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					Ethical and Social Issues in
         Cyberspace

       CS492a Presentation

            by 박지영
             960810
             KAIST
                           차례
 Cyberspace
  Definition
  Description
  Ethical   Issues
      Technical Issues
      Social Issues




 Virtual   Reality
  Ethics    in Virtual Reality
              What is Cyberspace?
   cybercrook,   cyberculture,    cybernate,  cybernetics,
    cyberphobia, cyberporno, cyberpunk, cyberspace,
    cyberwar, cybersport, cyborg, cyberzens… and so on.

   cyber ~
      “전자  통신망과 가상현실”의 뜻의 결합사
      cybernetics 의 준말


   Cybernetics
      인공  두뇌학
      Nobert Wiener (1894 ~ 1964)에 의해 창안된 학문 분야
      어원적으로 “조종”과 “통제”의 의미
      정보의 소통을 통한 조종과 통제의 학문
         What is Cyberspace? (cont’d)
   Cyberspace
      가상공간,    사이버 공간, 가상 현실
      world made up of pure but invisible information that takes shape
       of    3D    visible    objects      (by    Mindy       McAdams)



   Other romanticists View
      free-for-all
      capable of solving any problem
      maximal entertainment
      devoid any responsibility
         What is Cyberspace? (cont’d)
   "Neuromancer” by William Gibson (1984)
      interaction   between a network of computers and people using
       them
      vision of a three dimensional space of pure information consisting
       of networks of computers linking people, machines, and other
       objects as information sources and sinks
      cyberspace user as packet of pure information surfing source
       node to destination node
               How to view Cyberspace?
   Internet
      globalnetwork connecting millions of computers
      main component of cyberspace
      ARPANET by US Department of Defense (DoD) in 1969


   Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET)
      an interlinked, packet-based communication network that can
       withstand blasts and continue to function as a network even if
       some of its sites are disabled
      Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP)
      Domain Name System (DNS)
      TCP/IP => US Standard Internet Protocol
      Open System Interconnection (OSI) => European standard
    How to view Cyberspace? (cont’d)
   World Wide Web (WWW)
     atEuropean Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Geneva,
      Switzerland, Tim Bernes-Lee, in 1989
     creates electronic link to any computer connected to any
      computer connected to a network
     cross architecture
     Mosaic by Marc Andreessen, a graduate from University of Illinois
     HTTP - hypertext transfer protocol
     URL - uniform resource locator
         access-method://server name/location
     HTML - hypertext markup language
     CGI - common gateway interface
         interface that allows server to link to other programs
     How to view Cyberspace? (cont’d)
   Internet Surfing
      on-ramp   access
      LAN
      Dial-upaccess
         Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
         Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
            more data integrity and security
     How to view Cyberspace? (cont’d)
   Cybercommunity
      Cyberspace    community
      hybrid of computer networks and people bringing together
      shared value and beliefs, characteristic like professions
      no sense of locality, no physical contact, no physical appearance
      chatting, arguing, falling in love, smiling, offering emotional
       support
      no legal jurisdiction, no central power to enforce community
       standard and norms
      shared sense of authority and responsibility
      self-empowerment
          equal power and responsibility
      no prejudices
     How to view Cyberspace? (cont’d)
   Cyberzens
      member    of cybercommunities

      virtualpersonality
          you know names, likes, dislikes,
           but you don’t know them
      anonymity
          you are on a first-name basis,
           but you will never know them
      multiple personality
          capable of changing ad mutating personality
                       Ethical Issues
   Technical Issues
      Cyberspace   Security


   Social Issues
      Politics of Access
      Intellectual Property Rights
      Cyberspace Censorship
      Privacy in Cyberspace
      Global Ethical Standards in Cyberspace
      Cyberspace Lingua Franca
      Global Culture in Cyberspace
                 Cyberspace Security
   Basic infrastructure design flaws
   Easy access to servers
   Insecure transmission media

   Insecurity in Basic Internet Infrastructure
      broadcasting  nature of TCP/IP allowing to eavesdrop
      lack of authentication mechanism in protocol suite, thus enabling
       spoofing
      lack of a mechanism to authenticate data package contents
      ease of generation of TCP address sequence number
         Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   Server security

      stores private and sensitive data which is prime target for
       intruders
      once access at server, easy access in local area network


      Solutions?
          password   should not be transmitted by user
          restrict number of service offered at server
          log only summaries of server user activities
         Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   Security during Transmission
      Authenticity
          are they communicating with intended party?
      Data integrity
         data should not be modified during transmission
      Confidentiality
         without leakage of any part of information


      Ultimatesolution!
          Encryption
            Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   Encryption
      to prevent a third party from eavesdropping on transmitted data
      plain text files to ciphertext
      double key encryption
      get sophisticated and complex during wars
      against industrial and commercial spying after Cold War
      criminal vs. government
          ideal key escrow to provide secure communication and
           storage with intentional back door to allow legitimate third
           parties access
      RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) & DES (Data Encryption Standard)
      Clipper Chip by US government, in 1993
          easy to compromise key and no benefit for public
            Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   SSL (Secure Socker Layer) by Netscape Communication,
    Inc
      encrypt transaction in high-level protocol such as HTTP, NNTP,
       and FTP
      authentication of server and encryption of transmitted data using
       a combination of public-key and symmetrical cryptosystems.
      Private Commmnication Technology by Microsoft

   SHTTP (Secure HTTP) by CommerceNet
      onlywork for HTTP
      more security than SSL but hard to implement

   SHEN by Phillips Halbran-Baker of CERN
      to   replace HTTP
            Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   MIME Object Security Services (MOSS)
      to secure e-mail and other contextual message
      S/MIME by RSA Data Security
      Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) by IETF and PRETTY GOOD
       PRIVACY (PGP)
         Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   Security of Cybercommerce
      need  for safeguard commerce and preserve traditional trust and
       confidence
      starts as file transfer, faxes, bar codes, and port-to-port
       communication
      Internet with cheap global access, graphic capabilities, and
       speed
          decentralized and self-regulatory nature of Internet, thus
           compromised security
      when orders are made, delivery cannot be guaranteed and if
       electronic payments are made, security is questionable
   “Crypto is the medicine the doctor ordered for electronic
    commerce” (by William Murray)
      createunforgettable signatures, use credentials, exchange
      electronic money, and authenticate a speaker or sender
          Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   Electronic Fun Transfer (EFT)
      starts in early 1960s
      individual payments of bills and deposits through banks
      interbank clearinghouse
      involves three parties: sender, receiver, and agent who effects
       electronic payment
      security can be compromised by financial institutions


   Digital Cash (DC)
      involvetwo parties: sender and receiver
      no record of transaction
      Pre-paid card and Debit card
          Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   E-cash or DigiCash
     a  debit system from Netherlands
      electronic cash as a form of computer file
      buyer moves money form his E-cash account onto his hard disk
      he encrypts the amount and sends money via any communication
       media FTP or e-mails
   First Virtual
      low- to medium-scale software sale and fee-for-service
       information purchase scheme
      open account by telephone and provide their credit card number
      transaction by e-mail

   CyberCash
      US-based   debit and credit electronic system for payments
      works in credit mode and debit mode
         Cyberspace Security (cont’d)
   Other schemes
      Secure Electronic Payments (SEPP) by MasterCard, IBM, and
       Netscape Communication, Inc
      Secure Transaction Technology (STT) by Visa and Microsoft
      Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) by Visa and MasterCard
                    Politics of Access
   Cyberspace access
      only one physical border
          password
      does not guarantee access to everybody to all its corners
       unhindered


     a  computer with authorization to access the internet
      a modem if a dial-up access used
      internet access provider
      knowledge of what to do
            Politics of Access (cont’d)
   Type of Access
      Directnetwork connection
          connected to local area network
          10 to 15 mbps
          available 24 h/d
      Dial-up connections:
          SLIP
          PPP - more flexible and reliable
          America Online, Prodigy, CompuServe
          천리안, 하이텔, 나우누리, 유니텔
      The Shell Account
          unix terminal
            Politics of Access (cont’d)
   Politics of Access
      no  race, color, religion, national origin, and the like
      affordability of cyberspace access follows lines of affluence
      information free for all
      freedom for everyone


      available for a certain class, income, and geographical locale
      requires software and hardware and good telecommunication
       system
      monopoly control of cyberspace
          AOL crashed 1996 leaving 6 million unable to access
           cyberspace
          Intellectual Property Rights
 venue for cybercommerce, industry, and all types of
  personal interactions
 technology advances and laws and statutes are revised
 Internet Paradox
     nature   of internet technology requires fast access, maximum
      compatibility for all servers and low-cost services
     exchange of information is easy and rapid
     mass access beget competition
     content of internet: product, work, and discovery and invention
     what it is and what it carries
     antitrust-intellectual property axis
         foster competition
         content of internet requires monopoly protection
    Intellectual Property Rights (cont’d)
   Copyright
      fixation,  originality and expression
      all literary works and graphic works
      every person who produces an original work on the internet
       automatically has a copyright (by Matt Rosenberg)


      practicallyimpossible
      nature of WWW, FTP
      caching reduces internet traffic but makes a muddle with
       copyright law
    Intellectual Property Rights (cont’d)
   Fair use in cyberspace
      by   copyright law, fair use is not infringement of copyright


      1. The purpose and character of the use of the material should be
       noncommercial
      2. The nature of the copyrightable materials should be factual and
       creative.
      3. The percentage copied should be minimal
      4 The effect of the use of the material copied should be not
       negative
    Intellectual Property Rights (cont’d)
   Patents
      patents  law only affects original and nonobvious invention
      internet is usually a medium of information


   Trade Secrets
      information on devices, designs, processes, software design, and
       other industrial processes
      information on individual employees' life possession such as
       knowledge and experience


      information leaks on Internet, employee also gains from
       information leaking from others
      accelerated departure of employees
    Intellectual Property Rights (cont’d)
   Trademark
      InUS, trademark ownership does not require registration
      once registered, trademark is protected for most 20 years
      word, phrase, symbol, design, sound, or distinctive color


      domain     names
             http://www.misskorea.co.kr
             http://www.hk.co.kr/event/misskorea/1999/miss_h.htm


      problem  one a global level
      registered one in China vs. non-registered one in US
    Intellectual Property Rights (cont’d)
   Personal Identity
      need   to be able to keep one's anonymity without interference
       from others.
      The Net, produced by Irwin Winkler
      personal identity must be recognized as intellectual property
       rights
               Cyberspace Censorship
   communication for e-mail
   broadcast for Web pages
   computer services for services like FTP

   rationale for censorship
                 social, political,, economic, and cultural ground
      historical,
      protection of the young from adult material

   difficult and expensive by explosive growth
   well defined, but highly disorganized
   German government's action to block sexually oriented
    user group from US-based CompuServe on-line service.
      resulted   in a global blocking
      Cyberspace Censorship (cont’d)
   Garbage
      nearly50% of materials in Web is garbage
      searching and locating information a slow and frustrating exercise
      by Graphics, Visualization, and Usability group center at Georgia
       Tech
          76.5% slowness of web
          34% difficulties of locating information
          31% disorganization of information
          13.4% repetition and duplication of information

   Hate
      as a mean to disseminate their hate message
      as a recruiting tool
      Cyberspace Censorship (cont’d)
   Criminal activities
      pedophiles,   drug trafficking, espionage


   Bad taste and entertainment
      pornography
      no   regulating and responsible body to check the perpetrators
      Cyberspace Censorship (cont’d)
   Guide lines
   Filtering process
   State own Internet on-ramp services
   Self-censor
   Use of blocking gadget
   Web rating system
      Platform   for Internet Content Selection. PICS
   Enacting laws
      TelecommunicationBill of 1996
      Communication Decency Act defeated in court
      Cyberspace Censorship (cont’d)
   “Community” standard
   “Enforcement” of these standard
   self-regulation and pressure to bear on on-line providers
    into find a mutual agreement
   “Civilized” communities
   an international system to persecute uncivil act
               Privacy in Cyberspace
   John Kaufman, a writer of San Francisco stalked by a
    female admirer
      every  word he typed was downloaded by her almost building up
      his life's profile


   Personal privacy is the number-one social and ethical
    issue for information age
        Privacy in Cyberspace (cont’d)
   1. transmission, scanning, and tapping using computers
    and cellular phones
   2. information gathering as a result of better software and
    equipment
      leakage   of personal information
   3. individual tracking through mobile and paging devices
    and computers
      companies    tracking their employee
   4. information-gathering abuse by information-gathering
    agencies
      NSA,  FBI, CIA, 국가정보원
      too much individual privacy is very dangerous
      if each individual has total privacy, society as a whole has zero
       security (by David Braudt)
        Privacy in Cyberspace (cont’d)
   Protection
      informationcontrol, property control, and use of anonymity
      surrender personal information as minimally as possible


      "Incyberspace you can be a dog and nobody will know you are a
       dog"


              software to strip e-mail header and use pseudo-name in
      Internet
       Scandinavia
              Global Ethical Standards
   Global Ethics
     a    minimal fundamental consensus concerning binding values,
       irrevocable standards, and fundamental moral attitudes
      by Hans Kung


      Once  human beings acquire wealth, they tend to be more
      individualistic


      communities   separated by languages, culture, history, politics,
      religion, and geography for many years


      etiquettes   for Internet as beginning of cyberethics
           Cyberspace Lingua Franca
   Level of English on Internet makes Internet "ultimate act
    of intellectual colonialism" (by Anatoly Votonov, director
    of Glasnet, a Russian Internet provider)

   Only 36% availability of home Internet connection, mostly
    by affluent families in US
   Most of countries with Internet access are English
    speaking
   Business advertising with self-declared language of
    Internet, English
    Cyberspace Lingua Franca (cont’d)

   English still considered as colonial language by many
   2 million customers to establish a workable market in any
    language (by Christian Huitema, Internet Society)

   emoticons and smiley (e.g. =) ^^;;; )
   a better language machine translation algorithm, thus no
    need for a lingua franca
   unicode standard to incorporate all characters of all
    languages into one huge standard code
   ASCII
         Global Culture in Cyber Space
   emergence amalgam of a global culture, a hybrid of many
    global cultures or as one de facto culture that swallowed
    up all other cultures

   smiley and emoticons
   URL, WWW, HTTP, FTP, e-mail, Telnet
   “superstructual society" spans mainstream cultures (by
    Tim North)
                    Virtual Reality
   1960s, by Ian Sutherland and D. L. Vickers
   simulation of a real and imaginary phenomena in a three-
    dimensional environment

   science without application
   solution in search of a problem
                  Vrtual Reality (cont’d)
   graphic display
      presents the total effects of environment created
      audio, touch, visual

   transducer
      create a channel of communication between person in
       environment and the source of environment,
      movement of eyes, hands, brain activity to computer response

   image generator
      creator   of images
   create experiences not illusions
                 Virtual Reality (cont’d)
   high-volume multidimensional scientific research and
    simulated data into 3D displays
      helps   in a better understanding of abstract phenomena


   Entertainment domain
      ALIVE(Artificial Life Interactive Institute Video Environment) at MIT
         wireless free-body interaction between a human participant
          and a virtual world inhabited by animated autonomous agents
         system learns user's reactions and emotions and plans next
          move
                Virtual Reality (cont’d)
   Medicine
      John Hopkins University's Center for Information Enhanced
       Medicine (CIEMED), with center of Information Enhanced
       Medicine of the University of Singapore
      3D medical images of brain and heart during surgery



   Driving and pilot training
      SIRCA  project at LISITT of the University of Valencia, Spain.
      small- and medium-size object-oriented driving simulations
                  Virtual Reality (cont’d)
   1. The feeling of being in control
      develops emotional relationship and attachement with the agent
      sense of responsibility
      out of control
      who should be held the responsibility



   2. Safety and security
      by intelligence of agent
      both bodily or mental harm
                    Virtual Reality (cont’d)
   3. Human-agent interaction
      activitiesperformed, then reaction and emotion of users
      superiority of agent
      feel threatened and helpless



   4. The intention of the creator
      collect information of the users without user ever knowing it
      AI : controlled by a good number of people
      VR: usually for pleasure
               Virtual Reality (cont’d)
   Collins Beardon
      1.  One should not do things with computers for which one should
       not accept responsibility without computers (Floyd, 1985)
      2. Continuous exposure to VR will impoverish those aspects of
       life that determines social development, interpersonal insights,
       and emotional judgement (Aron, 1991)
      3. Computers should be used in applications where computation
       and symbol manipulation are adequate ways of dealing reality
       (Floyd, 1985)


   VR - a deep philosophical confusion (Beardon)

				
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