                                                  Clay


Wire, with wooden handles, to cut clay                                Clay
Wooden bats of varying sizes                                          Fibre clay
Several assorted rolling pins                                         ModRoc
Clay tools                                                            Clays of different consistencies
Blunt knives                                                          Mud
Water sprinkler                                                       Soil
Junk items and natural materials to make
patterns and impressions
Boards, for drying and transport of clay
Varnish, paint, cold glaze
Several bowls/baby bath to hold clay of
different consistencies




                                                       11
                                                                                          D1/D123MH/LMC




Using Clay                                                 Recycling Clay


Limit number of children involved, depending on            Small pieces - wrap in old damp towels/wedge
space and adult supervision available                      and moisten with water.
Allow approximately 1 x ½ metre space per child.           Larger quantities, especially if dry - put in pail,
Children may choose to stand or sit.                       cover with water and leave. Later pour off water.
Slurry pail/containers at end of table.                    Tip the sticky mass of clay on to a plaster bat.
Take time to establish routines - each child puts          After 3 hours, clay will be malleable.
on an apron takes clay from container, goes to             Wrap in plastic sheets ready for later use.
space available.
On completion of activity - each child returns clay
to appropriate table area for next user.
Final users - scrub and thoroughly clean table and
floor.
Hand washing facilities near table, if possible.
Set bowl(s) of water on table so children may add
water to clay whilst working, and clean fingers.




                                                           Remember


                                                                   Prior to use, check all equipment is
                                                                    available and consistency of clay.

                                                                   Adults should also participate,
                                                                    demonstrate and be involved as well as
                                                                    supervising.

                                                                   Allow ample time - especially at first, for
                                                                    clearing away.




Activities related to clay


Pushing, pulling, rolling, twisting
Potentials of clay
Making pots -      coiled and slab
                   thumb
Tiles
Adding other materials to clay
Mud and soil play - refining clay
Collections of things made from clay
Historical perspectives
Artefacts
Printing medium
Base for plaster
Moulding




                                                      12
                                                                                          D1/D123MH/LMC




Sensory Play                                                 Exploratory Play


        Different textures of clay                          Pushing/pulling/twisting/pounding
         - buff : rough                                      Mixing clay
         - grey : medium                                     Rolling/Squeezing
         - terracotta : smooth
         - natural clay
         - fibre clay
         - ModRoc

        Different consistencies - from dry
         powder to ‘slip’

        ‘Feel’ of clay; look and listen whenever
         possible




                                                             Imaginative Clay


                                                             Creating different shapes and forms.
                                                             NB       Do not actively encourage modelling or
                                                                      use of moulds.
                                                                      Let this arise from natural development
                                                                      based on a knowledge of material and
                                                                      experience.
                                                             Problem solving/designing




Examples of learning and development from play with clay


Skills                       Knowledge                   Concepts                   Attitudes


Manipulative                 Form and function of clay   Size                       Perseverance
Communicative                Properties of clay          Weight                     Co-operation
Concentration                                            Mass                       Sharing
Observation                                              Cause and effect           Awareness of others
Imagination                                              Change
Problem solving                                          Absorption
Hand-eye co-ordination                                   Consistency
Control of materials




                                                     13
                                                                                               D1/D123MH/LMC




                                                    Section 5
                                                     Dough


Recipes


Cold                                     Boiled                                High Gluten


3 cups Flour                             6 cups Flour                          3lbs high-gluten bread making flour

1 cup Salt                               3 cups Salt                           (from Health Food Shops)

Enough water to mix into a dough         6 cups Water                          Enough water to mix

Powder paint to colour                   3 tablespoons Oil

                                         2 tablespoons Cream of Tartar

                                         Method

                                         Combine ingredients in a large pan.
                                         Cook over a moderate hear until
                                         the dough goes slightly shiny and
                                         transparent and leaves the side of
                                         the pan. Colour with food colour
                                         before mixing up.


Additions:        rice, lentils, oats for texture       peppermint, spice, ginger for smell


Equipment for Making                                         For Use


Large bowl or individual bowls                               Rolling pins
Measures: spoons, cups                                       Boards, cutters
Wooden spoons                                                Blunt knives
Saucepan                                                     Bun tins
                                                             Moulds
                                                             Equipment for extruding dough
                                                             Items for making impressions
                                                             eg dowel, forks, fir cones


Activities


Exploring dough with hands
Comparing textures of dough
Making food shapes (cold)
Baking dough, painting and varnishing (cold)
Cutting dough into shape and baking to make mobiles and decorations
Making other useful items for role play, games etc eg beads, dice, counters




                                                         14
                                                                      D1/D123MH/LMC




Skills            Concepts                Knowledge             Attitudes



Mixing            Temperature             Properties of Dough   Co-operation

Rolling           Consistency             Use of Equipment      Sharing

Squeezing         Change                  Safety                Imagination

Extruding         Texture                 Hygiene               Motivation

Modelling         Cause and Effect

Shaping           Conservation of Mass
                  and Volume

Twisting          Measurement

Pressing          Proportion

Stretching        Balancing

Controlling       Colour

Manipulating

Planning

Observing

Imagining

Communicating

Sharing

Describing

Reasoning

Estimating

Problem-solving

Testing

Sensing

Counting

Ordering

Sequencing

Matching




                                         15
                                                                                        D1/D123MH/LMC




                                         Section 6
                                        Construction


Apparatus, Equipment and Resources


Large hollow blocks                                Connector rods and blocks
Wooden bricks                                      Quadro
Mobilo                                             Large plastic bricks
Briomec                                            Lego
Constructor                                        Duplo
Reo Click                                          Pipeworks
Lasy                                               Junk - cardboard boxes, planks, plastic crates, tyres,
Asmeca                                             logs, pipes, guttering
Stickle Bricks                                     Newspaper, card, straw, tubes
Constructo straws                                  Train sets, road plans, harbours
Junior Engineer
Plastic Meccano




Sensory Play                          Imaginative Play                         Exploratory Play




Skills                   Concepts                  Knowledge                     Attitudes


Manipulative             Size                      Form                          Co-operation
Motor Controls           Shape                     Function                      Perseverance
Hand/eye co-ordination   Balance                   Materials                     Concentration
Handling tools           Rigidity                  Tools                         Motivation
Observing                Movement                  Structure                     Open-mindedness
Questioning              Force
Testing                  Energy
Choosing                 Friction
Designing                Stability
Making                   Strength
Researching              Momentum
Investigating            Cause and effect
Communicating            Weight
Problem-solving          Comparison
Inventing                Scale
Selecting




                                                16
                                                                                               D1/D123MH/LMC




Visits                                                               Starting Points


A Building Site                                                      Stories, books, pictures
A Railway Station                                                    Slides, photos, film strips
Transport Museums                                                    TV programmes
Houses, Buildings                                                    Visits
Bridges                                                              The Local Environment
Roads, Motorways




Things to bear in mind


Are the materials suitable for the task?
Is there enough time, space, resources for the children to complete the task successfully?
Have the children the necessary skills, knowledge, concepts to complete the task?
Is it motivating?
What is the best grouping: individual, paired, small group?
What will the children be learning from the activity?
What experiences come before the task, what activity should follow on from it?
What is the role of the teacher, nursery assistant, parent helper?
How might you assess the activity?
What might you want the children to record (and how?)
What might you want to record?




Progression


1        Free play.
2        Articulation/description of the construction of the child.
3        The directed question:      can you make it taller/longer/wider?
                                     can you make it carry a heavier load?
                                     can you use all the bricks?
4        Give a specific task or problem for the children to solve:
                                     can you make something which swings?
5        Different ways of recording finished products: drawings, plans, writing.
6        Following instructions.
7        Writing own instructions.
8        Working from plans.
9        Drawing own designs.




                                                       17
                                                                                D1/D123MH/LMC




                                Section 6
                               Outside Play


Organisation


Number of children       Surfaces:                            Shaded Area
Timing                   Tarmac                               Slopes and Flat
Supervision              Gravel                               Surfaces
Safety                   Grass                                Tracks
Setting out equipment    Soil                                 Games
Bringing equipment in    Rubberised Safety Surfaces
Wet weather activities   Concrete slabs
Space to play            Woodchips




Equipment


Tunnel                   Wheeled Toys                         Small Apparatus
Barrel                   Tricycle                             Balls
Climbing frame           Scooter                              Hoops
Slide                    Trolley                              Bean Bags
Rocking boat             Tyre on Castors                      Skittles
‘A’ Frame                Platform Truck                       Quoits
Planks                   Porters Trolley                      Skipping Ropes
Ladders                  Prams                                Bats
Swings
Mats
Hidey Holes
Soft Shapes
Ropes
Tyres




Other Resources


Logs                                        Painting Easels
Den, or Role Play Area                      Sand Pit
Gardening Equipment                         Water
Dressing up Materials                       Blankets, Rugs
Bricks                                      Boxes
                                            Tent




                                           18
                                                                                             D1/D123MH/LMC




Activities


Imaginative Plays - Journeys, Picnics                    Pets
Domestic Play                                            Feeding Birds/Bird Table
Gardening - Growing Things                               Creative Activities - Painting, Modelling,
Water Play with Guttering Exploring                      Observational, Rubbings, Drawing
Water Levels                                             Mini Beasts
Blowing Bubbles                                          Building and Construction
Activities related to Weather - Shadows, Flying Kites    Creating Road Layouts
Weather Recording                                        Mud and Soil Play




Skills                      Concepts                     Knowledge                    Attitudes


Running                     Size                         Use of Equipment             Awareness of Others
Turning                     Shape                        Safety                       Co-operation
Jumping                     Texture - rough, smooth      Structure                    Perseverance
Balancing                   Height                       Materials                    Concentration
Climbing                    Friction                     Seasons                      Motivation
Throwing                    Strength                     Form and Function of         Staring
Hitting                     Spatial Awareness            Equipment
Catching                    Wet/Dry
Kicking                     Forces
Rolling                     Distance
Crawling                    Weight
Hopping                     Mass
Skipping                    Colour
Swinging
Stopping
Walking
Carrying
Pushing
Lifting
Pedalling
Problem Solving
Discussion
Manual Dexterity
Co-ordination
Looking
Listening
Smelling




                                                        19

				
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